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Libya
 
[Ottoman
                                    flag (to 1911)]
                   to 3 Oct 1911

[Kingdom of Italy flag]
             3 Oct 1911 - 23 Jan 1943 

[Libyan
                                    flag 1951-1969]
                     24 Dec 1951 - 7 Nov 1969

[Libya
                                    1969-1972]
             7 Nov 1969 - 31 Dec 1971
 
[Flag of
                                    Libya 1972-1977]
              1 Jan 1972 - 11 Nov 1977 

[Socialist Libyan Arab
                                    Peoples Jamahiriya flag 1977-2011]
        11 Nov 1977 - 23 Aug 2011 (Provisional) 
 
[Libyan
                                    flag]
 3 Mar - 20 Sep 2011Transitional National Council flag;
                     Re-adopted 20 Sep 2011
 


 Map of Libya Hear National Anthem
"Libia, Libia, Libia"
(Libya, Libya, Libya)
(24 Jun 1955 - 1 Sep 1969;
from 23 Aug 2011)
Text of National Anthem
(24 Jun 1955 - 1 Sep 1969;
from 23 Aug 2011)
  Constitutional Declaration
   (3 Aug 2011)
Former National Anthem
"Allahu Akbar"
(God Is Greatest)
(1 Sep 1969-23 Aug 2011)
1951 Constitution
(24 Dec 1951-21 Sep 1969)
1969 Temporary Constitution
   (11 Dec 1969-23 Aug 2011)
Declaration on the
Establishment of the
Authority of the People

  (2 Mar 1977-23 Aug 2011)
Capital: Tripoli
(co-capital: Benghazi 1951-1972)
Currency: Libyan Dinar (LYD);
1952-71 Libyan Pound (LYP)
National Holiday: 1 Sep (1969)
Revolution Day
Population: 6,002,347 (2013)
note: includes 166,510 non-nationals
GDP: $73.6 billion (2013)
Exports: $38.4 billion (2013)
Imports: $27.1 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Arab 87.1% (of which Libyan 57.2%,
Bedouin 13.8%, Egyptian 7.7%, Sudanese 3.5%,
Tunisian 2.9%), Amazigh (Berber) 6.8%, other 6.1% (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 76,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 23 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 96.1%, Orthodox Christian
1.9%, Roman Catholic 0.8%, other 1.2% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, Arabsat, AU, BTWC, CAEU, CEN-SAD, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA (observer), ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PAM, PCA, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Libya Index
Chronology

1521                       Cyrenaica part of the Ottoman Empire.
14 Aug 1551                Tripolitania part of the Ottoman Empire.
29 Jul 1711                Tripoli Regency under de facto hereditary 
                             Qaramanli dynasty.
26 May 1835                Direct Ottoman rule restored.
1911                       Independent government in Tripolitania 
                             (in rebellion against Ottoman sovereignty).
 3 Oct 1911                Italian occupation.
18 Oct 1912                Ceded to Italy by the Ottoman Empire.
16 Nov 1918 - 1923         Tripolitanian Republic (in revolt against Italy).
12 Nov 1922                Annexed to Italy (nominally 18 May 1919).
 1 Jan 1934                Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, Fezzan united as Libya.
1941/1942                  Tripolitania and Cyrenaica occupied by Britain, 
                             Fezzan occupied by France.
13 May 1943                End of Italian rule.
15 Feb 1947                Italy formally cedes Libya to the Allies.
10 Dec 1949                Libya under United Nations administration (but not
                             a trusteeship), administered by U.K. and France.
24 Dec 1951                Independence as United Libyan Kingdom.
25 Apr 1963                Libyan Kingdom (federal arrangement abolished).
 1 Sep 1969                Libyan Arab Republic
 1 Jan 1972 - 19 Nov 1977  Part of Federation of Arab Republics (Egypt, Libya
                             and Syria).
28 Nov 1972 - 30 May 1994  Libya occupies (and 1975 annexes) the Aozou
                             (Aouzou) Strip region in Chad.
 2 Mar 1977                Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
Apr 1986                   Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
 5 Mar 2011                Dissident authority is constituted in Benghazi. 
23 Aug 2011                Libya (proclaimed on 10 Aug 2011).
 8 Jan 2013                State of Libya

Libya
(from 1934)
Tripolitania
(1148-1951)
 Cyrenaica
(1843-1951)
 Fezzan
(1580-1951)
 Historical Maps
of Libya
 
 
 
 
 

Tripolitania
 
[Ottoman flag (to
                            1911)]
               to 3 Oct 1911
 
[Tripoli
                            Regency Karamanli dynasty Flag of war on
                            land and at sea, c.1727-1835(Libya)]
        c.1727 - 1835 Local Flag
 
[Kingdom of
                            Italy flag]
          3 Oct 1911 - 15 Dec 1942
 
[Tripolitania
                            1911-1918]
        1912 - 1919 Tripolitania
 
[Tripolitanian
                            Republic flag (reconstruction) 1918-1923
                            (Libya)]
     1918 - 1923 Tripolitania Rep.

