World Statesmen.org HOME >

 
 







 

Syria
 
[Ottoman
                                    flag (to 1918)]
                 to 30 Sep 1918 
 
[Syria, 1918-1920]
            30 Sep 1918 - 8 Mar 1920
 
 [Kingdom of
                                    Syria 1920]
                     8 Mar 1920 - 24 Jul 1920
 
[French Mandate of Syria
                                    1920]
           24 Jul 1920 - 1 Sep 1920 
 
[Syria,
                                    1922-1930]
            28 Jun 1922 - 14 May 1930
  
[Syria, 1930-1932]
            14 May 1930 - 1 Jan 1932
     
[Syrian ensign 1930-32,
                                    state flag 1932-1958 and 1961-1963]
  14 May 1930 - 22 Feb 1958 (as Ensign to 1 Jan 1932); 
      28 Sep 1961 - 8 Mar 1963 (Rebel Flag from 2012)
[United
                                    Arab Republic 1958-1961]
        22 Feb 1958 - 28 Sep 1961 UAR
 
[Syria
                                    1963-1972]
            8 Mar 1963 - 31 Dec 1971
 
[Syria
                                    1972-1980 (Federation of Arab
                                    Republics)]
             1 Jan 1972 - 30 Mar 1980
 
[Syria]
             Re-adopted 30 Mar 1980

Map of Syria
Hear National Anthem
"Humat ad-Diyar"
(Guardians of the Homeland) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1936 - 22  Feb 1958;
restored 28 Sep 1961
Constitution
 (13 Mar 1973)
Capital: Damascus
(Dimashq)
Currency: Syrian Pound
(SYP);
1920-48 Lebanon-Syria
Pound (XLSP); 1918-20
Egyptian Pound (EGP)
National Holiday: 17 Apr (1946)
Independence Day
Population: 22,457,336 (2013)
note: approximately 18,900 Israeli
settlers live in the Golan Heights
GDP: $46.5 billion (2012)
Exports: $2.67 billion (2013)
Imports: $8.91 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Syrian Arab 74.9%, Bedouin Arab 7.4%, Kurd 7.3%,
 Palestinian Arab 3.9%, Armenian 2.7%,
other 3.8% (2000)
note: by Mar 2014, about 6.5 million people were internally
 displaced, and 2.5 million Syrian refugees were registered with
 the UN in neighboring countries.
Total Active Armed Forces: 325,000 (2010)
UNDOF Force: 1,271 (2014)
Merchant marine: 19 ships (2010)
Religions:  Muslim 86% (official) (of which Alawite [Shi'a] 11%),
Christian 8% (of which Orthodox 5%, Roman Catholic 2%),
Druze 3%, non-religious/atheist
3% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, AFESD, AL (suspended), AMF, Arabsat, BTWC (signatory), CAEU, CWC, ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-24, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,  ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA (observer), ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAPEC, OIC (suspended), OPCW, OPEC (observer), PAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Syria Index
Chronology

3300 BC - 1200 BC          Mostly part of the Egyptian Empire.
1200 BC - 724 BC           Local kingdoms (Phoenicians, Canaanites, etc.)
724 BC - 612 BC            Part of the Assyrian Empire.
612 BC - 539 BC            Part of the Babylonian Empire.
539 BC - 332 BC            Part of the Persian Empire.
332 BC                     Conquered by Macedonia under Alexander "the Great"
319 BC - 301 BC            Part of Antigonid kingdom
301 BC - 198 BC            Part of Egypt under Ptolemaic kingdom.
198 BC - 63 BC             Part of the Seleucid Empire.
85 BC - 64 BC              Nabataean rule in Damascus
64 BC - 261 AD             Part of the Roman Empire.
261 AD - 272 AD            Ruled by Palmyra.
272                        Roman rule restored.
17 Jan 395 AD              Part of the Byzantine Empire.
529 - 584                  Damascus administered by Ghassanid kingdom.
635                        Arab Muslim conquest.
1076 - 1154                Part of the Seljuq Empire
1154 - 1176                Egyptian rule.
1176 - 1260                Under various local Ayyubid dynasties in Aleppo,
                             Damascus, Hamath, and Homs. 
1260                       Part of Mameluke Sultanate.
1260 - 1261                Mongol occupation.
23 Jan 1401 - 24 Mar 1401  Damascus sacked by Timur Lenk (Tamerlane).
23 Aug 1516                Part of the Ottoman Empire.
Feb 1799 - Jun 1799        French occupy coastal parts of Syria.
14 Jun 1832 - 1840         Annexed by Egypt (nominally remains under
                             Ottoman suzerainty).
10 Oct 1840                Direct Ottoman rule restored.
 1 Sep 1915                French occupy Ruad Island off Tartous.
30 Sep 1918                Independence declared (Syria).
26 Oct 1918 - 21 Nov 1919  British/French occupation, divided into British
                             southern zone (Palestine), French northern zone
                            (Lebanon and coastal Syria), and an interior Arab
                             state (Syria).
 8 Mar 1920                United Kingdom of Syria
24 Jul 1920                France occupies Damascus and Aleppo.
 1 Sep 1920                State of Great Lebanon (part of French Syria).
 1 Dec 1920                State of Damascus and State of Aleppo formed
                             (under French mandate).
28 Jun 1922                Union of Syrian States
29 Sep 1923 -  1 Jan 1944  Syria a League of Nations Mandate under France.
 1 Jan 1925                State of Syria
 1 Sep 1926                Lebanese Republic made a separate mandate.
19 Nov 1931                Syrian Republic
23 Jul 1939                France cedes Hatay to Turkey.
19 Jul 1939                State of Syria
10 Jun 1940 - 21 Jun 1941  Administration loyal to Vichy France 
                             (from 21 Jun 1941, Free French).
21 Jun 1941 - 15 Apr 1946  Occupied by British and (Free) French troops.
16 Sep 1941                Syrian Republic
 1 Jan 1944                Independence from France declared.
17 Apr 1946                Independence recognized by France.
22 Feb 1958 - 28 Sep 1961  Part of United Arab Republic (see Egypt).
28 Sep 1961                Syrian Arab Republic
10 Jun 1967                Israel occupies the Golan Heights (annexed 
                             by Israel 14 Dec 1981).
 1 Jan 1972 - 19 Nov 1977  Part of Federation of Arab Republics (Egypt, Libya
                             and Syria).

French Mandated
Syria & Lebanon
(1919-1946)
Aleppo State
(1920-1922)
Damascus State
(1920-1922)
Alawite Territory
(1920-1936)
 Jebel Druze
(1920-1936)
 Golan Heights
(1974-)
Islamic State
(2006-)
Syrian Orthodox
Church
Syrian Catholic
Church
Orthodox
Patriarchate of
Antioch
Map of Syria
in 1923

 

