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Trinidad and Tobago

 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                     18 Feb 1797 - 1 Jan 1889
 
[Trinidad and Tobago colonial
                                    flag, 1889-1958]
                     1 Jan 1889 - 13 Oct 1958
 
[Trinidad and Tobago colonial
                                    flag, 1958-1962]
                     13 Oct 1958 - 31 Aug 1962
 
[Trinidad
                                    and Tobago]
                  Adopted 31 Aug 1962
 


Map of Trinidad
and Tobago
Hear National Anthem
 "Forged from the
Love of Liberty"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 31 Aug 1962
Constitution
(1 Aug 1976)
Capital: Port-of-Spain
Currency: Trinidad and
Tobago Dollar (TTD)
National Holiday: 31 Aug (1962)
Independence Day
Population: 1,227,505 (2011)
GDP: $27.14 billion (2013)
Exports: $12.8 billion (2013)
Imports: $9.63 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: East Indian 35.4%, African 34.2%, mixed - other
 15.3%, mixed African/East Indian 7.7%, other 1.3%,
unspecified 6.2% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 4,063 (2010)
Merchant marine: 4 ships (2010)
Religions: Protestant 32.1% (Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel
12%, Baptist 6.9%, Anglican 5.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.1%,
 Presbyterian/Congregational 2.5, other Protestant .9), Roman
 Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%,
 other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ACS, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, C, Caricom, CCM, CDB, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Trinidad and
Tobago Index
Chronology

31 Jul 1498                Trinidad discovered and claimed for Spain by
                             Columbus, named Isla La Santissima Trinidad.
15 Dec 1521                Trinidad a Spanish colony; subordinated 
                             to Audiencia of Santo Domingo (to 1739).
1592                       Permanent settlement of Trinidad begun, part
                             of the province of Guayana y Trinidad.
27 May 1717                Trinidad part of the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada.
                             (see Colombia). 
11 May 1724 - 20 Aug 1739  Trinidad subject to Santo Domingo.
1731                       Trinidad made a separate province of Venezuela.
20 Aug 1739 -  8 Sep 1777  Trinidad part of Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada. 
 4 Jun 1762                Trinidad a Comandancia general (part of Venezuela).
10 Feb 1763                Tobago a British colony (French rule 1781-93 and
                             1802-03).
10 Feb 1763                Tobago ceded to Britain by France.
 8 Sep 1777 - 1797         Trinidad a province of Venezuela Captaincy-general.
18 Feb 1797                Trinidad occupied by Britain.
27 Mar 1802                Spain formally cedes Trinidad to Britain;
                             Trinidad a British colony.
 1 Jan 1899                Trinidad and Tobago united.
28 Oct 1956                Self-government
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  Part of the Federation of the West Indies
                            (with Antigua, Barbados, Cayman Islands,
                             Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, 
                             St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia,
                             St. Vincent, and Turks and Caicos Islands)
31 Aug 1962                Independence from Britain (Trinidad and Tobago).
 1 Aug 1976                Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and
Tobago
(from 1899)
Trinidad
(1530-1899)
Tobago
(1628-1899)
West Indies
Federation

(1958-1962)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Trinidad
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
               to 18 Sep 1797 
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                   18 Sep 1797 - 1875
 
[Trinidad colonial flag
                                    1875-1889]
                      1875 - 1 Jan 1889
 
Map of Trinidad
Capital: Port-of-Spain
(Puerto de España 1783-1797;
San José de Oruña 1592-1783)
Population: 196,000 (1889 est.)

