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Israel
 
[Ottoman
                                    flag (to 1918)]
                  to 26 Sep 1918 
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                    26 Sep 1918 - 14 May 1948 
 
[Civil
                                    Ensign 1927-1948 British Mandate of
                                    Palestine] 
           27 Oct 1927 - 14 May 1948 Civil Ensign
[Customs and Postal Services
                                    Ensign 1929-1948 British Mandate of
                                    Palestine 1923-1948]    
   2 May 1929 - 14 May 1948 Customs & Posts Ensign
 
[Full
                                    Magen David Israel first flag
                                    May-Nov 1948]
          14 May 1948 - 12 Nov 1948 
 
[Israel]
             Adopted 12 Nov 1948
 
 Map of Israel
 Hear National Anthem
"Hatikvah" (The Hope)
 Text of National Anthem
in use from 14 May 1948,
adopted 10 Nov
2004 
 Basic Laws
(20 Feb 1958-1994)
Map of Gaza Strip
Map of West Bank
 Balfour Declaration
(2 Nov 1917)
Declaration of Establishment
of Israel

(14 May 1948)
Capital: Jerusalem
(Tel Aviv¹
14 May 1948-23 Jan 1950) 
Currency: New Israeli
Shekel (ILS); 1948-80 Israeli
Pound (ILP); 1927-48 Palestine
Pound (PSP); 1918-27 Egyptian
Pound (EGP)
National Holiday: 14 May (1948)
Independence Day
Population: 7,707,042 (2013)²
GDP: $274.5 billion (2013) 
Exports: $60.67 billion (2013)
Imports: $67.03 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Jewish 75.1% (of which Israel-born 73.6%,
 Europe/America/Oceania-born 17.9%, Africa-born 5.2%, Asia-
born 3.2%), non-Jewish 24.9% (mostly Arab) (2012)
Total Active Armed Forces: 176,500 (2008)
UNTSO force: 157 (2014)
Undeclared Nuclear Power (1966): est. 80-100 weapons (2014)
Merchant marine: 8 ships (2010)
Religions: Jewish 75.6% (of which 'secular' 33%, 'traditionally
 observant' 30%, Orthodox 7%, and ultra-Orthodox 6%),
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 16.9%,
Christian 2%, Druze 1.7%,
other and unspecified 3.8% (2008) 
International Organizations/Treaties: BIS, BSEC (observer), CE (observer), CERN, CICA, CTBT (signatory), CWC (signatory), EBRD, ESCR, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA (observer), ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), PA (observer), PAM, PCA, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Israel Index
Chronology
c.1480 BC - c.1200 BC      Part of the Egyptian Empire.
c.1250 BC                  Exodus of the Hebrew people out of Egypt led
                             by Moses.
c.1200 BC                  Hebrew conquest of Canaan (Palestine).
c.1020 BC - 586 BC         Kingdom of Israel (to 722); and (from 922 
                             separate) Kingdom of Judah; under Kings David
                             1000 - 961 and Solomon 961 - 922.
586 BC - 135 BC            Repeated conquest by Assyria c.730 BC, Babylonia
                             604 BC, Persia c.539 BC, Macedonia under 
                             Alexander "the Great" 332 BC, Ptolemaic Egypt
                             301 BC, and Seleucid Empire 198 - 167 BC.
167 BC - 160 BC            Revolt under the Maccabees.
135 BC - 6 AD              Kingdom of Judaea (from 63 BC, under Roman 
                             suzerainty); under King Herod "the Great" 
                             37 BC - 4 AD.
40 BC - 37 BC              Occupied by Parthian Empire.
63 BC - 638 AD             Conquest by Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire 395, 
                             and 628, Sassanian Empire 614-628, finally the 
                             Arabs Muslims 638.
66 - 73                    First Jewish revolt (Galilee retaken 67; Judaea
                             and Idumaea retaken 68; Jerusalem and the 
                             Temple destroyed 70; and Masada falls 73).
132 - 135                  Second Jewish revolt under Shimon Bar-Kokhba.
15 Jul 1099 - 31 Jul 1291  Christian Crusaders Kingdom of Jerusalem (fall
                             of Jerusalem 23 Aug 1244; Acre 16 May 1291; Haifa
                             30 Jul 1291; Sidon 14 Jul 1291; and Beirut 31 
                             Jul 1291).
 2 Oct 1187 - 18 Feb 1229  Jerusalem under Muslim rule.
1263/31 Jul 1291           Part of Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt.
23 Aug 1516                Part of the Ottoman Empire, part of the viyalet
                             (province) of Damascus-Syria (Jerusalem occupied
                             28 Dec 1516).
1660                       Part of the viyalet of Sa`ida (see under Lebanon).
 7 Mar 1799 - Jul 1799     French occupation of Jaffa, Haifa, and Caesarea.
10 May 1832 - Nov 1840     Annexed by Egypt (remains nominally Ottoman).
Nov 1840                   Direct Ottoman rule restored.
 2 Nov 1917                Balfour Declaration states: U.K. views favorably
                             the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.
 9 Dec 1917                British forces occupy Jerusalem.
26 Sep 1918                British occupation of all of Palestine.
24 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandate (effective 29 Sep 1923).
26 May 1923                Transjordan separated from Palestine (see Jordan).
29 Nov 1947                United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine
                             approves the creation of independent Arab and
                             Jewish states.
12 Apr 1948                People's Council and People's Administration
                             elected by the Zionist Actions Committee.
13 May 1948                A resolution in favor of declaring independence is
                             passed by the People's Administration.
14 May 1948                Independence from Britain (State of Israel).
29 Oct 1956 - 1957         Israel occupies Sinai peninsula.
 6/12 Jun 1967             Israel occupies Golan Heights (annexed 14 Dec 1981
                             previously Syrian); Sinai peninsula (to 25 Apr
                             1982) and Gaza Strip (to 12 Sep 2005)(both 
                             previously Egyptian); West Bank and East
                             Jerusalem (annexed 30 Jul 1980, both previously
                             Jordanian).
 4 May 1994                Formation of the Palestinian Authority
Jerusalem
Mayors
Palestinian
Authority
French Domain
in the Holy Land
Map of Jerusalem
Map of 1947
UN Partition Plan
Map of Israeli
Settlements in
West Bank
Ashkenazi
and Sephardic
Chief Rabbis
World Jewish
Congress
 World Zionist
Organization
Samaritans
Orthodox
Patriarchate of
Jerusalem
 

