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Lebanon
 
[Ottoman
                                    Empire (to 1918)]  
                   to 1 Oct 1918
 
[Shihab Flag ca. 1697-1842
                                    (Lebanon)]
        1698 - 1842 Banu Shihab Flag
 
[Mount Lebanon Flag 1861 - 1915
                                    (Lebanon)]
             1861 - 1915 Mount Lebanon
 
[Fance]
              7 Oct 1918 - 1 Sep 1920

[French
                                    Lebanon 1920-1943]
              1 Sep 1920 - 7 Dec 1943 

[Lebanon]
                Adopted 7 Dec 1943

 Map of Lebanon Hear National Anthem
"Kulluna Lil-watan"
(All Of Us, For Our Country!)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 12 Jul 1927
Constitution
(23 May 1926) 
Capital: Beirut Currency: Lebanese Pound
(LBP); 1920-48 Lebanon-Syria
Pound (XLSP); 1918-20 Egyptian
Pound (EGP) 
National Holiday: 22 Nov (1943)
Independence Day
Population: 4,131,583 (2013)
GDP:  $64.3 billion (2013)
Exports: $5.82 billion (2013)
Imports: $20.9 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Lebanese Arab 71.2%, Palestinian Arab 12.1%,
Armenian 6.8%, Kurd 6.1%, other 2.6% (2000)
note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves
 as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient
 Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians
Total Active Armed Forces: 59,100 (2010)
Hezbollah Force: 2,000 (2008 est.)
UNIFIL Force: 10,741 (2013)

Merchant marine: 29 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim 55.3% (of which Shi'a 34%, Sunni 21.3%,
Isma'ilite, Alawite, Nusayri); Christian 37.6% (of which
Catholic 25.1%
[Maronite 19%, Greek Catholic or Melakite 4.6%]; Orthodox 11.7% [Greek Orthodox 6%, Armenian Apostolic 5.2%];
Protestant 0.5%), Druze 7.1% (1995)
note: 17 religious are sects recognized 
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, Arabsat, BTWC, CAEU, CCM, CTBT, CWC, ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-24, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, PAM, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Lebanon Index
Chronology

c.1800 BC - 332 BC         Location of Phoenician cities of Byblos (Jubayl),
                             Tyre, Sidon, and Beyryt (Beirut); subsequently
                             ruled by the Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, 
                             Romans, Byzantines, Crusaders, and Arabs.
1118                       Emirs of the Banu Ma`n replace the (somewhat 
                             legendary) Al Tanukh emirs.
1287                       Part of Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt.
1516                       Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1585 - 1590                Direct Ottoman rule.
1698                       Banu Shihab replace Banu Ma`n.
27 May 1832                Annexed by Egypt (both nominally Ottoman).
10 Oct 1840                Ottoman rule restored.
16 Jan 1842                Mount Lebanon emirate ended, Ottomans divide
                             Lebanon administratively, creating a christian
                             district in the north and an area under Druze 
                             control in the south. 
16 Aug 1860 -  5 Jul 1861  Occupation by France.
 9 Jun 1861                Special status of Mount Lebanon within Ottoman 
                             Empire (autonomy revoked by Ottomans in 1915). 
 1 Oct 1918                Annexed by Syria.
 7 Oct 1918                Occupied by France (and Britain to 24 Oct 1918).
 1 Sep 1920                State of Great Lebanon (part of French Syria
                             mandate [headquartered in Beirut]).
 1 Sep 1926                Lebanese Republic (under separated from Syrian
                             state, remains part of French Syria mandate).
10 Jun 1940 - 15 Jul 1941  Administration loyal to Vichy France
                             (after 15 Jul 1941 Free French).
15 Jul 1941 - 31 Dec 1946  Anglo-French occupation (U.K. exits 17 Apr 1946).
26 Nov 1941                Independence from France declared 
                             (Lebanese Republic).
22 Nov 1943                Independence recognized by France.
30 Oct 1948 - 23 Mar 1949  Israeli troops occupy 13 villages in a strip of
                             land around (and including) the Lebanese town of
                             Houla.
 2 Nov 1975 - 25 Apr 2005  Syrian troops garrison Lebanon.
14 Mar 1978 - 13 Jun 1978  Southern Lebanon occupied by Israel. 
 6 Jun 1982 - 22 May 2000  Southern Lebanon occupied by Israel.
22 Jul 2006 -  1 Oct 2006  Southern Lebanon occupied by Israel.
14 Oct 2008                Syria recognizes Lebanon's sovereignty,
                             establishing diplomatic relations. 