Governors of Guayana and Trinidad
1521 - 1526                Diego Colón Moniz                  (b. 1479/80 - d. 1526)
12 Jul 1530 - 1538         Antonío Sedeño
1571 - 1591                Juan Ponce de León
1580 - 1597                Antonio de Berrío y Oruña          (d. 1597)
1597 - 1612                Fernando de Berrío (1st time)
1615 - 1618                Diego Palomeque de Acuña
1619 - 1622                Fernando de Berrío (2nd time)
1624 - 1631                Luís de Monsalve y Saavedra 
1631 - 1636                Cristóval de Aranda
1636 - 1641                Diego Lopez de Escobar
1642 - 1657                Martín de Mendoza de la Hoy
                             y Berrío
1657 - 1664                Juan de Viedma
1665 - 1668                José de Haspe y Zuñiga
1670 - 1677                Diego Ximenes de Aldana
1678 - 1682                Tiburcio de Haspe y Zuñiga
1682 - 1684                Diego Suárez Ponce de León (1st time)
1684 - 1690                Sebastian de Roseta
1693 - 1696                Diego Suárez Ponce de León (2nd time)
1696 - 1698                Francisco de Menez
1698 - Dec 1699            José de León y Echales             (d. 1699) 
1699 - 1701                .... (acting)
1701 - 1705                Francisco Ruíz de Aguirre
1705 - 1711                Felipe de Artieda
1711 - 1716                Cristóbal Félix de Guzmán
1716 - 1721                Pedro de Jara
1721                       Juan de Orvay (acting)
1721 - 1726                Martín Pérez de Anda y Salazar
1726 - 1730                Agustín de Arredondo
1730 - 1731                Bartolomé de Aldunate y Rada       (d. 1733)
Governors of Trinidad
1731 - 1733                Bartolomé de Aldunate y Rada       (s.a.)
1733 - 11 Oct 1735         José Orbale 
                           + Pedro Ximenes
                           (alcalades ordinarios; acting)
11 Oct 1735 - 1745         Esteban Simón de Liñan y Vera
 4 Dec 1745 - 19 Jun 1746  Félix Espinosa de los Monteros
19 Jun 1746 -  7 Jan 1752  Juan José Salcedo
 7 Jan 1752 - 17 Jan 1757  Francisco Manclares
17 Jan 1757 -  6 Apr 1760  Pedro de la Moneda
 6 Apr 1760 - 1762         Jacinto San Juan
1762 - 1765                José Antonio Gil-Knight
19 Jun 1765 - 1766         Juan de Bruno (acting)
 5 Apr 1766 - 31 Mar 1773  José de Flores
31 Mar 1773 - 30 Nov 1776  Juan de Dios Váldez y Yarza
30 Nov 1776 - 11 Jul 1779  Manuel Falquez                     (d. 1779) 
Aug 1779 - 31 Mar 1781     Rafael Delgar
                             (military governor)
21 Aug 1779 - 31 Mar 1781  Martín de Salaverría
                             (civil governor)
31 Mar 1781 - 23 Jan 1784  Juan Francisco Machado
23 Jan 1784 - 18 Oct 1784  Antonio Barreto (acting)
18 Oct 1784 - 18 Feb 1797  José María Chacón y Sanchez        (b. 1747 - d. 1833)
18 Feb 1797 - Feb 1797     Sir Ralph Abercromby               (b. 1734 - d. 1801)
Feb 1797 - 20 Jun 1803     Thomas Picton (military governor)  (b. 1758 - d. 1815)
                             (military governor to 1 Jun 1801)
1798 -  1 Jun 1801         Commission
                           - William Fullerton                (b. 1758 - d. 1808)
                           - Thomas Picton                    (s.a.)                            - Samuel Hood                      (b. 1762 - d. 1814)
20 Jun 1803 - 20 Jul 1803  William Fullarton                  (s.a.)
20 Jul 1803 - 23 Apr 1811  Sir Thomas Hislop                  (b. 1764 - d. 1843)
23 Apr 1811 - 14 Jun 1813  Hector William Munro (acting)      (b. 1769 - d. 1821)
14 Jun 1813 - 12 Apr 1821  Sir Ralph James Woodford (1st time)(b. 1784 - d. 1828)
12 Apr 1821 - 18 Feb 1823  Aretas William Young (acting)      (b. c.1778 - d. 1835)
19 Feb 1823 -  1 Apr 1828  Sir Ralph James Woodford (2nd time)(s.a.)
 1 Apr 1828 - 17 Apr 1828  Henry Capadose (acting)            (d. 1848)
17 Apr 1828 - 29 Jul 1828  Sir Charles Felix Smith (1st time) (b. 1786 - d. 1858)
29 Jul 1828 - 10 Mar 1829  James Alexander Farquharson        (b. 1775 - d. 1834)
                            
(acting)
10 Mar 1829 - 20 Nov 1829  Lewis Grant (1st time)             (b. 1778 - d. 1852)
20 Nov 1829 - 17 May 1830  Richard Doherty (acting)           (d. 1862)
17 May 1830 -  5 Dec 1831  Sir Charles Felix Smith (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 5 Dec 1831 - 20 Apr 1833  Sir
Lewis Grant (2nd time)         (s.a.)
20 Apr 1833 -  8 Mar 1839  Sir George Fitzgerald Hill         (b. 1763 - d. 1839)
 8 Mar 1839 - 12 Apr 1840  John Alexander Mein (acting)       (b. 1786 - d. 1841)
12 Apr 1840 - 21 Nov 1840  Sir Henry George Macleod (1st time)(b. 1791 - d. 1847)
21 Nov 1840 - 14 Dec 1840  Maurice Barlow (acting)
14 Dec 1840 -  2 Feb 1841  John Tyler (acting)
 2 Feb 1841 - 29 Jun 1842  Sir Henry George Macleod (2nd time)(s.a.)
29 Jun 1842 -  8 Aug 1842  Francis Fuller (acting)
 8 Aug 1842 -  1 Apr 1843  Sir Charles Chichester (acting)    (b. 1795 - d. 1847)

