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Jerusalem
Contents Jerusalem - East Jerusalem - No Man's Land (UNTSO) - French Domain in the Holy Land -
 

[Flag of Jersualem
                  (Israel)]
                  Adopted 1950
     

Map of Jerusalem
Map of 1947
UN Partition Plan
Historical Jerusalem Maps

c.4000 BC                  Earliest settlements at present-day Jerusalem.
1004 BC - 586 BC           Capital of Kingdom of Israel (from 922 BC Judah); era of
                             First Jewish Temple.
586 BC - 537 BC            Part of Babylonian Empire. 
538 BC - 70 AD             Era of Second Jewish Temple
537 BC - 332 BC            Part of Persian Empire.
332 BC - 312 BC            Part of the Empire of Alexander the Great.
312 BC - 198 BC            Part of the Ptolemaic dynasty Egypt. 
198 BC - 167 BC            Part of Seleucid Empire. 
168 BC - 70 AD             Capital of Kingdom of Judea
 4 BC - 324                Part of Roman Empire (135-324 renamed Aelia Capitolina).
324                        Part of Byzantine Empire.
May 614 - 627              Persian occupation (614-617 Jewish autonomy granted under
                             Nehemiah Ben Hushiel Ben Ephraim Ben Yosef [d.617]).
638                        Muslim conquest (Dome of the Rock inaugurated 691).
15 Jul 1099 - 31 Jul 1291  Christian Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (fall of Jerusalem 23 Aug
                             1244, Acre 16 May 1291, Haifa 30 Jul 1291, and Beirut 31
                             Jul 1291). 
 2 Oct 1187 - 18 Feb 1229  Jerusalem under Muslim rule.
1263/31 Jul 1291           Part of Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt.
28 Dec 1516                Part of Ottoman Empire.
1827                       Ottoman administration created mütasarrifiya of Jerusalem.
10 May 1832 - Nov 1840     Egyptian occupation of Jerusalem.
1863                       Municipality of Jerusalem
 9 Dec 1917 - 13 May 1948  British rule.
29 Nov 1947                United Nations partition plan calls for Jerusalem and its                              environs (Corpus Separatum) to be an international zone
                             administered by UN Trusteeship Council.
14 May 1948                Israeli forces occupy West Jerusalem (New City) and part of Mount
                             Scopus, while Arab/Jordanian forces occupy East Jerusalem and
                             the Old City.
28 May 1948                Jewish Quarter in the Old City surrenders to Arab forces.
 7 Oct 1948 -  5 Jun 1967  Cease-fire agreement creates a UN demilitarized No-Man's Land                              between Arab east Jerusalem and Israeli west Jerusalem.
13 Dec 1949                (West) Jerusalem proclaimed Israel's capital (enacted 23 Jan 1950). 24 Apr 1950                Jordan annexes East Jerusalem.
 7 Jun 1967                Israeli occupation of East Jerusalem.
28 Jun 1967                East Jerusalem incorporated into Israeli municipality of                              Jerusalem and the city limits are expanded                               (not internationally recognized).
30 Jul 1980                East Jerusalem is formally annexed.