French Mandate
Syria & Lebanon
(1919-1946)
Southern
Lebanon
(1978-2002)
Map of Religious
Divisions 1983

 Historical Maps
of Lebanon
 
 
 
 
 

Emirs (title al-Amir al-Hakim - ruling emir)
1516 - 1544                Fakhr al-Dein I                    (d. 1544) 
1544 - 1585                Karkamaz ibn Fakhr al-Dein 
1585 - 1635                Fakhr al-Dein II ibn Karkamaz      (b. 1572 - d. 1635) 
1635                       Ali ibn Fakhr al-Dein 
1635 - 1657                Molhem ibn Yones ibn Karkamaz      (d. 1657) 
1657 - 1697                Ahmad ibn Molhem 
1698 - 1706                Bashir ibn al-Husayn
1706 - 1732                Haydar ibn Musa                    (d. 1781)
1732 - 1758                Malham ibn Haydar
1758 - 1770                al-Mansur ibn Haydar               (d. 1774)
                           + Ahmad ibn Haydar (to 1763)
1760                       al-Qasim ibn `Umar (in rebellion)
1770 - 1778                Yusuf ibn Malham (1st time)
1778 - 1780                Ahmad ibn Malham
                           + Afandi ibn Malham
1780 - 1789                Yusuf ibn Malham (2nd time)
1789 - 1790                Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar      (b. 1767 - d. 1850)
                             (1st time)
1790                       Yusuf ibn Malham (3rd time)
1790                       Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1790 - 1793                Haydar ibn Malham
                           + Qa`dan ibn Muhammad (1st time)
1793                       al-Husayn ibn Yusuf (1st time)
                           + Salim ibn Yusuf (1st time)
                           + Sa`d ad-Din ibn Yusuf (1st time)
1793 - 1795                Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1795                       al-Husayn ibn Yusuf (2nd time)
                           + Salim ibn Yusuf (2nd time)
                           + Sa`d ad-Din ibn Yusuf (2nd time)
1795 - 1799                Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar      (s.a.)
                            (4th time)
1799 - 1800                al-Husayn ibn Yusuf (3rd time)
                           + Salim ibn Yusuf (3rd time)
                           + Sa`d ad-Din ibn Yusuf (3rd time)
1800 - 1801                Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar      (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
1801                       al-`Abbas ibn Asad (1st time)
1801                       Qa`dan ibn Muhammad (2nd time)
                           + Salman ibn Ahmad (1st time)
1801 - 1821                Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar      (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
1821                       al-Hasan ibn `Ali (1st time)
                           + Salman ibn Ahmad (2nd time)
1821 - 1822                Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar      (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
1822                       al-Hasan ibn `Ali (2nd time)
                           + Salman ibn Ahmad (3rd time)
1822                       al-`Abbas ibn Asad (2nd time)
1822 - 1840                Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar      (s.a.)
                             (8th time)
 8 Oct 1840 - 16 Jan 1842  Bashir ibn al-Qasim                (d. 1851)
Walis in Sa`ida (Sidon) and Acre
1660 - 1772                the emirs of Mount Lebanon
1772 - 1775                `Umar az-Zahir bin `Umar           (b. c.1686 - d. 1775)
                              az-Zaydani
1775 - 1804                Ahmad Pasha al-Djazzar             (b. 1735 – d. 1804)
1804 – 1819                Süleyman Pasha
1819 - 1831                Abdullah Pasha                     (d. 1831)
27 May 1832 - 10 Oct 1840  Egyptian rule
Nov 1840 - Mar 1841        Köse Ahmed Zekeriya Pasha
Mar 1841 - Dec 1841        Eneste/Haseki Mehmed Selim Pasha
Dec 1841 - Jul 1842        Mehmed Izzet Pasha
1842                       Mustapha Pasha
1842                       Selim Pasha
1842 -  7 Dec 1842         Ömer Pasha (Mihaylo Lattas) 
Aug 1842 -  9 Apr 1845     Ayasli Asad Mehmed Muhlis Pasha 
 9 Apr 1845 – Jan 1846     Yozgatli Mehmed Vecihi Pasha  
Jan 1846 - Sep 1847        Mühendis Mehmed Kamil Pasha
Sep 1847 - Jul 1848        Mustafa Sherifi Pasha
Aug 1848 - Sep 1851        Serhalifizade Vamik (Femiq)
                             Salih Pasha
(1st time)
Sep 1851 – Sep 1852        Pepe Mehmed Emin Pasha
Sep 1852 – Mar 1855        Serhalifizade Vamik (Femiq)
                             Salih Pasha
(2nd time)
Mar 1855 - Dec 1855        Mahmud Nedim Pasha                 (b. 1818 - d. 1883)
Dec 1855 - Jun 1857        Serhalifizade Vamik (Femiq)
                             Salih Pasha
(3rd time)
Jun 1857 – 17 Jul 1860     Arnavud Mehmed Kurshid Pasha 
17 Jul 1860 -  9 Jun 1861  Fuad Pasha
16 Aug 1860 -  5 Jul 1861  Charles de Beaufort                (b. 1804 - d. 1890)
                             d'Hautpoul -French commander
Aug 1860 – Feb 1863        Kaysarli Ahmad Pasha
Feb 1863 - Feb 1864        Mehmed Kabuli Pasha                (b. 1812 – d. 1877)
Feb 1864 – Apr 1865        Mehmed Kurshid Pasha
Walis of Beirut
1875 - 1877                Uzenetek Ali Beg                   (d. 1877) 
1877 - 1879                Ra'uf Efendi (
Ra'uf Pasha)
18.. - 1883                Ibrahim Pasha
1883 - 1887                Nassuhi Bey
Dec 1887 - Mar 1889        Örfi Pasazade Sarabçi Ali Pasha    (b. 1829 – d. 1889)

