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Sovereign Military Order of Malta

 
[Knights
                                    of Malta]
               Adopted 15 Feb 1113
[Knights
                                    of Malta Flag of the Grand Master]
      Flag of the Order's Works Adopted c.1305

SMOM website Hear SMOM Anthem
"Ave Crux Alba"
(Hail Thou White Cross)
Text of SMOM Anthem
Adopted: unknown
Constitutional Charter
(27 Jun 1961)
Headquarters: Palazzo di Malta
Via Condotti 68

(Rome, Italy)
Currency: Maltese Scudo
(1530-1798 and
from 1961)
National Holiday: 24 Jun
St. John's Day
 (Nativity of St. John the Baptist)
 Citizens: 3 (2006)
Total Knights/Dames Worldwide
:
13,500 (2013)
Budget: $N/A
Income: $N/A
Expenditures: $N/A
Religion: Roman Catholic 100%
International Organizations/Treaties: APM (observer), CE (observer), CTBTO (observer), EU (observer), FAO (observer), IADB (observer), IAEA (observer), ICCt (observer),  ICRC (observer), ICRM (observer), IFAD (observer),  IFRCS (observer), IOM (observer),  LU (permanent observer), OAS (observer), UN (observer), UNEP (observer), UNESCO (observer), UNHCR (observer), UNIDO (observer), WFP (observer), WHO (observer)
Sovereign
Military Order
of Malta
Chronology
 
c.1050                    Order of St. John founded.
15 Feb 1113               Pope Paschal II approved the foundation of the
                            Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem.
15 Aug 1310               The Knights Hospitaller occupy the island of 
                            Rhodes (Knights of St. John Hospitaller of
                            Jerusalem and Rhodes [Ordo Sacrae Domus Hospitalis
                            Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani]).
Apr 1383 - 1409           During the Great Schism in Papacy, the Order on
                            Rhodes, under Grand Master Fernández de 
                            Heredia, recognizes the Papal court at Avignon. 
                            As a consequence the Popes in Rome declare 
                            Heredia deposed and appointed Lieutenants in
                            his place, these were not recognized on Rhodes. 
24 Dec 1522               The Knights are expelled from Rhodes by Ottoman 
                            Empire.
23 Mar 1530               Malta granted as a fiefdom to the Knights of St.
                            John Hospitaller by Emperor Charles V (Tripoli
                            also granted but it was relinquished in 1551).
26 Oct 1530               Knights of St. John Hospitaller take possession
                            of Malta (Sovereign and Military Order of
                            the Knights of Malta); as a feudal fief of the
                            Kingdom of Sicily.
13 Nov 1530               Date of the formal enfeoffment of the Order with
                            the island of Malta by the King of Sicily
                            (in the event the Roman Emperor Charles V).
18 May 1565 - 8 Sep 1565  Ottoman siege of Malta.
1607                      Grand masters also made princes of Holy Roman
                            Empire (confirmed 1620).
1630                      Grand masters ecclesiastical precedence equal to
                            the dignity of a Cardinal of the Roman Church
                            with the style of "His Most Eminent Highness."
12 Jun 1798               French occupy Malta, expulsion the Knights.
 8 Sep 1800               British occupy Malta (making it a colony in 1813).
 9 Feb 1803               Notional re-establishment of the Order after the
                            loss of Malta.
14 Dec 1822               By the Treaty of Verona the Order is recognized as
                            a sovereign state.
1834                      Headquarters of the Order moved to the Palazzo di
                            Malta in Rome (Knights Hospitaller of St. John
                            of Jerusalem).
1869                      The Palazzo di Malta and the Villa Malta receive
                            extraterritorial rights, in this way becoming
                            the only "sovereign" territorial possessions of
                            modern the Order.
27 Jun 1961               Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John 
                            of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta (Sovrano
                            Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di
                            Gerusalemme, detto di Rodi, detto di Malta).
11 Jan 1969               Autonomy granted to the Order resident in Rome
                            by Italy.
24 Aug 1994               Permanent observer status at the United Nations
 1 Nov 2001               Malta government grants SMOM the use with limited
                            extraterritoriality of the upper portion of
                            Fort St Angelo in the city of Birgu for 99 years.
SMOM website
Diplomatic
Recognition List
Museum of the
Order website
American Assoc.
website
 
 
 
 
 
 
Note: Though without a territory since 12 Jun 1798, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta still regards itself, and is regarded by the states that give it diplomatic recognition¹, as a sovereign state. The Knights of Malta (full style Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta [SMOM]) now functions as a Roman Catholic charitable organization with limited diplomatic status as a "sovereign entity", complete with passports, coinage (via the world's smallest national mint), license plates, ITU amateur radio license prefix (1A) and a post office.