Mayors
1848 - 1863                Ahmad Agha Fadhelaldin Agha
                             al-Asali Duzdar
                             (governor of Jerusalem)
1863 - 1867                Abdul al-Rahman Effendi Taha
                             al-Dajani al-Dawudi (1st time)
1867                       Rafadulo (Dimitri) Astiriyadis
                             (1st time)
1869                       Abdul al-Rahman Effendi Taha
                             al-Dajani al-Dawudi (2nd time)
1869                       Musa Faidallah al-Alami
1869                       Abdul al-Salam ibn Abdul Su'ud
1870 - 1876                Yusuf Diya Pasha al-Khalidi         (b. 1829 - d. 1907)
                             (1st time)  
1876                       Abdul al-Qadir al-Khalidi Abu Huda
1876                       Umar al-Husseini
1876                       Abdul al-Salam Pasha al-Husseini
1877                       Shahada Faidallah al-Alami
1877 - 1878                Rafadulo (Dimitri) Astiriyadis
                             (2nd time)
Apr 1878 - Oct 1879        Yusuf Diya Pasha al-Khalidi         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)    
1879                       Salim Shakir al-Husseini
1879 - 1881                Musa Faidi al-Alami                 (d. 1881)
1882 - Oct 1897            Hussein Salim Pasha al-Husseini     (b. 18.. - d. 1908)
1898 - 1899                Yasin Effendi al-Khalidi
1899 - 1907                Yusuf Diya'uddin al-Khalidi         (b. 1829 - d. 1907)
1907 - 1909                Faidi al-Alami                      (b. 1865 - d. 1924)
1909 -  9 Dec 1917         Hussein Bey al-Husseini             (b. 18.. - d. 1918)
 9 Dec 1917 - 27 Dec 1917  Bill Borton                         (b. 1870 - d. 1938)
                             (British military governor)
28 Dec 1917 -  1 Jul 1920  Sir Ronald Storrs                   (b. 1881 - d. 1955)
                             (British military governor)
1917 - 1918                Aref al-Dajani                      (b. 1856 - d. 1930)
Mar 1918 - Apr 1920        Musa Kazim al-Husseini              (b. 1853 - d. 1934)
1920 - 1934                Raghib al-Nashashibi                (b. 1881 - d. 1951)
1934 - Aug 1937            Hussein Fakhri al-Khalidi           (b. 1895 - d. 1966) 
Aug 1937 -  1 Oct 1938     Daniel Auster (deputy mayor)        (b. 1893 - d. 1962)
 1 Oct 1938 - Aug 1944     Mustafa al-Khalidi                  (d. 1944) 
1944 - 1945                Daniel Auster (1st time)            (s.a.)
1945 - 1947?               George Henry Webster                (b. 1887 - d. 1955)
                             (chairman of municipal council)
1947 - 1948                Richard Massie Graves               (b. 1880 - d. 1960)
                             (chairman of municipal commission)
Apr 1948 - 1948            Jerusalem Municipal Council
                            (Jewish quarter; in dissidence)
- of East Jerusalem -

13 May 1948 - Oct 1948     Abdullah al-Tall                    (b. 1918 - d. 1973)  Mil
                             (Jordanian military governor
)
Oct 1948 - 1950            Anwar al-Khatib                     (b. 1911 - d. 1993)
1950 - Sep 1951            Aref al-Aref (1st time)             (b. 1891 - d. 1973)
Oct 1951 - Mar 1952        Hanna Atallah
Mar 1952 - 1955            Omar Wa'ari
1955                      
Aref al-Aref (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1955 - Jan 1957            Municipal Committee
Jan 1957 - 28 Jun 1967     Ruhi al-Khatib                      (b. 1914 - d. 1994)
 7 Jun 1967 - 28 Jun 1967  Shlomo "Chich" Lahat                (b. 1927)            Mil
                            (Israeli military governor)
1967 -  2 Jan 1999         Amin al-Majaj (acting to Jun 1995)  (b. 1921 - d. 1999)  PLO
                            (titular PLO mayor)
1996 - 16 Sep 2008         Jamil Othman Nasser                 (b. 1945 - d. 2008)  PLO
                            (governor of Jerusalem district)
 8 May 1996 - 31 May 2001  Faisal Abdul Qader al-Husseini      (b. 1940 - d. 2001)  Fatah/PLO

                            (holder of East Jerusalem portfolio in Palestinian Authority)
31 May 2001 - 29 Mar 2006  Sari Nusseibeh                      (b. 1949)            Fatah/PLO
                            (holder of East Jerusalem portfolio in Palestinian Authority)
29 Mar 2006 - 29 May 2006  Khaled Abu Arafa                    (b. 1961)            Hamas
                            (minister for Jerusalem Affairs in Palestinian Authority)
29 May 2006 - 14 Jun 2007  Mahmoud Tota                                             Hamas
                            (minister for Jerusalem Affairs in Palestinian Authority)
 2 Sep 2007 -  1 Jul 2009  Hatem Abdel Qader                                        Fatah/PLO
                            (special adviser to prime minister on Jerusalem
                             Affairs in Palestinian Authority to 19 May 2009;
                             from 19 May 2009 minister for Jerusalem Affairs)