Apr 1889 - Jul 1889        Mehmed Sherif Rauf Pasha           (b. 1838 - d. 1921)
Jul 1889 - Dec 1891        Ahmed Aziz Pasha                   (b. 1835 - d. 1903)
Dec 1891 - Jul 1892        Vlora Ismail Kemal Bey             (b. 1844 - d. 1919)
Jul 1892 - Aug 1894        Babanzade Khalil Khalid Bey
Aug 1894 - Mar 1897        Abdulhalik Nasuhi Bey              (b. 1837 - d. 1912)
Mar 1897 - Jul 1897        Huseyni Nazim Pasha                (b. 1854 - d. 1927)  
Jul 1897 – Sep 1903        Reshid Mumtaz Pasha
Sep 1903 - Dec 1908        Ibrahim Halil Pasha 
Dec 1908 - May 1910        Dirvana Ibrahim Edhem Bey
May 1910 - Sep 1911        Mehmed Nureddin Bey                (b. 1868 - d. 1911)
Sep 1911 – Aug 1912        Ebubekir Hazim Bey Tepeyran
                             (1st time)
Jan 1913 - Jun 1913        Ebubekir Hazim Bey Tepeyran 
                             (2nd time)
Jun 1913 - Sep 1913        Ali Munif Bey
1913 – 1915                Bekir Sami Bey
Jun 1915 - Jun 1918        Akalin Mustafa Azim Bey
Jun 1919 - Sep 1918        Muftuzade Ismail Hakki Bey

