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Antigua and Barbuda 
 

[Flag
                        of the United Kingdom]
                                 to 1871
 
[Leeward
                          Islands 1871-1956]
                    1871 - 1956 Leeward Islands
 
[Antigua flag
                          1956-1958]
                               1956 - 1958
 
[Antigua flag
                          1958-1967]
                         1958 - 27 Feb 1967
 
[Antigua and Barbuda
                          flag]
                Adopted 27 Feb 1967

Map of Antigua
and Barbuda
Hear National Anthem
"Fair Antigua, We
Salute Thee"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1967 (lyrics 1981)
Constitution
(1 Nov 1981)
Capital: Saint John's
Currency: East Caribbean
Dollar (XCD) 
National Holiday: 1 Nov (1981)
Independence Day
Population: 90,156 (2013)
GDP: $1.61 billion (2013)
Exports: $55 million (2013)
Imports: $340.8 million (2013)
Ethnic groups: black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%,
other 2.9% (2001)
Total Armed Forces: 600 (2012)
Merchant marine: 1,257 ships (2010)
Religions: Protestant 76.4% (Anglican 25.7%, Seventh-Day
 Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%,
Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%), Roman
Catholic 10.4%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%,
none or unspecified 5.8% (2001)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ACS, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, C, Caricom, CCM, CDB, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ECCB, ENMOD, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IRENA, ISA, ISO (subscriber),  ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO (signatory), UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Antigua and Barbuda Index
Chronology

10 Nov 1493                Antigua discovered and claimed by Spain by Columbus
                             named Isla de Santa Maria de la Antigua.
1632                       English colony (Antigua).
1663                       English crown colony.
 3 Nov 1666 - May 1667     French occupation of Antigua.
1678                       Barbuda an English colony.
Jan 1671 - 16 Oct 1816     Part of Leeward Islands colony (Antigua, Barbuda,
                             Montserrat, Saint Christopher, Nevis, Anguilla,
                             and [to 1770] Dominica).
1816 - 1832                Part of Antigua-Barbuda-Montserrat colony 
                             (see under Antigua).
1833 -  1 Jan 1960         Part of Leeward Islands (Antigua, British Virgin
                             Islands, Dominica [to 1940], Montserrat, Saint
                             Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla).
 1 Aug 1860                Barbuda united with Antigua.
Jun 1871 -  1 Jan 1960     Antigua part of the Federal Colony of the Leeward
                             Islands (Antigua, British Virgin Islands,
                             Montserrat, Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla,
                             and until 1940, Dominica).
30 Jun 1956                Separate colony.
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  Antigua part of the Federation of the West Indies 
                             (see under Trinidad & Tobago).
27 Feb 1967                Associated state
 1 Oct 1980                Barbuda attempts secession.
 1 Nov 1981                Independence as Antigua and Barbuda.

Antigua and
Barbuda
Leeward Islands
(1671-1960)
Antigua
(1632-1981)
Barbuda
 Redonda
(1865-1872)
 
 
 
 
 

Leeward Islands
 

[Leeward Islands]
                              1871 - 1960 
 
Map of British Leeward
Islands 1871-1956
Capital: Saint John's
(Nevis 1671-1696)

1670 - 16 Oct 1816         Leeward Islands colony.
1833                       Leeward Islands colony.
21 Aug 1871                Federal Colony of the Leeward Islands.
 1 Jul 1956                Territory of the Leeward Islands.
 1 Jan 1960                Dissolved.