Walis (governors) of Damascus
Sep 1516                   Yunus Pasha                        (d. 1517)
Oct 1516 - 1517            Shihab ad-Din Ahma ibn Yahya
1517 - 1518                Nuh Celebi (acting)
Mar 1518 - 1521            Djanbirdi al-Ghazali
1521 - 1522                Ayas Mehmed Pasha 
1522 - 1523                Ferhad Pasha
Jun 1523 - 1525            Hurram Pasha
Jan 1525 - 1526            Süleyman Pasha at-Tawash 
Aug 1526 - 1528            Lufti Pasha (1st time)
May 1528 - 1531            Isabey Pasha Cenderli (1st time)   (d. 1535)
Jun 1531 - 1534            Mustafa Ablaq Pasha
Feb 1534 - 1535            Lufti Pasha (2nd time)
Jul 1535                   Isabey Pasha (2nd time)
Jan 1536 - 1536/37         Mehmed Kuzal Pasha
1536/37 - 1538             Topal Süleyman Pasha
1538 - 1539                Ahmed Pasha
1539 - 1541                Köse Hüsrev Pasha
1541 - 1543                Çandarli Isa Pasha 
1543 - 1545                Piri Pasha (1st time)
1545 - 1500                Hadim Sinan Pasha
1550 - 1551                Piri Pasha (2nd time)
1551 - 1552                Tekeoglu Mehmed Pasha
1552 - 1555                Samsi Ahmed Pasha
1555 - 1561                Hizr Pasha
1561 - 1562/63             Garu Ali Pasha (1st time)
1562/63 - 1563             Hüsrev Pasha
1563 - 1569                Lal Mustafa Pasha 
1569                       Sheytan Murad Pasha                (d. 1569/70)
1569 - 1570                Garu Ali Pasha (2nd time)
1570 - 1571                Ahmed Pasha Isfendiyar-odjlu
1571 - 1574/75             Dervis Pasha                       (d. 1574/75)
1574/75 - 1575             Lala Jafer Pasha
1575 - 157.                Murad Pasha (1st time)
1577 - 1581                Hasan Pasha
1581 - 1582?               Damad-i-Sehriyari Ibrahim Pasha
1582                       Bahram Pasha
1582 - 1583                Bodur Hüseyin Pasha                (d. 1594/95) 
1583                       Hasan Pasha (1st time)
1584                       Qobad Süleyman Pasha
                             Ramadan-odjlu
1585                       Hasan Pasha (2nd time)
1586                       Oweis Pasha (1st time)
1586                       Koca Sinan Pasha                   (d. 1596)
1587                       Mehmed Pasha Ferhad
1588                       Oweis Pasha (2nd time)
1589                       Ali Pasha Elvenzade
1590                       Hasan Pasha (3rd time)
1590                       Koça Sinan Pasha
1590                       Sinanzade Mehmed Pasha
1591                       Mustafa Pasha
1591/92 - 1593/94          Hadim Husrev Pasha
1592                       Halil Pasha
1593                       Çagirci Mehmed Pasha
1594                       Hasan Pasha (5th time)
1594                       Ali Pasha Bostanci
1594                       Murad Pasha (2nd time)
1595                       Hüsrev Pasha (1st time)
1596                       Radya Hatunzade Mustafa Pasha
Dec 1597 - 1598            Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha
                             ibn al-Djaffal
1598                       Ahmed Pasha I
1598                       Ahmed Pasha II
1598/99                    Hüsrev Pasha (2nd time)
1599/1600                  Seid/Emin Mehmed Pasha
1600                       Cigalezade Mahmud Pasha (1st time)
1600/01                    Osman Pasha (1st time)
1601/02                    Hasan Pasha
1602/03                    Ferhad Pasha Bustanci
1603/04                    Osman Pasha (2nd time)
1604                       Canbalatzade Mehmed Pasha
1604 - 160.                Mustafa Pasha (2nd time)
1605 - 1606?               Koca Faragi Osman Pasha
1607                       Cigalezdade Mahmud (2nd time)
1608                       Hadim Gürcü Mehmed Pasha           (d. 1626)
1608                       Sufi Sinan Pasha at-Talki
Apr 1609 - 1615            Hafiz Ahmed Pasha (1st time)
Feb 1615 - 161.            Silahdar Mehmed Pasha
1617 - 1618                Damad Ahmed Pasha
1618                       Mehmed Pasha al-Djuqadar
1618                       Hafiz Ahmed (2nd time)
1619                       Mustafa Pasha
1620                       Süleyman Pasha Kalwin
1621                       Murtaza Pasha Bostanci
1622/23                    Mehmed Pasha Rushand
1623/24                    Mustafa Pasha al-Hannaq
1624/25                    Nigdeli Mustafa Pasha Nakzami
1625/26                    Gürci Mehmed Pasha
1626/27                    Tayyar-odjlu Mehmed Pasha
1628                       Küçük Ahmed Pasha (1st time)
1629                       Nisanci Mustafa Pasha (1st time)
1630                       Nawaya Mehmed Pasha
1631?                      Cevzak Süleyman Pasha
1632                       Ilyas Pasha
1632/33                    Debbag Mehmed Pasha
1633                       Deli Yusuf Pasha (3 days)
1634/35 - 1636             Küçük Ahmed Pasha (2nd time)
1636 - 1636/37             Biykli Mustafa Pasha
1636/37 - 163.             Dervish Mehmed Pasha
1638                       Tüccarzâde or Ibshir Mustafa Pasha
                             (2nd time)
1639                       Cifteli Osman Pasha
1640                       Mehmed Pasha 
1641                       Serci Ahmed Pasha
1641 - 1642                Celep Ahmed Pasha (1st time)
1642                       Melek Ahmed Pasha 
1642 - 1643                Celep Ahmed Pasha (2nd time)
1643                       Sultanzade Mehmed Pasha
                             Ghawan Qabughi
1643                       Silihdar Yusuf Pasha (1st time)
1643 - 1644                Boynuegri Durak Mehmed Pasha
1644                       Gürçü Mehmed Pasha (1st time)
1645                       Ibrahim Pasha
1645                       Mehmed Pasha Salami (3 days)
1646                       Gürçü Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
1646                       Silihadar Yusuf Pasha (2nd time)
1647                       Sufi Murteza Pasha
1648                       Sofu Mehmed Pasha 
1649                       Damad Ibshir Mustafa Pasha 
1649                       Haseki Mehmed Pasha
1650                       Silihdar Murteza Pasha (1st time)
1650                       Shivasli Mustafa Pasha
1651                       Ak Mehmed Pasha 
1651 - Nov 1651            Gürcü Mehmed Pasha (3rd time)
1652                       Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
1652/53                    Defterdarzade Mehmed Pasha         (d. 1656)
1653 - 1654                Halicizade Mehmed Pasha
1655                       Gazi Pasha Shahsuvar-odjlu
1655                       Kara Murad Pasha
1655 - 1656                Köprülü Mehmed Pasha
1656                       Boynuegri Durak Mehmed Pasha 
Aug/Sep 1656 - Dec 1656    Siyavush Pasha
1656                       Mustafa Pasha 
1657/58                    Silihdar Murteza Pasha (2nd time)
1658                       Tayyardzade Mehmed Pasha
1658/59 - 1659/60          Nuri Mehmed Pasha
1659/60 - Jun 1660         Gürcü Mustafa Pasha
1659? - 1661               Köprülü Fazil Ahmed Pasha
1661 - 1662?               Haci Eyvad Süleyman Pasha
Feb/Mar 1662 - 1663        Kanbur Mustafa Pasha
1663 - 1665                Filibeli Mustafa Pasha
1665 - 1666                Salih Pasha I
1665/66 - 1666/67          Çavuszade Mehmed Pasha
1666 - 1667                Qara Mustafa Pasha
1667 - 1669                Mehmed Pasha Chewish Oglu
1669 - 1671                Tavil Ibrahim Pasha
1671 - 1672                Abazekh Husein Pasha (1st time)
1672 - 1673                Qara Mehmed Pasha
1673 - 1674                Ibrahim Pasha Shushman
1674 - 1675                Tavil Ibrahim Pasha
1675 - 1676                Sheytan Ibrahim Pasha II
1676 - 1679                Osman Pasha Bustardji (1st time)
1679 - 1683                Abazekh Husein Pasha (2nd time)
Mar 1684 - 1684?           Hamza Pasha
1684                       Celebi Ibrahim Pasha III
1684 - 1685                Osman Pasha Bustardji (2nd time)
1686 - 1687                Kaplan Pasha
1687 - 1688                Arab Salih Pasha
1688 - 1689                Hamza Pasha
1689 - 1690                Silihdar Mustafa Pasha
1690 - 1691                Abdioglu Mehmed Pasha
1691 - 1692                Gurdju Mehmed Pasha III
1693 - 1693/94             Ibshir Mustafa Pasha
1693/94 - 1694             Shahin Mehmed Pasha
1695 - 1696                Silihdar Osman Pasha
1696 - 1697                Silihdar Buuqli Mustafa Pasha
1697 - 1698                Ahmad Pasha Hacigirai
1698/99 - 1699             Biykli Mehmed Pasha (1st time)
1700/01                    Silihdar Hasan Pasha
Jun 1701 - 1701?           Biykli Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
1701/02                    Arslan Mehmed Pasha Matracy-odjlu
                             (1st time)
1702                       Salih Agha (acting)
1702/03                    Mehmed Pasha Kurd Badjram 
                             Pasha-odjlu (1st time)
1703                       Kücük Osman Pasha
1703/04                    Arslan Mehmed Pasha Matracy-odjlu 
                             (2nd time)
1703/04                    Mustafa Pasha
1704/05                    Firari Hüseyin Pasha
1705/06                    Mehmed Pasha Kurd Badjram 
                             Pasha-odjlu (2nd time)
1706 - Aug 1707            Baltaci Süleyman Pasha
1707                       Yusuf Pasha Qubtan Helvaci
1707?                      Halebli Hüseyin Pasha
1708 - 1714                Osmanzade Nasuh Pasha Aydin
1714                       Cerkes Mehmed Pasha
1714 (80 days)             Mehmed Pasha 
1714 - 1716                Topal Yusuf Pasha
1716                       Arnavut Recep Pasha
1716                       Nevsehirli Damad Ibrahim Pasha     (b. 1670 - d. 1730)
Jan 1717 – Dec 1717        Köprülüzade Abd Allah Pasha 
1718                       Reçeb Pasha 
1718                       Matuqzade Osman Pasha, Abu Tawq 
                             (1st time)
1719                       Küçük Osman Pasha
1721/22                    Ali Pasha Maqtul-odjlu
1722 - 1724/25             Kücük Osman Pasha
1724/25 – Dec 1724         Matuqzade Osman (2nd time)
Mar 1725 - 1730            Azamzade Ismail Pasha 
1730                       Osman Agha (acting)
1730                       Kara Süleyman Agha (acting)
1730/31/32                 Aydinli Abd Allah Pasha
Jan 1734 – 1738            Azamzade Suleyman Pasha (1st time) (d. 1743)
1738                       Hüseyin Pasha
1739                       Matuqzade Osman Pasha, Abu Tawq 
                             (2nd time)
Sep 1740 - 1741?           Abdi Pashazade Ali Pasha
1741 – 1743                Azamzade Süleyman Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.)
1743 - 1757                Azamzade Esad Pasha 
1757                       Mekkizade Hüseyin Pasha
1758/59 - 1760             Ceteci Abd Allah Pasha
1760                       Ishalyq Mehmed Pasha
1760 – 1771                Uthman Pash al-Kurzi
                             (Osman Sadik Pasha)
1771 - 1772                Azamzade Mehmed Pasha (1st time)
1772 - 1773                Hafiz Mustafa Pasha Bustanci 
1773 – 1783                Azamzade Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
Apr 1783 - Jun 1783        Osmanpashazade Mehmed Pasha
1783 - 1784                Osmanzade Dervish Pasha
1784 – 1786                Ahmed Pasha al-Djazzar (1st time)  (d. 1804)
1786                       Hüseyin Pasha Battal               (d. 1801)
1787 - 1788                Abdi Pasha
1788 - 1790                Ibrahim Pasha al-Halabi
                             (or Uzun Ibrahim)  
1790 - 1795                Ahmed Pasha al-Djazzar (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1795 - 1798                Azamzade Abdallah Pasha (1st time)
1798 - 1799                Ahmed Pasha al-Djazzar (3rd time)  (s.a.)
1799 - 1803                Azamzade Abdallah Pasha (2nd time) 
1803/1804                  Kataragasi Ibrahim Pasha 
1803/04 - 1804             Ahmed Pasha al-Djazzar (4th time)  (s.a.) 
1804? - 1807               Azamzade Abdallah Pasha (3rd time) 
1807 - 1810                Genç Yusuf Pasha                   (d. 1816)
1810 - 1811                Süleyman Pasha (1st time) 
Jan/Feb 1812 - May 1816    Silahdar Süleyman Pasha 
May 1816 - Feb/Mar 1817    Hafiz Amasyali Ali Pasha
Feb/Mar 1817 - 1817        Salih Pasha
1817 - 1819                Süleyman Pasha (2nd time)
1819 – 1822                Dervish Mehmed Pasha
May/Jun 1822–Mar/Apr 1823  Beylanli Mustafa Pasha
Apr 1823 - Jan 1824?       Salih Pasha (2nd time)
1824 - May 1824            Müftizade Ahmed Pasha
1825/26 - 1826/27          Haci Veliyeddin Pasha  
Oct 1826 - 1826/27         Hakki Ismail Pasha
1826/27 - 1828             Izmirli Haci Salih Pasha
Oct 1828 - Jul 1831        Rauf Mehmed Emin Pasha
Jul 1831 - Nov 1831        Benderli Selim Sirri Pasha         (b. 1771 - d. 1831)
Nov 1831 - May/Jun 1832    Haci Ali Pasha (1st time)  
27 May 1832 - Jun 1832     Ibrahim Pasha -Egyptian commander
1831 - Jun 1832            Ahmed Bey -Military and civil governor
Nov 1832 - 1838            Muhammed Sharif Pasha -Egyptian governor
1838 - 1840                ....
Jul 1840 - 1840            Haci Ali Pasha (2nd time)
26 Aug 1840 - Oct 1842     Necib Mehmed Pasha                 (d. 1851)
Military governors
1841 - 1844                Mehmed Reshid Pasha 
1845 - 1846                Mehmed Namiq Pasha 
Walis
1841 – 1844                Mirza Said Pasha
Jan 1841 - Mar 1842        Gürcü Mehmed Necib Pasha
Mar 1842 - 1845?           Laz Ali Riza Pasha 
Nov 1845 - Mar 1846        Haci Kütahyali Ali Pasha
1846 - Mar 1848            Kirimli Musa Sefveti Pasha     
Mar 1848 - Aug 1848        Halil Kamili Pasha
Aug 1848 - Sep 1849        Osman Nuri Pasha
Sep 1849 - l851            Damad Mehmed Said Pasha
1852                       Osman Pasha
1852                       Izzet Mehmed Pasha
Jul 1852 - Oct 1852        Agha Abdulaziz Pasha
Oct 1852 - Aug 1854        Ali Askar Pasha
Aug 1854 - Oct 1855        Arif Mehmed Pasha                  (b. 1808 - d. 1865)
Oct 1855 - Dec 1855        Serhalifezade Namik Salih Pasha
Dec 1855 - Sep 1856        Mahmud Nedim Pasha                 (b. 1818 - d. 1883)
Sep 1856 - 1856            Arnavud Süleyman Refet Pasha
Dec 1856 - Dec 1857        Ahmed Izzet Pasha (3rd time)
Dec 1857 - Dec 1858        Kutuhyali Haci Ali Pasha
Dec 1858 - Mar 1859        Halil Kamili Pasha
Mar 1859 - Jun 1860        Ahmed Nazir Pasha
Jun 1860 - Nov 1860        Mehmed Muammer Pasha
Nov 1860 – Feb 1862        Muftizade Emin Muhlis Pasha        (b. 1811 - d. 1874)
Feb 1862 - Apr 1863        Pepe Mehmed Emin Pasha
Apr 1863 - Sep 1865        Mütercim (or Shirvanizade) Mehmed  (b. 1811 - d. 1882)
                             Rüstü Pasha                   
Sep 1865 - Jul 1866        Sakizli Esad uhlis Pasha           (d. 1876)
Jul 1866 - Sep 1871        Mehmed Rashid Pasha                (b. 1825 – d. 1876)
Sep 1871 - Sep 1872        Abdullatif Subhi Pasha
Sep 1872 - Jan 1873        Selanikli Mustafa Necib Pasha      (d. 1883)     
Jan 1873 - Sep 1874        Mehmed Halet Pasha
1874 - 1875                Esad Pasha
Jan 1875 - Apr 1876        Ahmed Hamdi Pasha (1st time)       (d. 1885)
1876                       Ahmed Pasha
Jul 1876 - Dec 1876        Rashid Nashid Pasha (1st time)     (d. 1888)
Jan 1877 - Jun 1877        Abdulhamid Ziyaeddin Pasha         (b. 1825 - d. 1880)       
Jun 1877 - Feb 1878        Küçük Ömer Fevzi Pasha             (d. 1878)
Feb 1878 - Nov 1878        Ahmed Cevdet Pasha
Nov 1878 – Aug 1879        Ali Haydar Midhat Pasha            (b. 1822 - d. 1884)
Jun 1879 - Dec 1879        Bostancibashizade Reshid Mehmed
                             Pasha
Dec 1879 - Aug 1880        ....
Aug 1880 - Sep 1885        Ahmed Hamdi Pasha (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Sep 1885 - Mar 1888        Rashid Nashid Pasha (2nd time)
Mar 1888 - Nov 1889        Manastirli Mehmed Nazif Pasha      (d. 1889)
Dec 1889 - Nov 1891        Mustafa Asim Pasha                 (d. 1891)
Nov 1891 - Jun 1892        Topal Osman Nuri Pasha
Jun 1892 – Jun 1894        Sherif Mehmed Rauf Pasha           (s.a.)
Jun 1894 – Jul 1896        Topal Osman Nuri Pasha
Jul 1896 - Jul 1897        Hasan Refik Pasha
Jul 1897 - Mar 1906        Huseyni Nazim Pasha                (b. 1854 - d. 1927)
Mar 1906 – Dec 1908        Ibrahim Shukri (or Sükrü) Pasha
1909 – 1910                Ismail Fazil Bey
Dec 1910 - Jun 1912        Ali Ghalib Bey
Aug 1912 - Jan 1913        Alpan Kazim Pasha
Jan 1913 - Jul 1914        Mehmed Arif Bey Mardin
Jul 1914 - Oct 1915        Hulusi Bey                         (d. 1918)
Ocr 1915 – Aug 1916        Sakalli Azmi Pasha                 (d. 1944)
Aug 1916 – Jul 1917        Hasan Tahsin Bey
Jul 1917 - Jun 1918        Osman Bedri Bey                  
Jun 1918 - Sep 1918        Refet Bey
Sep 1918 – 30 Sep 1918     Tahsin Bey
Heads of Government
30 Sep 1918                Muhammad Said al-Jazairi           (b. c.1872 - d. 19..)
30 Sep 1918 -  5 Oct 1918  Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi           (b. 1864 - d. 1943)
 5 Oct 1918 -  8 Mar 1920  Faysal ibn al-Hussein al-Hashimi   (b. 1885 - d. 1933)
King¹
 8 Mar 1920 - 28 Jul 1920  Faysal ibn al-Hussein al-Hashimi   (s.a.)
Acting Heads of State
28 Jul 1920 - 21 Aug 1920  Ala ad-Din ad-Durubi Pasha         (b. 18.. - d. 1920)
 4 Sep 1920 - 30 Nov 1920  Jamil al-Ulshi                     (b. 1883 - d. 1951)
Governors
30 Nov 1920 - 28 Jun 1922  the Levant States governors
President
28 Jun 1922 -  1 Jan 1925  Subhi Bay Barakat al-Khalidi       (b. 1883 - d. 1939) 
Heads of State
 1 Jan 1925 - 21 Dec 1925  Subhi Bay Barakat al-Khalidi       (s.a.) 
 9 Feb 1926 - 28 Apr 1926  Marie François Julien Pierre-Alype (b. 1886 - d. 1956)
                             (acting)
28 Apr 1926 - 15 Feb 1928  Damad-i Shahriyari Ahmad Nami Bay  (b. 1878 - d. 1962)
15 Feb 1928 - 19 Nov 1931  Shaykh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani        (b. 1880 - d. 1943)
                             (acting)
19 Nov 1931 - 11 Jun 1932  Léon Solomiac (acting)             (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
Presidents