[Flag of the United
                            Kingdom]
                 5 Dec 1942 - 8 Mar 1951

[Libyan flag in
                            1951 (in use in Tripolitania from March
                            1951)]
                8 Mar 1951 - 24 Dec 1951
 
Map of Tripolitania
Capital: Tripoli
(Republic: Aziziyah 1918-1923)
Currency: British Military
  Authority Lira (LYB)
(30 Nov 1943-24 Jun 1952)
Population:
3,601,853 (2006)
746,100 (1954)

523,200 (1911)

26 Mar 909 - 977           Incorporated into Egypt.
977                        Part of Zirid kingdom.
1146 - 22 Jan 1160         Tripoli under Norman rule (subordinated to Kingdom of Sicily).
1160 - 1248                Incorporated into Morocco (Almohad Empire).
1172 - 1190                Egyptian rule.
.... - 1202                Egyptian rule. 
1248 - 1327                Incorporated into Tunis.
1327                       Sultanate
1401 - 1482                Incorporated into Tunis.
1412 - 1421                Egyptian rule.
24 Jul 1510                Spanish rule in Tripoli (subordinated to Sicily).
23 Mar 1530                Spanish transfer Tripoli to the Knights of St. John 
                             Hospitaller (Knights take possession 25 Jul 1530).
14 Aug 1551                Province of the Ottoman Empire.
29 Jul 1711                Tripoli Regency under de facto hereditary Qaramanli dynasty.
26 May 1835                Tripoli Ottoman province (direct Ottoman rule).
1911                       Independent government (in rebellion against 
                             Ottoman sovereignty).
 3 Oct 1911                Italian occupation.
 5 Nov 1911                Italian Tripolitania protectorate.
18 Oct 1912                Ceded to Italy by the Ottoman Empire.
16 Nov 1918                Tripolitanian Republic 
12 Nov 1922                Annexed to Italy (Italian Tripolitania colony) 
                             (nominally from 18 May 1919).
 1 Jan 1934                Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, Fezzan united as Libya.
23 Oct 1942                British administration (Tripolitania district).
20 Nov 1942                British forces occupy Benghazi, Sirte (25 Dec 1942) and
                             Tripoli (23 Jan 1943).
10 Dec 1949                Under United Nations administration (but not a trusteeship),
                             administered by U.K.
24 Dec 1951                Incorporated into Libya, with autonomy.
25 Apr 1963                Autonomy abolished.

Norman Kings
1146 - 26 Feb 1154         Roger II of Sicily                     (b. 1095 - d. 1154)
26 Feb 1154 - 22 Jan 1160  William I of Sicily                    (b. 1131 - d. 1166)
Norman governor
1146 - 22 Jan 1160         Abu Yahya ibn Matruh al-Tamimi
                            (continues to 1172 under Almohad rule)
Spanish governors

26 Jul 1510 - 1510         Pedro de Navarro -Commander            (b. c.1460 - d. 1528)
1510                       Diego de Vera
1510 - 1511                Jayme de Requesens