Governors
1660 - 1666                Francis Lord Willoughby            (b. 1613 - d. 1666)
1667 - 1668                Henry Willoughby                   (b. 1626 - d. 1685)
1670 - Dec 1671            Sir Charles Wheler                 (b. 1620 - d. 1683)
1672 - 1685                Sir William Stapleton              (d. 1686)
1685 - Sep 1689            Sir Nathaniel Johnson              (b. 1644 - d. 1713)
Sep 1689 - 1698            Christopher Codrington             (d. 1698)
1698                       William Burt (acting)
30 Jul 1698 - May 1699     Edward Fox (acting) 
May 1699 - Feb 1704        Christopher Codrington, Jr.        (b. 1668 - d. 1710)
Feb 1704 - Jul 1704        John Johnson (1st time) (acting)   (b. 16.. - d. 1706)
Jul 1704 -  4 Dec 1704     Sir William Mathews                (b. c.1675 - d. 1704)
Dec 1704 - Jul 1706        John Johnson (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
Jul 1706 -  7 Dec 1710     Daniel Parke                       (b. 1669 - d. 1710)
 7 Dec 1710 - 1711         Walter Hamilton (1st time)(acting)
1711 - 1714                Walter Douglas                     (b. 1670 - d. 1739)
1714 - 1715                William Mathew, Jr. (1st time)     (b. 1684 - d. 1752)
                             (acting)
1715 - 1721                Walter Hamilton (2nd time)
1721 - 1728                John Hart                          (d. 1740) 
Aug 1728 - 12 Sep 1729     Thomas Pitt, Earl of Londonderry   (b. c.1668 - d. 1729)
1729                       William Cosby (acting)             (b. 1690 - d. 1736)
1729 - 14 Aug 1752         William Mathew, Jr. (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1752 -  2 Jul 1753         Gilbert Fleming (acting)
 2 Jul 1753 -  1 Jun 1766  Sir George Thomas                  (b. c.1695 - d. 1774)
 1 Jun 1766 - 10 Apr 1768  James Verchild (acting)            (b. 1710 - d. 1769)
10 Apr 1768 - 1770         William Woodley (1st time)         (b. 1728 - d. 1793)
 3 Jul 1770 -  1 Feb 1772  Richard Hawkshaw Losack (acting)   (b. 1730 - d. 1813)
 1 Feb 1772
- 1775         Sir Ralph Payne (1st time)         (b. 1738 - d. 1807)
1775 - 1777                Craister Greathead (acting)        (d. 1780)
21 Apr 1777 - 27 Jan 1781  William Mathew Burt                (b. c.1725 - d. 1781)
27 Jan 1781 - Aug 1781     Anthony Johnson (acting)
Aug 1781 - 16 Jun 1788     Thomas Shirley (1st time)          (b. 1727 - d. 1800)
16 Jun 1788 - 1790         John Nugent (1st time)(acting)     (b. 17.. - d. 1814)
1790 - 1791                Thomas Shirley (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 
6 Jun 1791 -  2 Jan 1792  John Nugent (2nd time)(acting)     (s.a.)
 2 Jan 1792 - 1793         William Woodley (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 2 Jun 1793 - 23 Jul 1795  John Stanley (acting)
23 Jul 1795 -  3 Jul 1796  Charles Leigh                      (b. c.1748 - d. 1815)
 3 Jul 1796 - 26 Sep 1796  Archibald Esdail (acting)          (d. 1796)
26 Sep 1796 - 15 Apr 1797  John J. Thomas (acting)            (d. 1797)
15 Apr 1797 - 14 Feb 1801  Robert Thomson (acting)
14 Feb 1801 -  1 Aug 1807  Ralph Payne, Baron Lavington       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 1 Aug 1807 - 15 Mar 1809  William Woodley                    (b. 17.. - d. 1809)
15 Mar 1809 -  7 Sep 1809  James Tyson (acting)               (b. 17.. - d. 1809)
 7 Sep 1809 - 20 Jul 1810  John Julius (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1768 - d. 1815)
20 Jul 1810 - 12 Nov 1813  Hugh Elliot                        (b. 1752 - d. 1830)
12 Nov 1813 - 25 Jun 1814  John Julius (2nd time) (acting)    (s.a.)
25 Jun 1814 - 31 Jul 1815  Sir James Leith                    (b. 1763 - d. 1816)
10 May 1815 - 26 Jun 1815  John Julius (3rd time) (acting)    (s.a.)
26 Jun 1815 - 1816         Henry Rawlins (acting)             (b. 1760 - d. 1823)
1816 - 1833                Post abolished
1833 - 1871                the governors of Antigua
1871 - 1873                Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
1873 - 1874                Sir Henry Turner Irving            (b. 1833 - d. 1923)
1874 - 1875                William Cleaver Francis Robinson   (b. 1834 - d. 1897)
 
