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Antigua and Barbuda 
 

[Flag of the United Kingdom]
to 1874
 
[Leeward
                          Islands colony 1874-1956]
1874 - 1956  Leeward Islands
 
[Antigua flag
                          1956-1958]
1956 - 1958
 
[Antigua flag
                          1958-1967]
1958 - 27 Feb 1967
 
[Antigua and Barbuda
                          flag]
Adopted 27 Feb 1967

Map of Antigua
and Barbuda
Hear National Anthem
"Fair Antigua, We
Salute Thee"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1967 (lyrics 1981)
Constitution
(1 Nov 1981)
Capital: Saint John's
Currency: East Caribbean
Dollar (XCD) 
National Holiday: 1 Nov (1981)
Independence Day
Population: 94,731 (2017)
GDP: $2.39 billion (2017)
Exports: $61.3 million (2017)
Imports: $420.7 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: black 87.3%, mixed 4.7%, hispanic 2.7%,
white 1.6%, other 2.7%, unspecified 0.9% (2011)
Total Armed Forces: 260 (2018)
Merchant marine: 964 ships (2017)
Religions: Protestant 68.3% (Anglican 17.6%, Seventh Day
 Adventist 12.4%, Pentecostal 12.2%, Moravian 8.3%,
Methodist 5.6%, Wesleyan Holiness 4.5%, Church of God 4.1%, Baptist 3.6%), Roman Catholic 8.2%, other 12.2%,
unspecified 5.5%, none 5.9% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ACS, ALBA, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, C, Caricom, CCM, CDB, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ECCB, ECCU, ENMOD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IRENA, ISA, ISO (subscriber),  ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, OST, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO (signatory), UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Antigua and Barbuda Index
Chronology

10 Nov 1493                Antigua discovered and claimed for Spain by Columbus
                             and named Isla Santa María de la Antigua.
1520                       Visited by a party of Spanish under Don Antonio
                             Serrano.
 2 Jul 1627                Granted to James, Earl of Carlisle by King Charles I
                             of England (as part of the Islands of Carlisle
                             Province, also called Carliola).
1632                       Antigua
(spelled Antego, later Antegoa, Antigoa)
                            
an English colony.
29 Apr 1650 - 17 Jan 1652  Loyal to Royalist forces of King Charles II
                             during the English Civil War.
1663                       English crown colony.
 
4 Nov 1666 - 12 Nov 1666  French occupation of Antigua.
30 Nov 1666 - May 1667     French occupation of Antigua.

25 Jan 1671 - 16 Oct 1816  Part of Leeward Islands colony (Antigua, Barbuda,
                             Montserrat, Saint Christopher, Nevis, Anguilla,
                             and [to 1770] Dominica).
1816 - 1832                Part of Antigua-Barbuda-Montserrat colony 
                             (see under Antigua).
1833 -  1 Jan 1960         Part of Leeward Islands (Antigua, British Virgin
                             Islands, Dominica [to 1940], Montserrat, Saint
                             Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla).
 1 Aug 1860                Barbuda united with Antigua.
13 May 1872 - 30 Jun 1960  Antigua part of the Federal Colony of the Leeward
                             Islands.
26 Mar 1872                Redonda Island formally annexed to
Antigua.
 1 Jul 1956                Separate colony (Antigua).
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  Antigua part of the Federation of the West Indies 
                             (see under Trinidad & Tobago).
27 Feb 1967                Associated state
 1 Oct 1980                Barbuda attempts secession.
 1 Nov 1981                Independence as Antigua and Barbuda.

Antigua and
Barbuda
Barbuda
Antigua
(1632-1981)
Leeward Islands
(1671-1960)
 Redonda
(1865-1872)

 
 
 
 

Leeward Islands

[Leeward Islands colony
                1874-1956]
                        1874 - 1956  Leeward Islands
 
Map of British Leeward
Islands 1871-1956
Capital: Saint John's
(Nevis 1671-1696)
Population: 92,700 (1939)

