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Iraq
 
[Ottoman
                                    Empire (to 1918)]
                  to 30 Oct 1918
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                         30 Oct 1918 - 1920
 
[Iraq
                                    flag, 1920-1921]
                          1920 - 23 Aug 1921
 
[Iraq
                                    flag, 1921-1922]
                        23 Aug 1921 - 1922
 
[Iraq
                                    flag, 1922-1924]
                            1922  - 1924
 
[Flag of
                                    the Kingdom of Iraq, 1924-1959]
                             1924 - 14 Jul 1959
 
[Iraq
                                    flag, 1921 and Arab Union flag
                                    1958]
         14 Feb 1958 - 14 Jul 1958 Arab Union flag
 
[Flag
                                    of Iraq 1959-1963]
                      14 Jul 1959 - 8 Jun 1963
 
[Iraq
                                    flag, 1963-1991]
             8 Jun 1963 - 13 Jan 1991
 
Iraq
                                    flag, 1991-2004
            13 Jan 1991 - 28 Jun 2004
 
[Iraq
                                    flag, 2004-2008]
            28 Jun 2004 - 22 Jan 2008
 

[Iraqi flag]
       Adopted 22 Jan 2008 (provisional)
 

 Map of Iraq
------------------
Administrative Divisions
 Hear National Anthem
"Mawtini"
(My Homeland)
 Adopted 2004
 Hear Former Anthem
"Ardh Alforatain"
(Land of Two Rivers)
(1981-2003)
Constitution
Adopted 25 Oct 2005
-----------------------------
Interim  Constitution
8 Mar 2004 - 25 Oct 2005
 Hear Former Anthem
"Mwaniti" (My Country)
 (1958-1965, 2003-2004)
Hear Former Anthem
"Walla Zaman Ya Selahy"
(Oh, My Weapon)
 (1965-1981)
Hear Royal Anthem
"The Royal Salute"
(1924-1958)
Constitution
(16 Jul 1970 - 9 Apr 2003)
-------------------------------
Royal Constitution
(21 Mar 1925-1958)
Capital: Baghdad Currency: Iraqi Dinar
(IQD); 1920-1931 Indian
Rupee (INR) and Egyptian
 Pound (EGP) 
National Holidays: 14 Jul (1958)
Republic Day;
---------------------------------
3 Oct (1932)
National Iraqi Day
-----------------------------------

1962 - 2003: 17 Jul (1968)
Revolution Day
Population: 31,858,481 (2013)
GDP: $248 billion (2013) Exports: $91.99 billion (2013)
Imports: $66.61 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Arab 64.4%, Kurdish 23%, Azrei 5.6%,
Turkoman 1.2%, Persian 1.1%, Assyrian and other 4% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 271,400 (2013)
Merchant marine: 2 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim 97% (Shi'a 62%, Sunni 34%),
Christian (mainly Chaldean rite and Syrian rite
Catholic and Nestorian) 3.2%, other (primarily Yazidi
syncretist) 0.8% (2000)
note: while there has been voluntary relocation of many Christian families to northern Iraq, recent reporting indicates that the overall Christian population may have dropped by as much as 50% since 2003, with many fleeing to Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon 
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, APM, Arabsat, BTWC, CCM, CAEU, CICA, CTBT, CTBTO, CWC, ECO (applicant), ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Iraq Index
Chronology
18 Nov 1534                Mesopotamia part of the Ottoman Empire.
1623 - 24 Dec 1638         Persian occupation.
1697 - 1701                Persian occupation of Basra.
1776 - 1779                Persian occupation of Basra.
1750 - 1831                Semi-independent Mameluke Beys governors at
                             Baghdad under only nominal Ottoman suzerainty.
1831                       Direct Ottoman rule restored.
1832 - 1842                Egyptian administration in Basra.
Dec 1914                   British occupation of Mesopotamia begins 
                             (beginning in Basra to 29 Apr 1916 and from Dec
                             1916; from 11 Mar 1917, Baghdad which is fully
                             occupied by 30 Oct 1918).
10 Jan 1919                British rule.
11 Nov 1920                Iraq (League of Nations Mandate under Britain).
23 Aug 1921                Iraqi Kingdom (Kingdom of Iraq).
 2 Dec 1922 - 26 Dec 1981  Iraqi-Saudi Arabian neutral zone in southern area.
 3 Oct 1932                Full independence.
 2 May 1941 - 26 Oct 1947  British occupation.
14 Feb 1958 - 14 Jul 1958  Federation with Jordan (Arab Union).
14 Jul 1958                Iraqi Republic (Republic of Iraq).
 8 Aug 1990 - 27 Feb 1991  Annexation of Kuwait (as 19th province of Iraq).
 1 Jul 1992                Republic of Iraq
21 Mar 2003 - 28 Jun 2004  U.S.-British invasion (from 21 Mar in Safwan,
                             Al Faw, and Umm Qasr; 22 Mar in an-Nasiriya;
                             from 25 Mar in Najaf; from 1 Apr in Karbala;
                             7 Apr in Basra; 9 Apr in Baghdad; 10 Apr Kirkuk
                             11 Apr in Mosul; 13 Apr in Kut; 14 Apr Tikrit).
 9 Apr 2003                Iraq (also in official use Republic of Iraq).
28 Jun 2004                Sovereignty restored (State of Iraq).
22 May 2006                Republic of Iraq
Kurdistan Region
Assyrian Church
of the East
Chaldean Catholic
Church
Ethno-religious
Groups Map
 
 
 
 
 