Mütesarrifs (Lieutenant-governors) of Jerusalem
1810                       Kanj Ahmad Agha
1814                       Abdul Karim Agha
1820                       Hakimoglu Mustafa Agha
1821                       Sülayman Afand
1821                       Ali Afand
1821                       Muhammad Sa'd (acting)
1824/25                    Ismail Bey
1825/1827                  Uthman Agha
1826 - 1827                Abdul Ibrahim Agha
1827                       Ismail Afand
1827                       Safi Muhammad Agha
1829                       Mustafa Afand
1829 - 183                 Abdul Ibrahim Agha
1831                       Sheykh Said al Mustafa
1831/32                    Yahya Bey
1832                       Muhammad Sa'ad Agha
1832                       Qasim al-Ahmad
1833                       Muhammad al-Qasim bin Qasim al-Ahmad
1833                       Yusuf al Qasim bin Qasim al-Ahmad
1834/35                    Jabr Abu Ghosh
1836/37                    Mustafa Agha al Sa'ad
1838                       Muhammad Ali Agha al Dizdr
1838 - 1839                Ahmad Agha al-Asal al Dizdr
1827 – 1831                Abdullah Pasha
                             (governor of Gaza and Jaffa 1818-1821)
1831 - 1840                Husaum `Abd al-Hadi -Governor-general
1841 - 1842?               Mehmed Tayyar Pasha  
1843? - Dec 1843           Reshid Pasha
20 Dec 1843 - 1844?        Haider Pasha
1845?                      As'ad Pasha  
Dec 1845 - Jan 1847        Mehmed Pasha Kibrizli  
1847 - 1848?               Mustafa Zarif  
1847 - 1849                Bahri Pasha
1849 - 1851                Adham Pasha
1851 - 17 Dec 1853         Hafiz Ahmed Pasha
1853 - 1854                Rashid Pasha
14 Mar 1854 - 20 Oct 1854  Yakub Pasha Osmanoglu
15 Feb 1855 - 1857?        Kiamil Pasha