 2 Jul 1627                Carlisle Province (also called Carliola); Caribbee Islands
                             (granted to the Earl of Carlisle by King Charles I of England
                             [suspended 24 Nov 1643-12 Sep 1645 and 3 Oct 1650-8 May 1660];
                             who leases it to Baron Willoughby 17 Feb 1646-1652, 1660-1663
                             and Baron
Willoughby is granted the crown lease 1663-1668).
                             (Anegada, Anguilla, Antigua, Barbados, Barbuda, Montserrat,
                             Nevis, Redonda, Saint Christopher's, and Sombrero [Désirade,
                             Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe,
Les Saintes, Marie-Galante,
                             Martinique, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Eustatius, Saint Lucia,
                             and Saint Martin were also included in the original grant]).   
25 Jan 1671 - 16 Oct 1816 
Leeward Caribbee Island Government (Antigua, Barbuda, Montserrat,
                             Nevis, St. Christopher's, and Virgin Islands).
19 Dec 1832                Leeward Islands colony (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Montserrat,
                             Nevis, Saint Christopher, and Virgin Islands).
13 May 1872                Federal Colony of the Leeward Islands (Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica
                             [to 1 Jan 1940], Montserrat, Nevis, Saint Christopher, and
British
                             Virgin Islands
)
(by Leeward Islands Act of 21 Aug 1871).
 1 Jul 1956                Territory of the Leeward Islands.
 1 Jan 1960                Dissolved.

Governor and Lieutenant general of the Caribbee Islands
24 Nov 1643 - 12 Sep 1645  Sir Thomas Warner                  (b. 1580 - d. 1648)
Lieutenant general of the Caribbee Islands
26 Feb 1647 - 17 Jan 1652  Francis Willoughby, Baron 
        (b. 1588 - d. 1666)
                             Willoughby of Parham

Captain generals and Governors of the Caribbee Islands
 9 Jul 1660 - 23 Jul 1666  Francis Willoughby, Baron 
        (s.a.)
                             Willoughby of Parham
23 Jul 1666 -  3 Jan 1667  Vacant
 
3 Jan 1667 - 1668         William Willoughby, Baron          (b. c.1616 - d. 1673)
                             Willoughby of Parham


Captain generals and
Governors of the Leeward
Caribbee Islands
25 Jan 1671 - Feb 1672     Sir Charles Wheeler (Wheler)       (b. 1620 - d. 1683)
Feb 1672 - 22 Jul 1686     Sir William Stapleton              (d. 1686)
1685 - Sep 1686            Sir James Russell
                             (acting [for Stapleton to 22 Jul 1686])  
Sep 1686 - 1689            Sir Nathaniel Johnson              (b. 1644 - d. 1713)
25 Jul 1689 - 20 Jul 1698  Christopher Codrington             (b. c.1640 - d. 1698)
20 Jul 1698 - 30 Jul 1698  William Burt (acting)              (d. 1707)
30 Jul 1698 - end 1700     Edward Fox (acting) 
end 1700 - Feb 1704        Christopher Codrington, Jr.        (b. 1668 - d. 1710)
Feb 1704 - 14 Jul 1704     John Johnson (1st time) (acting)   (b. 16.. - d. 1706)
14 Jul 1704 -  4 Nov 1704  Sir William Mathews                (b. c.1675 - d. 1705)
 
4 Nov 1704 - 14 Jul 1706  John Johnson (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
14
Jul 1706 -  7 Dec 1710  Daniel Park (Parke)                (b. 1669 - d. 1710)
 
7 Dec 1710 - Dec 1710     John Yeamans (acting)              (d. 1743)
Dec 1710 - 10 Jul 1711     Walter Hamilton (1st time)(acting) (d. 1722)
10 Jul 1711 -  4 Dec 1713  Walter Douglas                     (b. 1670 - d. 1739)
 
4 Dec 1713 - 30 Jun 1715  Daniel Smith (acting)
30 Jun 1715 -  7 Feb 1716  William Mathew, Jr. (1st time)     (b. 1684 - d. 1752)
                             (acting)
 
7 Feb 1716 - 19 Dec 1721  Walter Hamilton (2nd time)         (s.a.)
19 Dec 1721 - 14 Jun 1728  John Hart                          (d. 1740) 
14 Jun 1728 - 19 Aug 1728  William Mathew, Jr. (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
19 Aug 1728 - 12 Sep 1729  Thomas Pitt, Earl of Londonderry   (b. c.1668 - d. 1729)
12 Sep 1729 -
14 Aug 1752  William Mathew, Jr. (3rd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting to 30 Oct 1733)
 