1511 - 1520                Guillem de Moncada
152. - 25 Jul 1530         François Velasquès
Governors of the Knights of Malta
1530 - 1531                Gaspard de Sanguesse
1531 - 1533                Aurelio Bottigella (1st time)          (b. 1480 - d. 1550)
1533 - 1535                Garcia Cortés
1535 - 1537                George Schilling
1537 - 1539                Jean Parisot de La Valette             (b. 1494 - d. 1568)
1539 - 1541                Aurelio Bottigella (2nd time)          (s.a.) 
1541 - 1542                Fernand de Bracamond
1542 - 1545                Christophe de Solertafan
1545 - 1549                Pedro Nuñez Herrera
1549 -
14 Aug 1551         Gaspard de Vallier 
Ottoman Beylerbeyleri
15 Aug 1551 - 1556         Murad Agha
1556 - 23 Jun 1565         Turgut (Dragut) Reis                   (b. 1485 - d. 1565)
17 Jun 1565 - 27 Jun 1568  Kiliç Ali Pasha
27 Jun 1568 - 28 Mar 1571  Yahya Pasha
28 Mar 1571 - 1572         Cafer Pasha
1572 - 1574                Mustafa Pasha
1574 -  5 Jul 1577         Haydar Pasha (1st time)
  5 Jul 1577 - 1578        Hasan Pasha
1578 - 1584                Haydar Pasha (2nd time)
1584 - 1585                Sakizli Mehmed Pasha (1st time)
1585 - 1589                Ramazan Pasha
1589                       Sakizli Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
1589 - Oct 1590            Istanköylü Ahmed Pasha
Oct 1590 - 1595            Sakizli Mehmed Pasha (3rd time)
1595 - Dec 1603            Memi Mehmed Pasha
Dec 1603 - 1614            Safer Dey
1614 - 1626                Sherif Pasha
1626                       Ramazan Dey
1626 - Jan 1631            Sakizli Mehmed Pasha
Jan 1631 - 29 Apr 1672     Sakizli Osman Pasha
29 Apr 1672 - Jul 1672     Osman Reis as-Suhali
Jul 1672 - May 1675        Bali Çavush
18 May 1675 - Jan 1677     Misirliohlu Ibrahim Pasha
Jan 1677                   Inebolulu Ibrahim Çelebi
Jan 1677 - Apr 1677        Istanköylü Büyük Mustafa
Apr 1677 - 1678            Baba Osman
1678 - 1682                Ak Mehmed Timur
1682 - 21 Jun 1682         Abaza Hüseyin
21 Jun 1682 - 1683         Cezayirli Abdullah
1683                       Terzi Ibrahim
1693 - Oct 1687            Halil Pasha
Oct 1687 - 1689            Mehmed Pasha (1st time) 
1689 -  3 Feb 1695         Bosnak Ismail Pasha
 3 Feb 1695 -  1 Aug 1701  Destari Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) 
 1 Aug 1700 - 20 Nov 1700  Turgutlulu Kahveci Osman          (b. 1660 - d. ....)
20 Nov 1700 - Dec 1702     Gelibolulu Haci Mustafa
Dec 1702 - 23 Nov 1710     Halil Pasha 
23 Nov 1710 - 20 Jan 1711  Ismail Hoça
20 Jan 1711 -  4 Jul 1711  Mehmed Hüseyin Çavush             (d. 1711)
 4 Jul 1711 - 29 Jul 1711  Abu Umays Mahmud
Sultans
29 Jul 1711 -  2 Nov 1745  Ahmad I Pasha                     (b. c.1686 - d. 1745)
                             (Sidi Hamid Qaramanli Quluglu)
 2 Nov 1745 - 24 Jul 1754  Mehmed Pasha                      (d. 1754)
24 Jul 1754 - 30 Jul 1793  Ali I Pasha                       (d. 1796)
30 Jul 1793 - Nov 1794     Seydi Ali (II) Pahsa (usurper)
Nov 1794 - 24 Jan 1796     Ahmad II Bey
24 Jan 1796 -  5 Aug 1832  Yusuf Pasha                       (d. 1838)
1817                       Mehmed (1st time) (in rebellion)
1824                       Mehmed ibn `Ali (1st time)        (d. 1835)
                             (in rebellion)
1826                       Mehmed (2nd time)(in rebellion)
Jul 1832                   Mehmed (3rd time)(in rebellion)
1835                       Mehmed ibn `Ali (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion)
 5 Aug 1832 - 26 May 1835  Ali II Pasha
Walis (governors)
26 May 1835 -  7 Sep 1835  Mustafa Negib Pasha
 7 Sep 1835 -  6 May 1837  Mahmud Raif Pasha
 6 May 1837 -  5 Sep 1838  Çeshmeli Hasan Pasha
 5 Sep 1838 - 15 Jul 1842  Ali Asker Pasha                    (d. 1868)
15 Jul 1842 - 22 Apr 1847  Mehmed Emin Pasha
22 Apr 1847 - 13 Sep 1849  Ragib Pasha  
13 Sep 1849 - 16 Sep 1852  Ahmed Izzet Pasha (1st time)
16 Sep 1852 -  1 Nov 1855  Mustafa Nuri Pasha                 (b. 1798 - d. 1879)
 1 Nov 1855 -  1 Oct 1857  Osman Pasha 
 1 Oct 1857 -  4 Aug 1860  Ahmed Izzet Pasha (2nd time)
 4 Aug 1860 - 18 Jun 1867  Mahmud Nedim Pasha                 (b. 1818 - d. 1883)
Jun 1867 - Jul 1867        Hassan Pasha (acting)
Jul 1867 - May 1870        Cezayrli Ali Reza Pasha (1st time) (d. 1876)
May 1870 - Jun 1870        Mustafa Pasha (acting)
Jan 1870 - Sep 1871        Mehmed Halet Pasha
Sep 1871 - Apr 1872        Bostancibahizade Mehmed Rashid
                             Pasha

