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Dominican Republic
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                     to 22 Jul 1795; 
            8 Jul 1809 - 30 Nov 1821;
           18 Mar 1861 - 14 Sep 1863 
[French
                                    Flag]
             22 Jul 1795 - 8 Jul 1809
 
 
[Dominican Flag in Gran
                                    Colombia]
           30 Nov 1821 - 9 Feb 1822
 
 
[Civil flag
                                    of Haiti, 1806]
               9 Feb 1822 - 27 Feb 1844
 
 
[flag
                                    of Dominican Republic 1844]
             27 Feb 1844 - 6 Nov 1844
  1844-1861 and from 14 Sep 1863 Civil Flag
Flag of the
                                    Dominican Republic
            6 Nov 1844 - 18 Mar 1861;
        Re-adopted 14 Sep 1863 State Flag 
 


Map of the Dominican
Republic
Hear National Anthem
"Hino Nacional"
(National Anthem) or
"Quisqueyanos valientes"

(Valient Sons of Quisqueye)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 30 May 1934
(unofficial from 7 Jun 1897)
Constitution
 (26 Jan 2010; in Spanish)
Capital: Santo Domingo
 de Guzmán

(Santo Domingo 1496-1930,
 1961 - 28 Nov 1996;
Ciudad Trujillo 1930-1961;

La Isabella 1493-1496)
Currency: Dominican Peso
(DOP); 1905-1947 US Dollar
(USD)
National Holiday: 27 Feb (1844)
Independence Day
Population: 10,219,630 (2013)
GDP: $101 billion (2013)
Exports: $9.82 billion (2013)
Imports: $16.8 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: mulatto 73%, white 16%, black 11% (2003)
Total Active Armed Forces: 49,910 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 64.4%, other Christian 11.4%,
nonreligious 22.5%, other 1.7% (2004)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ACS, AOSIS, APM, BCIE (nonregional), BTWC, CAFTA, CAP, Caricom (observer), CCM, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (suspended), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAIA (observer), LAP, LU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SEGIB, SICA, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Dominican
Republic
Chronology
 
 6 Dec 1492                Discovered by Columbus and claimed for Spain, 
                             named Hispañiola.
1496 - 25 Nov 1500         Granted to Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón).
 4 Aug 1496                The city of Santo Domingo is founded.
25 Nov 1500                Crown colony
1511 - 1517                Audiencia of Santo Domingo
1520 - 1797                Audiencia (restored; with authority over
                             Cuba [to 1764], Florida [to 1763], Venezuela 
                             [to 1739], Jamaica [to 1655], Puerto Rico,
                             and Trinidad [to 1739]).
1521 - 1821                Subordinated to New Spain (see Mexico).
20 Sep 1697                Spain recognizes French claim to western 
                             Hispaniola; eastern part- as French
                             Saint-Domingue (see Haiti); western part-
                             Spanish Santo Domingo by Treaty of Ryswick.
22 Jul 1795                Spain cedes Santo Domingo to France (but
                             Spanish administration continues to 26 Jan 1801).
25 Oct 1797 - Mar 1801     Nominally organized as French départements of
                             Iganne, Samana and Sud; from 1802 part of 
                             French colony of Saint-Domingue (but from 1 Jan                              1804 includes only Santo Domingo due to Haitian
                             independence).
26 Jan 1801 - 29 Jan 1802  Haitian occupation.
13 Dec 1808                Santo Domingo reverts to Spain (French
                             administration ends on 7 Jul 1809).
 7 Jul 1809 - Aug 1809     British occupy Samaná and blockade the port of
                             Santo Domingo.
19 Mar 1812 -  4 May 1814  Santo Domingo a diputación provincial of Spain.
19 Mar 1820 -  1 Dec 1821  Puerto Rico a diputación provincial of Spain.
 1 Dec 1821                Independence (Independent State of the Spanish 
                             Part of Haiti in Colombia).
 1 Dec 1821 -  9 Feb 1822  (Nominally) part of Gran Colombia (see Colombia).
 9 Feb 1822                Incorporated into Haiti.
27 Feb 1844                Independence (Dominican Republic)
18 Mar 1861                Spanish colony (Santo Domingo; from 8 Jun 1861
                             Captaincy-general of Santo Domingo).