3 Dec 1729 - 11 May 1731  George Forbes, Earl of Granard     (b. 1685 - d. 1765)
                             (did not take office)
11 May 1731 - 30 Oct 1733  William Cosby                      (b. 1690 - d. 1736)
                             (did not take office)
14 Aug 1752 -  2 Jul 1753  Gilbert Fleming (acting)           (d. 1762)
 2 Jul 1753 -  1 Jun 1766  Sir George Thomas                  (b. c.1695 - d. 1774)
 1 Jun 1766 - 10 Apr 1768  James Verchild (acting)            (b. 1710 - d. 1769)
10 Apr 1768 - 1770         William Woodley (1st time)         (b. 1728 - d. 1793)
 3 Jul 1770 -  1 Feb 1772  Richard Hawkshaw Losack (acting)   (b. 1730 - d. 1813)
 1 Feb 1772
- 1775         Sir Ralph Payne (1st time)         (b. 1738 - d. 1807)
1775 - 21 Apr 1777         Craister Christopher Greathead     (b. 1714 - d. 1780)
                             (Greatheed)(acting)
21 Apr 1777 - 27 Jan 1781  William Mathew Burt                (b. c.1725 - d. 1781)

27 Jan 1781 - 27 Aug 1781
  Anthony Johnson (acting)
27 Aug 1781 - 16 Jun 1788  Thomas Shirley (1st time)          (b. 1727 - d. 1800)
16 Jun 1788 - 1790         John Nugent (1st time)(acting)     (b. 17.. - d. 1814)
1790 - 1791                Thomas Shirley (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 
6 Jun 1791 -  2 Jan 1792  John Nugent (2nd time)(acting)     (s.a.)
 2 Jan 1792 -  2 Jun 1793  William Woodley (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 2 Jun 1793 - 23 Jul 1795  John Stanley (acting)
23 Jul 1795 -  3 Jul 1796  Charles Leigh                      (b. c.1748 - d. 1815)
 3 Jul 1796 - 26 Sep 1796  Archibald Esdail (acting)          (d. 1796)
26 Sep 1796 - 15 Apr 1797  John S. Thomas (acting)            (d. 1797)
15 Apr 1797 - 14 Feb 1801  Robert Thomson (acting)
14 Feb 1801 -  1 Aug 1807  Ralph Payne, Baron Lavington       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 1 Aug 1807 - 15 Mar 1809  William Woodley                    (b. 1762 - d. 1810)
15 Mar 1809 -  7 Sep 1809  James Tyson (acting)               (b. 17.. - d. 1809)
 7 Sep 1809 - 20 Jul 1810  John Julius (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1768 - d. 1815)
20 Jul 1810 - 12 Nov 1813  Hugh Elliot                        (b. 1752 - d. 1830)
12 Nov 1813 - 25 Jun 1814  John Julius (2nd time) (acting)    (s.a.)
25 Jun 1814 - 31 Jul 1815  Sir James Leith                    (b. 1763 - d. 1816)
10 May 1815 - 26 Jun 1815  John Julius (3rd time) (acting)    (s.a.)
26 Jun 1815 - 1816         Henry Rawlins (acting)             (b. 1760 - d. 1823)
16 Oct 1816 -
19 Dec 1832  Post abolished
19 Dec 1832 - 13 May 1872  the governors of Antigua
Governors and Commanders-in-chief
of the Leeward Islands
13 May 1872 - 1873         Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
11 Jun 1873 - 1874         Sir Henry Turner Irving            (b. 1833 - d. 1923)
14 Nov 1874 - 1875         William Cleaver Francis Robinson   (b. 1834 - d. 1897)
1875 -  3 Feb 1875         Edwin Donald Baynes (acting)       (s.a.)
 
3 Feb 1875 - 1881         Sir George Berkeley                (b. 1819 - d. 1905)
1881 -  7 Dec 1881         Henry James Burford Buford-Hancock (b. 1816 - d. 1898)
                             (acting)
 7 Dec
1881 - Oct 1883     Sir John Hawley Glover             (b. 1829 - d. 1885)
Jun 1883 -  2 Jan 1884     Neale Porter (acting)              (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
 2 Jan 1884 - 1885         Sir Charles Cameron Lees           (b. 1831 - d. 1898)
1885 - 4 Sep 1885          Charles Monroe Eldridge (acting)   (b. 1825 - d. 1888)
 4 Sep
1885 - 1887         Jenico William Joseph Preston,     (b. 1837 - d. 1907)
                             Viscount Gormanston
14 Dec 1887 - 8 Nov 1888   Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell   (b. 1836 - d. 1899)
                             (acting)
 
8 Nov 1888 - Feb 1895     Sir William Frederick Haynes Smith (b. 1839 - d. 1928)
1895 -  4 Jul 1901         Sir Francis Fleming                (b. 1842 - d. 1922)
 5 Jul 1901 - 30 Oct 1901  Sir George Melville (1st time)
    (b. 1842 - d. 1924)
                             (acting)
Oct 1901 - May 1902        Sir Henry Moore Jackson            (b. 1849 - d. 1908)
May 1902 -  1 Oct 1902     Sir George Melville (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 
1 Oct 1902 -  3 May 1904  Sir Gerald Strickland              (b. 1861 - d. 1940)
 3 May 1904 -  9 Sep 1904  Charles Thomas Cox (acting)        (b. 1858 - d. 1933)
 
