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Saint Kitts and Nevis
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                                 to 1871
 
[Leeward Islands 1871-1958]  
                 1871 - Dec 1958 Leeward Islands
 
[Saint
                                    Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla flag
                                    1958-67]
                       Dec 1958 - 27 Feb 1967
 
[St.
                                    Christopher, Nevis and Anguilla
                                    1967]  
                    27 Feb 1967 - 30 May 1967
 
[St.
                                    Christopher, Nevis and Anguilla
                                    1967-83]  
                   30 May 1967 - 19 Sep 1983 
 
Saint Kitts and Nevis
                Adopted 19 Sep 1983
Map of St. Kitts and Nevis
Hear National Anthem
"Oh Land of Beauty!"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1983
Constitution
 (19 Sep 1983)
Capital: Basseterre
(Old Road 1623-1727)
Currency: East Caribbean
Dollar (XCD) 
National Holiday: 19 Sep (1983)
Independence Day
Population: 501,134 (2013)
GDP: $952 million (2013) 
Exports: $57.3 million (2013)
Imports: $355.4 million (2013)
Ethnic groups: black 90.4%, mulatto 5%, Indo-Pakistani 3%,
British, Portuguese, and Lebanese 1%, other 0.6% (2000)
 Total Active Armed Forces: 70 (2012)
Paramilitary Force: 112 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 152 ships (2010) 
Religions: Protestant 75% (of which Anglican 24%,
Methodist 23%),
Roman Catholic 11%, other 14% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ACS, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, C, Caricom, CCM, CDB, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ECCB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IRENA, ISA, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO
St. Kitts and
Nevis Index
Chronology

12 Nov 1493                St. Kitts discovered and claimed for Spain by
                             Columbus, named Isla de San Jorge.
1623                       Saint Christopher (St. Kitts) an English colony.
1625                       French also settle on Saint-Christophe.
13 May 1627 - 16 Jul 1702  Island divided into separate English St. Kitts
                             (the center) and French Saint-Christophe
                             (both ends) colonies.
Apr 1666 - 1671            French occupy entire island.
1689 - Jun 1690            French occupy entire island.
Jun 1690 - 20 Sep 1697     English occupy entire island.
Jan 1671 - 16 Oct 1816     Part of Leeward Islands colony (see Antigua).
1701 - 1704                Under direct rule from Antigua.
16 Jul 1702                British annex French part the island.
22 Feb 1706 - Mar 1706     French occupation.
11 Apr 1713                English possession confirmed by Treaty of Utrecht.
12 Feb 1782 -  3 Sep 1783  Occupied by France.
1816 - 1871                Part of Colony of St. Christopher, Nevis, 
                             Anguilla, and the British Virgin Islands.
1833 -  1 Jan 1960         Part of Leeward Islands colony (see Antigua).
1882                       Islands united as Saint Christopher-Nevis-
                             Anguilla.
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  Part of the Federation of the West Indies 
                             (see Trinidad and Tobago).
27 Feb 1967                Associated state
13 Apr 1980                Renamed Saint Christopher and Nevis.
19 Dec 1980                Final separation of Anguilla.
19 Sep 1983                Independence (Federation of Saint Kitts and 
                             Nevis); Nevis granted limited self-government.
10 Aug 1998                Nevis independence referendum fails.

Saint-Christophe
(1625-1702)
Nevis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Governors
1623 - 1649                Sir Thomas Warner                  (b. 1580 - d. 1649)
1649 - 1651                Rowland Rich (or Redge)
1651 - 1660                Clement Everard
1660 - Apr 1666            William Watts                      (d. 1666)
Apr 1666 - 1671            French rule (see Saint-Christophe)
Deputy governors
1671 - 1681                Abednego Mathew                    (b. 1633? - d. 1681)
1682 - 1697                Thomas Hill
1697 - 1701                James Norton
1701 - 1704                None, direct rule from Antigua
1704 - 1706                Walter Hamilton
22 Feb 1706 - Mar 1706     Henri Louis de Chavagnac,          (b. 1664 - d. 1743)
                             comte de Chavagnac
1706 - 1715                Michael Lambert
1715 - 1733                William Mathews, Jr.               (b. 1684 - d. 1752)
1733 - 1769                Gilbert Fleming
1769 - Feb 1782            None, direct rule from Antigua
Feb 1782 - 1783            François Joseph Paul de Grasse,    (b. 1722 - d. 1788)
                             comte de Grasse -Governor
1783 - 1816                None, direct rule from Antigua
Presidents