Grand Master
s¹
Feb 1113 -  3 Sep 1120     Gerardo Sasso (Blessed Gerard)         (b. c.1040 - d. 1120)
1120 - af.25 Oct 1158      Raymond du Puy de Provence             (b. 1083 - d. 1160)
bf.29Nov1160-af.11Mar1162  Auger, dit de Balben                   (d. 1162)
                            (some sources Arnaud de Comps,
                             probably suppositious)
1162 - 1163                Arnaud de Comps                        (d. 1163)
bf.19 Jan 1163 - 1169/1170 Gilbert d'Aissailly                    (d. 1183)
1169/1170 - 1172           Gastone de Murols                      (d. 1172)
1172/1173 - Oct 1177       Gérard Joubert de Syrie                (d. 1177)
1177 -  1 May 1187         Roger de Moulins                       (d. 1187)
1188                       Borrell (Provisor et custos)
1188 - 1189/1190           Ermengol d'Asp (Provisor et custos)    (d. 1192) 
                             (by some sources asserted to be Master)
1190 - af.Jun 1192         Garnier de Nablus                      (d. 1192)
1192 - 1202                Geoffroy de Donjon de Duisson          (d. 1202) 
1203 - 1206                Afonso, infante de Portugal            (b. 1135 - d. 1207) 
1206 - af.22 May 1207      Geoffroy Le Rat                        (d. 1207)
bf.Oct 1207-af.11 Nov 1227 Pierre Guérin de Montaigu (1st time)   (d. 1236)
bf.1 Mar 1228 - 1231       Bertrand de Thessy (Texis)             (d. 1231)
bf.1 May 1231-af.May 1236  Pierre Guérin de Montaigu (2nd time)   (s.a.)
bf.20 Sep 1236-1239/1240   Bertrand de Comps                      (d. 1240)
1239/1240 - 17 Sep 1242    Pierre de Vieille-Brioude              (d. 1242)
                             (Vieille-Bride)

1242 - af.24 Jun 1258      Guillaume de Chateauneuf               (d. 1258)
bf.9 Oct 1258-1 Apr 1277   Hugues de Revel                        (d. 1277)
bf.4 Aug 1277-12 Mar 1284  Nicolas de Lorgne                      (d. 1284)
bf.Sep 1285 - 20 Oct 1293  Jean de Villiers                       (d. 1293)
bf.30 Sep 1294-17 Mar 1296 Odon de Pins                           (d. 1296)
26 Mar 1296 - 1305         Guillaume de Villaret                  (d. 1305)
bf.3 Nov 1305 - Sep 1317   Foulques de Villaret (1st time)        (d. 1329)
18 Sep 1317 - 1319         Gérard de Pins (Lieutenant)
1317 - 1319                Maurice de Pagnac (in dissidence)      (d. 1322)
1319 - 13 Jun 1319         Foulques de Villaret (2nd time)        (s.a.)
18 Jun 1319 - May 1346     Hélion de Villeneuve                   (b. c.1270 – d. 1346)
May 1346 -  3 Dec 1353     Dieudonné de Gozon                     (d. 1353) 
                             (until 28 Jun 1346, Lieutenant)
 8 Dec 1353 - 24 Aug 1355  Pierre de Corneillan                   (d. 1355)
Aug 1355 - 28 May 1365     Roger de Pins                          (d. 1365)
 1 Jun 1365 - 16 Feb 1374  Raymond Bérenger                       (d. 1374)
Feb 1374 - 27 Jul 1377     Robert de Juilly (or de Juliac)        (d. 1377)
24 Oct 1377 - 24 Mar 1396  Juan Fernández de Heredia              (b. c.1310 – d. 1396)
Apr 1383 - 18 May 1395     Riccardo Caracciolo Rossi dei          (d. 1395) 
                             conti di Gerace
                             (appointed by Pope in Rome)
1395 - 25 Apr 1405         Bartolomeo Carafa della Spina          (d. 1405) 
                             (Lieutenant)
                             (appointed by Pope in Rome)
1405 - 1409                Nicola Orsini di Campodifiore 
                             (Lieutenant)
                             (appointed by Pope in Rome)
 6 May 1396 - Jun 1421     Philibert de Naillac                   (d. 1421)
 1 Jul 1421 - 26 Oct 1437  Antonio Fluvian de Riviere             (d. 1437)
 6 Nov 1437 - 19 May 1454  Jean Bonpar de Lastic                  (b. 1371 - d. 1454)
 1 Jun 1454 - 17 Aug 1461  Jacques de Milly (or Jobert de Milly)  (d. 1461)
24 Aug 1461 - 21 Feb 1467  Pietro Raimondo Zacosta                (d. 1467)
28 Feb 1467 -  8 Jun 1476  Giovanni Battista Orsini dei           (d. 1476) 
                             conti di Gravina
17 Jun 1476 -  3 Jul 1503  Pierre d'Aubusson                      (b. 1423 - d. 1503)
10 Jul 1503 - 13 Nov 1512  Aimery d'Amboise, dit Chaumont         (b. 1434 - d. 1512)
22 Nov 1512 - 24 Nov 1513  Guy de Blanchefort                     (b. 1446 - d. 1513)
15 Dec 1513 - 10 Jan 1521  Fabrizio Del Carretto dei marchesi     (b. 1455 - d. 1521)
                             del Finale
22 Jan 1521 - 22 Aug 1534  Philippe Villiers de l'Isle-Adam       (b. 1464 – d. 1534)  
26 Aug 1534 - 12 Nov 1535  Pietro di Antonio Giovanni del Ponte   (b. 1462 - d. 1535)
                             dei signori di Lombriasco e Casal Gros       
                             (takes office 10 Nov 1534)
22 Nov 1535 - 26 Sep 1536  Didier de Saint-Jaille, dit Tholon     (d. 1536)
20 Oct 1536 -  6 Sep 1553  Juan de Omedes y Coscón                (b. 1473 - d. 1553) 
11 Sep 1553 - 18 Aug 1557  Claude de la Sengle                    (b. 1494 – d. 1557)
18 Aug 1557 - 21 Aug 1568  Jean Parisot de La Valette             (b. 1494 - d. 1568)
                            