14 Sep 1863                Independence (Dominican Republic)(recognized 
                             by Spain 11 Jul 1865).
29 Nov 1869 - 16 May 1870  Government requests annexation to United States.
30 Mar 1903 - 28 Mar 1905  U.S. occupation.
28 Mar 1905 -  2 Apr 1941  U.S. protectorate
29 Nov 1916 - 12 Jul 1924  U.S. occupation.
28 Apr 1965 - 21 Sep 1966  U.S. and OAS intervention.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

De facto ruler (Generalissimo)
16 Aug 1930 - 30 May 1961  Rafael Leonidas Trujillo y Molina (b. 1891 - d. 1961)  Mil/PD

Governors
1492 - 1500                Cristóbal Colón (viceroy)         (b. 1451 - d. 1506)
1496 - 1498                Bartolomé Colón                   (c. 1461 - d. 1514)
1500 - 1502                Francisco de Bobadilla            (b. 14.. - d. 1502)
                             (royal commissioner)
1502 - 1509                Fray Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres  (b. 1460 - d. 1518)
10 Jul 1509 - 15 Apr 1515  Diego Colón (1st time)            (b. c.1480 - d. 1526) 
1515 - 1516                Cristóbal Lebrón (interim)
14 Dec 1516 - 1519         Gobierno de la Real Audiencia
                           - Fray Luis de Figueroa
                           - Fray Bernardino de Manzanedo
                           - Fray Ildefonso de Santo Domingo
22 Dec 1519 - 1520         Rodrigo de Figueroa
Nov 1520 - 16 Sep 1523     Diego Colón (2nd time)            (s.a.) 
1523                       Fray Luís de Figueroa
1523 - 1525                Gobierno de los Jueces de la Real Audiencia
1524 - 1528                Alonso de Zuazo                   (b. 1466 - d. 1539) 
                           + Gaspar de Espinosa              (b. 1484 - d. 1537)
Governors and Captains-general
1528 -  1 Aug 1531         Sebastián Ramírez de Fuenleal,    (b. 1490 - d. 1547)
                             bispo de Santo Domingo
                             (1st time)
 1 Aug 1531 - 14 Dec 1533  Alonso de Zuazo                   (s.a.)
14 Dec 1533 - 1540         Alonso de Fuenmayor, bispo        (b. c.1490 - d. 1554)
                             de Santo Domingo (1st time)
1540 - 1543                Luis Colón                        (b. 1519 - d. 1572)
 1 Jan 1544 - 1549         Alonso López de Cerrato
1549 - 1554                Alonso de Fuenmayor, arzobispo    (s.a.)
                             de Santo Domingo (2nd time)
1555 - 1560                Alonso de Maldonaldo
1560                       Juan López de Cepeda
1560 - 1561                Diego de Vera
22 Jan 1561 - 1564         Alonso Arias de Herrera 
1568 - 1572                Antonio Mejía
1572 - 1575                Francisco de Vera
1576 - 1581                Gregorio González de Cuenca
1564 - 1581                Antonio de Osorio
1581 - 1583                Pedro de Arceo (acting)
 4 Nov 1583 - 1590         Cristóbal de Ovalles
1586 - 1587                Aliaga (acting)
1587 - 1594                Lope de Vega Portocarrero (1s time)
1594                       Baltasar de Villafaña
1594 - 1596                Lope de Vega Portocarrero (2nd time)
1596 - 1601                Domingo de Osorio (1st time)
1601                       Pedro Sanz Morquecho
1601 - 17 Jul 1608         Domingo de Osorio (2nd time)
17 Jul 1608 - 1623         Diego Gómez de Sandoval
1623 - 1624                Juan Martínez Tenorio
1624 - 1627                Diego de Acuña
1627 - 1634                Gabriel de Chávez y Osorio
1634 - 1635                Gil de Sierpe
1635 - 1637                Alonso de Cereceda
1637                       Domingo de Osorio
1637 - 1644                Juan Bitrián de Beamonte y