Governors (mutassarifs) of Mount Lebanon
Jun 1861 - May 1868        Davud Pasha                        (b. c.1816 - d. 1873)
Jun 1868 -  2 Feb 1873     Franko Kusa Nasri Pasha            (b. 1814 - d. 1873)
Mar 1873 - Mar 1882        Rüstem Pasha                       (b. 1810 - d. 1885)
 9 May 1882 - 26 Jun 1892  Vasa Pasha                         (b. 1824 - d. 1892)
15 Aug 1892 -  2 Aug 1902  Duhani Naum Nimetullah Pasha       (b. 1846 - d. 1911)
27 Sep 1902 - 28 Jun 1907  Muzaffer Pasha                     (b. 1843 - d. 1907)
                             (Wladyslaw Czajkowski)
Jul 1907 - Dec 1912        Franko Kusa Yusuf Pasha            (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
23 Dec 1912 - Sep 1915     Ohannes Kuyumjian Pasha            (b. 1852 - d. 19..)
25 Sep 1915 - 15 May 1916  Yegenaga Ali Münif Bey
May 1916 - Aug 1918        Ismail Haqqi Bey
15 Aug 1918 - 30 Sep 1918  Mümtaz Bey
30 Sep 1918 -  7 Oct 1918  Ömer al-Dauk
French Military Governors
 7 Oct 1918 - 19 Nov 1918  Marie Antoine Philpin de Piépape   (b. 1870 - d. 1946)
19 Nov 1918 - 21 Nov 1919  Jules Camille Hamelin              (b. 1866 - d. 1958)
1919 -  1 Sep 1920         François Georges Barb
Governors
 1 Sep 1920 - Apr 1923     Albert Trabaud                     (b. 1872 - d. 1935)
Apr 1923 - 27 Jun 1924     Antoine Privat-Aubouard            (b. 1874 - d. 1934)
27 Jun 1924 - 13 Jan 1925  Charles Alexis Vandenberg          (b. 1858 - d. 1942)
13 Jan 1925 - 26 May 1926  Léon Henri Charles Cayla           (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
                             (provisional to 16 Jul 1925)
26 May 1926 -  1 Sep 1926  Charles Debbas                     (b. 1885 - d. 1935) 
                             (with honorary title of President)
Presidents¹
 1 Sep 1926 -  2 Jan 1934  Charles Debbas                     (s.a.)               Non-party
 2 Jan 1934 - 30 Jan 1934  Antoine Privat-Aubouard (acting)   (s.a.)                Non-party
30 Jan 1934 - 20 Jan 1936  Habib Pacha Es-Saad                (b. 1867 - d. 1942)
20 Jan 1936 -  4 Apr 1941  Émile Eddé (1st time)              (b. 1886 - d. 1949)  KW
 4 Apr 1941 -  9 Apr 1941  Pierre Georges Arlabosse (acting)  (b. 1891 - d. 1950)
 9 Apr 1941 - 18 Mar 1943  Alfred Georges Naccache            (b. 1887 - d. 1978)  KPL 
                             (acting to 1 Dec 1941)
19 Mar 1943 - 21 Jul 1943  Ayoub Tabet (acting)               (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
21 Jul 1943 - 20 Sep 1943  Petro Iskandar Trad                (b. 1886 - d. 1947)
21 Sep 1943 - 11 Nov 1943  Béchara Khalil El-Khoury (1st time)(b. 1892 - d. 1964)  DP
11 Nov 1943 - 22 Nov 1943  Émile Eddé (2nd time)              (s.a.)               KW
22 Nov 1943 - 18 Sep 1952  Béchara Khalil El-Khoury (2nd time)(s.a.)               DP
18 Sep 1952 - 22 Sep 1952  Fouad Abdallah Chehab (1st time)   (b. 1902 - d. 1973)  Mil
                             (acting)
23 Sep 1952 - 22 Sep 1958  Camille Nimer Chamoun              (b. 1900 - d. 1987)  DP/NLP
23 Sep 1958 - 22 Sep 1964  Fouad Abdallah Chehab (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Mil
23 Sep 1964 - 22 Sep 1970  Charles Alexandre Hélou            (b. 1912 - d. 2001)  KPL
23 Sep 1970 - 22 Sep 1976  Suleiman Kabalan Franjieh          (b. 1910 - d. 1992)  MM + LF
23 Sep 1976 - 22 Sep 1982  Elias Youssef Sarkis               (b. 1924 - d. 1985)
23 Sep 1982 - 22 Sep 1988  Amin Pierre Gemayel                (b. 1942)            KPL
23 Sep 1988 -  5 Nov 1989  Salim Ahmed al-Hoss (1st time)2    (b. 1929)
                             (acting)
 5 Nov 1989 - 22 Nov 1989  René Anis Moawad                   (b. 1925 - d. 1989)
22 Nov 1989 - 24 Nov 1989  Salim Ahmed al-Hoss (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
24 Nov 1989 - 23 Nov 1998  Elias Hrawi                        (b. 1926 - d. 2006)
23 Nov 1998 - 23 Nov 2007  Émile Geamil Lahoud                (b. 1936)            Non-party
24 Nov 2007 - 25 May 2008 
Fouad Siniora (acting)             (b. 1943)            FM + M14
25 May 2008 - 24 May 2014  Michel Suleiman                    (b. 1948)            Non-party
25 May 2014 -              Tammam Salam (acting)              (b. 1945)            Non-party
         