3 Feb 1875 - 1881        Sir George Berkeley                (b. 1819 - d. 1905)
1881                       H.J.B. Bufford-Hancock (acting)    (b. 1816 - d. 1898)
1881 - 1884                Sir John Hawley Glover             (b. 1829 - d. 1885)
1884 - 1885                Sir Charles Cameron Lees           (b. 1831 - d. 1898)
1885                       Charles Monroe Eldridge (acting)   (b. 1825 - d. 1888)
1885 - 1888                Jenico William Joseph Preston,     (b. 1837 - d. 1907)
                             Viscount Gormanston
1888                       Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell   (b. 1836 - d. 1899)
                             (acting)
1888 - 1895                Sir William Frederick Haynes Smith (b. 1839 - d. 1928)
1895 -  4 Jul 1901         Sir Francis Fleming                (b. 1842 - d. 1922)
 5 Jul - 30 Oct 1901       Sir George Melville (acting)
      (b. 1842 - d. 1924)
Oct 1901 - 1902            Sir Henry Moore Jackson            (b. 1849 - d. 1908)
1902 - 1904                Sir Gerald Strickland              (b. 1861 - d. 1940)
1904                       Henry Hesketh Joudou Bell          (b. 1864 - d. 1952)
                             (1st time)(acting)
1904 - 16 Dec 1905         Sir Clement Courtenay Knollys      (b. 1849 - d. 1905)
1905 - 1906                Henry Hesketh Joudou Bell          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)

1906 - 1912                Sir Ernest Bickham Sweet-Escott    (b. 1857 - d. 1941)
1912 - 1916                Sir Henry Hesketh Joudou Bell      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1916 - 1921                Sir Edward Marsh Merewether        (b. 1858 - d. 1938)
1916 -  6 Mar 1919         Thomas Alexander Vans Best         (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
                             (acting for M
erewether)
 4 Dec 1921 - 1929         Sir Eustace Edward Twistleton-     (b. 1864 - d. 1943)
                             Wykeham-Fiennes 
1929 - 1936                Sir Thomas Reginald St. Johnston   (b. 1881 - d. 1950)
28 Apr 1930 - 12 Sep 1930  Edward William Baynes
             (b. 1880 - d. 1962)
                             (acting for St. Johnston)    
1936 - 1941                Sir Gordon James Lethem            (b. 1886 - d. 1962)
1941 - 1943                Sir Douglas James Jardine          (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
1943 - 1947                Sir Leslie Brian Freeston          (b. 1892 - d. 1958)
1947 - 1948                William Alexander Macnie (acting)  (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
1948 - 17 Sep 1950         Oliver Ridsdale Baldwin,           (b. 1899 - d. 1958)
                             Earl Baldwin of Bewdley
17 Sep 1950 - 18 Oct 1956  Kenneth William Blackburne         (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
                             (from 5 Jun 1952, Sir Kenneth William Blackburne) 
18 Oct 1956 -  1 Jan 1960  Alexander Thomas Williams          (b. 1903 - d. 1984)
                             (from 1 Jan 1958, Sir Alexander Thomas Williams) 



Antigua

Governors
1632 - 1635                Sir Thomas Warner                  (b. 1580 - d. 1648)
1635 - 1639                Edward Warner                      (d. 1640)
Jun 1639 - Dec 1639        Sir Henry Hunks (Huncks)
1639 - 1640                Rowland Thompson
1640 - 1652                Henry Ashton                       (b. bf.1615 - d. af.1657)
1652 - 1660                Christopher Keynell                (d. 1663)
1661 - 1664                John Bunckley
1665 -  3 Nov 1666         Robert Carden                      (d. 1667)
 3 Nov 1666 - 1667         Robert le Frichot des Friches,
                             sieur de Clodoré -French governor
Nov 1666 -  9 Nov 1666     Quest (acting)                     (d. 1666)
1666 - 1667?               Daniel Fitche
1667 - 1668                William, Baron of Willoughby       (b. 1616 - d. 1673)
1668 - 1670                Henry Willoughby                   (b. 1626 - d. 1685)
                             (acting for William)
1671 - 1675                Philip Warner                      (d. 1689)
Lieutenant governors