                             Navarra, caballero de Calatrava
1644 - Mar 1649            Nicolás de Velazco Altamirano
1649 - 1650                Juan Melgarejo Ponce de León
1650 - 16 Mar 1651         Luís Fernández de Córdoba
1651                       Francisco Pantoja y Ayala (1st time)
1651 - 15 Aug 1653         Andrés Pérez Franco
1653 - 10 Apr 1655         Juan Francisco de Montemayor de Cuenca
1655                       Francisco Pantoja y Ayala (2nd time)
1655 - May 1656            Bernardino de Meneses Bracamonte
                             y Zapata, conde de Peñalba
15 May 1656 - 1659         Félix de Zúñiga y Avellaneda,
                             conde del Sacro Imperio
1659 - 1661                Juan de Balboa Mogrovejo
1661 - 1669                Pedro de Carvajal y Cobos
1670 - 15 Jul 1677         Ignacio Zayas Bazán
1677 - Sep 1678            Juan Padilla de Guardiola y        (b. 1643 - d. 1691)
                             Guzmán
Sep 1678 - 12 Jul 1684     Francisco Segura y Sandoval     
                             y Castilla
1684 - 1689                Andrés de Robles y Gómez
                             (interim to 14 Jun 1686) 
1689 - 1696                Ignacio Pérez Caro (1st time)
1696                       Gil Correoso Catalán
1699 -  6 Aug 1702         Severino de Manzaneda Salinas
                             y Rojas
1702 - 1704                Juan del Barranco
1704 -  4 Nov 1706         Ignacio Pérez Caro (2nd time)
1706 - 1708                Sebastián de Cereceda y Girón      (b. 1644 - d. 1723)
                             (1st time)(interim)
1708 - Sep 1711            Guillermo Morfil
1711 - 15 Apr 1714         Pedro de Niela y Torres
1714 - 1715                Sebastián de Cereceda y Girón      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(interim)
May 1715 - 16 Jul 1724     Fernando Constanzo y Ramírez,
                             caballero de Santiago
1724 - 1732                Francisco de la Rocha Ferrer       (b. 1686 - d. 17..) 
                             y Labarcés
1732 - 1737                Alonso de Castro y Mazo
1737 - 1750                Pedro Zorrilla de San Martín,
                             marqués de Gándara Real
1750 -  8 Oct 1750         Juan José Colomo                   (d. 1750)
1750 - 18 Jun 1751         José Zunnier de Basteros           (d. 1751)
1751 - 1760                Francisco Rubio y Peñaranda        (b. 1700 - d. 1773)
1760 - 1771                Manuel Azlor de Aragón y Urríes    (b. 1708 - d. 1787)
16 Apr 1771 - 1779         José Solano y Bote,                (b. 1726 - d. 1806) 
                             marqués del Socorro
1779 - 26 Sep 1785         Isidoro de Peralta y Rojas         (d. 1786)
26 Sep 1785 - 17 Apr 1786  Joaquín García y Moreno (1st time)
17 Apr 1786 -  2 Jun 1788  Manuel González Torres de Navarra  (d. 1788)
1788 - 15 Sep 1788         Pedro Carani (acting)
15 Sep 1788 - 1788         José Antonio de Urizar (acting) 
 1 Dec 1788 - 26 Jan 1801  Joaquín García y Moreno (2nd time)
 8 Apr 1795 - 1798         Philippe-Rose Roume de Saint-      (b. 1724 - d. 1804)
                             Laurent -French Commissioner
 4 Oct 1799 - 1801         Antoine Chanlatte -Commissioner    (b. 1749 - d. 1815)
Governors
26 Jan 1801 - 20 May 1802  Pierre François Dominique          (b. 1743? - d. 1803)
                             Toussaint-Louverture      
 5 Mar 1801 - c.1803       Jacques Jean Stanislas Combis      (b. 1752 - d. 1808) 
                             (Commissioner; from Sep 1801, Prefect)
1802 - Nov 1802            Antoine Nicolas Kerverseau         (b. 1751 - d. 1802)