Persian governors
1508/09 - 1515             Lala Husayn
1515 - 15..                Qunghuruz Sultan
1524 - 1530                Zulfiqar ibn Nukhud                (d. 1530)
                             (in rebellion for Ottomans)
1530 - 1533                Muhammad Khan ibn Sharaf ad-Din
1533 - 1534                Takkalu Muhammad ibn Khan
Walis (Ottoman governors) of Baghdad
(the walis of Baghdad were senior governors)
1534 - 1544                Suleyman Pasha ibn Qubad
1544 - 1545                Solak Ferhad Pasha
1545 - 1549                Ayas Pasha
1549 - 1550                
Mohammed Pasha (1st time)
1550                       Behram Pasha
1550 - 1551                Ali Tamarrud Pasha
1551 - 1561                Mohammed Pasha (2nd time)
1561 - 156.                Hizir Pasha                          (d. 1567/68)
1566                       Iskender Pasha
1566 - 1575                Murad Pasha
1575 - 1590                Elvandzade Ali Pasha
1590 - 1594                Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha 
1594 - 1603                Hasan ibn Mohammed
1603                       Qasim Pasha 
                             (did not take up post)
1603                       Hizir Pasha                          (d. 1603)
1603 - 1604                Mustafa Pasha Saryqdi
1604 - 1607                Yusuf Pasha
1607 - 1608                Ahmad Tevil (in rebellion)
1607 - 1608                Mohammed Pasha
1608 - 1610                Mehmut Pasha
1610                       Kalizade Ali Pasha
1610                       Dilaver Pasha
1610                       Mustafa Pasha
1610 - 1618                Hafiz Ahmed Pasha (1st time)
1619 - 1623                Bekir Subashy
1623 - 1625                Safi Quli Khan
                             (Persian governor)
1625 - 1631                Hafiz Ahmed Pasha (2nd time)
1631 - 1639                Bektash Khan Gürçü
                             (Persian governor)
Feb 1639 - May 1639        Küçük Hasan (1st time)
May 1639 - 1642            Dervish Mehmed Pasha
1642 - 1644                Küçük Hasan (2nd time)
1644                       Deli Hüseyin Pasha                  (d. 1659)
1644 - 1645                Mohammed Pasha
1645 - 1646                Musa Pasha
1646 - 1647                Ibrahim Pasha
1647                       Musa Semiz Pasha
1649                       Melek Ahmad Pasha 
1649 - 1650                Nogaizade Arslan Pasha
1650                       Kaplan Mustafa Pasha Merzioçonlu
                             (1st time)
1650 - 1651                Shatir Hüseyin Pasha
1651 - 1653                Kara Mustafa Pasha (1st time)
1653 - 1655                Murteza Pasha
1655 - 1656                Ak Mohammad Pasha
1656 - 1661                Kasseki Mehmed Pasha 
1661 - 1663                Kanbur Mustafa Pasha
1663 - 1664                Pamuk Mustafa Pasha
1664                       Ibrahim Pasha
1664 - 1665                Kara Mustafa Pasha (2nd time)
1665 - 1667                Uzun Ibrahim Pasha
1667 - 1671                Kara Mustafa Pasha (3rd time)
1671 - 1674                Silahadar Hüseyin
1674-                      Hasan Pasha
1674 - 1676                Abd ar-Rahman
1676 - 1677                Kaplan Mustafa Pasha Merzioçonlu
                             (2nd time)
1677 - 1681                Ömer Pasha (1st time)
1681 - 1684                Ibrahim Pasha
1684 - 1687                Ömer Pasha (2nd time)
1687 - 1688                Serkos Ahmad Kethoda (1st time)
1688 - 1689                Ömer Pasha (3rd time)
1689 - 1691                Hasan Pasha
1691 - 1692                Ahmad Pasha Bazirgan Pasha
1692 - 1694                Serkos Ahmad Kethoda (2nd time)
1694 - 1695                Haji Ahmed Kelayli Pasha
1695 - 1696                Ali Pasha (1st time)
1696 - 1698                Hasan Pasha (1st time)
1698 - 1700                Ismail Pasha
1700 - 1702                Ali Pasha (2nd time)
1703 - 1704                Yusuf Pasha
1704 - 1723                Hassan Pasha (2nd time)
1723 - 1734                Ahmad ibn Hasan 
1734                       Ismail Pasha
1735 - 1742                Topal Muhammad 
1742 - 1748                Haci Ahmad Pasha
Mar 1748 - Nov/Dec 1748    Kesriyeli Ahmad Pasha
1748 - 1751                Muhammad Teriaqi Pasha             (b. 1680 - d. 1751)
Beys and Walis of Baghdad
1750 - 1762                Süleyman (I) Abu Layla             (d. 1762) 
1762                       Sa'deddin Pasha
1762 - 1764                Ali (I) Agha
1764 - 1775                Omar Pasha                         (d. 1775)
1775                       Abdi Pasha

1775 - 1777                Abdullah Pasha

1777 - 1778                Mustafa Pasha
1778 - 1780                Hasan Pasha 

1780 - 1802                Süleyman (II) Agha "the Great"     (b. 1720 - d. 1802)
1802 - 1807                Ali (II) Pasha                     (d. 1807)
21 Sep 1807 - 1808         Yusuf Ziyaeddin Pasha
1808 - 1810                Süleyman (III) Pasha "the Little"  (d. 1810)
 
1810 - Feb 1813            Abdullah Pasha                     (d. 1813)
1813 - Feb 1817            Saïd Mehmed Pasha                  (b. 1792 - d. 1817)
1817 - 1831                Da'ud                              (b. 1767 - d. 1851)
Walis
of Baghdad

1831 - Mar 1842            Ali Riza Pasha                     (b. c.1784 - d. 18..)
Mar 1842 - Jun 1849        Gürcü Mehmed Nagib (or Necib) Pasha   
Jun 1849 - Dec 1850        Muchir Abdul Karim "Abdi" Pasha  
                             (or Çirpanli Abdulkerim Nadir Pasha)
Dec 1850 - Nov 1851        Yozgatli Mehmed Vecihi Pasha 
1851 - 1852                Konyali Mehmed Namiq Pasha
                            
(1st time) 
Sep 1852 - Jul 1857        Mehmed Reshid Pasha Gözlüklü       (d. 1857) 
Aug 1857 - Oct 1859        Sirdar Ömer Lufti Pasha            (b. 1806 - d. 1871) 
Oct 1859 - Jan 1861        Sirkatibi Mustafa Nuri Pasha   
1861  (6 months)           Ahmed Tevfik Pasha
Sep 1861 - Mar 1868        Konyali Mehmed Namiq Pasha
                            