 1 Apr 1843 - 29 Apr 1846  Sir Henry George Macleod (3rd time)(s.a.)
29 Apr 1846 - 26 Jan 1854  George Francis Robert Harris,      (b. 1810 - d. 1872)
                             Baron Harris
26 Jan 1854 - 10 Mar 1854  L. Bourchier (acting)
10 Mar 1854 - 27 Oct 1856  Sir Charles Elliot                 (b. 1801 - d. 1875)
27 Oct 1856 - 26 Jan 1857  B. Brooks (acting)
26 Jan 1857 -  7 Apr 1860  Robert William Keate (1st time)    (b. 1814 - d. 1873)
 7 Apr 1860 - 25 Mar 1861  J. Walker (acting)
25 Mar 1861 - May 1861     Holworthy (acting)
May 1861 -  5 Jul 1864     Robert William Keate (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 5 Jul 1864 -  6 Sep 1866  Thompson (acting)
 6 Sep 1864 - 24 Apr 1866  Sir John Henry Thomas Manners-     (b. 1814 - d. 1877)
                             Sutton
24 Apr 1866 -  7 Nov 1866  E.E. Bushworth (acting)
 7 Nov 1866 -  8 Apr 1868  Sir Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon (b. 1829 - d. 1912) 
                             (1st time)
 8 Apr 1868 - 20 Apr 1868  Bostock (acting)
20 Apr 1868 - 25 Jun 1868  Sir Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
25 Jun 1868 - 21 Dec 1868  Cornelius Hendricksen Kortright    (b. 1817 - d. 1899)
                             (acting)
21 Dec 1868 - 25 Jun 1870  Sir Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon (s.a.)
25 Jun 1870 - 11 Jul 1872  James Robert Longden (1st time)    (b. 1827 - d. 1891)
11 Jul 1872 - 21 May 1873  William Hepburn Rennie (acting)    (b. 1829 - d. 1874)
21 May 1873 - 27 Apr 1874  James Robert Longden (2nd time)    (s.a.)
27 Apr 1874 - 27 May 1874  John Scott Bushe (1st time)(acting)(b. 1826 - d. 1887)
 2 May 1874 - 27 May 1874  William Wellington Cairns          (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
27 May 1874 - 20 Nov 1874  John Scott Bushe (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)
20 Nov 1874 -  9 Dec 1876  Henry Turner Irving (1st time)     (b. 1833 - d. 1923)
 9 Dec 1876 -  8 Feb 1877  John Scott Bushe (3rd time)(acting)(s.a.)
 8 Feb 1877 -  2 Jan 1878  George William Des Voeux (acting)  (b. 1834 - d. 1909) 
 2 Jan 1878 - 1880         Henry Turner Irving (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1880                       William Rowland Pyne (acting)      (b. 1838 - d. 1885)
1880                       William A.G. Young (acting)
 2 Nov 1880 - 1884         Sir Sanford Freeling               (b. 1828 - d. 1894)
1884                       John Scott Bushe (3rd time)(acting)(s.a.)
19 Jun 1884 - 1884         Sir Frederick Palgrave Barlee      (b. 1827 - d. 1884)
                             (acting)
1884 - 1885                John Scott Bushe (4th time)(acting)(s.a.)
24 Jan 1885 - 1885         Sir Arthur Elibank Havelock        (b. 1844 - d. 1908)
1885                       David Wilson (acting)
 9 Oct 1885 - 1891         Sir William Robinson               (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
19 Aug 1891 - 1897         Sir Frederick Napier Broome        (b. 1842 - d. 1896)
 2 Jun 1897 -  1 Jan 1899  Sir Hubert Edward Henry Jerningham (b. 1842 - d. 1914)


Tobago
 
[Flag of the
                                  United Kingdom]
                1762 - 1781, 1793 - 1877
 
[Tobago
                                  colonial flag 1877-1889]
                     1877 - 6 Apr 1889
 
Map of Tobago
Capital: Scarborough
(Port Louis 1781-1793;
Georgetown 1764-1769
)
Tobago Assembly Act
(23 Sep 1980/1996)
Population: 60,874 (2011)
18,353 (1890)