11 Jun 1932 - 21 Dec 1936  Muhammad Ali Bay al-Abid           (b. 1867 - d. 1939)
21 Dec 1936 -  7 Jul 1939  Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (1st time) (b. 1875 - d. 1960)  KW
 7 Jul 1939 - 10 Jul 1939  Nasuhi Salim al-Bukhari (acting)   (b. c.1881 - d. 1961)
10 Jul 1939 -  4 Apr 1941  Bahij ad-Din al-Khatib             (b. 1895 - d. 1981)
                             (chairman of Council of Directors)
 4 Apr 1941 - 16 Sep 1941  Khalid al-Azm (acting)             (b. 1903 - d. 1965)
16 Sep 1941 - 17 Jan 1943  Shaykh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani        (s.a.)
17 Jan 1943 - 25 Mar 1943  Jamil al-Ulshi (acting)            (s.a.)
25 Mar 1943 - 17 Aug 1943  Ata Bay al-Ayyubi (Head of State)  (b. 1877 - d. 1951)
17 Aug 1943 - 30 Mar 1949  Shukri al-Kuwatli (1st time)       (b. 1891 - d. 1967)  KW;1947 SNP
30 Mar 1949 - 14 Aug 1949  Husni az-Zaim                      (b. 1897 - d. 1949)  Mil/SSNP
                             (chairman Supreme Military Council to 26 Jun 1940)
14 Aug 1949 - 15 Aug 1949  Muhammad Sami Hilmi al-Hinnawi     (b. 1896 - d. 1950)  Mil
                             (chairman Supreme Military Council)
15 Aug 1949 -  2 Dec 1951  Hashim Khalid al-Atassi            (s.a.)               KW
                             (2nd time)(Head of State)
 2 Dec 1951 -  3 Dec 1951  Adib ash-Shishakli (1st time)      (b. 1909 - d. 1964)  Mil
                             (chairman Supreme Military Council)
 3 Dec 1951 - 11 Jul 1953  Fawzi as-Silu (Head of State)      (b. 1905 - d. 1972)  Mil
11 Jul 1953 - 25 Feb 1954  Adib ash-Shishakli (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Mil/ALM
26 Feb 1954 - 28 Feb 1954  Maamun al-Kuzbari (1st time)       (b. 1914 - d. 1998)  Non-party
                             (acting) 
28 Feb 1954 -  6 Sep 1955  Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (3rd time) (s.a.)               KW
 6 Sep 1955 - 22 Feb 1958  Shukri al-Kuwatli (2nd time)       (s.a.)               SNP
22 Feb 1958 - 28 Sep 1961  part of United Arab Republic (see Egypt)
29 Sep 1961 - 20 Nov 1961  Maamun al-Kuzbari (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting)
20 Nov 1961 - 14 Dec 1961  Izzat an-Nuss (acting)             (b. 1900 - d. 1972)  Mil
14 Dec 1961 -  8 Mar 1963  Nazim al-Kudsi                     (b. 1906 - d. 1998)  HS
28 Mar 1962 - 13 Apr 1962  Abdul Karim Zahreddin                                   Mil
                             (junta chief)
 9 Mar 1963 - 27 Jul 1963  Louai al-Atassi                    (b. 1926 - d. 2003)  Mil/Baath