1668 - 1671                Samuel Winthrop                    (b. 1627 - d. 1674)
1675 - 1678                Rowland Williams (1st time)        (b. 16.. - d. 1713)
1678 - 1680                James Vaughan                      (d. 1681)
1680 - 1682                Valentine Russell
1682 - 1683                Paul Lee
1683 - 1688                Edward Powell
1689 - 1692                Rowland Williams (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1692 - 1697                John Parry (acting)
1697 - 1715                John Yeamans (acting to 1698)      (d. 1743)
1715 -  4 Dec 1741         Edward Byam                        (b. 1662 - d. 1741)
1742 - 1746                George Lucas                       (d. 1747)
Governors 
1747 - 1816                the Governors of the Leeward Islands
Lieutenant governors (non-resident)
1747?  - Nov 1749          David Monroe                       (d. 1749)
1750 - 26 Nov 1754         John Gunthorpe                     (d. 1754)
1755 - Sep 1772            Francis Hawley, Lord Hawley        (b. c.1673 - d. 1772)
18 Dec 1772 - 1780         James Adolphus Oughton             (b. 1719 - d. 1780)

1786 - 1814?               Robert Matthews                    (b. 17.. - d. 1814)
                             (Lieutenant governor)
Presidents

c.1747 - Apr 1750          Charles Dunbar
1750 - 1752                Josiah (Joseph) Martin (acting)    (d. 1778)
1752 - 1753                John Tomlinson                     (d. 1753)
1753 - 1760                Andrew Lessly                      (d. 1780)
1768/1770/1779             Edward Otto Bayer
1760? - 18 Dec 1785        Thomas Jarvis                      (b. 1722 - d. 1785)
1786 - 1815?               Edward Byam
1815? - 1819               Thomas Norbury Kerby               (b. 1758 - d. 1819)
Governors
1816 -  1 Nov 1819         George William Ramsay              (b. 1770 - d. 1838)
1819 - 1820                T. Norbury Kerby (acting)          (b. 1751 - d. 1820)   
1820 - 1826                Sir Benjamin D'Urban               (b. 1777 - d. 1849)
1826 - 1832                Sir Patrick Ross                   (b. 1778 - d. 1850)
 
7 Jan 1832 - 1836         Evan John Murray MacGregor         (b. 1785 - d. 1841)
1836 - 1837                Henry Light (acting)               (b. 1783 - d. 1870)
1837 - Jul 1840            Sir William MacBean George         (b. 1787 - d. 1870)
                             Colebrooke 
30 Jul 1840 - Feb 1842     John Macphail (acting)
Feb 1842 - 1845            Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy       (b. 1796 - d. 1858)
1845 - 1847                C.J. Cunningham (acting)
1847 - 1850                James Macaulay Higginson           (b. 1805 - d. 1885)
1850 - 1855                Robert James Mackintosh            (b. 1806 - d. 1864)
1855 - 1859                Ker Baillie Hamilton (1st time)    (b. 1804 - d. 1889)
1859                       Hercules Robinson (acting)         (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
1859                       B.E. Jarvis (acting)
Apr 1859 - Apr 1860       
Edward John Eyre (acting)          (b. 1815 - d. 1901)
1860                       Sir William Byam (1st time)(acting)
1860 - 1863               
Ker Baillie Hamilton (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1863                       Sir William Byam (2nd time)(acting)
1863 - 1866               
Sir Stephen John Hill (1st time)   (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
1866 - 1867               
Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
                             (1st time)
(acting)
1867 - 1869               
Sir Stephen John Hill (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1869 - 1871               
Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1871                      
Edwin Donald Baynes (acting)       (d. 1885)
1871 - 1936                the Governors of the Leeward Islands
Presidents (also the Colonial Secretaries of the Leeward Islands)
1871 - 1883?               Edwin Donald Baynes                (s.a.)
1883                       Henry Spencer Berkeley (acting)
1883 - 1888                Neale Porter
1888 - 1895                Frederick Evans                    (b. 1849 - d. 19..)
1895 - 1902                Sir George Melville                (b. 1842 - d. 1924)
16 Aug 1901 - 30 Oct 1901  E.A. Foster (acting for Melville)
1902 - 1912?               ....
c.1912                     H.E.W. Grant
1912? - 1919?              Thomas Alexander Vans
Best         (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
13 Jun 1920 - 1924         Thomas Reginald St. Johnston       (b. 1881 - d. 1950)
                             (from 1923, Sir Thomas Reginald St. Johnston)
17 Oct 1925 - 1935?        Edward William Baynes              (b. 1880 - d. 1962)
28 Apr 1930 - 12 Sep 1930  E.D'A Tibbits (acting for Baynes)
1935? - 1936               ....
Administrators