Apr 1872 -  6 Jun 1873     Cezayrli Ali Reza Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.)
 6 Jun 1873 - Nov 1874     Hasan Samih Pasha
Nov 1874 - Feb 1875        Mustafa Asim Pasha (2nd time)
Feb 1875 - Aug 1877        Mustafa Sidki Pasha
1877                       Mehmed Çelaleddin Pasha
Dec 1877 - Feb 1878        Söylemezoglu Ali Kemali            (b. 1819 - d. 1898)
Feb 1878 - Jul 1879        Mehmed Sabri Pasha                 (d. 1879)
Jul 1879 - May 1880        Ahmed Izzet Pasha (2nd time)
May 1880 - Oct 1881        Mehmed Nazif Pasha
Oct 1881 - Jun 1896        Ahmed Rasim Pasha
Jun 1896 - Mar 1899        Nemik Bey
Mar 1899 - Jul 1900        Haçim Bey
Jul 1900 - Dec 1903        Hafiz Mehmed Pasha
Dec 1903 - May 1904        Hasan Husni Pasha (Hüseyin Effendi)
May 1904 - Aug 1904        Abderrahman Bey (acting)
Aug 1904 - Aug 1908        Reçeb Pasha
Dec 1908 - Aug 1909        Ahmed Favzi Pasha                  (b. 1859 - d. 1914)
Aug 1909 - Aug 1910        Hüseyin Husni Pasha                (b. 1856 - d. 1926)
Aug 1910 -  5 Nov 1911     Ibrahim Pasha                      (d. 1915)
Nov 1911                   Neshet Bey 
Nov 1911 - 1912            Bekir Samih Bey 
1912 - 1915                ....
1915 - 1917                Osman Bey
1917 - 1918                Nuri Bey
1918                       Ishaq Bey
1918 - 16 Nov 1918         Osman Fuad Pasha
Ruler
1911 - Mar 1913            Sulayman ibn `Abd Allah al-Baruni  (b. c.1870 - d. 1940)
Governor-general of Tripolitania
1915 - 16 Nov 1918         Sulayman ibn `Abd Allah al-Baruni  (s.a.)
Chairman of the Council of the Republic
16 Nov 1918 - Nov 1920     Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid
Chairman of the Central Reform Board
Nov 1920 - 1923            Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid
Governors 
 5 Oct 1911 - 11 Oct 1911  Raffaele Bosca Ricci d'Olmo        (b. 1857 - d. 1942)
11 Oct 1911 - 1912         Carlo Francesco Giovanni Battista  (b. 1845 - d. 1922)
                             Caneva 
1912 -  2 Jun 1913         Ottavio Ragni                      (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
 2 Jun 1913 - Oct 1914     Vincenzo Garioni (1st time)        (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
Oct 1914 - Jan 1915        Luigi Druetti                      (b. 1853 - d. 1919)
Jan 1915 - Jul 1915        Giulio Cesare Tassoni              (b. 1859 - d. 1942)
15 Jul 1915 -  5 Aug 1918  Giovanni Battista Ameglio          (b. 1854 - d. 1921)
 5 Aug 1918 - 17 May 1919  Vincenzo Garioni (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1919 -  6 Jul 1920  Vittorio Menzinger                 (b. 1861 - d. 1925)
 1 Aug 1920 - Jul 1921     Luigi Mercatelli                   (b. 1853 - d. 1922)
Jul 1921 - Jul 1925        Giuseppe Volpi, conte di Misurata  (b. 1877 - d. 1947)
 3 Jul 1925 - 24 Jan 1929  Emilio De Bono                     (b. 1866 - d. 1944)
24 Jan 1929 - 31 Dec 1933  Pietro Badoglio                    (b. 1871 - d. 1956)
British Military Governors
15 Dec 1942 - 26 Jan 1943  Maurice Stanley Lush               (b. 1896 - d. 1990)
26 Jan 1943 - Apr 1943     Travers Robert Blackley            (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
Administrator
Apr 1943 - Apr 1949        Travers Robert Blackley            (s.a.)
Resident
Apr 1949 - 24 Dec 1951     Travers Robert Blackley            (s.a.)
Governors
Dec 1951 - 14 May 1953     Fadil ben Zikry (1st time)
14 May 1953 - 1954         Al-Siddiq al-Muntasir
1954 - 1955                Abdul Salam al-Buseiri
1955 - 1958                Jamal Pasha Agha
1958 - 1960                Tahir Bakir
1960 - 13 Jun 1961         Abu Bakr Na'ama 
13 Jun 1961 - 25 Apr 1963  Fadil ben Zikry (2nd time)

Presidents of the executive council
Mar 1951 - Dec 1951        Mahmud al-Muntasir                 (b. 1903 - d. 1970)
195. - 19 Jan 1954         Ali al-Dib (1st time)
 3 Aug 1954 - 1954        
Mohieddin Fikini                   (b. 1926 - d. ....)
1954 - 1958                Mahmud al-Bishti
1958 - 1961                Ahmed Own Suf
1961 - 25 Apr 1963         Ali al-Dib (2nd time)


Cyrenaica
 
[Ottoman flag (to
                          1911)]
               to  15 Oct 1912

[Sanusiya
                          (Senussi) Order flag, Cyrenaica (Libya)
                          c.1843-1929]
   c.1843 - 1929 Sanusiya Local Flag

[Kingdom of
                          Italy flag]
          15 Oct 1912 - Feb 1941
 
[Flag of the United
                          Kingdom]
                      Feb 1941 - 1947
 
[Flag of
                          Cyrenaica, 1947-1950 (Libya)]
              1947 - 6 Dec 1950;
           Region Flag from 2012
 
[Libyan flag in 1951
                          (in use in Cyrenaica from 1950)]
                6 Dec 1950 - 24 Dec 1951
 
Map of Cyrenaica
Capital: Benghazi
(Barce 1942-1943)
Currency: Egyptian
 Pound (EGP)
(1943-25 Apr 1952)

Population:
1,613,749 (2006)
391,300 (1954)

190,600 (1911)