 1 Jul 2009 - 16 May 2012  Salam Fayyad                        (b. 1952)            TWP

                            (acting minister for Jerusalem Affairs in
Palestinian Authority)
16 May 2012 -              Adnan Ghaleb al-Husayni             (b. 1947)            PLO

                            (minister for Jerusalem Affairs in Palestinian Authority)
- West (from 28 Jun 1967, Greater) Jerusalem -

Aug 1948 - Jan 1949        Dov Joseph (military governor)      (b. 1899 - d. 1980)  Mil

Jan 1949 - 1950            Daniel Auster (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1950 - 1952                Shlomo Zalman Shragai               (b. 1899 - d. 1995)  MP
1952 - 1955                Yitzhak Kariv                       (b. 1902 - d. 1999)  MP
1955 -  1 Nov 1959         Gershon Agron                       (b. 1894 - d. 1959)  MAPAI
Nov 1959 - Nov 1965        Mordecai Ish-Shalom                 (b. 1902 - d. 1991)  MAPAI
Nov 1965 - Nov 1993        Theodor "Teddy" Kollek              (b. 1911 - d. 2007) Raf;1968 Av
Nov 1993 - 17 Feb 2003     Ehud Olmert                         (b. 1945)            Lik
17 Feb 2003 -  3 Dec 2008  Uri Lupolianski                     (b. 1951)            AY
                             (acting to Jun 2003)
 3 Dec 2008 -              Nir Barkat                          (b. 1959)            TY

Israeli Party abbreviations: Av = Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisraelit (Israeli Labor Party, center-left, social-democratic, est.1968); AY = Agudat Yisrael (Israelite Union, Jewish conservative, ultra-Orthodox, est.1912); Lik = HaLikud (The Consolidation, conservative, as a coalition 1973-1988 led by Herut; properly a party from 1988); TY = Yerushalayim Tatzli'ah  (Jerusalem Will Succeed, est.2003); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties:
H = Herut (Freedom, right-wing, revisionist zionist, 1948-1988, merged into Lik); MAPAI = Mifleget Poalei Eretz Yisrael (Workers' Party of the Land of Israel, socialist, left-wing, 1930-23 Jan 1968, merged into Avoda); Raf = Reshimat Poalei Yisrael (Israeli Workers List "Rafi", merged with MAPAI to form Avoda, 1965-1970); MP = Merkaz Ruhani (Mizrachi Party, Religious Centre, 1921-1956)

Palestinian
Party abbreviations: Fatah = Harakat al-Tahrar al-Filistini (Liberation Movement of Palestine, Palestinian nationalist, social-democratic, secular, est.1965); Hamas = Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah (Islamic Resistance Movement, islamic fundamentalist, est.1987); PLO = Munazzamat at-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah (Palestinian Liberation Organization, umbrella group for Palestinian liberation movements, includes Fatah, est.1964); TWP = al-Tariq al-Thalith (The Third Way, centrist, est.2005)


No Man's Land

[Flag of UNO]

Headquarters:  Government House (Jerusalem)   UNTSO Force: 153 (2013)

29 May 1948                UNTSO created by UN Security Council.
 7 Oct 1948                Neutral Zone around Government House in Jerusalem
                             transferred to UNTSO protection.
 5 Jun 1967                Israel occupies the Jerusalem Neutral Zone.