1759 - 1769                James Verchild                     (b. 1710 - d. 1769)
1769 - 17..                Richard Hawkshaw Losack            (b. 1730 - d. 1813)
17.. - 1775?               Lewis Brotherson
                   (b. c.1736 - d. c.1816)
1775 - 1780                Craister Greathead                 (d. 1780)
c.Jan 1781                 Anthony Johnson
c.1788/89/91               John Nugent                        (b. 17.. - d. 1814)
c.1793 - 1795              John Stanley
c.1796 - Oct 1796          Archibald Esdail
Oct 1796 - 15 Apr 1797     John J. Thomas                     (d. 1797)
15 Apr 1797 - 1798?        Robert Thomson (1st time)
c.Mar 1798 - 1800?         Richard Iles
c.1800 - Jul 1802          Robert Thomson (2nd time)
Jul 1802 - 180.            Samuel Harman
 
1 Aug 1807 - Nov 1808     William Woodley                    (b. 17.. - d. 1809)
Nov 1808 -  7 Sep 1809     James Tyson                        (b. 17.. - d. 1809)
1809 - 1814/15             John Julius                        (b. 1768 - d. 1815)
1815 - 13 May 1816         Stedman Rawlins
Governors

13 May 1816 - 15 Jul 1816  Stedman Rawlins (acting)
15 Jul 1816 - 10 Jan 1819  Thomas Probyn                      (d. 1871)
10 Jan 1819 - 27 Sep 1819
  John W.D. Wilson (2nd time)(acting)
27 Sep 1819 -  7 May 1820
  Charles William Maxwell (1st time) (b. 1776 - d. 1848)
 
7 May 1820 - 20 Dec 1821  John W.D. Wilson (1st time)(acting)
20 Dec 1821 - 
2 Jul 1827  Charles William Maxwell (2nd time) (s.a.)
 
2 Jul 1827 -  5 Dec 1828  Stedman Rawlins (acting)
 5 Dec 1828 - 11 Jan 1832  Charles William Maxwell (3rd time) (s.a.) 
11 Jan 1832 - 1833         William Nicolay                    (b. 1771 - d. 1842)

Lieutenant governors
20 Apr 1833 - 1836         John Lyons Nixon                   (b. c.1773 - d. 1836)
1836 - 1837                William Greatheed Crooke (acting)
1837                       Henry Light (acting)
1837 - 1839                Henry George Macleod               (b. 1791 - d. 1847)
1839 - 14 Jan 1847         Charles Thornton Cunningham        (b. 1797 - d. 1847)
1847                       Robert T. Claxton (acting)
1847 - 1850                Robert James Mackintosh            (b. 1806 - d. 1864)
1850 - 1855                Edward Hay Drummond Hay            (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
1855 - 1859                Hercules George Robert Robinson    (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
1859 - 1860                Thomas Price (acting)
1860 - 1866                Benjamin Chilly Campbell Pine      (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
1866 - 1867                James Richard Holligan (acting)    (b. 1820 - d. 1869)
1867                       Sir Arthur Carlos Henry Rumbold    (b. 1820 - d. 1869)
                             (acting)
1867 - 1868                James George Mackenzie
1868 - 1870                William Wellington Cairns          (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
Administrator
1870 - 1872                Francis Spencer Wigley             (b. 1844 - d. 1911)
Presidents
1872 - 1873                James Samuel Berridge              (b. 1806 - d. 1885)
 6 Feb 1873 - 1883         Alexander Wilson Moir              (b. 1825 - d. 1897)
1883 - Oct 1888            Charles Monroe Eldridge            (b. 1825 - d. 1888)
                             (acting to 1885)
1888 - 1889                Francis Spencer Wigley (acting)    (s.a.)
Commissioner
1889 - 1895                John Kemys Spencer-Churchill       (b. 1835 - d. 1913)
Administrators
1895 - 1899                Thomas Risely Griffith             (b. 1848 - d. ....)
1899 - 1904                Charles Thomas Cox                 (b. 1858 - d. 1933)
1904 - 1906                Sir Robert Bromley                 (b. 1874 - d. 1906)
1906 - 1916                Thomas Laurence Roxburgh           (b. 1853 - d. 1945)
1916 - 1925                John Alder Burdon                  (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
1925 - 1929                Thomas Reginald St. Johnston       (b. 1881 - d. 1950)
1929 - 1931                Terence Charles Macnaghten         (b. 1872 - d. 1944)
1931 - 1940                Douglas Roy Stewart                (b. 1886 - d. 1939)
1940 - 1947                James Dundas Harford               (b. 1899 - d. 1993)
1947 - 1949                Leslie Stuart Greening             (b. 1902 - d. 1986)
1949                       Frederick Mitchell Noad            (b. 1895 - d. 19..)
1949 - 1956                Hugh Burrowes                      (b. 1909)
15 Mar 1956 - 1966         Henry Anthony Camillo Howard       (b. 1913 - d. 1977)
1966 - 27 Feb 1967         Frederick Albert Phillips          (b. 1918 - d. 2011)
Governors
27 Feb 1967 - 1969         Sir Frederick Albert Phillips      (s.a.)
1969 - 1975                Milton Pensonville Allan           (b. 1888 - d. 1981)
                             (from 1 Sep 1972, Sir Milton Pensonville Allen) 
                             (acting to Aug 1972)
1975 - 26 Nov 1981         Sir Probyn Ellsworth-Innis         (b. 1936?)
27 Nov 1981 - 19 Sep 1983  Clement Athelston Arrindell        (b. 1932 - d. 2011)
                             (from 20 Jul 1983, Sir Clement Athelston Arrindell)
Queen¹
19 Sep 1983 -              the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general  (representing the British monarch as head of state)
19 Sep 1983 - 31 Dec 1995  Sir Clement Athelston Arrindell    (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1996 -  2 Jan 2013  Sir Cuthbert Montraville Sebastian (b. 1921)
 2 Jan 2013 -              Sir Edmund Wickham Lawrence        (b. 1935)