                             (chairman National Revolutionary Command Council)
27 Jul 1963 - 23 Feb 1966  Muhammad Amin al-Hafez             (b. 1921? - d. 2009) Mil/Baath
                             (chairman National Revolutionary Command Council 
                             to 13 May 1964, then chairman Presidential Council)
25 Feb 1966 - 18 Nov 1970  Nureddin Mustafa al-Atassi         (b. 1929 - d. 1992)  Mil/Baath
                             (Head of State) 
18 Nov 1970 - 22 Feb 1971  Sayyid Ahmed al-Hasan al-Khatib    (b. 1933)            Baath
                             (Head of State)
22 Feb 1971 - 10 Jun 2000  Hafez Ali Sulayman al-Assad        (b. 1930 - d. 2000)  Mil/Baath;
                             (acting to 14 Mar 1971)                               1972 NPF
10 Jun 2000 - 17 Jul 2000  Abdul-Halim Khaddam (acting)       (b. 1932)            Baath/NPF
17 Jul 2000 -              Bashar Hafez al-Assad              (b. 1965)            Baath/NPF
11 Nov 2012 - 22 Apr 2013  Moaz al-Khatib (in rebellion)      (b. 1960)            SNC
22 Apr 2013 -  6 Jul 2013  George Sabra (acting; in rebellion)(b. 1947)            SNC
 6 Jul 2013 -  9 Jul 2014  Ahmad al-Jarba (in rebellion)      (b. 1969)            SNC
 9 Jul 2014 -              Hadi al-Bahra (in rebellion)       (b. 1959)            SNC


Prime ministers
Oct 1918 - 14 Dec 1919     Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi           (s.a.)
                             (1st time)(head of government) 
14 Dec 1919 - Dec 1919     Abdul Hamad Pasha
Dec 1919 - May 1920        Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
May 1920 - 28 Jul 1920     Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (1st time) (s.a.)
28 Jul 1920 - 21 Aug 1920  Ala ad-Din ad-Durubi Basha         (s.a.)
 6 Sep 1920 - 30 Nov 1920  Jamil al-Ulshi (1st time)          (s.a.)
30 Nov 1920 - 26 Jan 1925  Post abolished
26 Jan 1925 - 21 Dec 1925  Subhi Bay Barakat al-Khalidi       (s.a.)
29 Dec 1925 -  6 Jan 1926  Shaykh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani        (s.a.)
                             (acting) (1st time) 
 6 Jan 1926 - 27 Apr 1926  Vacant
27 Apr 1926 -  9 Feb 1928  Damad-i Shahriyari Ahmad Nami Bay  (s.a.)
15 Apr 1928 - 19 Nov 1931  Shaykh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
19 Nov 1931 -  7 Jun 1932  Vacant
 7 Jun 1932 - 16 Mar 1934  Haqqi Bay al-Azm                   (b. 1864 - d. 1955)
16 Mar 1934 - 22 Feb 1936  Shaykh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
22 Feb 1936 - 21 Dec 1936  Ata Bay al-Ayyubi (1st time)       (s.a.)
21 Dec 1936 - 18 Feb 1939  Jamil Mardam Bay (1st time)        (b. 1893 - d. 1960)  KW
23 Feb 1939 - 13 Mar 1939  Lutfi al-Haffar                    (b. 1885 - d. 1968)  KW
 6 Apr 1939 -  9 Jul 1939  Nasuhi Salim al-Bukhari            (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1941 - 21 Sep 1941  Khalid al-Azm (1st time)           (s.a.)         
21 Sep 1941 - 19 Apr 1942  Hassan al-Hakim (1st time)         (b. 1886 - d. 1988)
19 Apr 1942 - 10 Jan 1943  Husni al-Barazi                    (b. 1893 - d. 1975)
10 Jan 1943 - 25 Mar 1943  Jamil al-Ulshi (2nd time)          (s.a.)
25 Mar 1943 - 17 Aug 1943  Ata Bay al-Ayyubi (2nd time)       (s.a.)
19 Aug 1943 - 14 Oct 1944  Saadallah al-Jabiri (1st time)     (b. 1893 - d. 1947)  HI/KW
14 Oct 1944 -  1 Oct 1945  Faris al-Khuri (1st time)          (b. 1879 - d. 1962)  KW
 1 Oct 1945 - 16 Dec 1946  Saadallah al-Jabiri (2nd time)     (s.a.)               HI/KW
16 Dec 1946 - 29 Dec 1946  Khalid al-Azm (2nd time) (acting)  (s.a.)               KW
29 Dec 1946 - 17 Dec 1948  Jamil Mardam Bay (2nd time)        (s.a.)               RP
17 Dec 1948 - 30 Mar 1949  Khalid al-Azm (3rd time)           (s.a.)               KW
17 Apr 1949 - 26 Jun 1949  Husni al-Zaim                      (s.a.)               Mil/SSNP
26 Jun 1949 - 14 Aug 1949  Muhsin al-Barazi                   (b. 1904 - d. 1949)  Non-party
17 Aug 1949 - 24 Dec 1949  Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (2nd time) (s.a.)               KW
24 Dec 1949 - 27 Dec 1949  Nazim al-Kudsi (1st time)          (s.a.)               HS
27 Dec 1949 -  4 Jun 1950  Khalid al-Azm (4th time)           (s.a.)               KW
 4 Jun 1950 - 27 Mar 1951  Nazim al-Kudsi (2nd time)          (s.a.)               HS
27 Mar 1951 -  9 Aug 1951  Khalid al-Azm (5th time)           (s.a.)               DB
 9 Aug 1951 - 13 Nov 1951  Hassan al-Hakim (2nd time)         (s.a.)
13 Nov 1951 - 28 Nov 1951  Zaki al-Khatib (acting)            (b. 1887 - d. 1961)  HS
28 Nov 1951 - 29 Nov 1951  Maaruf ad-Dawalibi (1st time)      (b. 1907 - d. 2004)  HS
 3 Dec 1951 - 19 Jul 1953  Fawzi as-Silu                      (s.a.)               Mil
19 Jul 1953 -  1 Mar 1954  Adib ash-Shishakli                 (s.a.)               Mil/ALM
 1 Mar 1954 - 18 Jun 1954  Sabri al-Assali (1st time)         (b. 1903 - d. 1976)  SNP
18 Jun 1954 -  3 Nov 1954  Said al-Ghazzi (1st time)          (b. 1893 - d. 1967)
 3 Nov 1954 - 13 Feb 1955  Faris al-Khuri (2nd time)          (s.a.)               HS
13 Feb 1955 - 13 Sep 1955  Sabri al-Assali (2nd time)         (s.a.)               SNP
13 Sep 1955 - 14 Jun 1956  Said al-Ghazzi (2nd time)          (s.a.)
14 Jun 1956 -  6 Mar 1958  Sabri al-Assali (3rd time)         (s.a.)               SNP
Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Northern (Syrian) Region
 7 Oct 1958 - 20 Sep 1960  Nureddin Kuhala                    (b. 1910 - d. ....)  Non-party
20 Sep 1960 - 16 Aug 1961  Abdul Hamid Serraj                 (b. 1925 - d. 2013)  Non-party
Prime ministers
28 Sep 1961 - 20 Nov 1961  Maamun al-Kuzbari                  (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Nov 1961 - 14 Dec 1961  Izzat an-Nuss                      (s.a.)               Mil
22 Dec 1961 - 28 Mar 1962  Maaruf ad-Dawalibi (2nd time)      (s.a.)               HS
16 Apr 1962 - 14 Sep 1962  Ahmad Bashir al-Azmah              (b. 1910 - d. 1992)
17 Sep 1962 -  9 Mar 1963  Khalid al-Azm (6th time)           (s.a.)
 9 Mar 1963 - 12 Nov 1963  Salah ad-Din Bitar (1st time)      (b. 1912 - d. 1980)  Baath
12 Nov 1963 - 13 May 1964  Muhammad Amin al-Hafez (1st time)  (s.a.)               Mil/Baath
13 May 1964 -  3 Oct 1964  Salah ad-Din Bitar (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Baath
 4 Oct 1964 - 23 Sep 1965  Muhammad Amin al-Hafez (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Mil/Baath
23 Sep 1965 - 21 Dec 1965  Yusuf Zuaiyin (1st time)           (b. 1931)            Baath
 1 Jan 1966 - 23 Feb 1966  Salah ad-Din Bitar (3rd time)      (s.a.)               Baath
25 Feb 1966 - 29 Oct 1968  Yusuf Zuaiyin (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Baath
29 Oct 1968 - 21 Nov 1970  Nureddin Mustafa al-Atassi         (s.a.)               Mil/Baath
21 Nov 1970 -  3 Apr 1971  Hafez Ali Sulayman al-Assad        (s.a.)               Mil/Baath
 3 Apr 1971 - 21 Dec 1972  Abdul Rahman Khleifawi (1st time)  (b. 1930)            Mil/Baath
21 Dec 1972 -  7 Aug 1976  Mahmoud al-Ayyubi                  (b. 1932)            Baath/NPF
 7 Aug 1976 - 27 Mar 1978  Abdul Rahman Khleifawi (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Mil/Baath
27 Mar 1978 -  9 Jan 1980  Muhammad Ali al-Halabi             (b. 1937)            Baath/NPF
 9 Jan 1980 -  1 Nov 1987  Abdul Rauf al-Kasm                 (b. 1932)            Baath/NPF
 1 Nov 1987 - 13 Mar 2000  Mahmoud Zuabi                      (b. 1938 - d. 2000)  Baath/NPF
13 Mar 2000 - 10 Sep 2003  Muhammed Mustafa Mero              (b. 1941)            Baath/NPF
10 Sep 2003 - 14 Apr 2011  Muhammad Naji al-Otari             (b. 1944)            Baath/NFP
14 Apr 2011 - 23 Jun 2012  Adel Safar                         (b. 1953)            Baath/NFP
23 Jun 2012 -  6 Aug 2012  Riyad Farid Hijab                  (b. 1966)            Baath/NFP
 6 Aug 2012 - 11 Aug 2012  Omar Ibrahim Ghalawanji (acting)   (b. 1954)            Baath/NFP
11 Aug 2012 -              Wael Nader al-Halqi                (b. 1964)            Baath/NFP
18 Mar 2013 - 14 Sep 2013  Ghassan Hitto                      (b. 1963)            SNC
                             (interim; in rebellion)
14 Sep 2013 - 22 Jul 2014  Ahmad Saleh Touma (1st time)       (b. 1965)            SNC
                             (interim; in rebellion)
14 Oct 2014 -             
Ahmad Saleh Touma (2nd time)       (s.a.)               SNC
                             (interim; in rebellion)