(2nd time) 
May 1868 - Mar 1869        Muderriszade Mehmed Taqieddin      (d. 1893)
                             Pasha
(1st time)
Mar 1869 - Nov 1871        Hafiz Ahmed Midhat Shefik Pasha    (b. 1822 - d. 1884)
Nov 1871 - May 1873        Mehmed Rauf Pasha                  (b. 1833 - d. 1909)
May 1873 - Jun 1875        Bursali Mehmed Radif Pasha  Topal
Aug 1875 - Apr 1877        Haci Abdürrahman Nureddin          (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
                             Pasha (1st time)
Apr 1877 - Feb 1878        Arnavud Mehmed Akif Pasha
Feb 1878 - Nov 1878        Cenani Mehmed Qadri Pasha 
Nov 1878 - 1879            Mehmed Qadri Pasha 
Feb 1879 - Jan 1880        Haci Abdürrahman Nureddin 
                             Pasha (2nd time)
Jan 1880 - Dec 1882        Muderriszade Mehmed Taqieddin      (s.a.)
                             Pasha
(2nd time)          
Dec 1882 - Dec 1886        Huseyin Fevzi Pasha
Jan 1887 - Nov 1889        Mustafa Asim Pasha                 (d. 1891)
Nov 1889 - Jul 1891        Selim Sirri Pasha 
Jul 1891 - Jul 1896        Haci Hassan Refik Pasha 
Aug 1896 - Feb 1899        Kevakibizade Mehmed Ataülah        (b. 1835 - d. 1900)
                             Ibrahim Pasha
Feb 1899 - Oct 1902        Küçük Süleyman Namiq Pasha  
Oct 1902 - Oct 1904        Tatar Ahmad Feyzi Pasha            (b. 1839 - d. 1915)
Oct 1904 - Oct 1905        Abdülwahhab Pasha
Oct 1905 - Dec 1906        Abdülmecid Effendi 
Dec 1906 - 1908            Tepeyran Ebubekir Hazim Bey        (b. 1863 - d. 1947)
1908                       Hüseyin Nazim Pasha (1st time)     (b. 1848 - d. 1912)
1908                       Mehmed Fadil Pasha Dagestani
                             (1st time) (acting)
May 1908 - Oct 1908        Mullah Necmeddin Bey               (b. 1875 - d. 1949)
Oct 1908 - Mar 1909        Mehmed Fadil Pasha Dagestani
                             (2nd time) (acting)
May 1909 - 1910            Mehmed Shevket Pasha
1910 - 1911                Hüseyin Nazim Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1911                       Yusuf Pasha (acting)
Jun 1911 - Jul 1912        Sakalli Ahmad Cemal Pasha          (b. 1872 - d. 1922)
1912                       Ali Riza Pasha (acting)
Aug 1912 - May 1913        Muhammad Zaki Pasha                (b. 1865 - d. 1929)
May 1913 - Feb 1914        Kavurzade Huseyin Celal Bey        (b. 1868 - d. 1924)
Feb 1914 - Dec 1914        Cavid Pasha                        (b. 1883 - d. 1932) 
Dec 1914 - Apr 1915        Süleyman Nazif Bey 
Apr 1915 - Jan 1916        Sakalli Nureddin Bey               (b. 1873 - d. 1932)
Jan 1916 - Mar 1917        Kut Khalil Pasha                   (b. 1864 - d. 1923)
Mar 1917 - 11 Mar 1917     Memduh Bey
Walis of Basra
1538 - 1543                Rashit Magamis
1543 - 1546                Mani Magamis
1546 - 1549                Vezir Ilyas Pasha
1549?- 1562?               Kubad Pasha
1562 - 1596                Dervish Ali Pasha
1596 - 1604                Efrasyab Pasha
1604 - 1647                Ali Pasha
1647 - 1656                Ali Pasha oglu Hüseyin Pasha
1656 - 1657                Ahmet Pasha
1657 - 1658                Murtaza Pasha
1658 - 1665                Hüseyin Pasha
1665 - 1666                Hüseyin Pasha oglu Efrasyab Pasha
1666 - 1667                Damad Hüseyin Pasha
1667 - 1669                Yahya Pasha
1669 - 1670                Mustafa Pasha
1670 - 1672                Kara Mustafa Pasha
1672 - 1674                Hasan Pasha (1st time)
1674 - 1677                Silahtar Hüseyin Pasha
1677 - 1681                Hasan Pasha (2nd time)
1681 - 1683                Silahtar Hüseyin Pasha (2nd time)
1683 - 1685                Sari Abdi Pasha (1st time)
1685 - 1686?               Gümrükçü Huseyin
1687 - 1688                Sohrabli Ahmed Pasha
1688                       Sari Abdi Pasha (2nd time)
1688 - 1689                Bezirgan Halil Pasha
1689 - 16..                Kavanos Ahmed Pasha
16.. - 16..                Kahya Hasan Pasha?
1691 - 169.                Salt Ahmed Pasha
1691/1692                  Bezirgan Halil Pasha
1693                       Beyzade Ali
1693/1694                  Bezirgan Halil
1694 - 1695?               Uzun Hasan Pasha
1695 - 169.                Kahya Hasan Pasha
169. - 1697                Sair Abdi Pasha (1st time)
1697                       Sayyed Farajallah
-Persian governor
1697 - 1699                Ali Mardan Khan -Persian governor
1697 - 1698                Gümrükçü Hüseyin Pasha
1698 - 1699                Uzun Hasan Pasha?
1699                       Sohrabli Ahmed Pasha
1699 - 1700                Ebrahim Khan -Persian governor
1699                       Sair Abdi Pasha (2nd time)
1699                       Doganci Hüseyin Pasha
1700                       Egricelioghlu Halil Pasha
1700 - 1701                Daud Khan -Persian governor
1701                       Osmanpashaoghlu Ahmed Pasha
1702?                      Kahya Hasan Pasha
1703                       Salt Ahmed Pasha
1703 - 1705                Bezirgan Halil Pasha
1705 - 1706                Beyzade Ali Pasha
1706 - 1708                Bezirgan Halil Pasha
1708 - 1709                Kahya Hasan Pasha
1709                       Hacikiran Hasan Pasha? (Kahya?)
1709 - 1711                Kara Mustafa Pasha
1711                       Küçük Osman Pasha
1712                       Beyzade Ali Pasha
171. - 171.                Yegen Ali Pasha
1715                       Asçioghlu Ali
1715 - 1716                Yörük Hasan Pasha
1716 - 1741                Ahmet Pasha (1st time)
1721 - 1727                Ahmed Pasha
1727 - 1741                
Ahmet Pasha (2nd time)
1741 - 1747                Haci Halil Pasha
1747 - 1750
                Vezir Kesriyeli Ahmet Pasha
Mütessarifs (Lieutenant-governors) of Basra
1750 - 1768                Vezir Kesriyeli Ahmet Pasha
1768 - 1778                Büyük Süleyman Pasha (1st time)
1776 - 1779                Sadiq Khan Zand -Persian governor (d. 1782)
1778 - 1779                Numan Bey
1779 - 1780                Büyük Süleyman Pasha (2nd time)
1780 - 1786                Süleman Efendi
1786 - 1788                Ibrahim Bey
1788 - 1789/90             Mustafa Aga
1789/90 - 1793             Mardinli Isa Bey
1793 - 1803                Abdullah Aga
1803 - 1808                Ibrahim Aga
1808 - 1810                Selim Agha
1810 - 1811                Ahmed Bey
1811 - 1812                Ridvan Aga
1812 - 1813                Yakup Aga
1813 - 1814                Said Pasha
1814 - 1821                Bekir Aga
1821 - 1823/24             Kazim Aga
1823/24 -1824/25           Abdulgani Aga
1824/25 - 1831             Aziz Aga
1831 - 1832                Mehmed Efendi
1832 - 1833                Dervish Aga
1833 - 1834                Mustafa Aga
1834 - 1835                Ali Usta
1835 - 1836                Mehmed Aga
1836 - 1838                Ahmed Celebi
1838 - 1842                Mehmed Salih
1842 - 1843                Mustafa Aga
1843 - 1845                Behram Aga
1845 - 1846                Ibrahim Efendi
1846 - 1847/48             Hurshid Aga
1847/48 - 1849             Sadik Bey
1849                       Ragib Mehmed Aga
1849 - 1850                Aziz Aga
Walis
of Basra

1850 - 1852                Mirmiran Masuq Pasha
1852 - 1854                Ismail Pasha
1854 - 1855                Haci Darbaz Agazâde Veysî Pasha
                             (1st time)
1855 - 1856                Mehmed Bey
1856                       Vekili Kurbi Bey
1856 - 1857                Rashid Pasha
1857 - 1858                Haci Darbaz Agazâde Veysî Pasha
                             (2nd time)
1858 - 1859                Mehmed Ali Pasha
1859 - 1862                Hüsamettin Efendi
1862 - 1863                Mehmed Sefik Bey
1863 - 1864                Ismail Bey
1864 - 1869                Kethuda zâde Süleyman Bey
1869 - 1870                Vekil Galip Bey
1870                       Hafiz Pasha
1870 - 1871                Halil Bey
1871 - 1873                Sait Efendi
1873                       Vekil Bahriye Komutani Ahmed Pasha
1873 - 1873                Halit Bey
1874 - 1875                Eshref Efendi
1875 - 1877                Nasir Pasha
1877 - 1879                Vekili Ferik Mehmed Münir Pasha
1879 - 1880                Ferik Sabit Pasha
1880 - 1882                Mazhar Pasha
1882 - 1884                Yahya Pasha
1884 - 1886                Ali Riza Pasha
1886 - 1888                Izzet Pasha
1888                       Ferik Shaban Pasha
1888 - 1891                Hidayat Pasha
1891 - 1892                Mehmed Hafiz Pasha
1892                       Bahriye Komutani Emin Pasha
1892 - 1893                Ferik Mahmut Hamdi Pasha
1893                       Mehmed Hafiz Pash
1893 - 1896                Hamdi Pasha (1st time)
Dec 1896 - Feb 1898        Arif Pasha
Mar 1898 - Apr 1899        Mehmed Enis Pasha
Apr 1899 - Jan 1900        Hamdi Pasha (2nd time)

Jan 1900 - Sep 1902        Mehmed Muhsin Pasha
Sep 1902 - Sep 1906        Mustafa Nuri Pasha
Sep 1906 - Aug 1908        Abdurrahman Hasan Bey              (b. 1849 - d. 1927)
Aug 1908 - Feb 1908        Muharram Efendi 
Feb 1909 - Sep 1909        Mardine Mehmed Arif Bey
Sep 1909 - Nov 1910        Süleyman Nazif Bey                 (b. 1870 - d. 1927)
Dec 1910 - Jul 1911        Kavurzade Huseyin Celal Bey
Jul 1911 - Dec 1912        Bagdali Hasan Riza Pasha
Dec 1912 - Feb 1913        Malik Efendi