c.1803                     François Jacques Lequoy de         (b. 1748 - d. 1804)
                             Mongiraud -Prefect
1803 - 180.                Louis Maurice Taupin de            (b. 1757 - d. 1823)
                             Magnytot -Prefect
Nov 1802 -  7 Nov 1808     Marie Louis Ferrand                (b. 1758 - d. 1808)
1808 -  7 Jul 1809         Joseph-David, comte de Barquier    (b. 1757 - d. 1844)
Governors and Captains-general

13 Dec 1808 - 11 Feb 1811  Juan Sánchez Ramírez               (b. 1762 - d. 1811)
                             (in opposition to 7 Jul 1809)
 7 Jul 1809 - Aug 1809     Hugh Lyle Carmichael               (b. 1764 - d. 1813)
                             (British commander in Samaná)
1811 - 1812                Manuel Caballero (acting)
1812 - 1813                Jos
é Masot (acting)
1813 - 1818                Carlos de Urrutia y Montoya        (b. 1750 - d. 1825)
1818 - 1821                Sebastián Kíndelan y Oregón        (b. 1763 - d. 1836)
1821 -  1 Dec 1821         Pascual Real
Political Governor and State President
 1 Dec 1821 -  9 Feb 1822  José Núñez de Cáceres y Albor      (b. 1772 - d. 1846)
Commanders of Haitian Forces
 9 Feb 1822 - 1832         Jérôme-Maximilien Bargella         (b. 1773 - d. 1843)
1832 - Feb 1843            Bernard-Philippe-Alexis Carrié     (b. 1780 - d. 1867)
1843                       Charles Rivière-Hérard
            (b. 1789 - d. 1850)
1843 - 27 Feb 1844         Léo Hérard 
President of the Provisional Governing Junta
28 Feb 1844 -  1 Mar 1844  Francisco del Rosario Sánchez      (b. 1817 - d. 1861)  Lib
Presidents of the Central Governing Junta
 1 Mar 1844 -  5 Jun 1844  Tomás Bobadilla y Briones          (b. 1785 - d. 1871)  Tri
 5 Jun 1844 -  9 Jun 1844  José María Caminero Ferrer         (b. 1782 - d. 1852)  Con
 9 Jun 1844 - 16 Jul 1844  Francisco del Rosario Sánchez      (s.a.)               Lib
16 Jul 1844 - 13 Nov 1844  Pedro Santana Familias             (b. 1801 - d. 1864)  PA
                            (concurrently Supreme Chief)
Presidents
13 Nov 1844 -  4 Aug 1848  Pedro Santana Familias (1st time)  (s.a.)               PA
 4 Aug 1848 -  8 Sep 1848  Council of Secretaries of State
                           - Félix Mercenario Montaño         (b. 1789 - d. 1861)
                           - Domingo de la Rocha Angulo       (b. 1797 - d. 1883)
                           - José María Caminero Ferrer       (s.a.)               Con
                           - Manuel José Jimenes González     (b. 1808 - d. 1854)  Lib
 8 Sep 1848 - 29 May 1849  Manuel José Jimenes González       (s.a.)
30 May 1849 - 23 Sep 1849  Pedro Santana Familias (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PA
                             (Supreme Chief of the Republic)
24 Sep 1849 - 15 Feb 1853  Buenaventura Báez Méndez           (b. 1812 - d. 1884)  PR
                             (1st time)
15 Feb 1853 - 26 May 1856  Pedro Santana Familias (3rd time)  (s.a.)               PA
26 May 1856 -  8 Oct 1856  Manuel de Regla Mota y Álvarez     (b. 1795 - d. 1864)  PA
                             de Fuentes 
 8 Oct 1856 - 13 Jun 1858  Buenaventura Báez Méndez           (s.a.)               PR
                             (2nd time)
13 Jun 1858 - 28 Jul 1858  José Desiderio Valverde Pérez      (b. c.1822 - d. 1904)Tri
                            (in dissidence from 7 Jul 1857 [as President
                             of the Provisional Government to 1 Mar 1858]
                             and then to 28 Aug 1858)
28 Jul 1858 - 18 Mar 1861  Pedro Santana Familias (4th time)  (s.a.)               PA
                             (acting to 31 Jan 1859)