1521                       Cyrenaica part of the Ottoman Empire (see under Tripolitania).
1843                       Sanusiya Order founded.
15 Oct 1912                Italian protectorate declared as Cirenaica (Cyrenaica).
18 Oct 1912                Ceded to Italy by the Ottoman Empire.
1920                       Italy claims sovereignty.
17 May 1919                Italian Cirenaica colony.
25 Oct 1920                Italian government recognizes Sheikh Sidi Idriss as the
                             leader of the Sanusiya (Sensussi); with authority only in
                             regions of Koufrah, Djarabouh, Audjila and Djalo, with
                             Adjedabia (Agedabia) as capital.
1929                       Italy de-recognizes the Order.
 1 Jan 1934                Tripolitania, Cirenaica, and Fezzan united as Libya.
Dec 1940 - Mar 1941        British forces occupy Bardia (5 Jan 1941), Tobruk (22 Jan 1941), 
                             Derna (Feb 1941), El Agheila and Benghazi (Feb 1941).
Feb 1941                   British administration (Cyrenaica district).
Mar 1941 - Nov 1941        Axis forces retake El Agheila (24 Mar 1941), Benghazi (3 Apr), 
                             Derna (Apr 1941), and Tobruk 30 (Apr 1941).
18 Nov 1941 - 31 Dec 1941  British forces retake Benghazi (24 Dec 1941), Derna (Dec 1941),
                             Tobruk (4 Dec 1941) and Gazala (15 Dec 1941).
21 Jan 1942 -  7 Jul 1942  Axis forces retake Benghazi (29 Jan 1942), Derna (Dec 1941), 
                             Tobruk (21 Jun 1942), and Bardia (June 1942).
11 Nov 1942                British forces occupy Bardia, Tobruk (13 Nov 1942),
                             Derna (15 Nov 1942) and Benghazi (20 Nov 1942).
Oct 1946                   Sanusi emir recognized by Britain.
 1 Mar 1949                Independence proclaimed (Emirate of Cyrenaica).
 1 Jun 1949                Independence recognized by Britain.
10 Dec 1949                Under United Nations administration (but not a trusteeship),
                             administered by U.K.
21 Nov 1949                Cyrenaica autonomous.
24 Dec 1951                Incorporated into Libya.
25 Apr 1963                Autonomy abolished.
 6 Mar 2012
                Cyrenaica transitional council formed (not recognized by Libya).
 1 Jun 2013               
Cyrenaica declares autonomy (not recognized by Libya).
24 Oct 2013                Renamed Barqa.

Sheikhs
1843 -  7 Sep 1859         Sayyid Muhammad ibn `Ali as-Sanusi (b. 1787 - d. 1859)
 7 Sep 1859 -  2 Jun 1902  Sayyid Muhammad ibn Sayyid         (b. 1844 - d. 1902)
                             Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Sanusi
 2 Jun 1902 - 21 Aug 1918  Sayyid Ahmad ibn Sayyid Muhammad   (b. 1873 - d. 1933) 
                             ash-Sharif as-Sanusi 
21 Aug 1918 - 25 Oct 1920  Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi    (b. 1890 - d. 1983)
Emir
25 Oct 1920 - 1929         Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi    (s.a.)
                             (1st time)(in Egypt exile from 1923)
1923 - 1928                Sayyid Muhammad ar-Rida (acting)   (b. 1890 - d. 1955)
1928 - 1929                `Umar Muhtar (acting)              (d. 1931) 
Governors
15 Oct 1912 - Oct 1913     Ottavio Briccola                   (b. 1853 - d. 1924)
Oct 1913 -  5 Aug 1918     Giovanni Battista Ameglio          (b. 1854 - d. 1921)
 5 Aug 1918 -  5 Aug 1919  Vincenzo Garioni                   (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
 5 Aug 1919 - 23 Nov 1921  Giacomo De Martino                 (b. 1849 - d. 1921)
23 Nov 1921 - Oct 1922     Luigi Pintor                       (b. 1882 - d. 1925) 
Oct 1922 - Dec 1922        Eduardo Baccari                    (b. 1871 - d. 1952)
 7 Jan 1923 - May 1924     Luigi Bongiovanni                  (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
 4 May 1924 -  2 Nov 1926  Ernesto Mombelli                   (b. 1867 - d. 1932)
 8 Nov 1926 - 31 Dec 1928  Attilio Teruzzi                    (b. 1882 - d. 1950)
Vice-governors
Jan 1929 - Mar 1930        Dominico Siciliani                 (b. 1879 - d. 1938)
Mar 1930 - May 1934        Rodolfo Graziani, marchese         (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
                             di Neghelli
Jun 1934 - Apr 1935        Guglielmo Nasi                     (b. 1879 - d. 1971)
British Military Governors
22 Jan 1941 -  8 Feb 1941  Richard Nugent O'Connor            (b. 1889 - d. 1981)
 8 Feb 1941 - 27 Feb 1941  Sir Henry Maitland Wilson          (b. 1881 - d. 1964)
27 Feb 1941 -  8 Apr 1941  Philip Neame                       (b. 1888 - d. 1978)
 8 Apr 1941 - 14 Apr 1941  Sir John Dudley Lavarack           (b. 1885 - d. 1957)
14 Apr 1941 - 22 Oct 1941  Leslie Morshead                    (b. 1889 - d. 1959)
22 Oct 1941 - 13 Dec 1941  Ronald Mackenzie Scobie            (b. 1883 - d. 1969)
Dec 1941 - 14 May 1942     Isaac Pierre de Villiers           (b. 1891 - d. 1967)
14 May 1942 - 21 Jun 1942  Hendrik Balzazar Klopper           (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
21 Jun 1942 - 13 Nov 1942  Axis re-occupation

1943                       Anthony Sillery                    (b. 1903 - d. 1976)
1943                       Angus Lyell Collier                (b. 1893 - d. 1971)
19 Dec 1943 - 1944         H.R. Hall
Administrators