Feb 1913 - Mar 1913        Ali Riza Pasha
Mar 1913 - Jul 1913        Alaeddin Bey Altaz
Jul 1913 - Dec 1913        Izzet Pasha
Dec 1913 - Jul 1914        Söylemezoglu Süleyman Sefik Pasha  (b. 1860 - d. 1946)
Jul 1914 - Nov 1914        Subhi Bey                          (d. 1911) 
Nov 1914 - 1916            Süleyman `Askari Pasha
1916 - 11 Mar 1917         Khalil Pasha                       (s.a.)
Commanders of the British Forces in Mesopotamia
1914 - Apr 1915            Sir Arthur Arnold Barret           (b. 1857 - d. 1926) 
Apr 1915 - 18 Apr 1916     Sir John Eccles Nixon              (b. 1857 - d. 1921)
18 Apr 1916 - Jul 1916     Sir Percy Henry Noel Lake          (b. 1855 - d. 1940) 
1916 - 11 Mar 1917         Sir Frederic Stanley Maude         (b. 1864 - d. 1917)
Military Commanders of Baghdad
11 Mar 1917 - 18 Nov 1917  Sir Frederic Stanley Maude         (s.a.)
18 Nov 1917 - 1918         Sir William Raine Marshall         (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
1918 - 10 Jan 1919         Sir Alexander Stanhope Cobbe       (b. 1870 - d. 1931)
Administrator 
10 Jan 1919 -  1 Oct 1920  Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson           (b. 1884 - d. 1940)
High Commissioners
 1 Oct 1920 -  4 May 1923  Sir Percy Zachariah Cox            (b. 1864 - d. 1937)
 4 May 1923 - Oct 1928     Sir Henry Robert Conway Dobbs      (b. 1871 - d. 1934)
                             (acting to 15 Sep 1923)
Oct 1928 - 11 Sep 1929     Sir Gilbert Falkingham Clayton     (b. 1875 - d. 1929)
 3 Oct 1929 -  3 Oct 1932  Sir Francis Henry Humphrys         (b. 1879 - d. 1971)
Chairman of the Council of State
11 Nov 1920 - 23 Aug 1921  Saiyid Abdul Rahman al-Haydari     (b. 1841 - d. 1927)
                             al-Gaylani 
Kings¹
23 Aug 1921 -  8 Sep 1933  Faysal I                           (b. 1885 - d. 1933)
 8 Sep 1933 -  4 Apr 1939  Ghazi I                            (b. 1912 - d. 1939)
 4 Apr 1939 - 14 Jul 1958  Faysal II                          (b. 1935 - d. 1958)
                             (also Head of Arab Union from 14 Feb 1958)
 4 Apr 1939 -  1 Apr 1941  Abdul Ilah -Regent (1st time)      (b. 1913 - d. 1958)
 1 Apr 1941 -  1 Jun 1941  Sharaf ibn Rajih al-Fawwaz -Regent (b. 1880 - d. 1955)
 1 Jun 1941 -  2 May 1953  Abdul Ilah -Regent (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Chairman of Sovereignty Council
14 Jul 1958 -  8 Feb 1963  Muhammad Najib al-Rubai            (b. 1904 - d. 1983)
Presidents
 8 Feb 1963 - 13 Apr 1966  Abdul Salam Arif                   (b. 1921 - d. 1966)  IIA
                             (provisional to 20 Nov 1963)
13 Apr 1966 - 16 Apr 1966  Abdul Rahman al-Bazzaz (acting)    (b. 1913 - d. 1973)  Non-party
16 Apr 1966 - 17 Jul 1968  Abdul Rahman Arif                  (b. 1916 - d. 2007)  Mil/IIA
17 Jul 1968 - 16 Jul 1979  Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr               (b. 1914 - d. 1982)  Mil/Ba'ath
16 Jul 1979 -  9 Apr 2003  Saddam Hussein al-Majid al-Tikriti (b. 1937 - d. 2006)  Ba'ath
Supreme Commanders of Occupation Forces (commanders-in-chief, U.S. Central Command)
 9 Apr 2003 -  7 Jul 2003  Tommy Ray Franks                   (b. 1945)            Mil
                             (in Doha, Qatar to 16 Apr 2003)
 7 Jul 2003 - 28 Jun 2004  John P. Abizaid                    (b. 1951)            Mil
Presidents
28 Jun 2004 -  7 Apr 2005  Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer         (b. 1958)            Non-party
 7 Apr 2005 - 24 Jul 2014  Jalal Talabani                     (b. 1933)            PUK
                             (absent 18 Dec 2012 - 19 Jul 2014)
18 Dec 2012 - 19 Jul 2014  Khudair al-Khuzai                  (b. 1948)            IDM
                             (acting for Talabani)
24 Jul 2014 -              Fuad Masum                         (b. 1938)            PUK