British Commander
25 Oct 1918 - 21 Nov 1919  Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby        (b. 1861 - d. 1936) 

French High Commissioner for Syria and Armenia (Cilicia)(headquarters in Beirut, Lebanon)
Oct 1918 - 21 Nov 1919     François Georges Picot             (b. 1970 - d. 1951)
High Commissioners of French-mandated Syria and Lebanon (headquarters in Beirut, Lebanon)
21 Nov 1919 - 23 Nov 1922  Henri-Joseph-Eugène Gouraud        (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
23 Nov 1922 - 17 Apr 1923  Robert de Caix (acting)            (b. 1869 - d. 1970)
17 Apr 1923 - 29 Nov 1924  Maxime Weygand                     (b. 1867 - d. 1965)
29 Nov 1924 - 23 Dec 1925  Maurice Paul Emmanuel Sarrail      (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
23 Dec 1925 - 23 Jun 1926  Baron Henry de Jouvenel des Ursins (b. 1876 - d. 1935)
Aug 1926 - Jul 1933        Auguste-Henri Ponsot               (b. 1877 - d. 1963)
16 Jul 1933 - Jan 1939     Damien de Martel, comte de Martel  (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
Jan 1939 - Nov 1940        Gabriel Puaux                      (b. 1883 - d. 1970)
24 Nov 1940 - 27 Nov 1940  Jean Chiappe (did not take office) (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
 6 Dec 1940 - 14 Jun 1941  Henri-Fernand Dentz                (b. 1881 - d. 1945)
Delegates-general
24 Jun 1941 -  7 Jun 1943  Georges-Albert-Julien Catroux      (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
                             (also chief of the Free French in Levant States)
 7 Jun 1943 - 23 Nov 1943  Jean Helleu                        (b. 1885 - d. 1955)
23 Nov 1943 - 23 Jan 1944  Yves Chataigneau                   (b. 1891 - d. 1961)
23 Jan 1944 -  1 Sep 1946  Étienne-Paul-Émile-Marie Beynet    (b. 1883 - d. 1969)

British Military Commander
21 Jun 1941 - 1945         Henry "Jumbo" Maitland Wilson      (b. 1881 - d. 1964)
British Resident Ministers for Lebanon and Syria
25 Mar 1943 - 1944         Sir Edward L. Spears (1st time)    (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
28 Jan 1944 -  6 Nov 1944  Walter Edward Guinness, Lord Moyne (b. 1880 - d. 1944)
1944 - 1945                Sir Edward L. Spears (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1945 - 1946                Sir Terence Allen Shone            (b. 1894 - d. 1965)

Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham

[Islamic State of Iraq
                    and Ash-Sham (Iraq, Syria)]

Amirs al-Mu'minin [Commanders of the Faithful] of Islamic State in Iraq and al-Sham
(Levant),
(and from 29 Jun 2014, Caliph)
13 Oct 2006 - 18 Apr 2010  Abu Abdullah al-Rashid al-Baghdadi (b. 1947 - d. 2010)
16 May 2010
-              Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi               (b. 1971)          
                            (
from Jun 2014, in control of Mosul, Fallujah & Tikrit)

 ¹full style of the ruler 8 Mar 1918 - 28 Jul 1920: Malik Mamlakat Suriyya al-Muttahida; in French: Roi du Royaume-Uni de Syrie ("King of the United Kingdom of Syria").

Territorial Disputes: Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied with the almost 1,000-strong UN Disengagement Observer Force patrolling a buffer zone since 1964; lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms in the Golan Heights; 2004 Agreement and pending demarcation settles border dispute with Jordan; Syria  recognized the sovereignty of Lebanon on 14 Oct 2008; Syria did not surrender its irredentist claim to Hatay until 2005; The Tomb of Suleyman Shah is a sovereign exclave of Turkey situated within Syria's Aleppo governorate in accordance with the Ankara Agreement of 20 Oct 1921 - it is the burial place of Suleyman Shah grandfather of Osman I the founder of the Ottoman Empire; the ongoing civil war had created nearly 2.8 million Syrian refugees - dispersed in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey - as of Feb 2014.

Party abbreviations: Baath = Hizb al-Ba'ath al-Arabi al-Ishtiraki (Arab Socialist Rebirth Party [Syrian Baath Party], neo-Ba'athism, authoritarian, socialist, 1947-1958, re-est.1966); NPF = al-Jabha al-Wataniyyah at-Taqaddumiyyah (National Progressive Front, Baath led coalition, est.1972 by Baath, Arab Socialist Union Party, Arab Socialist Party, Syrian Social Nationalist Party, Syrian Communist Party [Yusuf Faisal group], Syrian Communist Party [Khalid Bakdash group], Union Socialist Party, and Union Socialist Democratic Party); SNC = National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (Coalition Nationale pour les Forces Révolutionnaires et de l'Opposition Syrienne, Syrian National Coalition, anti-Assad opposition, seeks replacement of Bashar al-Assad government, est.11 Nov 2012); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ALM = Harakat al-Tahrir al-'Arabiy (Arab Liberation Movement, authoritarian, nationalist, 1952-1963, only legal party Apr 1952-Feb 1954); DB = Democratic Bloc; HI = Hizb Istiqlal (Independence Party, Arab independence movement, part of KW, est.1919); HS = Hizb ash-Sha'ab (People's Party, social-democratic, 1948-1963); KW = al-Kutlah al-Wataniyah (National Bloc, Syrian nationalist coalition, pro-independence, anti-French, 1927-1947); LNA = 'Usbat al-'Amal al-Qawmi/Ligue d'Action Nationaliste (League of National Action, nationalist, 1932-39); RP = Republican Party; SNP = Hizb al-Watani (National Party, nationalist, conservative, 1947-1963); SSNP = al-Hizb al-Suri al-Qawmi al-'Ijtima'i/Parti Social Nationaliste Syrien (Syrian Socialist National Party, center-left, secular nationalist, 1932-1955, re-est.2005)


French Levant States 1920-1936

Aleppo
[Autonomous State of
                  Aleppo 1920-1922 (Syria)]
            1 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922
Map of  Aleppo State
Capital: Aleppo (Halab)
Population: 604,000 (1923)

 1 Dec 1920                State of Aleppo
28 Jun 1922                Incorporated into Union of Syrian States.

Sanjak Beys of Halab (Aleppo)
1516 - 1521                Ahmed Bey
1521                       Kasim Bey
1521 - 1523                Ibrahim Pasha oglu Isa Bey
                             (1st time)
1523 - 1526                ....
1526 - 1527                Ibrahim Pasha oglu Isa Bey
                             (2nd time)
1527 - 1531                Huseyin Bey
 (1st time)
1531 - 1534                Husrev Bey
1534 - 1535                Muhammed Bey
1535 - 1539                Huseyin Bey
 (2nd time)
1539 - 1540                Musa Bey
1540                       Uzun Süleyman