9 Sep 1904 - 28 Sep 1904  Henry Hesketh Joudou Bell          (b. 1864 - d. 1952)
                             (1st time)(acting)
28 Sep 1904 - 16 Dec 1905  Sir Clement Courtenay Knollys      (b. 1849 - d. 1905)
16 Dec 1905 - Aug 1906     Henry Hesketh Joudou Bell          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)

Aug 1906 - 15 Apr 1912     Sir Ernest Bickham Sweet-Escott    (b. 1857 - d. 1941)
15 Apr 1912 - 19 Jul 1912 
Henry Eugene Walter Grant (acting) (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
19 Jul 1912 -  1 Jan 1916  Sir Henry Hesketh Joudou Bell      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 3 Jan 1916 -  6 Mar 1919  Thomas Alexander Vans Best (acting)(b. 1870 - d. 1941)
 7 Mar 1919 - Nov 1921     Sir Edward Marsh Merewether        (b. 1858 - d. 1938)
                             (German prisoner Jan-Feb 1916, interned in U.S. Feb 1916-1919)

Nov 1921 -  4 Dec 1921     Thomas Reginald St. Johnston       (b. 1881 - d. 1950)
                             (1st time)(acting)
 4 Dec 1921 - 1929         Sir Eustace Edward Twistleton-     (b. 1864 - d. 1943)
                             Wykeham-Fiennes 
10 Sep 1929 - 1936         Sir Thomas Reginald St. Johnston   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
28 Apr 1930 - 12 Sep 1930  Edward William Baynes
             (b. 1880 - d. 1962)
                             (acting for St. Johnston)    
1936 - 1941                Sir Gordon James Lethem            (b. 1886 - d. 1962)
1941                      
James Dundas Harford (acting)      (b. 1899 - d. 1993)
 
5 Jul 1941 - 1943         Sir Douglas James Jardine          (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
 
5 Oct 1943 - 1947         Sir Leslie Brian Freeston          (b. 1892 - d. 1958)
1947 -  9 Feb 1948         William Alexander Macnie (acting)  (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
 9 Feb 1948 - 17 Sep 1950  Oliver Ridsdale Baldwin, Earl      (b. 1899 - d. 1958)
                             Baldwin of Bewdley
17 Sep 1950 - 18 Oct 1956  Kenneth William Blackburne         (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
                             (from 5 Jun 1952, Sir Kenneth William Blackburne) 
18 Oct 1956 -  1 Jan 1960  Alexander Thomas Williams          (b. 1903 - d. 1984)
                             (from 1 Jan 1958, Sir Alexander Thomas Williams) 



Antigua

Governors
1632 - 1635                Sir Thomas Warner                  (b. 1580 - d. 1648)
1635 - 1638                Edward Warner                      (b. c.1609 - d. 1640)
1638 - Dec 1639            Sir Henry Huncks (Hunks)           (b. c.1595 - d. 16..)
Dec 1639 - 1640            Rowland Thompson                   (d. 1641)
1640 - 1652                Henry Ashton                       (b. bf.1615 - d. af.1657)
1652 - 1660                Christopher Keynell                (d. 1663)
                             (Kaynell, Cannell)
1661 - 1664                John Buckley (Bunckley)
1664 -  4 Nov 1666         Robert Carden                      (d. 1666)
 
4 Nov 1666 -  9 Nov 1666  Charles Guest (acting)             (d. 1666)
4/9 Nov 1666 - 12 Nov 1666 Robert le Frichot des Friches,
                             sieur de Clodoré -French governor
                             (1st time)
12 Nov 1666 - 30 Nov 1666  Daniel Fitche (Fitch)
30 Nov 1666 - May 1667     Robert le Frichot des Friches,
                             sieur de Clodoré -French governor
                              (2nd time)

May 1667 - 1670           
William Willoughby, Baron          (b. c.1616 - d. 1673)
                             Willoughby of Parham

1668 - Dec 1669            Henry Willoughby (acting)          (b. 1640 - d. 1669)
1669 - 1670                William Byam (acting)              (b. 1623 - d. 1670)
Lieutenant governors