(Lieutenant to 21 Aug 1557)
23 Aug 1568 - 26 Jan 1572  Pietro Ciocchi Del Monte San Savino
    (b. 1499 - d. 1572)
27 Jan 1572 - 21 Dec 1581  Jean de la Cassière, dit l'Évesque     (b. 1503 - d. 1581)
 6 Jul 1581 -  4 Nov 1581  Maturin de Lescaut, dit Romegas        (b. c.1525 - d. 1581)
                             (
lieutenant; in dissidence)
12 Jan 1582 -  4 May 1595  Hugues de Loubenx des seigneurs        (b. 1531 - d. 1595)
                             (from 18 Dec 1587, Cardinal)
                             de Loubenx et de Verdalle

 8 May 1595 -  7 Feb 1601  Martín Garcés (Garzez)                 (b. 1526 - d. 1601)
10 Feb 1601 - 14 Sep 1622  Alof de Wignacourt (Vignacourt)        (b. 1547 - d. 1622)
17 Sep 1622 -  7 Mar 1623  Luís Mendes de Vasconcellos y Paiz     (b. 1542? - d. 1623)
                             de Oliveira
          
10 Mar 1623 -  7 Jun 1636  Antoine de Paule                       (b. 1552? - d. 1636)
                             (takes office 20 Mar 1623)
16 Jun 1636 - 14 Aug 1657  Giovanni Paolo di Giannetto Lascaris   (b. 1561 - d. 1657)
                             di Castellaro, dei conti di Ventimiglia
17 Aug 1657 -  6 Feb 1660  Martín de Redín y Cruzat Redín y       (b. 1590 - d. 1660)
                             Esparza              
 9 Feb 1660 -  2 Jun 1660  Annet de Clermont de Chaste (Chatte)   (b. 1587 - d. 1660)
                             des seigneurs de Geyssans
 5 Jun 1660 - 20 Oct 1663  Rafael Cotoner i d'Olesa Santmartí i   (b. 1601 - d. 1663)
                             Camfulles                            
23 Oct 1663 - 29 Apr 1680  Nicolau Cotoner i d'Olesa Santmartí    (b. 1608 - d. 1680)
                             i Camfulles           
 2 May 1680 - 20 Jul 1690  Gregorio Carafa dei principi della     (b. 1615 - d. 1690)
                             Roccella
27 Jul 1690 -  4 Feb 1697  Pierre-Adrien de Wignacourt            (b. 1619 - d. 1697)
                             (Vignacourt)         
 5 Feb 1697 - 10 Jan 1720  Ramon Rabassa de Perellós i de         (b. 1637 - d. 1720)
                             Roccafull Híjar i Vives de Boíl,
                             dels senyors de Benetússer i Barons
                             de Dosaigües
        