President of the Administrative Council

 1 Oct 1918 -  7 Oct 1918  Habib Pacha Es-Saad                (s.a.)
President of the Representative Council
 8 May 1922 - 31 May 1926  Habib Pacha Es-Saad                (s.a.)
Prime ministers¹
31 May 1926 -  5 May 1927  Auguste Adib Pacha (1st time)      (b. 1860 - d. 1936)
 5 May 1927 - 10 Aug 1928  Béchara Khalil El-Khoury (1st time)(s.a.)               DP
10 Aug 1928 -  9 May 1929  Habib Pacha Es-Saad                (s.a.)
 9 May 1929 - 11 Oct 1929  Béchara Khalil El-Khoury (2nd time)(s.a.)               DP
11 Oct 1929 - 25 Mar 1930  Émile Eddé                         (s.a.)               KW
25 Mar 1930 -  9 Mar 1932  Auguste Adib Pacha (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 9 Mar 1932 - 29 Jan 1934  Charles Dabbas                     (s.a.)
29 Mar 1934 - 30 Jan 1936  Abdullah Bayhum (1st time)(acting) (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
30 Jan 1936 -  5 Jan 1937  Ayoub Tabet (1st time) (acting)    (s.a.)
 5 Jan 1937 - 18 Mar 1938  Khayreddin al-Ahdab                (b. 1894 - d. 1941)
18 Mar 1938 - 24 Oct 1938  Khaled Chehab (1st time)           (b. 1892 - d. 1978)
24 Oct 1938 - 21 Sep 1939  Abdullah Aref Yafi (1st time)      (b. 1901 - d. 1986)  Non-party
21 Sep 1939 -  4 Apr 1941  Abdullah Bayhum (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1941 - 26 Nov 1941  Alfred Georges Naccache            (s.a.)               KPL
 1 Dec 1941 - 26 Jul 1942  Ahmed Daouk (1st time)             (b. 1892 - d. 1979)
26 Jul 1942 - 22 Mar 1943  Sami Bey al-Solh (1st time)        (b. 1890 - d. 1968)
22 Mar 1943 - 21 Jul 1943  Ayoub Tabet (2nd time) (acting)    (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1943 - 25 Sep 1943  Petro Iskandar Trad                (s.a.)
25 Sep 1943 - 10 Jan 1945  Riad Bey al-Solh (1st time)        (b. 1894 - d. 1951)  HI
10 Jan 1945 - 20 Aug 1945  Abdul Hamid Karami                 (b. 1890 - d. 1950)
23 Aug 1945 - 22 May 1946  Sami Bey al-Solh (2nd time)        (s.a.)
22 May 1946 - 14 Dec 1946  Saadi al-Munla                     (b. 1897 - d. 1972)
14 Dec 1946 - 14 Feb 1951  Riad Bey al-Solh (2nd time)        (s.a.)               HI
14 Feb 1951 -  7 Apr 1951  Hussein al-Oweini (1st time)       (b. 1900 - d. 1971)
 7 Apr 1951 - 11 Feb 1952  Abdullah Aref Yafi (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Non-party
11 Feb 1952 -  9 Sep 1952  Sami Bey al-Solh (3rd time)        (s.a.)
10 Sep 1952 - 14 Sep 1952  Nazim Akkari                       (b. 1902 - d. 1985)
14 Sep 1952 - 18 Sep 1952  Saeb Salam (1st time)              (b. 1905 - d. 2000)
24 Sep 1952 - 30 Sep 1952  Abdullah Aref Yafi (3rd time)      (s.a.)               Non-party
 1 Oct 1952 -  1 May 1953  Khaled Chehab (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 1 May 1953 - 13 Aug 1953  Saeb Salam (2nd time)              (s.a.)
16 Aug 1953 - 16 Sep 1954  Abdullah Aref Yafi (4th time)      (s.a.)               Non-party
16 Sep 1954 - 19 Sep 1955  Sami al-Solh (4th time)            (s.a.)
19 Sep 1955 - 20 Mar 1956  Rashid Karami (1st time)           (b. 1921 - d. 1987)
20 Mar 1956 - 18 Nov 1956  Abdullah Aref Yafi (5th time)      (s.a.)               Non-party
27 Nov 1956 - 20 Sep 1958  Sami al-Solh (5th time)            (s.a.)
20 Sep 1958 - 24 Sep 1958  Khalil al-Hibri (acting)           (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
24 Sep 1958 - 14 May 1960  Rashid Karami (2nd time)           (s.a.)
14 May 1960 -  1 Aug 1960  Ahmed Daouk (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1960 - 31 Oct 1961  Saeb Salam (3rd time)              (s.a.)
31 Oct 1961 - 20 Feb 1964  Rashid Karami (3rd time)           (s.a.)
20 Feb 1964 - 25 Jul 1965  Hussein al-Oweini (2nd time)       (s.a.)
25 Jul 1965 -  9 Apr 1966  Rashid Karami (4th time)           (s.a.)
 9 Apr 1966 -  2 Dec 1966  Abdullah Aref Yafi (6th time)      (s.a.)               Non-party
 7 Dec 1966 -  8 Feb 1968  Rashid Karami (5th time)           (s.a.)
 8 Feb 1968 - 15 Jan 1969  Abdullah Aref Yafi (7th time)      (s.a.)               Non-party
15 Jan 1969 - 13 Oct 1970  Rashid Karami (6th time)           (s.a.)
13 Oct 1970 - 25 Apr 1973  Saeb Salam (4th time)              (s.a.)
25 Apr 1973 - 21 Jun 1973  Amin Hafez                         (b. 1921 - d. 2009)
21 Jun 1973 - 31 Oct 1974  Takieddin al-Solh (1st time)       (b. 1901 - d. 1988)
31 Oct 1974 - 24 May 1975  Rashid al-Solh (1st time)          (b. 1926 - d. 2014)
24 May 1975 - 30 Jun 1975  Nureddin Rifai                     (b. 1899 - d. 19..)  Mil
 1 Jul 1975 -  8 Dec 1976  Rashid Karami (7th time)           (s.a.)               NSF
 8 Dec 1976 - 20 Jul 1980  Salim Ahmed al-Hoss (1st time)     (s.a.)
20 Jul 1980 - 25 Oct 1980  Takieddin al-Solh (2nd time)       (s.a.)
25 Oct 1980 - 30 Apr 1984  Shafiq Wazzan                      (b. 1925 - d. 1999)
30 Apr 1984 -  1 Jun 1987  Rashid Karami (8th time)           (s.a.)               NSF
 1 Jun 1987 - 24 Dec 1990  Salim Ahmed al-Hoss (2nd time)     (s.a.) 
23 Sep 1988 - 13 Oct 1990  Michel Naïm Aoun2                  (b. 1935)            Mil
                             (military government, in dissidence)
24 Dec 1990 - 13 May 1992  Omar Karami (1st time)             (b. 1934)
13 May 1992 - 31 Oct 1992  Rashid al-Solh (2nd time)          (s.a.)
31 Oct 1992 -  6 Dec 1998  Rafiq Bahaeddine Hariri            (b. 1944 - d. 2005)  FM
                             (1st time) 
 6 Dec 1998 - 23 Oct 2000  Salim Ahmed al-Hoss (3rd time)     (s.a.)
23 Oct 2000 - 21 Oct 2004  Rafiq Bahaeddine Hariri            (s.a.)               FM
                             (2nd time)
21 Oct 2004 - 19 Apr 2005  Omar Karami (2nd time)             (s.a.)               ALP
19 Apr 2005 - 19 Jul 2005  Najib Azmi Mikati (1st time)       (b. 1955)            HM
19 Jul 2005 -  9 Nov 2009  Fouad Siniora                      (s.a.)               FM + M14
 9 Nov 2009 - 13 Jun 2011  Saad Hariri                        (b. 1970)            FM + M14
13 Jun 2011 - 15 Feb 2014  Najib Azmi Mikati (2nd time)       (s.a.)               HM + M8
15 Feb 2014 -              Tammam Salam                       (s.a.)               Non-party