Prime ministers

11 Nov 1920 - 20 Nov 1922  Saiyid Abdul Rahman al-Haydari     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             al-Gaylani
20 Nov 1922 - 22 Nov 1923  Abdul Muhsin Bey al-Saadun         (b. 1879 - d. 1929)  Mil
                             (1st time) 
22 Nov 1923 -  2 Aug 1924  Jaafar Pasha al-Askari (1st time)  (b. 1887 - d. 1936)  Mil
 2 Aug 1924 - 26 Jun 1925  Yasin Pasha al-Hashimi (1st time)  (b. 1894 - d. 1937)  Mil/Shab
26 Jun 1925 - 21 Nov 1926  Abdul Muhsin Bey al-Saadun         (s.a.)               Mil/Taq
                             (2nd time) 
21 Nov 1926 - 11 Jan 1928  Jaafar Pasha al-Askari (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Mil/Ahd
11 Jan 1928 - 28 Apr 1929  Abdul Muhsin Bey al-Saadun         (s.a.)               Mil/Taq
                             (3rd time) 
28 Apr 1929 - 19 Sep 1929  Sulayman Tawfiq Bey al-Suwaidi     (b. 1891 - d. 1968)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
19 Sep 1929 - 13 Nov 1929  Abdul Muhsin Bey al-Saadun         (s.a.)               Mil/Taq 
                             (4th time) 
18 Nov 1929 - 23 Mar 1930  Ibrahim Naji Bey al-Suwaidi        (b. 1882 - d. 1942)  Non-party
23 Mar 1930 -  3 Nov 1932  Nuri Pasha as-Said (1st time)      (b. 1888 - d. 1958)  Mil/Ahd
 3 Nov 1932 - 20 Mar 1933  Naji Shaukat Bey                   (b. 1891 - d. 1980)  Non-party
20 Mar 1933 -  9 Nov 1933  Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (1st time)   (b. 1892 - d. 1965)  HIW
 9 Nov 1933 - 27 Aug 1934  Jamil Bey al-Midfai (1st time)     (b. 1890 - d. 1958)  Mil
27 Aug 1934 -  4 Mar 1935  Ali Jaudat al-Aiyubi (1st time)    (b. 1896 - d. 1968)  HWW
 4 Mar 1935 - 17 Mar 1935  Jamil Bey al-Midfai (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Mil
17 Mar 1935 - 30 Oct 1936  Yasin Pasha al-Hashimi (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Mil/HIW
30 Oct 1936 - 17 Aug 1937  Hikmat Sulayman                    (b. 1889 - d. 1964)  HIW
17 Aug 1937 - 25 Dec 1938  Jamil Bey al-Midfai (3rd time)     (s.a.)               Mil
25 Dec 1938 - 31 Mar 1940  Nuri Pasha as-Said (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Mil/Ahd
31 Mar 1940 -  3 Feb 1941  Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (2nd time)   (s.a.)               HIW
 3 Feb 1941 - 13 Apr 1941  Taha Pasha al-Hashimi              (b. 1888 - d. 1961)  Mil
13 Apr 1941 -  4 Jun 1941  Rashid Ali al-Kaylani (3rd time)   (s.a.)               HIW
 4 Jun 1941 - 10 Oct 1941  Jamil Bey al-Midfai (4th time)     (s.a.)               Mil
10 Oct 1941 -  4 Jun 1944  Nuri Pasha as-Said (3rd time)      (s.a.)               Mil/Ahd
 4 Jun 1944 - 23 Feb 1946  Hamdi al-Bajaji                    (b. 1891 - d. 1948)  Non-party
23 Feb 1946 -  1 Jun 1946  Sulayman Tawfiq Bey al-Suwaidi     (s.a.)               Ahs
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jun 1946 - 21 Nov 1946  Arshad al-Umari (1st time)         (b. 1888 - d. 1978)  Non-party
21 Nov 1946 - 29 Mar 1947  Nuri Pasha as-Said (4th time)      (s.a.)               Mil/Ahd/ID
29 Mar 1947 - 29 Jan 1948  Sayyid Salih Jabr                  (b. 1896 - d. 1957)  UI
29 Jan 1948 - 26 Jun 1948  Sayyid Muhammad as-Sadr            (b. 1882 - d. 1956)  Non-party
26 Jun 1948 -  6 Jan 1949  Muzahim al-Bajaji                  (b. 1890 - d. 1982)  Non-party
 6 Jan 1949 - 10 Dec 1949  Nuri Pasha as-Said (5th time)      (s.a.)               Mil/ID
10 Dec 1949 -  5 Feb 1950  Ali Jaudat al-Aiyubi (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Mil
 5 Feb 1950 - 15 Sep 1950  Sulayman Tawfiq Bey al-Suwaidi     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (3rd time) 
15 Sep 1950 - 12 Jul 1952  Nuri Pasha as-Said (6th time)      (s.a.)               Mil/ID
12 Jul 1952 - 23 Nov 1952  Mustafa Mahmud al-Umari            (b. 1894 - d. 1962)  Non-party
23 Nov 1952 - 29 Jan 1953  Nureddin Mahmud                    (b. 1899 - d. 1981)  Mil
29 Jan 1953 - 17 Sep 1953  Jamil Bey al-Midfai (5th time)     (s.a.)               Mil
17 Sep 1953 - 29 Apr 1954  Muhammad Fadhel al-Jamali          (b. 1903 - d. 1997)  Non-party
29 Apr 1954 -  4 Aug 1954  Arshad al-Umari (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
 4 Aug 1954 - 20 Jun 1957  Nuri Pasha as-Said (7th time)      (s.a.)               Mil
20 Jun 1957 - 15 Dec 1957  Ali Jaudat al-Aiyubi (3rd time)    (s.a.)               Mil
15 Dec 1957 -  3 Mar 1958  Abdul Wahhab Marjan                (b. 1910 - d. 1964)  Non-party
 3 Mar 1958 - 18 May 1958  Nuri Pasha as-Said (8th time)      (s.a.)               Mil
                             (18 May - 14 Jul 1958 premier of Arab Union)
18 May 1958 - 14 Jul 1958  Ahmad Mukhtar Baban                (b. 1900 - d. 1976)  Non-party
14 Jul 1958 -  8 Feb 1963  Abdul Karim Kassem                 (b. 1914 - d. 1963)  Mil
 8 Feb 1963 - 18 Nov 1963  Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr (1st time)    (s.a.)               Mil/Ba'ath
20 Nov 1963 -  6 Sep 1965  Tahir Yahya (1st time)             (b. 1913 - d. 1986)  Mil
 6 Sep 1965 - 16 Sep 1965  Arif Abdul Razzak                  (b. 1921 - d. 2007)  Mil
21 Sep 1965 -  9 Aug 1966  Abdul Rahman al-Bazzaz             (s.a.)               Non-party
 9 Aug 1966 - 10 May 1967  Naji Talib                         (b. 1917 - d. 2012)  Non-party
10 May 1967 - 10 Jul 1967  Abdul Rahman Arif                  (s.a.)               Mil/IIA
10 Jul 1967 - 14 Jul 1968  Tahir Yahya (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Mil/IIA
14 Jul 1968 - 30 Jul 1968  Abdul Razzak an-Naif               (b. 1933 - d. 1978)  Mil/IIA
31 Jul 1968 - 16 Jul 1979  Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Mil/Ba'ath
16 Jul 1979 - 23 Mar 1991  Saddam Hussein al-Majid al-Tikriti (s.a.)               Ba'ath
                             (1st time)
23 Mar 1991 - 13 Sep 1991  Saadun Hammadi                     (b. 1930 - d. 2007)  Ba'ath
16 Sep 1991 -  5 Sep 1993  Muhammad Hamza al-Zubaydi          (b. 1938 - d. 2005)  Ba'ath
 5 Sep 1993 - 29 May 1994  Ahmad Hussein Khudayir as-Samarrai (b. 1941)            Ba'ath
29 May 1994 -  9 Apr 2003  Saddam Hussein al-Majid al-Tikriti (s.a.)               Ba'ath
                             (2nd time)
Civil Administrators
21 Apr 2003 - 12 May 2003  Jay Montgomery Garner              (b. 1938)            Non-party
                             (director, Office of Reconstruction
                             and Humanitarian Assistance)
12 May 2003 - 28 Jun 2004  Lewis Paul Bremer III              (b. 1941)            Non-party
                             (administrator, Coalition Provisional Authority)
Presidents of the Governing Council² (subordinated to the civil administrator)
13 Jul 2003 - 31 Jul 2003  Sayyid Muhammad Bahr al-Ulloum     (b. 1927)            Non-party
                             (1st time)(acting)
 1 Aug 2003 - 31 Aug 2003  Ibrahim al-Shiqr al-Jaafari        (b. 1947)            IDM
 1 Sep 2003 - 30 Sep 2003  Ahmad Abdel Hadi Chalabi           (b. 1944)            INC
 1 Oct 2003 - 31 Oct 2003  Iyad Allawi                        (b. 1945)            INA
 1 Nov 2003 - 30 Nov 2003  Jalal Talabani                     (s.a.)               PUK
 1 Dec 2003 - 31 Dec 2003  Sayyid Abdul Aziz Muhsin al-Hakim  (b. 1959 - d. 2009)  SCIRI
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Jan 2004  Adnan Muzahim Pachachi             (b. 1923)            IID
 1 Feb 2004 - 29 Feb 2004  Mohsen Abdul Hamid                 (b. 1937)            IIP
 1 Mar 2004 - 31 Mar 2004  Sayyid Muhammad Bahr al-Ulloum     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
 1 Apr 2004 - 30 Apr 2004  Massoud Mustafa Barzani            (b. 1946)            PDK
 1 May 2004 - 17 May 2004  Ezzedine Salim                     (b. 1940 - d. 2004)  IDM
17 May 2004 -  1 Jun 2004  Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer         (s.a.)               Non-party
Prime ministers
 1 Jun 2004 -  3 May 2005  Iyad Allawi                        (s.a.)               INA
                             (subordinated to the civil administrator to 28 Jun 2004)
 3 May 2005 - 20 May 2006  Ibrahim al-Shiqr al-Jaafari        (s.a.)               IDM
20 May 2006 -  8 Sep 2014  Nuri Kamil al-Maliki               (b. 1950)            IDM
 8 Sep 2014 -              Haider al-Abadi                    (b. 1952)            IDM