1668 - 1671                Samuel Winthrop                    (b. 1627 - d. 1674)
1671 - 1675                Philip Warner                      (b. c.1612 - d. 1689)
1675 - 1678                Rowland Williams (1st time)        (b. 16.. - d. 1713)
1678 - 1680                James Vaughan                      (d. 1681)
1680 - 1682                Valentine Russell                  (b. c.1652 - d. 1713)
1682 - 1683                Paul Lee
1683 - 1688                James Edward Powell
1689                       Thomas Foulke
1689                       William Dobbyn
1689 - 1692                Rowland Williams (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1692 - 1697                John Parry (acting)
1698 - 1715                John Yeamans (acting to 1698)      (d. 1743)
1715 -  4 Dec 1741         Edward Byam                        (b. 1662 - d. 1741)
1742 - 1747                George Lucas                       (d. 1747)
                             (absent French prisoner from 1746)
Governors 

1747 - 1816                the Governors of the Leeward Islands
Lieutenant governors (some non-resident)
1747? - Nov 1749           David Monroe                       (d. 1749)
1750 - 26 Nov 1754         John Gunthorpe                     (d. 1754)
1755 - 1768?               Francis Hawley, Lord Hawley        (b. c.1673 - d. 1772)
1768 - 1772                William Woodley (1st time)         (b. 1728 - d. 1793)
18 Dec 1772 -  2 May 1780  James Adolphus Oughton             (b. 1720 - d. 1780)
May 1786 - 178.            Robert Matthews                    (b. 17.. - d. 1814)
1788 - 1792                John Nugent                        (b. 17.. - d. 1814)

1792 -  2 Jun 1793         William Woodley (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1793 - 1796                John Stanley
1796 - 1816                Vacant?
Presidents

c.1747 - Apr 1750          Charles Dunbar
1750 - 1752                Josiah (Joseph) Martin (acting)    (d. 1778)
1752 - 1753                John Tomlinson                     (d. 1753)
1753 - 1760                Andrew Lessly                      (d. 1780)
1768/1770/1779             Edward Otto Bayer                  (b. c.1709 - d. 1779)
1770/1771/1776             Thomas Jarvis                      (b. 1722 - d. 1785)
1786 - 1817                Edward Byam                        (b. 1740 - d. 1817)
1796 - 1797                John J. Thomas                     (d. 1797)
1799 - 180.                Robert Thompson

1809                       James Tyson                        (b. 17.. - d. 1809)
1810 - 1815?               John Julius                        (b. 1768 - d. 1815)
1815 - 1817?               Henry Rawlins                      (b. 1760 - d. 1823)
1817 - 1819                Thomas Norbury Kerby               (b. 1758 - d. 1819)
Governors
13 Feb 1816 -  1 Nov 1819  George William Ramsay              (b. 1770 - d. 1838)
1819 - 1820                Thomas Norbury Kerby (acting)      (b. 1751 - d. 1820)   
22 Jan 1820 - 1825         Sir Benjamin D'Urban               (b. 1777 - d. 1849)
23 May 1825 - 1832         Sir Patrick Ross                   (b. 1778 - d. 1850)
 