21 Dec 1942 - 30 Oct 1945  Duncan Cameron Cumming             (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
                             (military administrator to 10 Mar 1943) 
30 Oct 1945 - 1946         Peter Bevil Edward Acland          (b. 1902 - d. 1993)
1946 - 1948                James William Norris Haugh         (b. 1894 - d. 1969)
1948 - 17 Sep 1949         Eric Armar Vully de Candole        (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
Resident
17 Sep 1949 - 24 Dec 1951  Eric Armar Vully de Candole        (s.a.)
Emir
Oct 1946 - 24 Dec 1951     Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Governors
24 Dec 1951 - May 1952     Muhammad Sakizli (1st time)        (b. 1892? - d. 1954)
May 1952 - 15 Oct 1961     Hussein Maziq                      (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
                             (suspended 2 Oct 1954 - Oct 1954)
Oct 1961 - c.Dec 1962      Mahmud Abu Hidma
c.Dec 1962 - 25 Apr 1963  
Muhammad Sakizli (1st time)        (s.a.)
Head of the Cyrenaica Transitional Council (from Oct 2013, Council of Cyrenaica in Libya)
 
6 Mar 2012 -              Ahmed Zubair al-Senussi            (b. 1933)
                             (not recognized by Libya)
24 Oct 2013 -              Ibrahim Jadhran (in rebellion)
                             (head of Political Bureau of Cyrenaica)

Prime ministers
 5 Jul 1949 - 18 Mar 1950  Umar Mansur Kikhia                 (b. 1880 - d. 1962)
                             (premier-designate to 9 Nov 1949)
18 Mar 1950 - 24 Dec 1951  Muhammad Sakizli                   (s.a.)
Presidents of the executive council
1952 - 1962                Wanis al-Qaddafi                   (b. 1924 - d. 1986)
1962 - 25 Apr 1963         Hamid Abbar
Prime minister
 3 Nov 2013 -              Abd-Rabbo al-Barassi
                             (in rebellion, appointed by Jadhran)


Fezzan
 
[Ottoman flag (to
                          1911)]
              to 15 Oct 1912 
 
[Kingdom of
                          Italy flag]
        15 Oct 1912 - 11 Jan 1943 
 
[French flag]
        11 Jan 1943 - 24 Dec 1951
 
Map of Fezzan
Capital: Sebha 1943-1951
(Murzuk c.1566-1912)
Currency: Algerian
Franc (DZF)
(1943-12 Apr 1952)
Population: 442,090 (2006)
54,000 (1954)

28,200 (1931)

918                        Sultanate of Fezzan founded.
1190 - 12..                Annexed by Egypt.
1212                       Annexed by Borno (Kanem).
13..                       Independence recovered.
1580 - 1582                Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
1612 - 1614                Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
1623 - 1626                Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
1689 - 1690                Incorporated into Ottoman Empire.
1843                       Incorporated into Ottoman Empire (Fezzan Paskalik).
1909 - 1914                Sanusi rule.
15 Oct 1912                Annexed by Italy.
Aug 1914 - Jan 1915        Italian occupation.
1915 - 1923                Sanusi rule (restored).
1923 - 1930                Anarchy, ruled by Arab nomads.
 1 Jan 1934                Fezzan, Tripolitania, and Cyrencia united as Libya.
12 Jan 1943                Fezzan occupied by Free French, forces enter Sebha; in
                            
Murzuk from 13 Jan 1943 and Ghat on 23 Jan 1943.
11 Apr 1943                Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadamès, under French administration
                           
(Territoire Militaire du Fezzan-Ghadamès).
1948 -
24 Dec 1951         Ghadamès attached
administratively to Tunisia and Ghat to Algeria.
10 Dec 1949                Under United Nations administration (but not
                             a trusteeship), administered by France.
24 Dec 1951                Incorporated into Libya, with autonomy.
  
25 Apr 1963                Autonomy abolished.
26 Sep 2013                Fezzan declares autonomy (not recognized by Libya).

Sultans
c.1566 - 1580              al-Mustansir ibn Muhammad
1580 - 1599                an-Nasir
1599 - 1612                al-Mansur
1612 - 1614                .... (Tripolitan governors)
1614 - 1623                Tahir I
1623 - 1626                .... (Tripolitan governors)
1626 - 1658                Muhammad I
1658 - 1682                Nagib
1682 - 1689                Muhammad II an-Nasir (1st time)
1689                       Muhammad al-Mukni -Tripolitan governor
1689                       Temmam
1689 - 1690                Muhammad III
1690                       Ali al-Mukni -Tripolitan governor
1690 - 1709/18             Muhammad II an-Nasir (2nd time)
1709/18 - 1767             Ahmad I 
1767 - 1776                Tahir II
1776 - 1780                Ahmad II al-Munsur
1789 - 1804                Sharif Muhammad V ibn al-Mansur    (d. 1804)
                             al-Hakim
1804 - 1811                Sharif Muhammad VI ibn al-Mansur 
1811 - 1831                Yusuf al-Mukkani (usurper)
1831 - 1842                Sayf an-Nasr `Abd al-Jalil ibn Rad (d. 1842)
1835 - 1842                Jumah ibn Khalifa (1st time)       (d. 1856)
                             (in rebellion)
1854 - 1856                Jumah ibn Khalifa (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion)
Walis (governors)
1842 - 1846                Bekir Pasha
1846 - 1855                Hassan Pasha al-Bal`azi
1855 - 1859                ....
1859 - 1865                Halim Pasha (1st time)
1865                       Hamid Bey (acting)
1865 - 1870                Halim Pasha (2nd time)
1870 - 187.                ....
187. - 1882                Mustafa Faik Pasha
1882 - 1900                ....
1900 - c.1906              Mahmud Bey
c.1906 - 1909              Samih Bey
Sanusi Governors
1909 - 15 Oct 1912         Sayyid Muhammad al-Abid (1st time)
Aug 1914 - Jan 1915        Italian occupation
1915 - 1923                Sayyid Muhammad al-Abid (2nd time)
French Military governors
12 Jan 1943 - summer 1943  Raymond Jean Marie Delange         (b. 1898 - d. 1976)
1943 - 1946               
Robert Marie Rémi Thiriet          (b. 1899 - d. 1956)
194. - 194.                Terri
Mar 1947 - 1949            Maurice Sarazac                    (b. 1908 - d. 1974)
21 May 1949 - 1950?        Jacques Edouard Marie Leneveu
1950 - 1951?               Auguste Cauneille                  (b. 1911 - d. 1965)