[Islamic State of
                    Iraq and Ash-Sham (Iraq, Syria)]

Amir al-Mu'minin [Commander of the Faithful] of Islamic State in Iraq and al-Sham (Levant),
(and from 29 Jun 2014, Caliph)
16 May 2010 -              Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi               (b. 1971)            ISIS
                           (
from Jun 2014 in control of Mosul, Fallujah & Tikrit)

Commanders of Multi-National Force Iraq (all from the U.S.)
14 Jun 2003 -  1 Jul 2004  Ricardo S. Sanchez                 (b. 1953)
 1 Jul 2004 - 10 Feb 2007  George W. Casey, Jr.               (b. 1948)
10 Feb 2007 - 16 Sep 2008  David H. Petraeus                  (b. 1952)
16 Sep 2008 -  1 Sep 2010  Raymond T. Odierno                 (b. 1954)

Commanders-in-chief of British Occupation Forces in Iraq (and from 25 Aug 1942 Iran)
(also in occupation of Iran - subordinated to Indian Command until 1942, then to 
Middle East Command) 
 7 May 1941 - 21 Aug 1942  Sir Edward Pellew Quinan           (b. 1884 - d. 1960)
21 Aug 1942 - 18 Feb 1943  Sir Henry Maitland Wilson          (b. 1881 - d. 1964)
18 Feb 1943 - 18 Feb 1944  Sir Henry Royds Pownall            (b. 1887 - d. 1961)
18 Feb 1944 -  1 Mar 1946  Sir Arthur Francis Smith           (b. 1890 - d. 1977)

 
[Assyrian flag]
     Assyrian minority flag
[Turkoman
                            flag]
      Turkoman minority flag

 ¹The full style of the ruler: Malik al-`Iraq ("King of Iraq").

  ²the members of the Iraqi Governing Council (IGC) 13 Jul 2003 - 1 Jun 2004 were: 
Ahmad Abdel Hadi Chalabi (Shi'a) (s.a.) INC; Sayyid Abdul Aziz Muhsin al-Hakim (Shi'a)(s.a.) SCIRI; Ibrahim al-Shiqr al-Jaafari (Shi'a)(s.a.) IDM; Naseer Kamel al-Chaderchi (Sunni) 
(b. 1933?) NDP; Jalal Talabani (Kurd, Sunni)(s.a.) PUK; Massoud Mustafa Barzani (Kurd, Sunni)(s.a.) PDK; Iyad Allawi (Shi'a)(s.a.) INA; Ahmed Shya'a al-Barak (Shi'a) Non-party; Adnan Muzahim Pachachi (Sunni)(s.a.) IID; `Aqila al-Hashimi (f)(Shi'a) (b. 1953 - d. 2003) Non-party (to 25 Sep 2003); Sayyida Raja Habib al-Khuzaai (f)(Shi'a) Non-party; Hamid Majid Moussa al-Bayyati (Shi'a)(b. 1942) ICP; Sayyid Muhammad Bahr al-Uloum (Shi'a)(s.a.) Non-party; Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer (Sunni)(s.a.) Non-party; Mohsen Abdul Hamid (Sunni)(s.a.) IIP; Samir Shakir Mahmoud al-Sumaydi (Sunni)(b. 1944) Non-party (to Apr 2004); Mahmud Ali Uthman (Kurd, Sunni) (b. 1938) Non-party; Salah al-Dim Muhammad Baha al-Din (Kurd, Sunni)(b. 1950) KIU; Yunadim Yusuf Kana (Assyrian Christian) (b. 1951) ADM; Muwaffaq al-Rubaie (Shi'a) (b. 1947) Non-party (to Apr 2004); Dara Nur al-Din (Kurd, Sunni)(b. 1953) Non-party; Sondul Chapouk (f) (Turkoman) (b. 1968?) IWO; Wael Abdul Latif (Shi'a)(b. 1950) Non-party; Abdul Karim Mahmoud al-Mohammedawi (Shi'a) Hez; Ezzedine Salim (Shi'a)(s.a.) IDM (to 17 May 2004); Salama al-Khafaji (f)(b. 1958)(Shi'a) Non-party (from Dec 2003).

Territorial Disputes: Approximately two million Iraqis have fled the conflict in Iraq, with the majority taking refuge in Syria and Jordan, and lesser numbers to Egypt, Lebanon, Iran, and Turkey; Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab in the Persian Gulf; Turkey has expressed concern over the autonomous status of Kurds in Iraq.

Party abbreviation: Hez = Hezbollah (Party of God in Iraq, Shia islamist); IDM = Hizb al-Da'wa al-Islamiyya (Islamic Dawa Party, Shia islamist, Islamic democracy, right-wing, banned 1980-2003, est.1957); IIP = Hizb al-Islami al-'Iraqi (Iraqi Islamic Party, Sunni islamist, est.1960); INA = al-Wifaq al-Watani al-'Iraqi (Iraqi National Accord, centrist, liberal, secular, anti-Saddam, illegal until 2003, est.1991); INC = al-Moutammar al-Watani al-'Iraqi (Iraqi National Congress, center-right, secular, anti-Ba'athist, illegal until 2003, est.1992); ISIS = al-Dawlah al-Islamiyyah fi al-'Iraq wa-al-Sham (Islamic State in Iraq and al-Sham [Levant], Sunni jihadi militant, anti-Shia, est.2013); KIU = Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union, Kurdish islamist, est.1994); NDP = Hizb al-Dimuqratiyah al-Wataniyah (National Democratic Party, social democratic, nationalist, est.2003); PDK = Partiya Demokrata Kurdistan (Kurdistan Democratic Party, Kurdish nationalist, center-right, est.1946); PUK = Yaketi Nishtimani Kurdistan (Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, Kurdish nationalist, social-democratic, est.1975); SCIRI = al-Majlis al-A'ala al-Islami al-'Iraqi (Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq, Shi'ite islamist, clerical conservative, illegal until 2003, est.1982); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties: Ahd = Hizb al-'Ahd (Covenant Party, conservative, 1930-1930); Ahs = Hizb al-Ahrar (Liberal Party, conservative, moderate reformist, 1946-1954); Ba'ath = Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki (Arab Socialist Rebirth Party [Iraqi Baath Party], authoritarian socialist, Saddamist Ba'athism, 1968-9 Apr 2003 only legal movement, 1947-1 May 2003, banned); HIW = Hizb al-Ikha al-Watani (National Brotherhood Party, anti-Nuri as-Said opposition, 1930-1935); HWW = Hizb al-Widha al-Wataniyya (National Unity Party, 1934-1935); ID = al-Ittihad al-Dusturi (Constitutional Union, liberal reform, pro-western, Nov 1949-Aug 1954); IIA = Ittihad al-Ishtiraki al-Arabi (Arab Socialist Union, Nasserist, leftist, only legal party 1963-1968); IID = Iraqi Independent Democrats (non-sectarian coalition, 2003-2005); Ist = Hizb al-Istiqlal (Independence Party, nationalist, 1945-1958); IW = Hizb al-Ittihad al-Watani (National Union Party, center-left, reformist, 1946-1947); IWO = Iraqi Women's Organisation; Shab = Hizb al-Sha'b (People's Party, socialist, anti-British, 1946-1948); Taq = al-Taqqaddum (Party of Progress, conservative, pro-British, 1925-1929); UI = Hizb al-Umma al-Ishtiraki (People's Socialist Party, 1951-1954); Wat = Hizb al-Watani al-'Iraqi (Iraqi National Party, nationalist, anti-British, 1922-1933); WD = Hizb al-Watani al-Dimuqrati (National Democratic Party, moderate socialist, 1946-1958)