Chief ministers
 1 Jan 1960 - Jul 1966     Caleb Azariah Paul Southwell       (b. 1913 - d. 1979)  SKLP
Jul 1966 - 27 Feb 1967     Robert Llewelyn Bradshaw           (b. 1916 - d. 1978)  SKLP
Premiers
27 Feb 1967 - 23 May 1978  Robert Llewelyn Bradshaw           (s.a.)               SKLP
23 May 1978 - 18 May 1979  Caleb Azariah Paul Southwell       (s.a.)               PAM
20 May 1979 - 21 Feb 1980  Lee Llewellyn Moore                (b. 1939 - d. 2000)  SKLP
21 Feb 1980 - 19 Sep 1983  Kennedy Alphonse Simmonds          (b. 1936)            PAM
Prime ministers
19 Sep 1983 -  7 Jul 1995  Kennedy Alphonse Simmonds          (s.a.)               PAM
 7 Jul 1995 -              Denzil Llewellyn Douglas           (b. 1953)            SKLP

  ¹Full style:
(a) 19 Sep 1983 - 1983: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of The Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(b) from 1983: "By the Grace of God, of Saint Christopher and Nevis, Queen, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Dispute: Joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea.

Party abbreviations: PAM = People's Action Movement (St. Kitts, conservative, est.1965); SKLP = Saint Kitts and Nevis Labour Party (social-democratic, center left, until 1966 named St. Kitts Workers League, est.1932)


Saint-Christophe
 
Map of Saint-Christophe
Capital: Basseterre

1625                       French settle on St. Christopher.
13 May 1627 - 16 Jul 1702  Island divided into separate English St. Christopher
                             (the center) and French Saint-Christophe
                             (both ends) colonies; French colony is 
                             under Compagnie de Saint-Christophe rule
                             to 1635.
1628 - 16 Jul 1702         Part of the French Antilles colony 
                             (see Martinique).
1635 - 1651                Under Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique rule.
1651 - 1665                Possession of the Knights of Malta.
1665                       French colony.
1665 - 1674                Under Compagnie des Indes Occidentales rule.
Apr 1666 - 1671            French occupy entire island.
1689 - Jun 1690            French occupy entire island.
Jun 1690 - 20 Sep 1697     English occupy entire island.
16 Jul 1702                British annex French part as part of St. Kitts.
11 Apr 1713                English possession confirmed by Treaty of Utrecht.