French Resident
12 Feb 1950 - 24 Dec 1951  Maurice Sarazac                    (s.a.)
Hakim

1946 - 12 Feb 1950         Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr                 (b. c.1876 - d. 1954)
Wali (Chef du territoire)
12 Feb 1950 - 24 Dec 1951  Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr                 (s.a.)
Governors
24 Dec 1951 - 12 Jun 1954  Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr                 (s.a.) 
26 Jun 1954 - 25 Apr 1963  Omar Sayf an-Nasr
President of the Province
26 Sep 2013 -              Nuri M
uhammad al-Qouizi
                             (not recognized by Libya)
 
Presidents of the executive council
24 Dec 1951 - 12 Jun 1954  ....
 1 Jul 1954 - 25 Apr 1963  Abdul Jalil Sayf an-Nasr


Libya

 1 Jan 1934                Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan united as 
                             Italian colony of Libya.
13 May 1943                End of Italian rule.
24 Dec 1951                Independence as United Libyan Kingdom.
25 Apr 1963                Libyan Kingdom
 1 Sep 1969                Libyan Arab Republic
 2 Mar 1977                Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ("state of the masses").
Apr 1986                   Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
23 Aug 2011                Libya
 8 Jan 2013                State of Libya

Guide of the Revolution (de facto Chief of State)
 1 Sep 1969 - 23 Aug 2011  Muammar al-Qaddafi (Gadhafi)       (b. 1942 - d. 2011) Mil/Non-party
                             (in rebellion at Sirte to 20 Oct 2011)

Governors-general
 1 Jan 1934 - 28 Jun 1940  Italo Balbo                        (b. 1896 - d. 1940)
 1 Jul 1940 - 25 Mar 1941  Rodolfo Graziani,                  (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
                             marchese di Neghelli 
25 Mar 1941 - 19 Jul 1941  Italo Gariboldi                    (b. 1879 - d. 1970)
19 Jul 1941 -  2 Feb 1943  Ettore Bastico                     (b. 1876 - d. 1972)
 2 Feb 1943 - 13 May 1943  Giovanni Messe (acting)            (b. 1883 - d. 1968)
UN Commissioner
10 Dec 1949 - 24 Dec 1951  Adrian Pelt (Netherlands)          (b. 1892 - d. 1981)
                             (arrived in Tripoli 18 Jan 1950)
King¹
24 Dec 1951 -  1 Sep 1969  Idris I                            (b. 1890 - d. 1983)
                             (= Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi)
Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council

 1 Sep 1969 -  2 Mar 1979  Muammar al-Qaddafi                 (s.a.)
             Mil/Non-party
General Secretaries of the General People's Congress (nominal chiefs of state)
 2 Mar 1977 -  2 Mar 1979  Muammar al-Qaddafi                 (s.a.)               Non-party
 2 Mar 1979 -  7 Jan 1981  Abdul Ati al-Obeidi                (b. 1939)            Non-party
 7 Jan 1981 - 15 Feb 1984  Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab            (b. 1940)            Non-party
15 Feb 1984 -  7 Oct 1990  Mifta al-Usta Umar                 (b. 1935)            Non-party
 7 Oct 1990 - 18 Nov 1992  Abdul Razzaq as-Sawsa                                   Non-party
18 Nov 1992 -  3 Mar 2008  Zentani Muhammad az-Zentani        (b. 1944)            Non-party
 3 Mar 2008 -  5 Mar 2009  Muftah Muhammad al-Sanusi Kaiba                         Non-party
 5 Mar 2009 - 26 Jan 2010  Mubarak Abdallah al-Shamikh 
      (b. 1950)            Non-party
26 Jan 2010 - 23 Aug 2011  Muhammad Abul-Qasim al-Zwai        (b. 1952)            Non-party
Chairman of the Transitional National Council
 5 Mar 2011 -  9 Aug 2012  Mustafa Muhammad Abdul Jalil       (b. 1952)            TNC
                             (in rebellion
in Benghazi to 23 Aug 2011)
Chairmen of the General National Congress
 9 Aug 2012                Muhammad Ali Salim (acting)        (b. 1935)            Non-party  
 9 Aug 2012 - 28 May 2013  Muhammad al-Megariaf (al-Maqrif)   (b. 1940)            NFP
28 May 2013 - 25 Jun 2013  Jumah
`Atayqah (Giuma Attaiga)     (b. c.1950)          Non-party
                             (acting)
25 Jun 2013 -  4 Aug 2014  Nuri Abu Sahmin
                                        Non-party
                             (
from 4 Aug 2014 continuing in rebellion)
Chairmen of the Council of Representatives