1936 - 10 Jul 1936         Hubert Eugène Bader                (b. 1902 - d. 1936)
1936 - 1941                James Dundas Harford               (b. 1899 - d. 1993)
1941 - 1944                Herbert Boon                       (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
1944 - 1946               
Frederick George Harcourt          (b. 1899 - d. 1986)
1946 - 1947                Leslie Stuart Greening             (b. 1902 - d. 1986)
1947 - 1954                Richard St. John Ormerod Wayne     (b. 1904 - d. 1959)
1954 - 1958                Alec Lovelace                      (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
 3 Oct 1958 - 1964         Ian Graham Turbott                 (b. 1922)
 6 Mar 1964 - 1967         Sir David James Gardiner Rose      (b. 1923 - d. 1969)
Governor
27 Feb 1967 -  1 Nov 1981  Wilfred E. Jacobs                  (b. 1919 - d. 1995)
                             (from 19 Jul 1967, Sir Wilfred E. Jacobs)  

Chief minister
 1 Jan 1960 - 27 Feb 1967  Vere Cornwall Bird                 (b. 1910 - d. 1999)  ALP
Premiers
27 Feb 1967 - 14 Feb 1971  Vere Cornwall Bird (1st time)      (s.a.)               ALP
14 Feb 1971 -  1 Feb 1976  George Herbert Walter              (b. 1928 - d. 2008)  PLM
 1 Feb 1976 -  1 Nov 1981  Vere Cornwall Bird (2nd time)      (s.a.)               ALP

Party abbreviations: ALP = Antigua Labour Party (center-right, Vere Bird personalist, est.1946); PLM = Progressive Labour Movement (center-left, renamed Progressive Labor Party, 1970-1992, merged into UPP)


Antigua and Barbuda

Queen¹
 1 Nov 1981 -              the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 1 Nov 1981 - 10 Jun 1993  Sir Wilfred Ebenezer Jacobs        (b. 1919 - d. 1995)
10 Jun 1993 - 17 Jul 2007  James Beethoven Carlisle           (b. 1937)
                             (from 9 Nov 1993, Sir James Beethoven Carlisle)
17 Jul 2007 -              Louise Agnetha Lake-Tack (f)       (b. 1944)
                             (from 17 Oct 2007, Dame Louise Agnetha Lake-Tack)

Prime ministers
 1 Nov 1981 -  9 Mar 1994  Vere Cornwall Bird                 (b. 1910 - d. 1999)  ALP
 9 Mar 1994 - 24 Mar 2004  Lester Bryant Bird                 (b. 1938)            ALP
24 Mar 2004 - 13 Jun 2014  Winston Baldwin Spencer            (b. 1948)            UPP
13 Jun 2014 -              Gaston Browne                      (b. 1967)            ALP