Governors
1625 - 1636                Pierre Belain, sieur d'Esnambuc    (b. 1585 - d. 1636)
1636 - 1638                Pierre, sieur du Halde
1638 - 1639                René de Béthoulat de La Grange-
                             Formenteau
1639 - 1644                Phillippe Longvilliers de Poincy   (b. 1583 - d. 1660)
                             (1st time)
1644 - 1646                Robert Longvilliers de Poincy      (b. 1611 - d. 1666)
1646 - 1660                Phillippe Longvilliers de Poincy   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1660 - 1666                Charles de Sales                   (b. 1626 - d. 1666)
1666 - 1689                Claude de Roux de Saint-Laurent,   (d. 1689)
                             chevalier de Saint-Laurent
1689 - Jun 1690            Charles de Peychpeyrou-Comminge    (b. 16.. - d. 1702)
                             de Guitaut, chevalier de Guitaud
                             (1st time)(interim)
Jun 1690 - 1698            English rule
1698 - 1699                Charles de Peychpeyrou-Comminge    (s.a.)
                             de Guitaut, chevalier de Guitaud
                             (2nd time)(interim)
1699 - 16 Jul 1702         Jean-Baptiste, comte d'Oyac de     (b. 1656 - d. 1705)
                             Gennes    



Nevis

Nevis flag
                      Adopted 1983
 
Map of Nevis Capital: Charlestown Local Holiday:
3 Aug (1834)
Emancipation Day
Population: 12,589 (2008)

12 Nov 1493                Discovered and claimed for Spain by Columbus and 
                             named Isla San Martin, later renamed Isla Nuestra Señora
                             de Las Nieves.
22 Jul 1628                English colony (until 1671 subordinated to Barbados).
24 Feb 1706                Failed French invasion.
Jan 1671 - 1816            Part of Leeward Islands colony (see Antigua).
1701 - 1704                Under direct rule from Antigua.
Feb 1782 -  3 Sep 1783     Occupied by France (named Niévès).
1816 - 1871                Part of Colony of St. Christopher, Nevis, 
                             Anguilla, and the British Virgin Islands.
1833 -  1 Jan 1960         Part of Leeward Islands colony (see Antigua).
1882                       Part of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla colony.
18 Aug 1977                Referendum for secession, organized by the Nevis Reformation
                             Party (total 4,220 persons who voted, 4,193 voted for
                             secession, 14 persons voted no). Declared void by St. Kitts
19 Sep 1983                Part of independent St. Kitts and Nevis, with limited self-rule.
13 Oct 1997                Nevis parliament votes for separation from St. Kitts.
10 Aug 1998                Independence referendum fails, 61.7% vote yes
                             however, 66.7% was required for approval.

Governors
22 Jul 1628 - 1629         Anthony Hilton (1st time)
1629 - 1630                George Hay
1630 - 1631                Anthony Hilton (2nd time)
1631 - 1634                Thomas Littleton
1634 - 1635                Luke Stokes (1st time)
1635 - 1637                Thomas Sparrow
1637 - 1638                Henry Huncks
1639                       John Jennings
1640                       Jenkin Lloyd
1640 - 1641                John Meakem
1641                       John Kettleby
1641 - 1649                Jacob Lake                         (d. 1649)
1649 - 1657                Luke Stokes (2nd time)
1657 - 1671                James Russell
1672 - 1685                William Stapleton                  (d. 1686)
                             (from 1679, Sir William Stapleton)
Deputy governors
(Lieutenant governors)
1672 - 1676                Randall Russell
1685                       William Burt
1685 - 1687                James Russell
1687 - 1691                John Netheway
1692 - 1699                Samuel Gardner
1699 - 1702                Roger Elrington
1702 - 1703                Christopher Codrington?
                             (acting)
1703 - 1706                John Johnson
1706 - 1712                Walter Hamilton
1712 - 1722                Daniel Smith
May 1722 - 1732            Charles Sibourg                    (b. 16.. - d. 1733)
1732 - 1737                William Hanmer
1741 - 1761?               Lancelot Storey                    (d. 1761?)
1761 - c.1771              James Johnston
1796 - c.1831?             William Boothby
Presidents