Kurdistan Region
 
[Kingdom of
                          Southern Kurdistan]
               Sep 1922 - Mar 1923
 
Kurdish Regional
                          Government, Iraq
              Adopted 19 May 1992
 
Map of Iraqi Kurdish Region Hear National Anthem
"Ey Raqîp" (Hey Enemy!)
Text of Anthem
Adopted 19 May 1992
Regional Constitution
(23 Jun 2009, Draft)
Capital: Erbil (Arbil);
(PUK: Sulaymaniyah
Aug 1996-Jun 2005)
Currency: Iraqi Dinar (IQD);
10 May 1992-15 Oct 2003
'Swiss' Dinar (IQDS)
National Holidays: 21 March
Newroz Festival
(Kurdish New Year)
----------------------------------
9 Apr (2003)
Liberation Day
Population: 5,500,000 (2013)
GDP: $23.6 billion (2011)
Exports: $ N/A
Imports: $ N/A
Ethnic groups: Kurdish 95%, Turkomen, Assyrian
Total Armed Forces/Peshmerga: 270,000 (2005)
Religions: Muslim (mainly Sunni), Christian (mainly Chaldean
 rite
and Syrian rite Roman Catholic and
Nestorian),
Yazidi syncretist
International Organizations/Treaties: UNPO (from 1991)

18 Nov 1534                Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1623 - 1638                Persian occupation.
1649 - 1859                Kurdish Baban Emirate near Sulaimaniya.
1870                       Last of the Kurdish principalities dissolved.
 3 Nov 1918                Mosul occupied by Britain.
23 May 1919 - 17 Jun 1919  Independent Kurdish state proclaimed in rebellion.
24 Apr 1920                Mosul declared a part of the mandated territory of Iraq.
10 Aug 1920                Ottomans cede vilayet of Mosul to Allies by Treaty of Sèvres.
11 Nov 1920                Installation of a provisional Iraqi administration;
                             Mosul formally remained a separate mandated territory,
                             most of it now de facto under Iraqi administration 
                             (mutessarifs were appointed to Mosul Dec 1920 and to Kirkuk
                             Feb 1921), only Sulaymaniyah remaining under the direct authority
                             of the British High Commissioner.
 1 Feb 1922 - 23 Jul 1923  Partial Turkish occupation; Mosul claimed by Turkey.
Sep 1922 - Jul 1924        Independence of Kurdistan (from 18 Nov 1922 Kingdom) proclaimed.
13 Jan 1926                Turkey recognizes Iraqi sovereignty over Mosul.
1930 - 16 May 1931         Last revolt of Sheikh Mahmoud Barzani. 
1931 - 1937                Rebellion led by Sheikh Ahmed Barazani (d. 1956).
1943 - 1945                Rebellion led by Mulla Mustafa Barzani (b. 1903 - d. 1979).
11 Mar 1974                Autonomous Region of Kurdistan created by Iraqi government
                             (governorates of Erbil, Dahuk and As Sulaymaniyah).
 1 Jun 1980                Autonomy increased; chairman of the regional executive council
                             becomes an Iraqi government minister.
Oct 1991                   Iraqi government withdraws military, de facto autonomy.
10 Mar 1992                Most of Iraqi Kurdistan occupied by Kurdish forces.

 1 Apr 1992                Iraqi government re-occupies Kirkuk.
19 May 1992                Kurdistan Regional Government established (in opposition to Iraqi
                             rule).
 4 Jul 1992                Kurdistan Regional Government formed (not recognized by Iraq).
31 Aug 1996                Iraqi forces take control of the capital Erbil (Arbil) at the
                             request of the Kurdish Democratic Party, which establishes
                             a government there, opposed to the one controlled by the
                             Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, which moves to Sulaymaniyah.
 4 Oct 2002                Declaration of self-rule within "federal" union with Iraq
                             (not recognized by Iraq).
10-11 Apr 2003             Kurdish forces briefly occupy Kirkuk and Mosul.
14 Jun 2005                Kurdistan Autonomous Region established.
                             (governorates of Erbil, Dahuk, As Sulaymaniyah, claiming Kirkuk).
21 Jan 2006                PUK and KDP sign the regional government unification agreement.
12 Jun 2014                Kurdish forces occupy Kirkuk.

Emirs of Baban
1649 - 1670                Faki Ahmad I
1670 - 1703                Baba Sulaiman I
1721 - 1731                Khana Mohammad Pasha I
1731 - 1742                Khalid Pasha I
1742 - 1754                Salim Pasha I
1754 - 1765                Sulaiman Pasha I
1765 - 1775                Mohammad Pasha II
1775 - 1777                Abdollah Pasha I
1777 - 1780                Ahmad Pasha I
1780 - 1782                Mahmoud Pasha I
1782 - 1803                Ibrahim Pasha I
1803 - 1813                Abdorrahman Pasha I
1813 - 1834                Mahmoud Pasha II
1834 - 1838                Sulaiman Pasha II
1838 - 1847                Ahmad Pasha II
1847 - 1850                Abdollah Pasha II

Walis
(governors) of Mosul

.... - 1719                Morali Ali
1719 - 17..                Sari Mustafa 
c.1720                     Sirke Osman Pasha
1726 - 1727                Isma'il Pasha al-Jalili 
1727 - 1730?               Hüseyin Pasha Derendi 
1730 - 17..                Hüseyin Pasha al-Jalili (1st time)
17.. - 1736                Hüseyin Pasha al-Jalili (3rd time)
17.. - 1741                Hüseyin Pasha al-Jalili (4th time)
1758 - 17..                Hüseyin Pasha al-Jalili (5th time)
17.. - 17..                Murad Pasha 
17.. - 17..                Sa`dullah Pasha
17.. - 17..                Hasan Pasha 
17.. - 17..                Mehmed Pasha 
17.. - 17..                Süleyman Pasha 
17.. - 17..                Mehmed Amin Pasha
1779 - 1783?               Süleyman Pasha al-Jalili
Jan 1783 - Jul/Aug 1784    Mustafa Pasha
Jul/Aug 1784 - 1785        Kürt Timur Pasha
1785 - 1786                Abdülbâki Pasha al-Jalili
1786 - 1789                Süleyman Pasha al-Jalili
1789 - 1806                Muhammad Pasha al Jalili
1806 - 1808                Numan Pasha al-Jalili
1809                       Ahmed Pasha al-Jalili
1810 - 1812                Sa'dullah Pasha al-Jalili
1812 - 1817                Ahmed Pasha al-Jalili
1817 - 1818                Hasan Pasha al-Jalili
1818 - 1821                Mahmud Pasha al-Jalili
1821 - 1822                Abdurrahman Pasha al-Jalili
                             (1s time)
Sep/oct 1822 - 1827        Yahya Pasha al-Jalili (1st time)
1827 - 1829                Abdurrahman Pasha al-Jalili
                             (2nd time)
1829 - 1830?               Muhammad Amin Pasha al-Jalili
1830 - 1831?               Said Pasha (1st time)
1831 - 1832?               Omari Pasha
Oct 1832 - Jan/Feb1834     Yahya Pasha al-Jalili (2nd time)
1834 - 1836?               Said Pasha (2nd time) 
Mar 1836 - Mar 1844        Ince Bayraktarzade Mehmed Pasha  (d. 1844)