  ¹Full style:
(a) 1 Nov 1982 - 11 Feb 1982: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(b) from 11 Feb 1982: "By the Grace of God, Queen of Antigua and Barbuda and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

Party abbreviations: ALP = Antigua Labour Party (center-right, Bird personalist, est.1946); UPP = United Progressive Party (center-left, social democratic, est.1992)


Barbuda
 
Map of Barbuda
Capital: Codrington
Population: 1,638 (2011)

11 Nov 1493                Discovered by Spanish, named Isla Dulcina.
1628                       Barbuda an English colony.
1632                       Becomes a dependency of Antigua.
1666                       The village of Codrington established. 
 9 Jan 1685 - 1870         Barbuda leased to the Codrington family by the crown.
1713                       French sack Barbuda.
1746 - 1761                Sub-leased to Samuel Martin and William Byam.
1816 - 1832                Part of Antigua-Barbuda-Montserrat colony.
 1 Aug 1860                United with Antigua.
1894 - Oct 1898            Leased to the Barbuda Company.
23 Dec 1976                Barbuda Local Government Act grants limited autonomy. 
 1 Oct 1980                Failed separation attempt from Antigua.
 1 Nov 1981                Part of independent Antigua and Barbuda.

Governors
1628 - 1632                John Littleton
1662 - 1665?               John Noye
1665? - 1666               John Collins
16.. - 1681                Francis Nathan                     (d. 1681)
1681 - 1685                Vacant
Leaseholders (Administrators)

 9 Jan 1685 -  7 Apr 1710  Sir Christopher Codrington, Jr.    (b. 1668 - d. 1710)
                           + John Codrington (to 5 Jun 1705)  (b. 16.. - d. 1705)
 7 Apr 1710 - 17 Dec 1738  Sir William Codrington I           (d. 1738)
17 Dec 1738 - 11 Mar 1792  Sir William Codrington II          (b. 1719 - d. 1792)
1746 - 1761                Sub-lease holders
                           - Samuel Martin
                           - William Byam
11 Mar 1792 -  5 Sep 1816  Sir William Codrington III         (b. c.1737 - d. 1816)
 5 Sep 1816 - 1839         Sir Christopher Bethell-Codrington (b. 1764 - d. 1843)
1839 - 1855                Sir William Christopher Codrington (b. 1805 - d. 1864)
1855 - 1870                Sir C.N.B. Codrington (to 18..)    (d. 18..)
                           + E. Dowdeswell
1870 - 1894                George Hopkins
                             (magistrate from 1863/64)
                           + Rev. W. Cowley
1894 - Oct 1898            the Barbuda Company
Deputy governors

c.1685                     John Henselm
c.1695                     Nicholson
Managers
bf.1741                    Thomas Beech
c.1742                     Simon Punter
17.. - Dec 1745            McNish                             (d. 1745)
1761 - 1779                Samuel Redhead
1782 - 1793                Dennis Reynolds
1793 - 1801                William Collins
1804 - 1826                John James
1827 - 1836                John Winter
Wardens (magistrates)
1888 - 18..                C. Musgrave
c.1896/97                  J.F. Smyth (acting)
1901 - c.1913              ....
c.1913 - 1920              O. Nugent
Mar 1920 - 1931            G.G.D. Downing
1931 - 1935                Henry Darrell Carlton Moore        (b. 1900 - d. ....)
c.1936/39                  C.W. Thibou
c.1940                     G. Sutherland                      (b. 1877 - d. 1955)
c.1947/48                  A.McP. Taylor
c.1948/50                  C.A. Gomez
1951 - 1953                C.E. Greenaway
1953 - 1954                G.A. Thibou                        (b. 1921)
Nov 1954 - 1957            R.S. Byron
Apr 1957 - 19..            J.H. Joseph
c.1960/63                  A. Dyer
1964 - c.1967              Evan Landon Creque
c.1967                     Albert Lewis
c.1967 - 1981              ....
Chairmen of the Barbuda Council
1977 - 1979                ....
1979 - 1985                Thomas Hilbourne Frank (1st time)  (b. 1932)       BPM
1985 - 1989                Arthur M. Nibbs (1st time)         (b. 1958)       BPM
1989 - 1997                Thomas Hilbourne Frank (2nd time)  (s.a.)          BPM
1997 - Apr 2001            Arthur M. Nibbs (2nd time)         (s.a.)          BPM
Apr 2001 - 2005            Fabian Jones (1st time)                            BPM 
2005 - 19 Jan 2006         Lincoln Burton                                     BPM
19 Jan 2006 -  9 Jan 2008  Randolph Beazer                                    BPM
 9 Jan 2008 - 31 Mar 2009  Fabian Jones (2nd time)                            BPM
 1 Apr 2009 - Mar 2013     Kelvin Punter                                      BPM
Mar 2013 -                 Arthur M. Nibbs (3rd time)         (s.a.)          ALP