 4 Aug 1498                Possibly discovered and claimed for Spain by Columbus,
                             named Isla de la Asunción.
1502                       Named Isla La Magdalena by Alonzo de Ojeda and Juan de la Cosa;
                             later it is known as Tavaco, then Tabagua, finally as Tobago.
1580                       English claim Tobago for England (no settlement). 
Jan 1614 – 16 May 1614     Brief Spanish settlement.
1627                       Failed English attempted settlement from Barbados.
25 Feb 1628                King Charles I of England, grants Tobago to Philip Herbert, Earl
                             of Montgomery (later Earl of Pembroke)(b. 1584 - d. 1650).
Apr 1628 – Dec 1636        Dutch colony (Nieuw Walcheren) by the Dutch West-India Company,
                             patented to Jan de Moor (abandoned 1630 – Feb 1634).
 1 Jan 1637                Dutch colony destroyed by the Spanish.
 9 Oct 1639 – Aug 1640     English settlement, organized by Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, a
                             successor to the Earl of Pembroke (repeatedly 1642–1643).
1646                       Duke of Courland (in modern Latvia) acquires the grant from
                             Earl of Warwick, not consented to by the King of England
                            (grant of 1642 by king to duke is common, but fake tale created
                             by Courlanders to justify colonization).
1649 - 1650                Brief Courlander attempted settlement.
20 May 1654                Courlander colony (Neu Kurland) established on the north-west
                             coast at Jacobstadt (now Plymouth).
Sep 1654                   Dutch colony (Nieuw Walcheren) re-established by the Dutch
                             West India Company, patented to the Lampsins brothers, on the
                             south-west coast.
11 Dec 1659                Courlander colony occupied by the Dutch, the entire island united
                             united under Dutch administration, Jacobstadt is renamed Fort
                             Beveren.
28 Aug 1662                Proprietorship (barony of Tobago) given to Cornelis Lampsins
                             by French King Louis XIV (in 30 Sep 1664 the retention of the
                             Dutch colonial status specified by the Dutch General Estates).
Jan 1666 - Aug 1666        English occupation, administered from Barbados, nominally
                             in the name of Courland under the Treaty of 17 Nov 1664.
Aug 1666 - Mar 1667        French occupation, subordinate to Grenada.
28 Apr 1667 - 18 Dec 1672  Dutch colony (Tobago) re-established, under the West India
                             Company administration, subordinated to Dutch Guiana.
17 Feb 1669 – 20 Feb 1669  Courlanders land on the island, but are soon captured by the Dutch.
18 Dec 1672 - 21 Dec 1672  English occupation, the colony is abandoned.
19 Feb 1674                Tobago restored to the Dutch by Treaty of Westminster.
 1 Sep 1676 - 12 Dec 1677  Dutch colony re-established by the Holland Province of Netherlands.
12 Dec 1677 – 27 Dec 1677  French destroy the Dutch colony, the colony remains abandoned
                             until Jun 1680.
10 Aug 1678                Dutch cede the island to France by the Treaty of Nijmegen,
                             but the French do not assert their rights (in 15 Dec 1683 the
                             English Privy Council declares neutrality of Tobago against
                             French and Courlander claims).
Jun 1680 - 1693            Courlander colony re-established (abandoned Mar 1683 – 13 Jun 1686,
                             2 Mar 1687 - 5 Oct 1687), titular governors appointed by the
                             Duke of Courland until 1786: 1690-99 Adolph Esmit (b. 1625/30 –
                             d. 1699); c.1710 Edward Cowley; 1726–27? von Brincken; and 1737-
                             1786? Ewald von Klopmann (d. 1786?) (after Courlander withdrawal
                             the island not permanently settled by the Europeans until 1764). 
Apr 1732 –  4 May 1732     Failed attempt by Sweden to settle on northern coast of Tobago
                             (named Fort Frederick).
18 Oct 1748                Neutral territory as recognized by the United Kingdom and
                             France in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
Dec 1748 - 1749            French settlement, subordinate to Martinique, abandoned upon
                             ratification of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
1762                       British claim Tobago, but no settlement until 1764. Part of South
                             Caribbean Islands colony to 1802 (see Grenada).
10 Feb 1763                Tobago ceded to Britain by France in Treaty of Paris.
12 Nov 1764                Tobago a separate British colony, permanent settlement begun.
 2 Jun 1781 - 15 Apr 1793  French colony.
15 Apr 1793                British occupation of Tobago.
25 Oct 1797 - 19 Apr 1801  Nominally part of Lucie département of France (Saint Lucia
                             and Tobago; not effected due to British occupation).
 7 Oct 1802 - 30 Jun 1803  French colony.
30 Jun 1803                British crown colony.
 1 Apr 1833 - 1889         Part of Windward Islands colony (see Grenada).
 6 Apr 1889                Tobago administratively annexed to Trinidad.
 1 Jan 1899                Trinidad and Tobago united, Tobago a ward of Trinidad.
1964 - 1976                Separate Ministry for Tobago Affairs part the Trinidad and
                             Tobago government.
23 Sep 1980                Autonomy

Spanish Commander
Jan 1614 – 16 May 1614     Juan Rodriguez
Dutch Governors
Apr 1628 – Dec 1636        Jan de Moor (proprietor)           (d. 1642)
Apr 1628 – 1630            Jacob Maerszoon (Maertsen)
1630 - Feb 1634            abandoned
Feb 1634 – Oct 1636        Willem Gayner
Oct 1636 – Dec 1636        Cornelis de Moor
English Commanders

 9 Oct 1639 – Aug 1640     Robert Marsham                     (d. 1640)
1640 - 1642                abandoned
1642 - 1643                Edward Marshall
Courlander Commander