14 Jan 1720 - 16 Jun 1722  Marc'Antonio Chigi Zondadari dei       (b. 1658 - d. 1722)
                             marchesi di San Quirico 
19 Jun 1722 - 12 Dec 1736  António Manuel de Vilhena, dos condes  (b. 1663 - d. 1736)
                             de Vila Flor           
16 Dec 1736 - 15 Jan 1741  Ramon Despuig i Martínez de Marcilla   (b. 1670 - d. 1741)
                             Rocabertí de Dameto i Ram de Montoro,
                             dels comtes de Montenegro i Montoro
18 Jan 1741 - 24 Jan 1773  Manuel Pinto da Fonseca                (b. 1681 - d. 1773)
28 Jan 1773 -  9 Nov 1775  Francisco Antonio Ximénez de Tejada y  (b. 1703 - d. 1775)
                             Eslava López de Mirafuentes y Vicuña
                             Zozaya, de los señores de Sobrarbe y
                             condes de Aragón
 
12 Nov 1775 - 13 Jul 1797  François-Marie-des-Neiges Emmanuel de  (b. 1725 - d. 1797)
                             Rohan, comte du Polduc, seigneur de
                             Henleix
 
17 Jul 1797 - 26 Aug 1798  Ferdinand Joseph Hermann Freiherr von  (b. 1744 - d. 1805)
                             Hompesch zu Bollheim 
                            (abandons Malta 18 Jun 1798, declared
                             deposed
26 Aug 1798; abdicates 6 Jul 1799)
10 Sep 1798-23/24 Mar 1801 Pavel Petrovich                        (b. 1754 - d. 1801)
                            (Emperor Paul I of Russia;
                             to 7 Nov 1798 Protector of the Order
                             and acting Grand Master)
Lieutenants of the Grand Master (acting as Grand Masters)
24 Mar 1801 -  9 Feb 1803  Prince Nikolay Ivanovich Graf Saltykov (b. 1736 - d. 1816)
1802 -  9 Feb 1803         Giuseppe Caracciolo di Santobuono      (b. 1763 - d. 1837)
                             e Cellamare (1st time) 
                             (in opposition, appointed by the Pope)
 9 Feb 1803 - 13 Jun 1805  Giovanni Battista Tommasi de Cortona   (b. 1731 - d. 1805)
17 Jun 1805 - 10 Feb 1809  Giuseppe Caracciolo di Santobuono      (s.a.)
                             e Cellamare -Grand Master
                             (2nd time) (in opposition)
15 Jun 1805 - 25 Apr 1814  Innico Maria Guevara Suardo            (b. 1744 - d. 1814)
                             (confirmed 5 Dec 1805)
26 Apr 1814 - 10 Jun 1821  Andrea Di Giovanni e Centelles
        (b. 1742 - d. 1821)
                             (confirmed 25 Jun 1814)
11 Jun 1821 - 19 May 1834  Antonio Busca Arconati Visconti        (b. 1767 - d. 1834)
23 May 1834 - 12 Jul 1845  Conte Carlo Candida                    (b. 1762 - d. 1845)
15 Sep 1845 -  9 Oct 1864  Philipp Graf von Colloredo-Mels        (b. 1779 - d. 1864)
                             und-Waldsee (confirmed 30 Sep 1845) 
26 Feb 1865 - 13 Jan 1872  Alessandro Ponsian Borgia              (b. 1783 - d. 1872)
14 Feb 1872 - 28 Mar 1879  Baron Giovanni Battista Ceschi a       (b. 1827 - d. 1905)
                             Santa Croce, conte di Cavedine
Grand Masters
28 Mar 1879 - 24 Jan 1905  Baron Giovanni Battista Ceschi a       (s.a.)
                             Santa Croce    
24 Jan 1905 -  6 Mar 1905  Alessandro Capranica, dei marchese
    (b. c.1830 - d. 19..)
                             Capranica del Grillo                 
                            (ad-interim lieutenant; acting)
 6 Mar 1905 - 26 Mar 1931  Galeazzo Maria Graf von Thun und       (b. 1850 - d. 1931) 
                             Hohenstein