Chiefs of Staff United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
11 Jun 1948 - Jul 1948     Count Thord C. Bonde (Sweden)       (b. 1900 - d. 1969)
Jul 1948 - Sep 1948        Aage Lundström (Sweden)             (b. 1890 - d. 1975)
Sep 1948 - Jun 1953        William E. Riley (U.S.)             (b. 1897 - d. 1970)
Jun 1953 - Aug 1954        Vagn Bennike (Denmark)              (b. 1888 - d. 1970)
Aug 1954 - Nov 1956        Eedeson Louis Millard Burns         (b. 1897 - d. 1985)
                             (Canada)
Nov 1956 - Mar 1958        Byron V. Leary (U.S.)(acting)       (b. 1916)
Mar 1958 - Jul 1960        Carl C. von Horn (Sweden)(1st time) (b. 1903 - d. 1989)
Jul 1960 - 31 Dec 1960     R.W. Richert (U.S.) (acting)
 1 Jan 1961 - 31 May 1963  Karl C. von Horn (Sweden)(2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jun 1963 - 31 Jul 1970  Odd Bull (Norway)                   (b. 1907 - d. 1991)
 1 Aug 1970 - 31 Oct 1973  Ensio P.H. Siilasvuo (Finland)      (b. 1922 - d. 2001)
 1 Nov 1973 - 31 Mar 1974  Richard W. Bunworth (Ireland)(acting)
 1 Jun 1974 - Aug 1975     Bengt Liljestrand (Sweden)          (b. 1919)
Aug 1975 - Dec 1975        Keith D. Howard (Australia)(acting) 
Jan 1976 - Apr 1978        Emmanuel A. Erskine (Ghana)         (b. 1937)
                             (1st time)
Apr 1978 - Jun 1979        William Callaghan (Ireland)
                             (1st time)(acting)
Jun 1979 - 31 Jan 1980     O. Forsgren (Sweden) (acting) 
 1 Feb 1980 - Feb 1981     Erkki Rainer Kaira (Finland)        (b. 1926 - d. 1991)
Feb 1981 - May 1986        Emmanuel A. Erskine (Ghana)         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
May 1986 - Jun 1987        William Callaghan (Ireland)
                             (2nd time)
Jun 1987 - Oct 1990        Martin O. Vadset (Norway)           (b. 1930)
Oct 1990 - Oct 1992        Hans Christensen (Finland)          (b. 1942)
Oct 1992 - Dec 1993        Krishna Narayan Singh Thapa (Nepal)
Dec 1993 - Apr 1994        John Fisher (New Zealand)
Apr 1994 - Oct 1995        Joseph Bujold (Canada)
 1 Oct 1995 - 31 Mar 1998  Rufus Modupe Kupolati (Nigeria)     (b. 19.. - d. 2005)
 1 Apr 1998 - 31 Mar 2000  Timothy Roger Ford (Australia)      (b. 1945)
 1 Apr 2000 - Mar 2002     Franco Ganguzza (Italy)             (b. 1943) 
Apr 2002 - 30 Sep 2004     Carl A. Dodd (Ireland)
 2 Oct 2004 - 30 Nov 2006  Clive Lilley (New Zealand)          (b. 1953)
 1 Dec 2006 - 15 Jan 2009  Ian Campbell Gordon (Australia)     (b. 1952)
20 Jan 2009 - Feb 2011     Robert Mood (Norway)                (b. 1958)
25 Mar 2011 - 30 Jun 2013  Juha Kilpiä (Finland)               (b. 1953)
 1 Jul 2013 -              Michael Finn (Ireland)              (b. 1953)



French Domain in the Holy Land
(French Territories in Jerusalem)

[France]
Map of French Domain
in the Holy Land
Headquarters: French Consulate in Jerusalem


1536                       King Francis I of France signs the Treaty of Capitulations with
                             Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. The treaty, followed by
                             others, gives the France the protection of Christian holy places
                             of the Ottoman Empire.
 1 Nov 1856               
Church of Saint Anne (Église Sainte-Anne), located in the Old City
                             of Jerusalem, close to the Lion's Gate near the presumed site
                             of the Pool of Bethesda, is given to France by Ottoman Sultan
                            
Abdülmecit I following the Crimean War (Domaine National Français
                             en Terre Sainte
), National Domain of France in Holy Land.
1873                       Abbey of Abou Gosh (Abbaye Sainte-Marie de la Résurrection d'Abu
                             Gosh
),
today located in Israeli territory, is given to France
                             by Ottoman Sultan 
Abdülaziz I.
1874                       Monastery of Eleona (
Monastère de l'Eléona)(also called Church of
                             Pater Noster
[Église du Pater Noster]), located on Mount of
                             Olives in East Jerusalem and purchased in Nov 1856 by Aurélie de
                             Bossi
, Princess de la Tour d'Auvergne (who erected a convent
                             above cave of teaching of Pater Noster), is donated to France.