7 Jan 1832 - 1836         Evan John Murray MacGregor         (b. 1785 - d. 1841)
13 Apr 1836 - 1837         Henry Light (acting)               (b. 1783 - d. 1870)
1837 - 30 Jul 1840         Sir William MacBean George         (b. 1787 - d. 1870)
                             Colebrooke 
30 Jul 1840 - 21 Feb 1842  John Macphail (acting)
21 Feb 1842 - 1845         Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy       (b. 1796 - d. 1858)
1845 - 1847                Charles Thornton Cunningham        (b. 1797 - d. 1847)
1847 - 1850                James Macaulay Higginson           (b. 1805 - d. 1885)
1850 - 1855                Robert James Mackintosh            (b. 1806 - d. 1864)
1855 - 1859                Ker Baillie Hamilton (1st time)    (b. 1804 - d. 1889)
1859                       Hercules Robinson (acting)         (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
1859                       Bertie Entwisle Jarvis (acting)
31 Mar 1859 - Apr 1860    
Edward John Eyre (acting)          (b. 1815 - d. 1901)
1860                       Sir William Byam (1st time)(acting)(d. 1869)
1860 - 1862               
Ker Baillie Hamilton (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1862                       Sir William Byam (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)
Nov 1862 - 1866           
Sir Stephen John Hill (1st time)   (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
1866 - 1867               
Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
                             (1st time)
(acting)
1867 - 1869               
Sir Stephen John Hill (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Feb 1869 - 1871           
Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1871                      
Sir Robert Miller Mundy (acting)   (b. 1813 - d. 1892)
1871                       Edwin Donald Baynes (acting)       (s.a.)
1871 - 1936                the Governors of the Leeward Islands
Presidents (also the Colonial Secretaries of the Leeward Islands)
1871 - 1883?               Edwin Donald Baynes                (b. 1828 - d. 1884)
1883                       Henry Spencer Berkeley (acting)    (b. 1851 - d. 1918)
1883 - 1888                Neale Porter                       (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
1888 - 1895                Frederick Evans                    (b. 1848 - d. 19..)
1895 - 1902                Sir George Melville                (b. 1842 - d. 1924)
16 Aug 1901 - 30 Oct 1901  E.A. Foster (acting for Melville)
Oct 1902 - 1909            Charles Ernest St. John Branch     (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
1909 - 1912               
Henry Eugene Walter Grant          (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
1912 - 1919?               Thomas Alexander Vans
Best         (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
13 Jun 1920 - 1924         Thomas Reginald St. Johnston       (b. 1881 - d. 1950)
                             (from 2 Jun 1923, Sir Thomas Reginald St. Johnston)
17 Oct 1925 - 1935         Edward William Baynes              (b. 1880 - d. 1962)
28 Apr 1930 - 12 Sep 1930  E.D'A Tibbits (acting for Baynes)
Aug 1935 - 1936            Hubert Eugene Bader                (b. 1902 - d. 1936)
Administrators
1936 - 10 Jul 1936         Hubert Eugene Bader                (s.a.)
1936 - 1941                James Dundas Harford               (b. 1899 - d. 1993)
1941 - 1944                Herbert E. Boon                    (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
1944 - 1946               
Frederick George Harcourt          (b. 1899 - d. 1986)
1946 - 1947                Leslie Stuart Greening             (b. 1902 - d. 1986)
1947 - Jun 1954            Richard St. John Ormerod Wayne     (b. 1904 - d. 1959)
Aug 1954 - 1958            Alec Lovelace                      (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
 3 Oct 1958 - 25 Feb 1964  Ian Graham Turbott                 (b. 1922 - d. 2016)
 
6 Mar 1964 - Dec 1966     Sir David James Gardiner Rose      (b. 1923 - d. 1969)
Dec 1966 - 27 Feb 1967     Hugh Burrowes (acting)             (b. 1909)
Governor

27 Feb 1967 -  1 Nov 1981  Wilfred Ebenezer Jacobs            (b. 1919 - d. 1995)
                             (from 19 Jul 1967, Sir Wilfred Ebenezer Jacobs)  

Chief minister
 1 Jan 1960 - 27 Feb 1967  Vere Cornwall Bird                 (b. 1910 - d. 1999)  ALP
Premiers
27 Feb 1967 - 14 Feb 1971  Vere Cornwall Bird (1st time)      (s.a.)               ALP
14 Feb 1971 -  1 Feb 1976  George Herbert Walter              (b. 1928 - d. 2008)  PLM
 1 Feb 1976 -  1 Nov 1981  Vere Cornwall Bird (2nd time)      (s.a.)               ALP

Party abbreviations: ALP = Antigua Labour Party (center-right, Vere Bird personalist, est.1946, renamed Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party in 1981); PLM = Progressive Labour Movement (center-left, renamed Progressive Labor Party, 1970-1992, merged into UPP)


Antigua and Barbuda

Queen¹
 1 Nov 1981 -              the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 1 Nov 1981 - 10 Jun 1993  Sir Wilfred Ebenezer Jacobs        (b. 1919 - d. 1995)
10 Jun 1993 - 17 Jul 2007  James Beethoven Carlisle           (b. 1937)
                             (from 9 Nov 1993, Sir James Beethoven Carlisle)
17 Jul 2007 - 13 Aug 2014  Louise Agnetha Lake-Tack (f)       (b. 1944)
                             (from 17 Oct 2007, Dame Louise Agnetha Lake-Tack)
14 Aug 2014 -              Rodney Errey Lawrence Williams     (b. 1947)
                             (from 17 Oct 2014, Sir Rodney Errey Lawrence Williams)

Prime ministers
 1 Nov 1981 -  9 Mar 1994  Vere Cornwall Bird                 (b. 1910 - d. 1999)  ABLP
 9 Mar 1994 - 24 Mar 2004  Lester Bryant Bird                 (b. 1938)            ABLP
24 Mar 2004 - 13 Jun 2014  Winston Baldwin Spencer            (b. 1948)            UPP
13 Jun 2014 -              Gaston Alphonso Browne             (b. 1967)            ABLP