 4 Aug 2014 -  5 Aug 2014  Abu Bakr Baira (acting)                                 Non-party
 5 Aug 2014 -              Aqila Salih Isa                    (b. 1944)            Non-party

Current Selection

Prime ministers
25 Dec 1951 - 19 Feb 1954  Mahmud al-Muntasir (1st time)      (b. 1903 - d. 1970)
19 Feb 1954 - 12 Apr 1954  Muhammad Sakizli                   (b. 1892 - d. 1954)
12 Apr 1954 - 26 May 1957  Mustafa Ben Halim                  (b. 1921)
26 May 1957 - 17 Oct 1960  Abdul Majid Kubar                  (b. 1909 - d. c.1970s)
17 Oct 1960 - 19 Mar 1963  Muhammad Osman Said                (b. 1922 - d. 2007)
19 Mar 1963 - 20 Jan 1964  Mohieddin Fikini                   (b. 1926 - d. ....)
20 Jan 1964 - 20 Mar 1965  Mahmud al-Muntasir (2nd time)      (s.a.)
20 Mar 1965 -  2 Jul 1967  Hussein Maziq                      (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
 2 Jul 1967 - 25 Oct 1967  Abdul Qadir al-Badri               (b. 1921 - d. 2003)
25 Oct 1967 -  4 Sep 1968  Abdul Hamid al-Bakkoush            (b. 1933 - d. 2007)
 4 Sep 1968 - 31 Aug 1969  Wanis al-Qaddafi                   (b. 1924 - d. 1986)
 8 Sep 1969 - 16 Jan 1970  Mahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi        (b. 1935 - d. 2009)  Non-party
16 Jan 1970 - 16 Jul 1972  Muammar al-Qaddafi                 (s.a.)               Non-party
16 Jul 1972 -  2 Mar 1977  Abdul Salam Jalloud                (b. 1944)            Non-party
General Secretaries of the General People's Committee
 2 Mar 1977 -  2 Mar 1979  Abdul Ati al-Obeidi                (s.a.)               Non-party
 2 Mar 1979 - 23 Feb 1984  Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi (1st time)                      Non-party
23 Feb 1984 -  2 Mar 1986  Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab            (s.a.)               Non-party
 2 Mar 1986 -  2 Mar 1987  Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi (2nd time)                      Non-party
 2 Mar 1987 -  7 Oct 1990  Umar Mustafa al-Muntasir           (b. 1939 - d. 2001)  Non-party
 7 Oct 1990 - 29 Jan 1994  Abuzed Omar Dorda                  (b. 1944)            Non-party
29 Jan 1994 - 29 Dec 1997  Abdul Majid al-Qa´ud               (b. 1943)            Non-party
29 Dec 1997 -  1 Mar 2000  Muhammad Ahmad al-Mangoush                              Non-party
 1 Mar 2000 - 13 Jun 2003  Mubarak Abdallah al-Shamikh        (s.a.)               Non-party  
13 Jun 2003 -  5 Mar 2006  Shukri Muhammad Ghanem             (b. 1942 - d. 2012)  Non-party
 5 Mar 2006 - 23 Aug 2011  Al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmudi         (b. 1946)            Non-party
Interim Prime ministers
23 Mar 2011 - 23 Oct 2011  Mahmud Jibril al-Warfali           (b. 1952)            TNC
                             (in rebellion
in Benghazi to 23 Aug 2011)
23 Oct 2011 - 24 Nov 2011  Ali Abdussalam Tarhouni (acting)   (b. 1951)            TNC
24 Nov 2011 - 14 Nov 2012  Abdel Rahim al-Kib                 (b. 1950)            TNC
Prime ministers
14 Nov 2012 - 11 Mar 2014  Ali Zeidan                         (b. 1950)            Non-party
11 Mar 2014 -              Abdullah al-Thani                  (b. 1954)            Non-party
                             (acting to 8 Apr 2014)
 4 May 2014 -  9 Jun 2014  Ahmed Matiq (in opposition)        (b. 1971?)           Non-party

 6 Sep 2014 -              Omar al-Hassi (in rebellion)                            Non-party

  ¹The full style of the ruler was:
(a) 24 Dec 1951 - 25 Apr 1963: Malik al-Mamlaka al-Libiyya al-Muttahida ("King of the United Libyan Kingdom");
(b) 25 Apr 1963 - 1 Sep 1969: Malik al-Mamlaka al-Libiyya ("King of the Libyan Kingdom").

Party abbreviations (parties banned 1952/1972 - 2011): NFA = Tahalouf al-Quwa al-Wataniyya (National Forces Alliance, liberal, moderate islamist, est.2012); NFP = Hizb al-Jabha al-Wataniyya (National Front Party, liberal progressive, est.2012, successor to 1981-2012 anti-Qaddafi National Front for the Salvation of Libya); Mil = Military;
- Fromer parties: TNC
= Libyan Transitional Council (militant anti-Qaddafi opposition, Feb 2011 - Aug 2012)

Territorial Disputes: Libya has claimed more than 32,000 sq km in southeastern Algeria and about 25,000 sq km in the Tommo region of Niger in a currently dormant dispute; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya. 








 © Ben Cahoon