Governors and Captains-general
18 Mar 1861 - 20 Jul 1862  Pedro Santana Familias,            (s.a.)
                            (from 28 Mar 1862) marqués de las
                             Carreras (acting to 8 Jun 1861)
20 Jul 1862 - 22 Oct 1863  José Felipe Rivero y Lemoine       (b. 1797 - d. 1873)
22 Oct 1863 - 29 Mar 1864  Carlos de Vargas y Cerveto         (b. 1817 - d. 1876)
29 Mar 1864 - 11 Jul 1865  José de la Gándara y Navarro       (b. 1820 - d. 1885)
                             (nominally from 1 May 1865)
Presidents
14 Sep 1863 - 10 Oct 1864  José Antonio Salcedo Ramírez       (b. 1816 - d. 1864)  Res
                             (President of the Government [provisional to 24 Aug 1864])
10 Oct 1864 - 23 Jan 1865  Gaspar Polanco y Borbón            (b. 1816 - d. 1867)  Res
                             (President of the Provisional Government)
23 Jan 1865 - 24 Jan 1865  Generals-in-Chief
                           - Pedro Antonio Pimentel Chamorro  (b. 1830 - d. 1874)  Mil
                           - Benito Monción Durán             (b. 1826 - d. 1898)  Mil
                           - Federico de Jesús García y       (b. c.1835 - d. 1873)Mil
                              de la Cruz 
24 Jan 1865 - 24 Mar 1865  Benigno Filomeno de Rojas y Ramos  (b. 1811 - d. 1865)  Res
                            (President of the Superior Governing 
                             Junta to 27 Feb 1865, then President 
                             of the Sovereign National Convention)
25 Mar 1865 -  4 Aug 1865  Pedro Antonio Pimentel Chamorro    (s.a.)               PA
 4 Aug 1865 - 15 Nov 1865  José María Cabral y de Luna        (b. 1816 - d. 1899)  PA
                            (Protector of the Republic)(1st time)
15 Nov 1865 -  8 Dec 1865  Pedro Guillermo y Guerrero         (b. 1814 - d. 1867)  PR
                            (President of the Provisional Government;
                             in dissidence as President of the Central
                             Governing Junta from earlier in 1865)
 8 Dec 1865 - 29 May 1866  Buenaventura Báez Méndez           (s.a.)               PR
                             (3rd time)
29 May 1866 - 22 Aug 1866  Triumvirate
                           (in dissidence from 1 May 1866)
                           - Pedro Antonio Pimentel Chamorro  (s.a.)
                           - Gregorio Luperón                 (b. 1839 - d. 1897)  PA
                           - Federico de Jesús García y de
                               la Cruz
22 Aug 1866 - 31 Jan 1868  José María Cabral y de Luna        (s.a.)               PA
                            (Chief of Public Administration to 29 Sep 1866)
                            (2nd time)
22 Dec 1867 - 13 Feb 1868  José Antonio Hungría               (b. 1819 - d. 1872)  Mil/PR
                            (President of the Central Government
                            Junta, in dissidence)
31 Jan 1868 - 13 Feb 1868  Manuel Altagracia Cáceres          (b. 1838 - d. 1878) 
                             Fernández (acting)
13 Feb 1868 -  2 May 1868  Junta of Generals
                           - José Antonio Hungría             (s.a.)               Mil/PR
                           - Francisco Antonio Gómez y Baez   (b. 1819 - d. 1883)  Mil/PR
                           - José Ramón Luciano y Franco      (b. 1822 - d. 1890)  Mil/PR
 2 May 1868 -  2 Jan 1874  Buenaventura Báez Méndez           (s.a.)               PR
                             (4th time) 
 2 Jan 1874 - 21 Jan 1874  Ignacio María González y Santín    (b. 1840 - d. 1915)  Ver
                             (Supreme Chief; in dissidence from 27 Nov 1873)
                             (1st time)
22 Jan 1874 -  6 Apr 1874  Generals-in-Chief
                           - Ignacio María González y Santín  (s.a.)               Mil
                           - Manuel Altagracia Cáceres        (s.a.)               Mil
                              Fernández 
 6 Apr 1874 - 23 Feb 1876  Ignacio María González y Santín    (s.a.)               Ver
                             (2nd time)(Supreme Chief 10 Sep 1874 - 12 Apr 1875)
 7 Feb 1876 - Feb 1876     Constitutional Executive Junta
                           (in rebellion)
                           - Esteban Díaz
                           - Máximo Grullón Salcedo           (b. 1826 - d. 1877)
                           - Manuel de Jesús de Peña y        (b. 1834 - d. 1915)
                               Reynoso 
                           - Alfredo Deetjen Merecette        (b. 1826 - d. 1896)
                           - Isidro Pereyra Casado            (b. 1839 - d. 1893)
23 Feb 1876 - 29 Apr 1876  Council of Secretaries of State
                           - Pedro Tomás Garrido Matos        (b. 1827 - d. 1895)
                           - José de Jesús Eduardo de Castro
                               Álvarez
                           - Pedro Pablo de Bonilla y         (b. 1807 - d. 1881?)