1649 - 1650                Cornelis Caron                     (d. af.1666)
Courlander Governors (in the north west)
20 May 1654 – Jan 1657     Willem Mollens                     (d. 1659)
1657 – 1658                Wolfrat von Brederow, gen. Clottring
1658 – 11 Nov 1659         Christian Holtzbruch (acting)      (d. af.1661)
11 Nov 1659 – 11 Dec 1659  Christoffel Kysseling (acting)     (d. af.1660)
                             (self-proclaimed)
Dutch Commanders (in the south west, from 11 Dec 1659 the whole island)
Sep 1654 – Jan 1666        Cornelis Lampsins                  (b. 1600 - d. 1664)
                             (from 28 Aug 1662, baron de Tobago)
                           + Adriaen Lampsins                 (b. c.1598 - d. 1666)
                           (proprietors; jointly to 2 Sep 1664)
Sep 1654 – 1656            Pieter Becquart
1656 – Jan 1666            Hubert de Beveren
Jan 1666 - Aug 1666        John Scott -English commander
Aug 1666 – Mar 1667        Vincent -French commander          (d. af.1670)
Mar 1667 – 28 Apr 1667     abandoned
28 Apr 1667 –  4 May 1667  Abraham Crijnssen                  (d. 1669)
 4 May 1667 – 22 Apr 1668  Jan Lansman (acting)         
22 Apr 1668 - 1672         Abel Thisso                        (d. af.1678)
17 Feb 1669 - 20 Feb 1669  Hans Jurgen Waltmann
                             (Courlander governor; in opposition to Dutch)
1672 - 18 Dec 1672         Pieter Constant                    (d. af.1683)
18 Dec 1672 – 21 Dec 1672  Tobias Bridge –English commander   (d. af.1674)
21 Dec 1672 -  1 Sep 1676  abandoned
 1 Sep 1676 - 12 Dec 1677  Jacob Binckes                      (b. 1637 - d. 1677)
12 Dec 1677 – 27 Dec 1677  Jean d'Estrees -French commander   (b. 1624 – d. 1707)
Courlander Governors
Jun 1680 - 1681            Robert Bennett (acting)
1681 – Dec 1681            Andreas Hamelton (acting)          (d. 1681)
Dec 1681 – Mar 1683        Franz Monck                        (d. af.1686)
Mar 1683 – 13 Jun 1686     abandoned
13 Jun 1686 –  2 Mar 1687  Berthold Otto Schmoll (acting)     (b. 1657 – d. 1719)
 2 Mar 1687 -  5 Oct 1687  abandoned
 5 Oct 1687 – Oct 1687     Dietrich von Altenbockum           (d. 1687)
Oct 1687 – 30 Jun 1688     Abraham Marin (1st time)(acting)   (d. 1689)
30 Jun 1688 -  8 Dec 1688  Jan Cornelson (1st time)(acting)   (d. 1689)
 8 Dec 1688 – 1689         Abraham Marin (2nd time)(acting)   (s.a.)
1689 – Nov 1689            Jan Cornelson (2nd time)(acting)   (s.a.)
Nov 1689 –  5 Jun 1690     Jan Anton Vanton (acting)
 5 Jun 1690 – 1693         .... (acting) [name not recorded]
Swedish Commander
Apr 1732 -  4 May 1732     Laurentz Brander
French Commander
Dec 1748 - 1749            de Montalais (or Hurault)
British Commandants
1763 - 12 Nov 1764         ....
Lieutenant governors
12 Nov 1764 - Jul 1766     Alexander Brown                    (d. 1766)