1540 - 1543                Huseyin Bey
 (3rd time)
1543 - 1545                Mustafa Bey
1545 - 1547                Sinan Bey bin Abdullah
1547 - 1549                Ibrahim Bey        
Beylerbeys
1549 - 1550                Osman Pasha
1550 - 1553                Dukaginzade Mehmed Pasha           (d. 1557)

1554                       Hizir Pasha
1554                       Piri Pasha
1554 - 1557                Kubad Pasha 
1557 - 1558                Ferhad Pasha
1558 - 15..                Haydar Pasha
15.. - 1563                Ali Pasha
1563                       Mustafa Pasha (1st time)
1563 - 1564                Hizir Pasha
1564 - 1565                Mustafa Pasha (2nd time)
1565 - 1566                Ali Pasha
1566 - 1567                Sal Mahmud Pasha
Dec 1567 -  1568           Iskender Pasha
1568 - 1570                Derwish Pasha
1570 - 1571                Mehmed Pasha (1st time)
1571 - 1572                Kasim Pasha ben Hizir
1572 - 1573                Hasan Pasha ben Hizir
1573 - 1575                ... (son of Mustafa Pasha)
1575 - 1576                Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
1576                       Mahmud Pasha
1576 - 1577                Ali Pasha
15.. - 1582                Ahmed Pasha
c.1583                     Behram Pasha
Mar 1582 - 1583            Kara Uveis Pasha
1583 - 1584                Hasan Pasha (1st time)
1584                       Murad Pasha
1584                       Hasan Pasha (2nd time)
1585 - 1586                Okçuzade Mehmed Pasha
1586 - 1587                Hasan Aga
1588 - 158.                Ali Pasha
158. - 158.                Mehmedpashazade Hasan Pasha
1591/92 - 1592/93          Bostanci Ali Pasha
1592/93                    Hadim Osman Pasha
1592/93                    Mehmed Pasha
1593/94                    Haydar Pasha
1593/94 - 1595/96          Mahmud Pasha
1595/96                    Kuyucu Murad Pasha
1596 - 159.                Ahmed Pasha al Jundi
bf.1598                    Ali Pasha
1596/97                    Kurd Mehmed Pasha
1597/98                    Raziya Hatunzade Mustafa Pasha
af.1598                    Dalgiç Ahmed Pasha

Walis (Governors)
1599 - 1600                El Haj Ibrahim Pasha
1600 - 1601                Ali Pasha
1601                       Beshir Pasha
1601                       Sherif Pasha
1601 - 1602                Hasan Pasha
1602 - 1603                Nasuh Pasha
1603/4 - 1605              Canbulatoglu Huseyin Pasha
1605 - 1606                Canbulatoglu Ali Pasha
 7 Jan 1606 - 1606?        Shems Pasha
Mar 1606 - May 1606?       Kaçar Mehmed Pasha
1606 - 160.                Deli Ferhad Pasha     
10 Oct 1607 - 1608         Dizlink Huseyin Pasha
1608                       Emin Mehmed Pasha                    (d. 1611)
1608 - 1609                Yusuf Pasha
1609 - 1610                Kücük Pasha
1610 - 1613                Mahmud Pasha
1613 - 1618?               Ekmekci-zade Ahmed Pasha
1618                       Ferhad Pasha
1618 - 1619                Abaza Mehmed Pasha
24 Dec 1619 - 1620         Ökuz Mehmed Pasha
 4 Dec 1620 - 162.         Yusuf Pasha
23 Jul 1622 - 162.         Tayyar Mehmed Pasha

1623 - 162.                Hamidli Mustafa Pasha               (d. 1624/25)
162. - 1624?               Murad Pasha
1625 - 1625/26?            Mustafa Pasha
1625/26? - 1631            Nogay Murtaza Pasha
 3 Oct 1631 - 1632         Suleyman Pasha
1632 - 27 Dec 1633         Nogay Pasha
Dec 1633 - 1636            Silihtar Ahmed Pasha
23 Oct 1636 - Oct 1637     Hasan Pasha
Oct 1637 - 1641?           Kurshuncu Mehmed Pasha
11 Nov 1641 - 1642?        Nasuh Pasha oglu Huseyin Pasha
1642 - 1643?               Boynuegri Durak Mehmed Pasha
1643                       Çiftelerli O
sman Pasha             (d. 1647)
1643 - 1644                Siyawush Pasha
17 Jul 1644 - 1644         Haydar Agazade Mehmed Pasha
 1 Aug 1644 - 1644         Ibrahim Pasha
 9 Oct 1644 - 1645         Dervish Mehmed Pasha
Oct 1645 - 1645            Gürcu Mehmed Pasha
19 Dec 1645 - 1647         Ibrahim Pasha

21 Oct 1647 - 1647         Mehmed Pasha
1647 - 1648                Acem Hasan Pasha
Jan 1648 - Aug 1648        Debbag Ahmed Pasha
1648 - 16..                Vesir Ibshir Mustafa Pasha

                             (1st time)
1651                       Firari Kara Mustafa Pasha (1st time)
1653 - 165.                Firari Kara Mustafa Pasha (2nd time)
165. - 1654                Vesir Ibshir Mustafa Pasha
                             (2nd time)
1654                       Tayyarzade Mustafa Pasha
1655                       Kara Mustafa Pasha
1655                       Seydi Ahmed Pasha
1655                       Murtaza Pasha
1656 - 1657                Abaza Hasan Pasha
                             (in opposition
to 17 Feb 1659)
1657/58 - 1658/1659        Sökhte Mahmud Pasha
1658/59 - 1659             Konakci Ali Pasha
Aug/Sep 1659 - 1660        Khassiki Mehmed Pasha
1660 - 1661                Mehmed Pasha
Jul 1661 - 166.            Ahmed Pasha
166. - 166.                Yusuf Pasha
Nov 1662 - Oct 1664        Gürcu Mehmed Pasha
20 Oct 1664 - 166.         Sari Hüseyin Pasha
1666 - 1667                Damad Hüseyin Pasha
1668 - 1669                Ibrahim Pasha
1669 - 1670                Silahdar Huseyin Pasha
Jan 1670 - 167.            Kiayia Pasha
Apr 1672 - c.1672          Kaplan Mustafa Pasha

1674 - 167.                Ibrahim Pasha
1676 - 167.                Kara Mehmed Pasha
1678 - 16..                Huseyin Pasha
1681 - 168.                Deli Ebûbekir Pasha
1682                       Mahmud Pasha
1682 - 1683                Kara Bekir Pasha
1684                       Mustafa Pasha
1684                       Cerkes Ahmed Pasha
1684                       Tekfurdagli Bekri Pasha
1684 - Dec 1685            Seytan Ibrahim Pasha               (d. 1685)
1685                       Arnavut Abdi Pasha
Dec 1685 - 1686            (Sarhosh) Bosnak Ahmed Pasha

1686                       Abaza Siyavus Pasha
1686 - 1687                Hazinedar Hasan Pasha
1687                       Yegen Osman Pasha
1687                       Hazinedar Hasan
1687 - 1688                Yegen Osman
1688 - 1689                Arap Receb Pasha
1689 - 1690/91             Arnavut Koca Halil Pasha
1691                       Topal Huseyin Pasha
1692                       Büyük
Çafer (1st time)
1694                       Dursun Mehmed Pasha
1695                       Büyük
Çafer (2nd time)
1696                       Cerkes Osman Pasha
1696/1697
                 Kanicali Osman
1697                       Morali Hasan Pasha
1698                       Eyüplu Hasan Pasha
1699                       Beyzade Ali Pasha
1700 - 170.                Cerkes Mehmed Pasha (1st time)
1702 - 170.                Cetrefiloglu Yusuf Pasha
1702/03                    Arap Ömer Pasha
1703                       Çorlulu Ali Pasha
1703 - 1704                Cerkes Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
Mar 1704 - Dec 1704?       Hacikiran Hasan Pasha
Dec 1704 - 1705/6          Abaza Süleyman Pasha
Jan 1705 - 1705/06         Silahtar Sül Pasha
1705/06 - 1707             Damad Ibrahim Pasha
May 1707 - Jan 1709?       Arnavut Abdi Pasha

1709 - 1710                Baltaci Mehmed Pasha               (b. 1660 - d. 1712)
Oct 1710 - 171.            Damad Ibrahim Pasha
end 1711 - 1712?           Kethüda Ismail Pasha
1712 - 1713                Cerkes Mehmed Pasha
1713 - 1714                Topal Yusuf Pasha
1714 - Dec 1714            Asci Ibrahim Pasha
1715                       Divrikli Abdullah Pasha
1715 - 1716?               Koca Mustafa Pasha
1716                       Maktulzade Ali Pasha
Dec 1716 - Mar 1717        Asci Ibrahim Pasha
Mar/Apr 1717 - 1717        Cerkes Mehmed Pasha
1717 - 1719                ....
Jan/Feb 1719 - 1719?       Arnavut Recep Pasha (1st time)
1719 - 1719/20             Morali Ali Pasha
1720                       Arifi Ahmed Pasha
1720 - 1721                Hasanoglu Ahmed Pasha
1721 - 1724?               Arnavut Recep Pasha (2nd time)
c.Sep 1724                 Kürt Ibrahim Pasha
1724 – 1725                Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (1st time)     (b. 1689 - d. 1758)
Oct 1725 - Jan 1727        Bosnak Mehmed Pasha
Jan 1727 - 1728            Arifi Ahmed Pasha
1728/29 - 1730/31?         Genç Ali Pasha
1730/31                    Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha
22 Jan 1731 - Mar 1733     Silahtar Mehmed Pasha
1731/2 - Oct 1732          Arifi Ahmed Pasha                  (d. 1732)
1733/34                    Aydinli Abdullah Pasha

1734 - 1735                Hasanoglu Ahmed Pasha (2nd time)