26 Mar 1931 - 30 May 1931  Pio Franchi de' Cavalieri              (b. 1869 - d. 1960)
                            (ad interim lieutenant; acting)
30 May 1931 - 14 Nov 1951  Ludovico Chigi Della Rovere Albani,    (b. 1866 - d. 1951)
                             principe di Farnese, di Campagnano 
                             e di Soriano, duca di Ariccia e di
                             Formello, marchese di Magliano
                             Pecorareccio, signore di Castelfusano,
                             Cesano, Scrofano e dell'Olgiata
14 Nov 1951 - 25 Apr 1955  Conte Palatino Antonio Hercolani       (b. 1883 - d. 1962)
                             Fava Simonetti
                            (ad interim lieutenant; acting)
25 Apr 1955 - 11 May 1962  Ernesto Vittorio Maria Vincenzo Luigi  (b. 1882 - d. 1971)
                             Paternò-Castello dei duchi di Càrcaci 
                            (lieutenant of the grand master; acting)
11 May 1962 - 17 Jan 1988  Angelo De Mojana dei signori di        (b. 1905 - d. 1988)
                             Cologna
17 Jan 1988 - 11 Apr 1988  Giancarlo Pallavicini                  (b. 1911 - d. 1999)
                             (ad-interim lieutenant; acting)
11 Apr 1988 -  7 Feb 2008  Andrew Willoughby Ninian Bertie        (b. 1929 - d. 2008)
 7 Feb 2008 - 11 Mar 2008  Giacomo Dalla Torre del Tempio di      (b. 1944)
                             Sanguinetto, conte di Sanguinetto
                            (ad-interim lieutenant; acting)
11 Mar 2008 -              Robert Matthew Festing                 (b. 1949)
 

Grand Chancellors
1959 -  3 Feb 1965         Don Vincenzo di Napoli Rampolla        (b. 1898 - d. 1965)
                             Barresi Bellacera, prince di Resuttano
12 Mar 1965 - Jan 1968     Carlo Lovera di Castiglione, dei       (b. 1884 - d. 19..)
                             marchese di Maria (ad interim)
Jan 1968 - 1978            Quintin Peter Thorsby Jermy Gwyn       (b. 1906 - d. 1994)
12 Nov 1978 - 15 Feb 1980  Vittorio Marullo di Condojanni         (b. 1907 - d. 1982)
                             (ad-interim)
15 Feb 1980 - 19 Apr 1997  Felice, barone Catalano di Melilli     (b. 1914 - d. 2003) 
19 Apr 1997 -  1 Oct 2001  Carlo, conte Marullo di Condojanni,    (b. 1946)
                             principe di Casalnuovo 
                             (acting ad-interim for di Melilli in 1995)
 1 Oct 2001 - 16 Apr 2005  Jacques, comte de Liedekerke           (b. 1928)
                             (acting to 1 Jan 2002)
16 Apr 2005 - 31 May 2014  Jean-Pierre Mazery                     (b. 1942)
                             (acting for Liedekerke from 3 Nov 2004)
31 May 2014 -              Albrecht Freiherr von Boeselager       (b. 1949)

 ¹full style of the Grand masters:
 (a) to 1798: Dei Gratia Sacrae Domus Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani et militaris Ordinis Sancti Sepulchri Dominici Magister humilis pauperumque Iesu Christi custos (the phrase et militaris Ordinis Sancti Sepulchri Dominici ceases to be effective 4 Nov 1497, but is not deleted)("By the Grace of God, Grand Master of the Sacred Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem and of the military Order of the Holy Sepulcher, humble guardian of the poor of Jesus Christ");
 (b) 10 Dec 1798 - 24 Mar 1801: Velikiy Magistr Ordena Svyatogo Ioanna Ierusalimskogo ("Grand master of the Holy Order of St. John of Jerusalem");
 (c) from 9 Feb 1803: Gran Maestro ("Grand master"); in common official use to 1805: Principe e Gran Maestro ("Prince and Grand master"); Long form: "His Most Eminent Highness, Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta, Most Humble Guardian of the Poor of Jesus Christ."

 2 Currently the SMOM maintains diplomatic relations with 104 countries: Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, The Bahamas, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Kinshasa), Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madagascar, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, The Sudan, Suriname, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vatican City and Venezuela. The Order of Malta also has official relations with: Belgium, Canada, European Union, France, Germany, Luxembourg and Switzerland. The Order of Malta has relations at Ambassador level with: Palestinian Authority.







© Ben Cahoon