                               Correa-Cruzaso
                           - Juan Bautista Zafra y Miranda    (b. 1840 - d. 1886)
                           - Pablo López Villanueva           (b. 18.. - d. 1902)
                               (to 7 Mar 1876)
                           - Jacinto Peynado y Tejón          (b. 1826 - d. 1897)
                               (from 7 Mar 1876)
29 Apr 1876 -  5 Oct 1876  Ulises Francisco Espaillat y       (b. 1823 - d. 1878)  PA
                             Quinoñes 
Oct 1876 - 30 Oct 1876     Gabino Crespo                      (d. 1878)            Mil
                            (president of the Central Government
                             Junta of Restoration Movement; in rebellion)
 5 Oct 1876 - 11 Nov 1876  Superior Governing Junta
                           - Pablo López Villanueva           (s.a.)
                           - José Caminero Matías             (d. 1892)
                           - Juan Esteban Ariza Matos         (b. 1820 - d. 1882)
                           - Fidel Rodríguez Urdaneta
                           - José de Jesús Eduardo de Castro  (b. 1829 - d. 1885)
                               Álvarez
                           - Juan Bautista Zafra y Miranda    (s.a.)
                           - Pedro Tomás Garrido Matos        (s.a.)
11 Nov 1876 -  9 Dec 1876  Ignacio María González y Santín    (s.a.)               Ver
                             (3rd time) (Supreme Chief) 
10 Dec 1876 - 26 Dec 1876  Marcos Ezequiel Antonio Cabral     (b. 1843 - d. 1903) 
                             Figuereo
                             (President of Provisional Governing Junta)
27 Dec 1876 -  2 Mar 1878  Buenaventura Báez Méndez           (s.a.)               PR
                             (5th time)(provisional to 21 Mar 1877)
 1 Mar 1878 - 13 Apr 1878  Ignacio María González y Santín    (s.a.)               Ver
                             (4th time)(President of the Provisional 
                             Government of National Movement, in dissidence)
 2 Mar 1878 -  5 Mar 1878  Council of Secretaries of State
                           - José María Cabral y de Luna      (s.a.)               PA
                           - Joaquín Antonio Montolío Morales (b. 1821 - d. 1911) 
 5 Mar 1878 -  6 Jul 1878  Cesáreo Guillermo y Bastardo       (b. 1847 - d. 1885)  PR
                             (1st time)(President of Provisional Government)
 6 Jul 1878 -  2 Sep 1878  Ignacio María González y Santín    (s.a.)               Ver
                             (5th time)
 2 Sep 1878 -  6 Sep 1878  Superior Chiefs of Revolutionary Movement
                           - Ulises Hilarión Heureaux Lebert  (b. 1845 - d. 1899)  Mil/PA
                           - Cesáreo Guillermo y Bastardo     (s.a.)               Mil
 6 Sep 1878 - 30 Sep 1878  Jacinto del Rosario de Castro      (b. 1811 - d. 1896)  Mil
                             (acting)
30 Sep 1878 - 27 Feb 1879  Council of Secretaries of State
                           - Cesáreo Guillermo y Bastardo     (s.a.)               PR
                           - Alejandro Angulo Guridi          (b. 1823 - d. 1906)
                           - Pedro Ramón María Aristy Díaz    (b. 1848 - d. 1880)
27 Feb 1879 -  6 Dec 1879  Cesáreo Guillermo y Bastardo       (s.a.)               PR
                             (2nd time)
 6 Dec 1879 -  1 Sep 1880  Gregorio Luperón                   (s.a.)               PA
                             (president of provisional government;
                             in dissidence
from 7 Oct 1879) 
 1 Sep 1880 -  1 Sep 1882  Fernando Arturo de Meriño y        (b. 1833 - d. 1906)  PA
                             Ramírez 