 2 Dec 1766 - 16 Oct 1767  William Hill
16 Oct 1767 - 1769         Roderick Gwynne (Gwyne)
1769 - 1771                Robert William Stewart (acting)
22 Apr 1771 - 1777         William Young                      (b. 1725 - d. 1788)
1777 - 1779                Peter Campbell (acting)            (d. 1779)
1779 - 1781                John Graham (acting)
1781 -  2 Jun 1781         George Ferguson
Governors
 2 Jun 1781 - Nov 1782     Philibert François Rouxel de       (b. 1735 - d. 1793) 
                             Blanchelande 
Nov 1782 - 1786            René Marie, vicomte d'Arrot        (b. 1745 - d. 18..)
1786 - 1789                Arthur, comte Dillon               (b. 1750 - d. 1794)
1789 - 1792                Antoine de Jobal de Poigny         (b. 1747 - d. 1817)
1792 - 1793                Philippe Marie de Marguenat
 3 Feb 1793 - 15 Apr 1793  Pierre Jacques Fulcrand de la      (b. 1740 - d. ....)
                             Roque de Monteil          
15 Apr 1793 - Apr 1793     Cornelius Cuyler (commander)       (b. c.1740 - d. 1819)
Apr 1793 -  4 Jan 1794     William Myers (acting) 
 4 Jan 1794 - 1794         George Poyntz Ricketts             (b. 1749 - d. 1800)
20 May 1794 - 1795         Joseph Robley (1st time) (acting)  (b. 17.. - d. 1807) 
 2 Apr 1795 - 22 May 1796  William Lindsay                    (b. 17.. - d. 1796)
23 May 1796 - 1797         James Campbell (acting)
17 Jun 1797 - 1797         Thomas Wilson (acting)
13 Jul 1797 - 1798         Stephan de Lancey                  (b. 1748 - d. 1799)
16 Oct 1798 - Jan 1800     Joseph Robley (2nd time) (acting)  s.a.)
28 Jan 1800 - 26 Oct 1800  Richard Master                     (b. 17.. - d. 1800)
26 Oct 1800 - 1802         Joseph Robley (3rd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
1802 -  7 Oct 1802         Hugh Lyle Carmichael (acting)      (b. 1764 - d. 1813)
 7 Oct 1802 - 26 Dec 1802  Jean Joseph François Léonard       (b. 1756 - d. 1802)
                             de Sahuguet d'Amarzit
26 Dec 1802 - 30 Jun 1803  de Muguetot (prefect) (acting)
1803 - 30 Jun 1803         Louis César Gabriel de Berluy,     (b. 1765 - d. 1819)
                             comte Berthier (titular)      
30 Jun 1803 - Jul 1803     Thomas Picton (acting)             (b. 1758 - d. 1815)
21 Jul 1803 - Aug 1803     William Johnstone (acting)
 9 Aug 1803 - 1804         Donald MacDonald (acting)          (b. 17.. - d. 1804)
 1 Jun 1804 - 1804         James Montgomerie                  (b. 1756 - d. 1829)
16 Jul 1804 - 1804         John Halkett                       (b. 1768 - d. 1852)
 4 Aug 1804 - 13 Oct 1805  James Campbell (acting)            (b. 17.. - d. 1805)
13 Oct 1805 - 1806         Robert Mitchell (acting)
27 May 1806 - 1807         John Balfour (1st time)(acting)
20 Apr 1807 - 10 Jan 1815  Sir William Young                  (b. 1747 - d. 1815)
10 Jan 1815 - 1816         John Balfour (2nd time)(acting)
 1 Jul 1816 - 1816         John Campbell (acting)
13 Nov 1816 - 1828         Sir Frederick Philipse Robinson    (b. 1763 - d. 1862)
 1 Aug 1828 - 1833         Nathaniel Shepherd Blackwell       (d. 1833)
12 Apr 1833 - 1833         Alexander Gairdner (acting)        (d. 1849)
Lieutenant governors
26 Jun 1833 - 27 Jun 1841  Henry Charles Darling (1st time)   (b. 1780 - d. 1845)
27 Jun 1841 - 15 Mar 1842  Joseph Scott (1st time)(acting)
15 Mar 1842 - 11 Feb 1845  Henry Charles Darling (2nd time)   (s.a.)
12 Feb 1845 -  1 Apr 1845  Joseph Scott (2nd time)(acting)
 1 Apr 1845 - 21 Sep 1845  Henry Yeates (1st time (acting)
26 Sep 1845 - 14 Dec 1850  Laurence Graeme                    (b. 1797 - d. 1850) 
15 Dec 1850 - 16 Apr 1851  Henry Yeates (2nd time)(acting) 
16 Apr 1851 - 28 Jun 1851  David Robert Ross                  (b. 1797 - d. 1851)
29 Jun 1851 - 14 Jan 1852  Henry Yeates (3rd time)(acting) 
14 Jan 1852 - 25 Jul 1852  Dominick Daly                      (b. 1798 - d. 1868)
25 Jul 1852 - Feb 1854     Henry Yeates (4th time)(acting)
Feb 1854 - 10 Jul 1856     Willoughby J. Shortland            (b. 1804 - d. 1869)
10 Jul 1856 -  9 Aug 1856  James Kirk (acting)
 9 Aug 1856 -  8 Jun 1857  James Henry Keens (acting)
 8 Jun 1857 - 23 May 1860  James Vickery Drysdale (1st time)
24 May 1860 - 26 Dec 1860  Edwin Donald Baynes (acting)       (d. 1885)
26 Dec 1860 - Apr 1864     James Vickery Drysdale (2nd time)
1864 - 1872                Cornelius Hendricksen Kortright    (b. 1817 - d. 1899)
                             (acting to 1865)
1872 - 1875                Herbert Taylor Ussher              (b. 1836 - d. 1880)
1875 - 1877                Robert William Harley              (b. 1829 - d. 1892) 
 1 Nov 1877 - 1880         Augustus Frederick Gore            (b. 1826 - d. 1887)
                             (administrator)
1880 - 1882                Edward Daniel Laborde              (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
1882 - 1883                .... (acting)
1883 - 1884                John Worrell Carrington            (b. 1847 - d. 1913)
1884 - 1885                .... (acting)
1885                       Lorraine Gudded Hay (1st time)
1885 - 1888                Robert Baxter Llewellyn            (b. 1845 - d. 1919)
1888 - 1889                Lorraine Gudded Hay (2nd time)
Commissioners
1889 - 1892                Lorraine Gudded Hay
1892                       Thomas Crossley Rayner (acting)    (b. 1860 - d. 1914)
1892 - 1893                William Low (1st time)
1893                       H.H. Sealy (acting)
1893 - 1897                William Low (2nd time)
1897                       S.W. Snaggs (acting)
1897 -  1 Jan 1899         Joseph Clanfergael O'Halloran      (b. 1846 - d. 1920)
                             (acting)
Wardens (magistrates)
Jan 1899 - 1903            James Todd Rousseau (1st time)     (b. 1860 - d. 1910)
1903 - 1904                W.C. Nock (acting)
1904 - 28 Oct 1910         James Todd Rousseau (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Oct 1910 - Feb 1911        Kernahan (acting)
Feb 1911 - May 1913        Edward Carlyon Eliot               (b. 1879 - d. 1940)
1913? - 1919?              H.P.C. Strange
Jan 1919 - c.1924          Leonardo Joseph Sorzano
1926 - 1937                Henry Meaden                       (b. 1882 - d. 19..)
1938 - 1944                Ca....
1944 - 1956                Thomas Charles Cambridge           (b. 1906 - d. 1967)
1956 - 1958                Vincente J. "Monty" de Montbrun    (b. 1908 - d. 2001)
Commissioners for Tobago Affairs
10 Mar 1958 - 1959         G.W. Gordon
                            (permanent secretary for Tobago affairs)
1959 - 1964                Victor Edward Bruce
Minister for Tobago Affairs
1964 - Sep 1976            Eric Eustace Williams              (b. 1911 - d. 1981)  PNM
1976 - 1980                post abolished
Permanent Secretary of Central Administrative Services Tobago
1977 - 1980                H. Leacock