1857 - 1864                Surayya Pasha
1864                       Mehmed Hurshid Pasha
1864 - 1867                Izzet Pasha
1867 - 1869                Nazif Pasha (1st time)
1869 – 1871                Mehmed Kamil Pasha (1st time)      (d. 1879)
1871 – 1872                Ali Bey (1st time)
1872 – 1873                Nazif Pasha (2nd time)
1873 - 1874/75             Mehmed Kamil Pasha (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1874/75 - 1876             Ali Bey (2nd time)
1876 - 1877                Faik Bey
1877 – 1889                Rauf Pasha 
1890 – 1897                Ibrahim Hakki Pasha 
1897 - 1901                Tevfik Bey
1901 – 1902                Mehmed Çevad Pasha
1902 – 1904                Osman Kazim Bey
1904 - 1906                Ahmed Reshid Pasha
1906 - 1908                Ali Ekrem Bey
1908 - 1909                Subhi Bey
1909 - 1910                Nazim Bey
1910 - 1911                Azmi Bey
1911 - 1912                Çevdet Bey
1912 - 1913                Tahir Hayreddin Bey
1913 - 1915                Ahmed Macid Pasha
1916 -  9 Dec 1917         Midhad Bey
British Military Administrators of Occupied Enemy Territory Administration
 9 Dec 1917 - Jun 1918     Sir Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby    (b. 1861 - d. 1936)
Jun 1918 - Jun 1919        Sir Arthur Wigram Money            (b. 1866 - d. 1951)
Jun 1919 - Dec 1919        H.D. Watson (acting)
Dec 1919 -  1 Jul 1920     Sir Louis Jean Bols                (b. 1867 - d. 1930)
High Commissioners 
 1 Jul 1920 - 30 Jun 1925  Sir Herbert Louis Samuel           (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
25 Aug 1925 - 31 Jul 1928  Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer,
     (b. 1857 - d. 1932)
                             Baron Plumer               
31 Jul 1928 -  6 Dec 1928  Sir Harry Charles Luke (acting)    (b. 1884 - d. 1969)
 6 Dec 1928 -  1 Nov 1931  Sir John Robert Chancellor         (b. 1870 - d. 1952)
 1 Nov 1931 - 20 Nov 1931  Mark
Aitchison Young (acting)      (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
20 Nov 1931 -  1 Mar 1938  Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope       (b. 1874 - d. 1947)
Sep 1937 - 24 Nov 1937     Sir William Denis Battershill      (b. 1896 - d. 1959)
                             (acting for Wauchope)
 3 Mar 1938 - 30 Aug 1944  Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael       (b. 1882 - d. 1969)
 1 Nov 1944 -  5 Nov 1945  John Standish Surtees Prendergast
  (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
                             Vereker, Viscount Gort         
21 Nov 1945 - 14 May 1948  Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham         (b. 1887 - d. 1983)
Chairmen of the Provisional State Council
14 May 1948 - 15 Jul 1948  David Ben-Gurion                   (b. 1886 - d. 1973)  Mapai
                             (from 16 May 1948, acting for absent Weizmann)
16 May 1948 - 17 Feb 1949  Chaim Weizmann                     (b. 1874 - d. 1952)  Non-party
                             (arrives in Israel 30 Sep 1948)                   
15 Jul 1948 - 30 Sep 1948  Yosef Sprinzak                     (b. 1885 - d. 1959)  Mapai
                             (acting for absent Weizmann)
Presidents

17 Feb 1949 -  9 Nov 1952  Chaim Weizmann                     (s.a.)               Non-party
 9 Nov 1952 - 10 Dec 1952  Yosef Sprinzak (interim)           (s.a.)               Mapai
10 Dec 1952 - 23 Apr 1963  Yitzhak Ben-Zvi                    (b. 1884 - d. 1963)  Mapai
24 Apr 1963 - 22 May 1963  Kadish Luz (interim)               (b. 1895 - d. 1972)  Mapai
22 May 1963 - 24 May 1973  Zalman Shazar                      (b. 1889 - d. 1974)  Mapai;Avoda
24 May 1973 - 29 May 1978  Ephraim Katzir                     (b. 1916 - d. 2009)  Avoda
29 May 1978 -  5 May 1983  Yitzhak Navon                      (b. 1921)            Mara
 5 May 1983 - 13 May 1993  Chaim Herzog                       (b. 1918 - d. 1997)  Mara+Avoda
13 May 1993 - 12 Jul 2000  Ezer Weizman                       (b. 1924 - d. 2005)  Avoda
12 Jul 2000 -  1 Aug 2000  Avraham Burg (interim)             (b. 1955)            Avoda
 1 Aug 2000 -  1 Jul 2007  Moshe Katzav                       (b. 1945)            Lik
                             (suspended from 27 Jan 2007)
25 Jan 2007 -  1 Jul 2007  Dalia Itzik (f)                    (b. 1952)            Kad
                             (acting for Katsav)
 1 Jul 2007 - 15 Jul 2007  
Dalia Itzik (f) (interim)          (s.a.)               Kad
15 Jul 2007 - 24 Jul 2014  Shimon Peres                       (b. 1923)            Kad
24 Jul 2014 -              Reuven Rivlin                      (b. 1939)            Lik