  ¹Full style:
(a) 1 Nov 1982 - 11 Feb 1982: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(b) from 11 Feb 1982: "By the Grace of God, Queen of Antigua and Barbuda and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

Party abbreviations: ABLP = Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party (center-right, Bird personalist, until 1981 named Antigua Labour Party, est.1946); UPP = United Progressive Party (center-left, social democratic, est.1992)


Barbuda
 
Map of Barbuda
Capital: Codrington
Population: 1,638 (2011)

11 Nov 1493                Discovered by Spanish, named Isla Dulcina.
1628                       Barbuda (Barbouthos) an English colony.
1632                       Becomes a dependency of Antigua.
1666                       The village of Codrington established. 
 9 Jan 1685 - 13 Jul 1870  Barbuda leased to the Codrington family by the Crown.
1713                       French sack Barbuda.
1746 - 1761                Sub-leased to Samuel Martin and William Byam.
1816 - 1832                Part of Antigua-Barbuda-Montserrat colony.
 1 Aug 1860                United with Antigua.
1894 - Oct 1898            Leased to the Barbuda Company.
23 Dec 1976                Barbuda Local Government Act grants limited autonomy. 
 1 Oct 1980                Failed separation attempt from Antigua.
 1 Nov 1981                Part of independent Antigua and Barbuda.
 6 Sep 2017               
Barbuda is evacuated,  Hurricane Irma destroys 95% of housing.

Governors
1628 - 1632                John Littleton
1662 - 1665?               John Noye
1665? - 1666               John Collins
16.. - 1681                Francis Nathan                     (d. 1681)
1681 - 1685                Vacant
Leaseholders (Administrators)

 9 Jan 1685 -  7 Apr 1710  Sir Christopher Codrington, Jr.    (b. 1668 - d. 1710)
                           + John Codrington (to 5 Jun 1705)  (b. 16.. - d. 1705)
 7 Apr 1710 - 17 Dec 1738  Sir William Codrington I           (b. 1680 - d. 1738)
17 Dec 1738 - 11 Mar 1792  Sir William Codrington II          (b. 1719 - d. 1792)
1746 - 1761                Sub-lease holders
                           - Samuel Martin                    (d. 1776)
                           - William Byam (to 26 Sep 1755)    (b. 1706 - d. 1755)
11 Mar 1792 -  5 Sep 1816  Sir William Codrington III         (b. c.1737 - d. 1816)
 5 Sep 1816 - 1839         Sir Christopher Bethell-Codrington (b. 1764 - d. 1843)
1839 - 1855                Sir William Christopher Codrington (b. 1805 - d. 1864)
1855 - 13 Jul 1870         Sir C.N.B. Codrington (to 18..)    (d. 18..)
                           + E. Dowdeswell
1870 - 1894                George Hopkins
                             (magistrate from 1863/64)
                           + Rev. W. Cowley
1894 - Oct 1898            the Barbuda Company
Deputy governors

c.1685                     John Henselm
c.1695                     Nicholson
Managers
bf.1741                    Thomas Beech
c.1742                     Simon Punter
17.. - Dec 1745            Nathaniel McNish                   (d. 1745)

c.1750                     Hodge
c.1756                     William Brunsel
c.1757                     Reed
c.1761                     Charles Baird
1761 - 1762                William Keeling                    (d. 1784)
1762 - 1779                Samuel Redhead
                     (b. 1704  - d. 1785)
1779 - 1793                Dennis Reynolds