[Tobago House of Assembly
                (Trinidad and Tobago) flag]  
    Tobago House of Assembly flag


Chairmen of the House of Assembly

 4 Dec 1980 - 16 Dec 1986  Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson   (b. 1926)           DAC;1986 NAR
16 Dec 1986 - 31 Oct 1989  Jefferson "Jeff" G. Davidson       (b. c.1938)          NAR
 1 Nov 1989 - Dec 1996     Lennox Alcindor Denoon             (b. 1930 - d. 2007)  NAR
Chief Secretaries of the House of Assembly
Dec 1996 - 31 Jan 2001     Hochoy Charles                                          NAR 
 1 Feb 2001 -              Orville Delano London              (b. 1945)            PNM

Party abbreviations: NAR = National Alliance for Reconstruction (A.N.R. Robinson personalist, aims to be multi-ethnic, est.1986); PNM = People's National Movement (social liberal, center-left, mainly Black, est.1955);
- Former parties:
DAC = Democratic Action Congress (Tobago autonomist, merged into NAR, 1971-1986 and 2003-2012)



Trinidad and Tobago

 1 Jan 1899                Trinidad and Tobago united.
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  Part of the Federation of the West Indies.
31 Aug 1962                Independence
 1 Aug 1976                Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Governors
 1 Jan 1899 - 1900         Sir Hubert Edward Henry Jerningham   (s.a.)
 4 Dec 1900 - 1904         Sir Cornelius Alfred Moloney         (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
30 Aug 1904 - 29 Aug 1908  Sir Henry Moore Jackson              (b. 1849 - d. 1908)
11 May 1909 - Jan 1916     Sir George Ruthven Le Hunte          (b. 1852 - d. 1925)
 1 Jun 1916 - 1921         Sir John Robert Chancellor           (b. 1870 - d. 1952)
 1 Jan 1922 - 1924         Sir Samuel Herbert Wilson            (b. 1873 - d. 1950)
Aug 1924 - 1924            Sir Thomas Alexander Best (acting)   (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
22 Nov 1924 - 1930         Sir Horace Archer Byatt              (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
22 Mar 1930 - 1936         Sir Alfred Claud Hollis              (b. 1874 - d. 1961)
17 Sep 1936 - 1938         Sir Arthur George Murchison Fletcher (b. 1878 - d. 1954)
 8 Jul 1938 - 1942         Sir Hubert Winthrop Young            (b. 1885 - d. 1950)
 8 Jun 1942 - 1947         Sir Bede Edmund Hugh Clifford        (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
 7 Mar 1947 - 1950         Sir John Valentine Wistar Shaw       (b. 1894 - d. 1982)
19 Apr 1950 - 1955         Sir Hubert Elvin Rance               (b. 1898 - d. 1974)
23 Jun 1955 - 1960         Sir Edward Betham Beetham            (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
 4 Jul 1960 - 31 Aug 1962  Sir Solomon Hochoy                   (b. 1905 - d. 1983)
Queen¹
31 Aug 1962 -  1 Aug 1976  the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
31 Aug 1962 - 15 Sep 1972  Sir Solomon Hochoy                   (s.a.)
15 Sep 1972 -  1 Aug 1976  Sir Ellis Emmanuel Innocent Clarke   (b. 1917 - d. 2010)
Presidents
 1 Aug 1976 - 13 Mar 1987  Ellis Emmanuel Innocent Clarke       (s.a.)           PNM/Non-party
                             (acting to 28 Jan 1977) 
13 Mar 1987 - 18 Mar 1987  Michael J. Williams (acting)         (b. 1929)            NAR
18 Mar 1987 - 18 Mar 1997  Noor Mohamed Hassanali               (b. 1918 - d. 2006)  Non-party
18 Mar 1997 - 17 Mar 2003  Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson     (b. 1926 - d. 2014)  NAR/None
17 Mar 2003 - 18 Mar 2013  George Maxwell Richards              (b. 1931)            PNM/None
18 Mar 2013 -              Anthony Thomas Aquinas Carmona       (b. 1953)            Non-party