Prime ministers

14 May 1948 -  7 Dec 1953  David Ben-Gurion (1st time)        (s.a.)               Mapai 
                             (provisional to 10 Mar 1949)
 7 Dec 1953 -  2 Nov 1955  Moshe Sharett                      (b. 1894 - d. 1965)  Mapai

                             (acting to 26 Jan 1954)
 2 Nov 1955 - 21 Jun 1963  David Ben-Gurion (2nd time)        (s.a.)               M
apai 
21 Jun 1963 - 26 Feb 1969  Levi Eshkol                        (b. 1895 - d. 1969)  Mapai;Avoda
26 Feb 1969 - 17 Mar 1969  Yigal Allon (acting)               (b. 1918 - d. 1980)  Avoda
17 Mar 1969 -  3 Jun 1974  Golda Meir (f)                     (b. 1898 - d. 1978)  Avoda
 3 Jun 1974 - 22 Apr 1977  Yitzhak Rabin (1st time)           (b. 1922 - d. 1995)  Avoda
22 Apr 1977 - 21 Jun 1977  Shimon Peres (1st time)(acting)    (s.a.)               Avoda
21 Jun 1977 - 10 Oct 1983  Menachem Begin                     (b. 1913 - d. 1992)  Herut+Lik
10 Oct 1983 - 14 Sep 1984  Yitzhak Shamir (1st time)          (b. 1915 - d. 2012)  Herut+Lik
14 Sep 1984 - 20 Oct 1986  Shimon Peres (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Avoda
20 Oct 1986 - 13 Jul 1992  Yitzhak Shamir (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Lik
13 Jul 1992 -  4 Nov 1995  Yitzhak Rabin (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Avoda
 4 Nov 1995 - 18 Jun 1996  Shimon Peres (3rd time)            (s.a.)               Avoda
                             (acting to 22 Nov 1995)
18 Jun 1996 -  6 Jul 1999  Benjamin Netanyahu (1st time)      (b. 1949)            Lik
 6 Jul 1999 -  7 Mar 2001  Ehud Barak                         (b. 1942)            Avoda
 7 Mar 2001 - 14 Apr 2006  Ariel Sharon                       (b. 1928 - d. 2014)  Lik;
                             (incapacitated from 4 Jan 2006)                   21 Nov 2005 Kad
 4 Jan 2006 - 31 Mar 2009  Ehud Olmert                        (b. 1945)            Kad
                             (acting for Sharon to 14 Apr 2006)
31 Mar 2009 -              Benjamin Netanyahu (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Lik

 ¹Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital 13 Dec 1949 (enacted 23 Jan 1950) but the U.S.,
like nearly all other countries, maintains its embassy in Tel Aviv. 

 ²approximately 341,400 Israeli settlers live in the West Bank (2012); approximately 18,900 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2012); approximately 196,400 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2011)

Territorial Disputes: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in Aug 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region.

Party abbreviations: AvodaMifleget HaAvoda HaYisraelit (Israeli Labor Party, center-left, social-democratic, est.1968); Kad = Kadima (Forward, centrist, est.24 Nov 2005 by splinters of Lik & Avoda); Lik = HaLikud (The Consolidation, conservative, as a coalition 1973-1988 led by Herut; properly a party from 1988);
- Former parties:
Herut = Herut (Freedom, right-wing, revisionist zionist, 1948-1988, merged into Lik); Mapai = Mifleget Poalei Eretz Yisrael (Workers' Party of the Land of Israel, socialist, left-wing, 1930-23 Jan 1968, merged into Avoda); Mara = HaMa'arakh (The Alignment,
alliance of the major left-wing parties-
1965-68 Mapai + Labour Unity; 1969-91 Avoda + United Workers Party) 







© Ben Cahoon