French-mandated Syria and Lebanon (headquarters in Beirut, Lebanon)

French High Commissioners
26 Nov 1919 - 23 Nov 1922  Henri-Joseph-Eugène Gouraud        (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
23 Nov 1922 - 17 Apr 1923  Robert de Caix (acting)            (b. 1869 - d. 1970)

19 Apr 1923 - 29 Nov 1924  Maxime Weygand                     (b. 1867 - d. 1965)
29 Nov 1924 - 23 Dec 1925  Maurice Paul Emmanuel Sarrail      (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
23 Dec 1925 - 23 Jun 1926  Baron Henry de Jouvenel des Ursins (b. 1876 - d. 1935)
Aug 1926 - Jul 1933        Auguste Henri Ponsot               (b. 1877 - d. 1963)
16 Jul 1933 - Jan 1939     Damien de Martel, comte de Martel  (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
Jan 1939 - Nov 1940        Gabriel Puaux                      (b. 1883 - d. 1970)
24 Nov 1940 - 27 Nov 1940  Jean Chiappe (did not take office) (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
 6 Dec 1940 - 16 Jun 1941  Henri Fernand Dentz                (b. 1881 - d. 1945)
Delegates-general
24 Jun 1941 -  7 Jun 1943  Georges Albert-Julien Catroux      (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
                             (also chief of Free French in Levant states)
 7 Jun 1943 - 23 Nov 1943  Jean Helleu                        (b. 1885 - d. 1955)