Party abbreviations: ALP = Antigua (and Baruda) Labour Party (center-right, Bird personalist, est.1946); BPM = Barbuda People's Movement (regionalist, advocates greater autonomy, UPP ally from 1992, est.1978); BPMC = Barbuda People's Movement for Change (regionalist, ALP ally, est.2002)



Redonda
 
Map of Redonda
Hear 'Anthem'
"God Who Gave Our 
Island Soil" 
'Adopted' 1949

11 Nov 1493                Discovered by Christopher Columbus and named 
                             Santa Maria la Redonda (St. Mary the Round).
Jun 1865                   Kingdom of Redonda2 proclaimed (not recognized by U.K.).
26 Mar 1872                Annexed by Britain; incorporated into Antigua.
27 Feb 1967                Dependency of Antigua.
 1 Nov 1981                Dependency of independent Antigua and Barbuda.

King2
Jun 1865 - 26 Mar 1872     Matthew I                          (b. 1824 - d. 1888)

 2In Jun 1865 Matthew Dowdy Shiel (s.a.), an Irish merchant in Montserrat dedicated to shipping, was on the island or Redonda, which that at that time did not belong to any country. In celebration of the birth of his son, and with certain influence of the abundance of the alcohol, Matthew Shiel proclaimed the island for himself as a kingdom, and himself as King Matthew I. Seven years later Britain took possession from the island ignoring the claim of Shiel. Following the British annexation, several dubious events occurred. Matthew abdicated on 21 Jul 1880 in favor of his son, Philippe Shiel (Matthew Phipps Shiel) (b. 1865 - d. 1947), who was proclaimed king Felipe I, he died 17 Feb 1947, leaving "the succession" - by testament to his literary adviser, the poet John Gawsworth (= Terence Ian Fytton Armstrong) as Juan I (b. 1912 - d. 1970). Juan I tried to sell the island to the Swedish royal family but was prevented by Britain. After the death of Juan I on 23 Sep 1970, the crown was demanded by Jon Wynne-Tyson (Juan II)(b. 1924) who claimed bestowed the kingship on him with the literary executorships by Gawsworth. Juan II reportedly the crown to Spanish writer Javier Marías (Xavier I)(b. 1951) on 6 Jul 1997. However, in 1984 the "nobility" recognized Cedric Boston (Cedric I)(b. 1960) as king. Juan II abdicated abdicated in favor of history professor William Leonard Gates (Leo V) on the 26 Oct 1989. At the moment there are as many as nine pretenders to "the throne" of Redonda, among them Bob Glen Williamson (Robert I "the bald")(d. 2009) a successor of Juan II, who assumes he inherited the "kingdom" on the death of Juan II. Robert I supposedly "acceded" to the throne in 1997 dying on 29 Aug 2009, which led to Michael J. Howorth (Michael the Grey)(b. 1949) to claim the crown on 11 Dec 2009. And in 1993 Matthew Phipps Shiel's granddaughter, Lancashire housewife Margaret Parry (f)(b. c.1954), came to the fore and was hailed as "Queen Maggie" of Redonda by various newspapers.







© Ben Cahoon