1736/7 - 1737/38           Silahtar Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)

1737/38 - 1740?            Uthman Pasha?
c.1740                     Kazikçi(?) Hüseyin Pasha
Jun 1740 - 1743            Ya'kub Pasha
1744 - Apr 1745            Sehla Ahmed Pasha (1st time)       (d. 1753)
Sep 1745 – 174.            Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Dec 1745 - Nov/Dec 1746    Sehla Ahmed Pasha (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1747                       Sehla Ahmed Pasha (3rd time)       (s.a.)
Jun 1747 - 1747            Kazikçi Hüseyin Pasha
1747 - 17..                Kur Vesir Pasha
1750 - 1751                Ismail Pasha
Dec 1750 - 1751            Azmzade Sa'deddin Pasha
Sep/Oct 1751 - Jun? 1752   Seyyid Emir Ahmed Pasha
1752                       Sari Abdurrahman Pasha             (d. 1752)
1752 - Feb 1753?           Sehla Ahmed Pasha (4th time)       (s.a.)
27 Jul 1755 – 1756         Koca Mehmed Raghib Pasha           (d. 1763)
Mar/Apr 1757 - 1757        Haci Ali Zishtovili Pasha
Aug/Sep 1757-Oct/Nov 1757  Ceteci Abdullah Pasha
Apr 1758 - Jul 1758        Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha
Jun 1759 - 1760            K
ücük/Sinek Mustafa Pasha
Jan 1760 - Mar 1761        Boynuegri Abdullah Pasha           (d. 1761)
1761 - Dec 1761            Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha

1762                       Abdullah Pasha al-Farari
1763                       Kusta Mustafa Bakir Pasha
Dec 1763 - 1764            Azmzade Mehmed Pasha
Apr 1764 - 176.            Köprülüzade Hafiz Ahmed Pasha
Apr 1765 - 1765            Melek Ahmed Pasha

1765                       Sunbatzade Mehmed Pasha
1765 – 1767                Ahmed Pasha
1767                       Mehmed Pasha
1767                       Kul Ahmed Pashazade Ali Pasha
Apr 1767 - 1768            Silahdar Hamza Pasha
Mar 1768 - Jul 1768        Yaglikçizade Emin Mehmed Pasha
1768/69 - May 1769?        Halebli Recep Pasha
1769                       Topal Osmanzade Mehmed Pasha
Dec 1769 - Apr 1770?       Asaf Mehmed Pasha
1770/71                    Nishli Mehmed Pasha
1771                       Aberrahman Pasha
177.                       Çatalcali Ali Pasha
Mar 1773 - Jul 1774        Uthman Pasha al Wakil?
1774 - 1775                Ibrahim Pashazade Mehmed Pasha
1775                       Osman Pashazâde Mehmed Pasha
1775                       Ali Pasha
1776 – Jun 1778?           Ahmed Izzet Pasha (1st time)
1778 - 1779?               Asaf Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
c.1778                     
Çerkes Hasan Pasha
1779 - 1780                Ahmed Izzet Pasha (2nd time)
1780 - Mar 1781            Koca Abdi Pasha
Mar 1781 - 178.            Azmzade Yusuf Pasha
178. - 178.                Çelik Mustafa Pasha
1781 – 178.                Osman Pasha
1782                       Hazinedar Sahin Ali Pasha (1st time)
Dec 1782 - 1783            Seyyid Mustafa Pasha
1784                       Ohrili Ahmed Pasha
1784 - 1785                Keki Abdi Pasha (1st time)           (d. 1789)
13 Feb 1785 - 30 Mar 1785  Hazinedar Sahin Ali Pasha (2nd time)
1785                       Abdülcelilzade Süleyman Pasha
1785                       Haci Mustafa Pasha
1786 – 178.                Hüseyin Battal Pasha 
1787 - 1789                Mikdad Ahmed Pasha
1789 - Mar/Apr 1789        Keki Abdi Pasha (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1790? - 179.               Apci Ibrahim Pasha 
179. – 1791                Bayrakli Kucsa Mustafa Pasha
1791                       Süleyman Fayzi Pasha (1st time)      (d. 1794)
1792                       Qilici Osman Pasha
1792                       Osman Pasha
1792                       Ibrahim Aga Kara Agazi
1793 – 1794                Süleyman Fayzi Pasha (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1794? – 1795               Azamzade Abd Allah Pasha
1795/6 - 1797?             Mîrialem Ebu Bekir Pasha
1797                       Ellüki Hasan Pasha
end 1797 - 1798?           Tashrali Mustafa Pasha
1798 - ....                Sherif Mehmed Pasha
1800/01 - 180.             Azmzâde Nasuh Pasha                  (d. 1814)
1801/02 - 1803/04          Kataragasi Ibrahim Pasha (1st time)
180. - 1804                Ibrahim Pasha Qattar Agisi 
1804 - 1805                Hamid Hamud Mehmed Pasha
                             (or Ebu Merak Mehmed Pasha?)
1804/05                    Abdi Pasha
1805 – 180.                Alaeddin Pasha
180. - c.1806              Müftizâde Ahmed Pasha
1807 - 1808                Kataragasi Ibrahim Pasha (2nd time)
1808 – 1809                Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha            (d. 1818)
1811/12 - 1813             Shemli Raghib Mehmed Pasha
Jan 1813 - 1816            Capan-odjlu Celaleddin Mehmed Pasha
1816 - 181.                Laz Ahmed Pasha
1817 - 1818                Müftizade Ahmed Pasha
1818 - 1820                Hurshid Ahmed Pasha
1820/21 - 1822             Beylanli Mustafa Pasha
1822 - Feb 1823            Behram Mehmed Pasha
Feb 1823 - Apr 1823        Seyyid Hasan Riza Pasha
May/Jun 1823 - 1824?       Beylanli Mehmed Pasha 
1824 – 1826/27             Mehmed Wahid Pasha
1826/27 - Aug 1827?        Yusuf Muhlis Pasha
Aug 1827 - 1828            Mehemet Emin Rauf Pasha
Aug 1828 - 1828/29         Behram Mehmed Pasha
1828/29 - 1829/30?         Ispartali Ibrahim Pasha
1829/30 - 1830?            Ahmed Bey
1830 – 1830/31             Trabzonlu Ali Pasha
1830/31 - Nov 1831?        Bendereli Selim Mehmed Pasha
27 May 1832 - 10 Oct 1840  Ismail Bey -Egyptian governor
Jul 1840 - Aug 1842        Ayasli Esad Mehemet Muhlis Pasha
Aug 1842 - Jan 1845        Yozgatli Mehemet Vecihi Pasha
Feb 1845 - Jun 1846        Dellalzade Osman Pasha
Jul 1846 - Aug 1848        Musrafa Mazhar Pasha               (d. 1852)
Aug 1848 - Sep 1848        Halil Kamil Pasha
Aug 1849 - Oct 1850        Mustafa Zarif Pasha                (d. 1863)
Oct 1850 - Sep 1851        Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha              (b. 1813 - d.  1865)
Sep 1851 - Nov 1852        Osman Nuri Pasha
Nov 1852 - Dec 1854        Arnavut Süleyman Pasha Re'fet      (b. 1807 - d. 1864)
Jan 1855 - Dec 1855        Tepedenlizade Ismail Rahmi Pasha
Dec 1855 - Jan 1857        Nasuhzade Mehemet Hamdi Pasha

Jan 1857 - Aug 1857        Mustafa Sherifi Pasha
Aug 1857 - Aug 1858        Mühendis Mehmed Kamil Pasha
Aug 1858 - May 1860        Bostançibashizade Mehemet Reshid
  (d. 1876)
                             Pasha  
May 1860 - Dec 1860        Sehsuvarzade Ismail Hakki Pasha
Dec 1860 - Feb 1863        Ramazanoglu Mehemet Ismet Pasha
Feb 1863 - Jan 1866        Mustafa Süreyya Pasha (1st time)   (b. 1825 - d. 1879)

Jan 1866 - Feb 1868        Ahmed Çevdet Pasha                 (b. 1822 – d. 1895)
May 1868 – Jan 1869        Rashid Nashid Pasha
Jan 1869 - Jan 1872        Lofçali Ibrahim Dervish Pasha
Jan 1872 - Jun 1872        Mustafa Süreyya Pasha (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Jun 1872 - May 1873        Haci Ali Pasha Kütahyali
May 1873 - Jun 1874        Babanli Ahmed Pasha

Dec 1874 - Mar 1875        Hasan Samih Pasha
Mar 1875 – Jun 1876        Sakizli Esad Muhlis Pasha          (d. 1876)

Jun 1876 - Feb 1878        Kartalli Mehmed Emin Pasha
Feb 1878 - Mar 1879        Kibrizli Mehemet Kamil Pasha       (b. 1832 - d. 1913)
Mar 1879 - Sep 1879        Abdullah Ghâlib Pasha              (b. 1829 – d. 1905)
Sep 1879 - Jan 1881        Ingiliz Mehemet Said Pasha         (b. 1830 - d. 1896)