20 Jan 1886                Tombs of the Kings (Tombeau des Rois), actually the tomb of
                             Queen Helena of Adiabene
(which was bought Péreire family
                             23 Apr 1874)
located by Saladin Street in East Jerusalem near
                            
Damascus Gate, is donated to France.
1914 - 1919                Consulate closed due to World War I.
Jul 1940
 - 28 May 1941     Consul-general loyal to Vichy France.
23 Jul 1941 - 1945         Delegation loyal to the Free French.


French Consuls in Jerusalem

 1 Nov 1848 - Jul 1855     Paul Émile Botta                   (b. 1802 - d. 1870)  
Nov 1855 - 1871            Edmond de Barrère                  (b. 1819 - d. 1908)
 1 Oct 1868 - 17 Feb 1872  Joseph Adam Sienkiewicz -Manager   (b. 1836 - d. ....)
 3 Jul 1871 - 1873         Louis Ernest Crampon               (b. 1829 - d. 19..)
30 Oct 1873 - 1881         Salvator Patrimonio                (b. 1836 - d. 1915)  
 1 Apr 1881 - 15 May 1883  Aimé Adrien Langlais               (b. 1840 - d. 1883)  
1883 - 1885                Charles Ferdinand Destrées         (b. 1834 - d. 1904)  
1885                       Lucien Monge
10 Jun 1885 - 1893         Charles Fortuné Louis Alexandre    (b. 1844 - d. 1898)
                             Ledoulx

Consul Generals in Jerusalem
1893 - 1898                Charles Fortuné Louis Alexandre    (s.a.)
                             Ledoulx

1898 - 1901                Pierre Jean Baptiste Ernest Auzepy (b. 1866 - d. 1910)
1902                       Hippolyte Honoré Dumas             (b. 1857 - d. 1952)
1902 - 1904                Auguste Boppe                      (b. 1862 - d. 1921)
1905 - 1908                Alexandre Georges Outrey           (b. 1847 - d. 1931)
1908 - 1914                Georges Félix Gueyraud             (b. 1857 - d. 1936)
1914 - 1919                Vacant
1919 - 1924                Louis Joseph Henri
Rais            (b. 1868 - d. 1948)
1924 - 1925                François Gustave Gaston Maugras    (b. 1884 - d. 1965)  
1926 - 1928                Louis Alphonse Doire
1928 - 1937                Jacques d'Aumale                   (b. 1886 - d. 1978)  
Jan 1938 - 28 May 1941     Amédée Outrey                      (b. 1892 - d. 1962)
                             (acting de facto from
5 Jul 1940)
28 May 1941 - 23 Jul 1941  Vacant
23 Jul 1941 - 1942        
Henri Zimmermann -Delegate
1942 - 1946                Guy Du Chaylard -Delegate
1946 - 23 Jun 1952         René Neuville                      (b. 1899 - d. 1952)
 3 Jul 1952 - 1954        
Bernard Rochereau de la Sablière
22 Feb 1955 - 1957        
Marcel Laforge                     (b. 1922)
24 Dec 1957 - 1959        
André Favereau                     (b. 1907 - d. 1989)
20 Jan 1960 - 1963        
Christian Marcotte de Sainte-Marie (b. 1902 - d. 1985)
16 Apr 1963 - 1966         Lucien Lemoine    
26 May 1966 - 1970        
Christian Fouache d'Halloy         (b. 1905 - d. 2003)
22 Jun 1970 - 1975         Paul-Antoine Henry
1975 - 1978               
Pierre Bitard                      (b. 1924)
1978 - 1982               
Bernard Lopinot                    (b. 1923)
 1 Sep 1982 - 1986         
Jean François Guéguinou            (b. 1941)
1986 - 1988                
Jean–Claude Cousseran              (b. 1944)
1988 - 1991
               Gilles d'Humières                  (b. 1943)   
15 Oct 1991 - 1995         Jean de Gliniasty                  (b. 1948)
 3 Jan 1996 - 1999        
Stanislas François Jean Lefebvre   (b. 1946)
                             de Laboulaye
12 Oct 1999 - 2002         Denis Pietton                      (b. 1956)
30 Aug 2002 - 2005  
      Régis Koetschet                    (b. 1949)
31 May 2005 - 2009        
Alain Rémy                         (b. 1952)
21 Aug 2009 -             
Frédéric Desagneaux                (b. 1957)







© Ben Cahoon