23 Nov 1943 - 23 Jan 1944  Yves Chataigneau                   (b. 1891 - d. 1961)
23 Jan 1944 -  1 Sep 1946  Étienne Paul-Émile-Marie Beynet    (b. 1883 - d. 1969)

British Military Commander
21 Jun 1941 - 1945         Henry "Jumbo" Maitland Wilson      (b. 1881 - d. 1964)
British Resident Ministers for Lebanon and Syria
25 Mar 1943 - 1944         Sir Edward L. Spears (1st time)    (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
28 Jan 1944 -  6 Nov 1944  Walter Edward Guinness, Lord Moyne (b. 1880 - d. 1944)
1944 - 1945                Sir Edward L. Spears (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1945 - 1946                Sir Terence Allen Shone            (b. 1894 - d. 1965)

[Druze people
                  (Lebanon)]
          Flag of the Druze 
 ¹From 23 May 1926 According to the National Compact the President of the Republic is a Maronite Christian elected for six years from the Parliament; he is not immediately re-eligible. The Prime minister is a Sunni Muslim. The Compact was renewed 12 Aug 1989.

 2General Michel Naïm Aoun (s.a.) chaired a military cabinet in dissidence from 23 Sep 1988 - 13 Oct 1990 and also claimed to be the acting president.

Territorial Disputes: Lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms area in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) has been in place since 1978

Party abbreviations: ADP = Hizb al-Arabi al-Dimuqrati (Arab Democratic Party, mainly Alwai, pro-Syrian, est.1970s); ALP = Hizb al-Taharor al-Arabi (Arab Liberation Party, mainly Sunni, HB ally); AM = Amal (Afwaj al-Muqawmat al-Lubnaniyya ["Hope"], Shi'ite, Islamist, est.1975); FM = Tayyar al-Mustaqbal (Future Movement, Hariri personalist, secular, center-right, mainly Sunni, est.1992); HB = Hezbollah (Shi'ite, islamist, pro-Iranian, est.1982); HM = Harakat Majd (Glory Movement, centrist, est.2004); KPL = Kataib/Phalanges Libanaises (Lebanese Social Democratic Party, "Phalange", secular, conservative, nationalist, mainly Maronite, est.1936); KW = al-Kutla al-Wataniyya (National Bloc, conservative, pro-western, est.1936); M8 = Tahaluf 8 Adhar (March 8 Alliance, pro-Syrian coalition of AM, ADP, ALP, HB, SSNP, etc. est.2005); M14 = Tahaluf 14 Adhar (March 14 Alliance, anti-Syrian coalition of FM, KPL, KW, NLP, PSP, etc. est.2005); MM = Tayyar al-Marada (Marada Movement, nationalist, christian, est.1967); NLP = Hizb al-Wataniyyin al-Ahrar (National Liberal Party, conservative-liberal, mainly Christian, est.1959); PSP = Hizb al-Taqadummi al-Ishtiraki (Progressive Socialist Party, social-democratic, mainly Druze, est.1949); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: DP = Hizb al-Destour (Constitutional Party, cross communal Christian group); HA = al-Hilf al-Thulathi (Tripartite Alliance, mainly Christian, anti-Shihab coalition of KPL, KW and NLP, 1968-1976); HI = Hizb al-Istiqlal (Independence Party, Arab independence movement, est.1919); LF = Jabhat al-Lubnaniyya (Lebanese Front, right-wing mainly Christian coalition, incl. KPL, MM, Lebanese Forces, NLP, 1976-1990); LNM = al-Harakat al-Wataniyya al-Lubnaniyya (Lebanese National Movement, Arab nationalist, anti-Maronite, leftist coalition of Lebanese Communist Party, PSP, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Ba'ath Party, Syrian Social Nationalist Party [SSNP], etc. 1969-1982); NSF = National Salvation Front (pro-Syrian, Muslim and Druze coalition)



Southern Lebanon
 
[Israel]
                Flag of Israel
 
[Lebanon]
    1982 - 2000  Flag used by SLA
 
Map of South Lebanon
(Jan 1998)
Hear National Anthem
"Koullouna Liloutataan 
Lil'Oula Lil'Alam"
(All for the Country, for the 
Glory, for the Flag)
Constitution
 Population: 70,000
(1999)
Headquarters: Marjayoun
Currency: Lebanese Pound
(LBP); Israeli Shekel (ILS) 
GDP: $N/A
Total SLA Force: 1,500 (2000)
3,000 (1990)
Ethnic groups: Lebanese Arab, Armenian, 
Kurd, other 
Religions: mostly Christian (Roman Catholic 25.1% 
[Maronite, Greek Catholic] , Orthodox (Greek 
Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic); and Druze