                             (overseer to 1782)
1793 - 1801                William Collins
1804 - 1826                John James
1827 - 1836                John Winter
Wardens (magistrates)
Oct 1888 - Nov 1889        Christopher Musgrave
c.1896 - c.1898            J.F. Smyth
c.1898 - c.1901            ....
c.1901 -
1920              Oliver Nugent (acting to 190.)     (b. 1850 - d. 1938)
Mar 1920 - 1931            Geoffrey George David Downing
1931 - 1935                Henry Darrell Carlton Moore        (b. 1900 - d. ....)
c.1936/39                  C.W. Thibou
c.
1939                     H.D.C. Moore
c.1940 - c.1945            George Sutherland
                 (b. 1877 - d. 1955)
c.1947/48                  A.McP. Taylor
c.1948/50                  C.A. Gomez
1951 - 1953                Charles Edward Greenaway
1953 - 1954                G.A. Thibou                        (b. 1921)
Nov 1954 - 1957            Roland Spencer Byron               (b. 1914)
Apr 1957 - 19..            J.H. Joseph
c.1960/63                  A. Dyer
1964 - c.1967              Evan Landon Creque
c.1967                     Albert Lewis
c.1967 - 1977              ....
Chairmen of the Barbuda Council
1977 - 1979                ....                                               ABLP
1979 - 1985                Thomas Hilbourne Frank (1st time)  (b. 1932)       BPM
1985 - 1989                Arthur M. Nibbs (1st time)         (b. 1958)       BPM
1989 - 1997                Thomas Hilbourne Frank (2nd time)  (s.a.)          BPM
1997 - Apr 2001            Arthur M. Nibbs (2nd time)         (s.a.)          BPM
Apr 2001 - 2005            Fabian Jones (1st time)                            BPM 
2005 - 19 Jan 2006         Lincoln Burton                                     BPM
19 Jan 2006 -  9 Jan 2008  Randolph Beazer                                    BPM
 9 Jan 2008 - 31 Mar 2009  Fabian Jones (2nd time)                            BPM
 1 Apr 2009 - Mar 2013     Kelvin Punter                                      BPM
Mar 2013 - 31 Mar 2015     Arthur M. Nibbs (3rd time)         (s.a.)          ABLP
 1 Apr 2015 - Mar 2017     David Shaw                                         ABLP
Mar 2017 -  9 May 2018     Knacyntar Nedd (f)                                 ABLP
 9 May 2018 -              Wade Burton                                        BPM

Party abbreviations: ABLP = Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party (center-right, Bird personalist, est.1946); BPM = Barbuda People's Movement (regionalist, advocates greater autonomy, UPP ally from 1992, est.1978); BPMC = Barbuda People's Movement for Change (regionalist, ALP ally, est.2002)



Redonda
 
Map of Redonda
Hear 'Anthem'
"God Who Gave Our 
Island Soil" 
'Adopted' 1949

11 Nov 1493                Discovered by Christopher Columbus and named 
                             Santa Maria la Redonda (St. Mary the Round).
Jun 1865                   Kingdom of Redonda2 proclaimed (not recognized by U.K.).
26 Mar 1872                Annexed by Britain; incorporated into Antigua.
27 Feb 1967                Dependency of Antigua.
 1 Nov 1981                Dependency of independent Antigua and Barbuda.

King2
Jun 1865 - 26 Mar 1872     Matthew I                          (b. 1824 - d. 1888)

 2In Jun 1865 Matthew Dowdy Shiel (s.a.), an Irish merchant in Montserrat dedicated to shipping, was on the island or Redonda, which that at that time did not belong to any country. In celebration of the birth of his son, and with certain influence of the abundance of the alcohol, Matthew Shiel proclaimed the island for himself as a kingdom, and himself as King Matthew I. Seven years later Britain took possession from the island ignoring the claim of Shiel. Following the British annexation, several dubious events occurred. Matthew abdicated on 21 Jul 1880 in favor of his son, Philippe Shiel (Matthew Phipps Shiel) (b. 1865 - d. 1947), who was proclaimed king Felipe I, he died 17 Feb 1947, leaving "the succession" - by testament to his literary adviser, the poet John Gawsworth (= Terence Ian Fytton Armstrong) as Juan I (b. 1912 - d. 1970). Juan I tried to sell the island to the Swedish royal family but was prevented by Britain. After the death of Juan I on 23 Sep 1970, the crown was demanded by Jon Wynne-Tyson (Juan II)(b. 1924) who claimed bestowed the kingship on him with the literary executorships by Gawsworth. Juan II reportedly the crown to Spanish writer Javier Marías (Xavier I)(b. 1951) on 6 Jul 1997. However, in 1984 the "nobility" recognized Cedric Boston (Cedric I)(b. 1960) as king. Juan II abdicated abdicated in favor of history professor William Leonard Gates (Leo V) on the 26 Oct 1989. At the moment there are as many as nine pretenders to "the throne" of Redonda, among them Bob Glen Williamson (Robert I "the Bald")(b. 19.. - d. 2009) a successor of Juan II, who assumes he inherited the "kingdom" on the death of Juan II. Robert I supposedly "acceded" to the throne in 1997 dying on 27 Aug 2009, which led to Michael J. Howorth (Michael the Grey)(b. 1949) to claim the crown on 11 Dec 2009. And in 1993 Matthew Phipps Shiel's granddaughter, Lancashire housewife Margaret Parry (f)(b. c.1954), came to the fore and was hailed as "Queen Maggie" of Redonda by various newspapers.







© Ben Cahoon