Mar 1844 - Dec 1844        Mehmet Sherif Pasha
Jan 1845 - Dec 1845        Mehmet Pasha
Jan 1846 - Nov 1846        Mehemet Tayyar Pasha             (d. 1846)
Dec 1846 - Nov 1847        Esad Mehemet Muhlis Pasha
Nov 1847 - Aug 1848        Mehemet Vecihi Pasha
Aug 1848 - Nov 1849        Ali Askar Pasha
Nov 1849 - Aug 1850        Mehmet Kamil Pasha

Aug 1850 - May 1851        Mustafa Mazhar Pasha
1851 - 1855                Mustafa Pasha
Walis of (Hakkari to 1864) Van
1855                       Veysi Pasha 
1859                       Sulaymaniyahli Baban Abdallah Pasha 
1860                       Halepli Haçi Yusuf Pasha 
1861                       Kaïmakam Atallah Bey 
1861                       Kanan Pasha 
1861                       Esaf Efendi 
Walis of Mosul
1865 - 1875                the governors of Baghdad
1875                       Ferik Nafiz Pasha 
1875                       Mustafa Necip Pasha 
1877                       Ahmet Nazim Bey 
1878                       Fizi Pasha 
1878                       Abdulnafi Efendi 
1879                       Ferik Mehmet Munir Pasha 
Feb 1879 - Nov 1879        Ahmed Feyzi Pasha
Nov 1879 - May 1882        Ramazanzada Abdunnafi Iffet
                             Efendi 
 
May 1882 - Dec 1887        Tahsin Pasha   
Dec 1887 - Jan 1889        Mustafa Faik Pasha
Jan 1889 - Jul 1889        Vanli Mehemed Reshid Pasha         (d. 1889) 
1889                       Kürd Reshid Pasha                  (d. 1889)
Jul 1889 - Mar 1891        Arnavut Tahir Pasha                (d. 1925)
Jun 1891 - Jul 1892        Abdulkadir Kamali Pasha 
Jul 1892 - Sep 1894        Osman Pasha
Sep 1894 - Jul 1895        Ahmed Aziz Pasha
Jul 1895 - May 1896        Gümrükçü Mehemet Salih Pasha
May 1896 - Oct 1896        Kölemen Abdullah Pasha             (b. 1846 - d. 1937)
Oct 1896 - Oct 1897        Zühdü Bey                          (b. 1843 - d. 18..)
Oct 1897 - Jul 1898        Abdülwahib Pasha                   (b. 1843 - d. ....)
Jul 1898 - Dec 1898        Mehemet Arif Pasha
1898 - 1899                Hüseyin Hazim Pasha
Feb 1899 - Jun 1901        Tepeyran Ebubekir Hazim Bey
Jun 1901 - Sep 1901        Yenesehirli Mustafa Nazim Pasha

Oct 1901 - Jun 1902        Ahmed Reshid Pasha                 (b. 1853 - d. 1918) 
Jun 1902 - Sep 1905        Mustafa Nuri Bey
Sep 1905 - Aug 1908        Mustafa Bey
Aug 1908 - Jan 1909        Halepli Zeki Pasha                 (b. 1864 - d. 19..)
1909                       Fazil Pasha
1910 - 1912                Tahir Pasha
Aug 1912 - Dec 1912        Dagistanli Fazil Pasha
Dec 1912 - Jul 1913        Muharrem Mümtaz Bey                (b. 1864 - d. 1931)
Jul 1913 - Sep 1913        Esad Pasha

Sep 1913 - Dec 1915        Süleyman Nasif Bey
Feb 1915 - Jan 1917        Vanli Haydar Hilmi Bey
Sep 1917 - 1918            Ispanakcçizade Memduh Sermed Bey   (b. 1876 - d. 1924)
British Commander
Nov 1918 - 1919            Alexander Stanhope Cobbe           (b. 1870 - d. 1931)
British Representatives
1918 - 1919                Edward William Charles Noel        (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
1919 - Mar 1921            Ely Bannister Soane                (b. 1881 - d. 1923)
1921 - Oct 1922            H.A. Goldsmith 
Governor (Hikimdar) of Sulaymaniya
 1 Dec 1918 - 17 Jun 1919  Sheikh Mahmoud Barzani (1st time)  (b. 1878 - d. 1956)
                             (in rebellion from 23 May 1919)
Sep 1922 - Jul 1924        Sheikh Mahmoud Barzani (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                            (Sheikh Mahmud al-Hafeed)
                            (i
n rebellion from 1922; 18 Nov 1922
                             assumes style King of Kurdistan)
Chairmen of the Regional Executive Council
Oct 1974 - 1977            Hashim Hakim Hassan Taha 'Aqrawi   (b. 1926)            PDK 
1977 - 1980                Ahmad 'Abd al-Qadir al-Naqshbandi  (b. 1930)            Baath
Oct 1980 - 1991            Muhammad Amin Muhammad Ahmad       (b. 1936) 
De facto rulers
- Patriotic Union of Kurdistan - 
 4 Jul 1992 - 14 Jun 2005  Jalal Talabani                     (b. 1933)            PUK
                             (secretary-general of the PUK)
- Kurdistan Democratic Party -
31 Aug 1996 - 14 Jun 2005  Massoud Mustafa Barzani            (b. 1946)            PDK
                             (president of the PDK)
President
14 Jun 2005 -              Massoud Mustafa Barzani            (s.a.)               PDK

Prime minister
Sep 1922 - Jul 1924        Sheikh Mahmoud Barzani             (s.a.)
Chairmen of Regional Legislative Assembly
1974 - 1977                Mahmoud al-Rasul Babakr Pischdari  (b. 1937)            PDK
1977 - 1980                Muhammad Amin Muhammad Ahmad       (s.a.) 
1980 - 1992                Ahmad 'Abd al-Qadir al-Naqshbandi  (s.a.)               Baath
Prime ministers  
- Patriotic Union of Kurdistan - 
 4 Jul 1992 - 26 Apr 1993  Fuad Masum                         (b. 1938)            PUK
26 Apr 1993 - 21 Jan 2001  Kosrat Rasul Ali                   (b. 1952)            PUK
21 Jan 2001 -  4 Jul 2004  Barham Salih                       (b. 1960)            PUK
 4 Jul 2004 -  1 Mar 2006  Umar Fattah Hussain (acting)       (b. 1948)            PUK
- Kurdistan Democratic Party -
26 Sep 1996 - 20 Dec 1999  Rowsch Shaways                     (b. 1947)            PDK
20 Dec 1999 -  1 Mar 2006  Nechervan Idris Barzani            (b. 1966)            PDK
Prime ministers
 1 Mar 2006 - 28 Oct 2009  Nechervan Idris Barzani (1st time) (s.a.)               PDK
28 Oct 2009 -  5 Apr 2012  Barham Salih                       (s.a.)               PUK
 5 Apr 2012 -              Nechirvan
Idris Barzani (2nd time) (s.a.)               PDK

Party abbreviations: PDK = Partiya Demokrata Kurdistan (Kurdistan Democratic Party [KDP], Kurdish nationalist, center-right, est.1946); PUK = Yaketi Nishtimani Kurdistan (Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, Kurdish nationalist, social-democratic, est.Jun 1975);
- Former parties: Ba'ath = Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki (Arab Socialist Rebirth Party [Iraqi Baath Party], authoritarian socialist, Saddamist Ba'athism, 1968-9 Apr 2003 only legal movement, 1947-1 May 2003, banned)








© Ben Cahoon