30 Oct 1948 - 23 Mar 1949  Israeli troops occupy 13 villages in a strip of land around, 
                             and including, the Lebanese town of Houla near the 
                             Israeli-Lebanese border as part of the operation capturing
                             Galilee in the 1948-49 Arab-Israeli War.
14 Mar 1978                First Israeli invasion resulting in the creation of an 
                             occupied zone run by an Israeli allied local Christian militia 
                             the Army of Free Lebanon.
19 Mar 1978                United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) established,
                             the first troops arrive in Lebanon on 23 Mar 1978.
13 Jun 1978                Israel withdraws most of its troops from southern Lebanon.
18 Apr 1979                Haddad declares the area controlled by his forces "Independent
                             Free Lebanon."
May 1980                   Free Lebanon Army renamed the Army of South Lebanon (also called 
                             South Lebanese Army)(SLA). 
 6 Jun 1982                Second Israeli invasion; South Lebanese security zone formally 
                             created by Israel.
1983 – 1985                Israel withdraws its troops to a South Lebanese security zone 
                             in southern Lebanon that was formally established by Israel,
                             the zone is patrolled by the IDF and SLA.
 1 Jun 1999                Israel withdraws from Jezzine.
24 May 2000                Israel evacuates southern Lebanon as a result the SLA dissolves. 
22 Jul 2006 -  1 Oct 2006  Third Israeli invasion resulting in the occupation of a  
                             number of villages in southern Lebanon. 

Commanders of the Army of South Lebanon (also heads of government of "Free Lebanon") 
Jun 1978 - 15 Jan 1984     Saad Haddad                        (b. 1936 - d. 1984)
15 Jan 1984 - 23 May 2000  Antoine Lahad                      (b. 1929)

Israeli Military Governors
(commanders of Israeli Northern Command)
Aug 1977 - 1981            Avigdor Ben Gal                    (b. 1936)
1981 - 1983                Amir Drori                         (b. 1937 - d. 2005)
1983 - 1986                Uri Or                             (b. 1939)
Jun 1986 - Apr 1991        Yossi Peled                        (b. 1941)
1991 - 1994                Yitzhak Mordechai                  (b. 1944)
1994 - 1998                Amiram Levine                      (b. 1946)
Jul 1998 - 22 May 2000     Gabi Ashkenazi                     (b. 1954)
22 Jul 2006 -  1 Oct 2006  Udi Adam                           (b. 1958)


United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

[United Nations Interim
                force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

Headquarters: Naquoura UNIFIL Force: 10,741 (2013)

 
Commanders of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

23 Mar 1978 - Feb 1981     Emmanuel A. Erskine (Ghana)        (b. 1937)
Feb 1981 - May 1986        William Callaghan (Ireland)
Jun 1986 - Jun 1988        Johan Gustav Hägglund (Finland)    (b. 1938)
Jul 1988 - Feb 1993        Lars Eric Wahlgren (Sweden)        (b. 1929 - d. 1999)
23 Feb 1993 -  1 Apr 1995  Trond Furuhovde (Norway)           (b. 1939 - d. 2006)
 1 Apr 1995 - 30 Sep 1997  Stanislaw Franciszek Woźniak       (b. 1946)
                             (Poland)
 1 Oct 1997 - 30 Sep 1999  Jioji "George" Konousi Konrote     (b. 1947)
                             (Fiji) 

30 Sep 1999 -  1 Dec 1999  James Sreenan (Ireland)(acting)
 1 Dec 1999 - 15 May 2001  Seth Kofi Obeng (Ghana)            (b. 1945)
15 May 2001 - 17 Aug 2001  Ganesan Athmanathan (India)(acting)
17
Aug 2001 - 17 Feb 2004  Lalit Mohan Tewari (India)         (b. 1947 - d. 2004)
17 Feb 2004 - 17 Feb 2007  Alain Pellegrini (France)          (b. 1946)
17 Feb 2007 - 28 Jan 2010  Claudio Graziano (Italy)           (b. 1954)
28 Jan 2010 - 28 Jan 2012  Alberto Asarta Cuevas (Spain)      (b. 1951)
28 Jan 2012 -              Paolo Serra (Italy)                (b. 1956)







© Ben Cahoon