Chief minister

28 Oct 1956 -  9 Jul 1959  Eric Eustace Williams                (b. 1911 - d. 1981)  PNM
Premier
 9 Jul 1959 - Dec 1961     Eric Eustace Williams                (s.a.)               PNM
Prime ministers
Dec 1961 - 29 Mar 1981     Eric Eustace Williams                (s.a.)               PNM
30 Mar 1981 - 18 Dec 1986  George Michael Chambers              (b. 1928 - d. 1997)  PNM
18 Dec 1986 - 17 Dec 1991  Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson     (s.a.)               NAR
                            
(27 Jul - 1 Aug 1990 Jamaat al Muslimeen prisoner)
17 Dec 1991 -  9 Nov 1995  Patrick Augustus Mervyn Manning      (b. 1946)            PNM
                             (1st time) 
 9 Nov 1995 - 24 Dec 2001  Basdeo Panday                        (b. 1933)            UNC
24 Dec 2001 - 26 May 2010  Patrick Augustus Mervyn Manning      (s.a.)               PNM
                             (2nd time) 
26 May 2010 -              Kamla Persad-Bissessar (f)           (b. 1952)            UNC

  ¹Full style
(a) 31 Aug 1962 - 2 Nov 1962: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(b) 2 Nov 1962 - 1 Aug 1976: "By the Grace of God, Queen of Trinidad and Tobago and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Disputes: Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has also expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may extend into its waters as well.

Party abbreviations: NAR = National Alliance for Reconstruction (A.N.R. Robinson personalist, aims to be multi-ethnic, est.1986); PNM = People's National Movement (social liberal, center-left, mainly Black, est.1955); UNC = United National Congress (democratic socialist, center-left, mainly ethnic East Indian, split from NAR, est.1988)



Federation of the West Indies

[West Indies Federation,
                1958-62]
                        1958 - 31 May 1962
 
Map of the West Indies
Federation
Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen" 
National Local Anthem
"A Song for Federation"
(1958-31 May 1962)

British Caribbean Fed. Act
(3 Jan 1958)
-----------------------------
Appendix -Commencement
Capital: Port-of-Spain
(de facto)

Currency: British West
Indies Dollar (XBWD)
(1949-1964)
National Holidays: 3 Jan (1958)
Inception of the Federation
-----------------------------------
23 Feb (1958)
Federation Day
Population: 3,264,600 (1962)
GDP: N/A
Exports: $580.6 million (1960)
Imports: $474.4 million (1960)
Ethnic groups: mostly Black, with European, East Indian, 
mixed race, Chinese, Carib, and others
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Defense was the Responsibility of U.K.
Religions: mostly Protestant, some Roman Catholic,
Hindus and Muslims
International Organizations/Treaties: IOC, ITU (associate), UNESCO (associate), UPU, WMO

 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  Federation of the West Indies (Antigua, Barbados, Cayman
                             Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Christopher
                             -Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Trinidad and                              Tobago and the Turks and Caicos Islands were the provinces)
                            (less commonly referred to as the British Caribbean Federation).

Queen¹
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  the Queen of the United Kingdom

Governor-general
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  Patrick George Thomas              (b. 1901 - d. 1974)
                             Buchan-Hepburn, Baron Hailes 

Prime minister
18 Apr 1958 - 31 May 1962  Sir Grantley Herbert Adams         (b. 1898 - d. 1971)  WIFLP

 ¹Full style 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith."

Party abbreviation: WIFLP = West Indies Federal Labour Party (social-democratic, 1956-1962)







 © Ben Cahoon