c.1732 - 1744              Michael Smith
1745 - 1756                James Symonds
1756 - 1761                William Maynard
1762 - 1766                John Richardson Herbert (1st time) (b. 1732 - d. 1793)
1766                       Charles Pym Burt
1766 - 1782                John Richardson Herbert (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting to 1767)
Feb 1782 - 1783            François Claude Amor, marquis      (b. 1739 - d. 1800)
                             de Bouille -Governor
1784 - Jan 1793            John Richardson Herbert (3rd time) (s.a.)
1793? - 1803               John Browne                        (d. 1803)
1803? - 1807?              John Colhoun Mills                 (d. 1828)
1807? - bf.1827            Thomas John Cottle                 (b. 1761 - d. 1828)
c.1833 - 1840?             James Daniell
1840? - 1841?              Josiah Webbe Maynard
1841 -  7 Mar 1842         Ralph Brush Cleghorn               (b. 1804 - d. 1842)
1842 - 1844                Laurence Graeme                    (b. 1797 - d. 1850)
1845 - 1854                Willoughby J. Shortland            (b. 1804 - d. 1869)
1854 - 1857                Frederick Seymour                  (b. 1820 - d. 1869)
1857 - 1860                Carlo Arthur Edward Rumbold        (b. 1820 - d. 1869)
1860 - 1864                George Cavell Webbe                (b. 1799? - d. 1871)
Jul 1864 -  9 Mar 1866     James Watson Sheriff               (d. 1866)
1866 - 1869                James George Mackenzie
1869 - 1870                William Wellington Cairns          (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
1870 - 1872                Francis Spencer Wigley             (b. 1844 - d. 1911)
Apr 1872 - May 1873        Charles Monroe Eldridge            (b. 1825 - d. 1888)
1873 - 1876                Alexander Augustus Melfort         (b. 1827 - d. 1890)
                             Campbell
1876 - 1877                Roger Tuckfield Goldsworthy        (b. 1839 - d. 1900)
 6 Apr 1877 - 1878         Arthur Elibank Havelock            (b. 1844 - d. 1908)
1879 - 1882                Charles Spencer Salmon             (b. 1832 - d. 1896)
Jul 1882 - Dec 1882        William Henry Whyham
Wardens (magistrates)

1882 - 1888                ....
1888 - 1890                C.G. Evelyn
1890 - 1903                Robert Julian Orde Jocelyn,        (b. 1845 - d. 1915)
                             Earl of Roden
c.1903 - c.1910            Charles Arthur Shand               (b. 1855 - d. 1910)
c.1912 - c.1920            C.C. Greaves
1920 - 1925                Frederick Henry Watkins
 1 Oct 1925 - 1937         Arthur Charles Kent Tibbits        (d. 1940)       
1937 - 1939                Stedman Esdaille Moir
Dec 1939 - Jan 1946        Hugh Burrowes                      (b. 1909 - d. ....)
1946 - 1955                Edward Arthur Evelyn               (b. 1904 - d. ....)
 1 Feb 1955 - 1958         Donald St.C. Brookes               (b. 1924)
1959  (6 months)           Cecil Oliver Byron (1st time)      (b. 1916 - d. 2007)
                             (acting)
1959 - 1963                Walter Leonard Maguire             (b. 1909 - d. ....)
1963 - 1969                Roland Spencer Byron
1969 - 1980                Eric Crell (?)                     (b. 1916 - d. 1987)
Mar 1980 - 1983            Cecil Oliver Byron (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Deputy Governors-general

19 Sep 1983 -  5 Jun 1992  Weston Parris                      (b. 1927? - d. 1992)
 5 Jun 1992 - 15 Jan 1994  Vacant
15 Jan 1994 -              Eustace John                       (b. 1939)

Premiers
19 Sep 1983 -  2 Jun 1992  Simeon Daniel                      (b. 1934 - d. 2012)  NRP
 2 Jun 1992 - 11 Jul 2006  Vance Winkworth Amory (1st time)   (b. 1949)            CCM
11 Jul 2006 - 23 Jan 2013  Joseph Walcott Parry               (b. 1951?)           NRP
23 Jan 2013 -              Vance Winkworth Amory (2nd time)   (s.a.)               CCM

Party abbreviations: CCM = Concern Citizens Movement (Nevis regionalist, pro-independence, est.1987); NRP = Nevis Reformation Party (Nevis regionalist, pro-autonomy, est.1970)







 © Ben Cahoon