Jan 1881 - Dec 1886        Çemil Huseyin Pasha                (d. 1890)
Dec 1886 - Oct 1887        Topal Osman Nuri Pasha (1st time)
Oct 1887 - Mar 1890        Hasan Haqqi Pasha (1st time)       (b. 1826 - d. 1896)
Mar 1890 - Dec 1892        Yenisehirli Arif Pasha
Dec 1892 - Jun 1894        Topal Osman Nuri Pasha (2nd time)  
Jun 1894 – Nov 1895        Hasan Haqqi Pasha (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Nov 1895 - Jan 1896        Mustafa Zihni Pasha                (b. 1838 - d. 1912)
Jan 1896 - Jul 1900        Köseraif Mehemet Raif Pasha        (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
Jul 1900 - Sep 1902        Enis Pasha
Sep 1902 – Aug 1904        Mecid Efendi (acting)
Aug 1904 – Aug 1905        Osman Kazim Pasha 
Aug 1905 - Sep 1906        Mehemet Nazim Pasha 
Sep 1908 - Sep 1909        Ahmed Reshid Pasha                 (b. 1870 - d. 1955)
Sep 1909 - Aug 1910        Fahri Pasha
Aug 1910 - Jul 1911        Kadri Huseyin Kazim Bey            (b. 1870 - d. 1934)
Jul 1911 - Jun 1912        Ali Mazhar Bey
Jun 1912 - Aug 1912        Ali Galib Bey
Aug 1912 – Dec 1912        Mustafa Vefiq Pasha                (d. 1912)
Jan 1913 - Jun 1913        Ali Münif Bey
Jul 1913 - Jun 1915        Mehemet Celal Bey
Oct 1915 - Apr 1917        Renda Mustafa Abdulhaliq Bey
                             (1st time)
Apr 1917 - Apr 1918        Tevfik Bey
Jun 1918 - Sep 1918        Bayindir Mustafa Atif Bey          (b. 1883 - d. 1977)
Sep 1918 - Oct 1918        Renda Mustafa Abdulhaliq Bey
                             (2nd time)
Governor of the State of Aleppo 

 1 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922  Kamil Basha al-Kudsi               (b. 1845 - d. 1926)
                            (Kamil Pasha al-Qudsi)



Damascus
[Autonomous State of
                  Damascus 1920-1922 (Syria)]
             1 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922
 
Map of  Damascus State
Capital: Damascus
Population: 594,000 (1923)

 1 Dec 1920                State of Damascus
28 Jun 1922                Incorporated into Union of Syrian States.


Governor
 1 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922  Haqqi Bay al-Azm                  (b. 1864 - d. 1955)



Alawite Territory (Latakia)
 
[French Mandate
                          of the Alawite State (or Latakia) 1920-1936]
            2 Sep 1920 - 5 Dec 1936
 
[Alawite State
                          variant (Syria) 1920-1936]
                         Variant
 
Map of Alawite State
Capital: Latakia (Latakiyah)
Population: 280,000 (1936)

 2 Sep 1920                Alawite Territory
 1 Jul 1922                Incorporated into Syria.
 1 Jan 1925                Alawite State
22 Sep 1930                State of Latakia
 5 Dec 1936                Incorporated into Syria.


Governors (from 1937, Delegates)

 3 Nov 1918 - 1919         Minault
1919 - Sep 1920            de la Roche
 
2 Sep 1920 - Sep 1921     Marie Joseph Émile Niéger          (b. 1874 - d. 1951)
20 Sep 1921 - Nov 1922     Gaston Henri Gustave Billotte      (b. 1875 - d. 1940)
17 Nov 1922 - Jan 1923     Desclaux (acting)
 1 Jan 1923 - Sep 1925     Léon Henri Charles Cayla           (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
May 1923 - Sep 1923        René Victor Fauconnier
                             (acting for Cayla)
Jan 1925 - Sep 1925        Antoine Privat-Aubouard            (b. 1874 - d. 1934)
                             (acting for Cayla)
Sep 1925 - Sep 1936        Ernest Marie Hubert Schoeffler     (b. 1877 - d. 1952)
17 Jun 1932 - Sep 1932     Pierre Lafond
                             (acting for Schoeffler)
Sep 1936 - Oct 1938        Eugène Paul Aimé Joseph Cahour     (b. 1886 - d. 1954?)
 1 Oct 1938 - Dec 1939     Pierre Bart
 7 Dec 1939 - Dec 1940     Malartre
10 Dec 1940 - Oct 1941     Jean Janvier Vital Jourdan
27 Oct 1941 - Oct 1942     Raoul Magrin-Vernerey              (b. 1892 - d. 1964)
25 Oct 1942 - 1945         des Essars
1945                       Bonnot


Alexandretta (Hatay): see under Turkey

Great Lebanon: see Lebanon


Jebel Druze (Souaida)
 
[State Flag
                          1921-1924 (Jebel Druze, Syria)]
           May 1921 - 1924 State Flag
 
[State Flag
                          1924-1936 (Jebel Druze, Syria)]
          1924 - 2 Dec 1936 State Flag
 
[Civil Flag
                          1921-1936 (Jebel Druze, Syria)]
         1921 - 2 Dec 1936 Civil Flag
 
Map of Jebel Druze State
Capital: As-Suwayda
(Souaida)
Population: 50,000 (1923)

 1 May 1921                Autonomous
 4 Mar 1922                State of Souaida
1927                       Renamed Jebel Druze State
 2 Dec 1936                Incorporated into Syria.

Governors
 1 May 1921 - 15 Sep 1923  Amir Salim Basha al-Atrash         (b. 18.. - d. 1923)
Jan 1923 -  Jul 1923       Trenga (acting for al-Atrash)      (b. 1881 - d. 1971)
                             (French
adviser May 1921 - Jul 1923)
Sep 1923 -  6 Mar 1924     Trenga (interim)
                   (s.a.)
 6 Mar 1924 - 28 May 1925  Gabriel Marie Victor Carbillet     (b. 1884 - d. 1940)
                             (interim to 1 Oct 1924)
28 May 1925 - 11 Jul 1925  Raynaud (acting)
Jul 1925 - Oct 1925        Tommy Martin (acting)
18 Jul 1925 -  1 Jun 1927  Amir Sultan Basha al-Atrash        (b. 1885 - d. 1982)
                             (Head of state; in rebellion)
14 Oct 1925 - 1927         Charles Andréa                     (b. 1871 - d. 1954)
1927                       Marie Joseph Léon Augustin Henry   (b. 1870 - d. 1942)
1927 - 1932                Abel Jean Ernest Clément-Grandcourt(b. 1873 - d. 1948)
 3 Feb 1932 - 28 Jan 1934  Claude Gabriel Renaud Massiet      (b. 1877 - d. 1947)
1934 - Feb 1935            Justin Antoine Devicq
 5 Feb 1935 -  2 Dec 1936  Pierre Joseph François Tarrit      (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
Prefects
1936 - 1937                Nasib al-Bakri                     (b. 1888 - d. 1966)
1937 - 1938                Bahig al-Hatib (acting)
17 Feb 1938 - 1939         Hasan al-Atrash                    (b. 1905 - d. 1977)
Governors
1937 - 1939                Paul Bouvier                       (b. 1885 - d. 1972)
1939 - 1941                Fernand-François Oliva-Roget       (b. 1891 - d. 1949)
Oct 1941 - 1942            Raoul Magrin-Vernerey              (b. 1892 - d. 1964)



Golan Heights
 
Map of the Golan Heights
UNDOF Force: 1,271 (2014)

21 Sep 1918                British occupation.
24 Jul 1922                Part of British Palestine mandate.
 7 Mar 1923                The Golan is ceded to French Syria by Britain.
 1 Jan 1944                Part of independent Syria.
20 Jul 1949                Israeli-Syrian armistice; demilitarized zones in El Auja
                             on Israeli side and near Lake Tiberias established
                             under UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) protection.
21 Sep 1956                El Auja demilitarized zone occupied by Israel.
9/10 Jun 1967              Israel occupies the Golan Heights. 
 6 Oct - 8 Oct 1973        Partial Syrian re-occupation.
 1 Jun 1974                UNDOF mission established.
14 Dec 1981                Golan Heights annexed by Israel (not recognized).

Commanders of United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
 3 Jun 1974 - 15 Dec 1974  Gonzalo Briceño Zevallos (Peru)      (b. 1923 - d. 2012)
                             (interim)
15 Dec 1974 - Apr 1979     Hannes Philipp (Austria)             (b. 1930)
Apr 1979 - Feb 1981        Günther G. Greindl (Austria)         (b. 1939) 
Feb 1981 - 19 Feb 1982     Erkki Rainer Kaira (Finland)         (b. 1926 - d. 1991)
19 Feb 1982 - 12 Jun 1982  Walter Schmit (Austria) 
                             (acting) 
13 Jun 1982 - Apr 1985     Carl-Gustav Stahl (Sweden) 
 3 May 1985 - 31 May 1986  Gustav Hägglund (Finland)            (b. 1938) 
 1 Jul 1986 - Apr 1988     Gustaf A. Welin (Swedish)            (b. 1930 - d. 2008)
31 May 1986 - 30 Jun 1986  W.A.D. Yull (Sweden)
                             (acting for Welin)
Apr 1988 - Apr 1991        Adolf Radauer (Austria)
Apr 1991 - 30 Nov 1994     Roman Misztal (Poland)               (b. 1932)
 6 Jan 1995 - 31 May 1997  Johannes C. Kosters (Netherlands)
 1 Jun 1997 - 31 Aug 1998  David Stapleton (Ireland)            (b. 1937)
Sep 1998 - 30 Jun 2000     Hugh Cameron Ross (Canada)           (b. 1949)
 1 Aug 2000 - 13 Aug 2003  Bo Lennart Wranker (Sweden)          (b. 1946)
13 Aug 2003 - 16 Jan 2004  Franciszek Gagor (Poland)            (b. 1951)
16 Jan 2004 - 17 Jan 2007  Bala Nanda Sharma (Nepal)            (b. 1949)
23 Jan 2007 -  1 Mar 2010  Wolfgang Jilke (Austria)             (b. 1949)
 1 Mar 2010 - 13 Aug 2012  Natalio C. Ecarma (Philippines)      (b. 1955)
14 Aug 2012 -              Iqbal Singh Singha (India)           (b. 1956)







 © Ben Cahoon