 1 Sep 1882 -  1 Sep 1884  Ulises Hilarión Heureaux Lebert    (s.a.)               PA
                             (1st time)        
 1 Sep 1884 - 16 May 1885  Francisco Gregorio Billini y       (b. 1844 - d. 1898)  PA
                             Aristy 
16 May 1885 -  6 Jan 1887  Alejandro Woss y Gil (1st time)    (b. 1856 - d. 1932)  PA
 6 Jan 1887 - 27 Mar 1889  Ulises Hilarión Heureaux Lebert    (s.a.)               PA
                             (2nd time)       
27 Mar 1889 - 30 Apr 1889  Manuel María de la Concepción      (b. 1830 - d. 1897)  PR
                             Gautier (acting) 
30 Apr 1889 - 26 Jul 1899  Ulises Hilarión Heureaux Lebert    (s.a.)               PA
                             (3rd time)       
26 Jul 1899 - 30 Aug 1899  Juan Wenceslao Figuereo Casó       (b. 1834 - d. 1910)  PR
31 Aug 1899                Council of Secretaries of State
                           - Tomás Demetrio Morales Bernal    (b. 1848 - d. 1904)
                           - Arístides Patiño Valdés          (b. 1856 - d. 1928)
                           - Enrique Henríquez y Alfau        (b. 1859 - d. 1940)
                           - Jaime Rodolfo Vidal Castillo
                           - Braulio Álvarez y del            (b. 1841 - d. 1927)
                              Castillo (undersecretary) 
31 Aug 1899 -  4 Sep 1899  People's Revolutionary Governing Junta
                           - Mariano Antonio de las Mercedes  (b. 1838 - d. 1909)
                               Cestero Aybar
                           - Álvaro Logroño                   (b. 1855 - d. 1915)
                           - Arístides Patiño Valdés          (s.a.)
                           - Pedro María Mejía y Cotes        (b. 1844 - d. 1916) 
 4 Sep 1899 - 15 Nov 1899  Felipe Horacio Vásquez Lajara      (b. 1860 - d. 1936)  PA
                            (President of the Provisional Government;
                             in dissidence from 1 Aug 1899)
                             (1st time)
15 Nov 1899 -  2 May 1902  Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra        (b. 1846 - d. 1919)  PA 
                             (1st time)
26 Apr 1902 - 23 Apr 1903  Felipe Horacio Vásquez Lajara      (s.a.)               PR
                             (president of Provisional Government)
                             (2nd time)
23 Apr 1903 - 24 Nov 1903  Alejandro Woss y Gil (2nd time)    (s.a.)               PA
                             (president of Provisional Government to 1 Aug 1903)
24 Oct 1903 - 12 Jan 1906  Carlos Felipe Morales Languasco    (b. 1868 - d. 1914)  PR
                             (President of the Provisional Government
                             to 19 Apr 1904; left the country 25 Dec 1905)
25 Dec 1905 - 29 Dec 1905  Council of Secretaries of State
                           (acting for Morales)
                           - Manuel Lamarche García           (b. 1852 - d. 1915)
                           - Emiliano Tejera Penson           (b. 1841 - d. 1923)
                           - Andrés Julio Montolío Moscoso    (b. 1821 - d. 1911)
                           - Francisco Leonte Vásquez Lajara  (b. 1856 - d. 1923)
                           - Carlos Eduardo Ginebra Pelegrín  (b. 1874 - d. 1939)
                           - Eladio Abdom Victoria Victoria   (b. 1864 - d. 1939)  PR
                           - Federico Velásquez y Hernández   (b. 1867 - d. 1934)
29 Dec 1905 - 19 Nov 1911  Ramón Arturo Cáceres Vásquez       (b. 1866 - d. 1911)  PR
                             (acting for Morales to 12 Jan 1906)
19 Nov 1911 -  6 Dec 1911  Council of Secretaries
                           - Miguel Antonio Román Rodríguez   (b. 1834 - d. 1920)
                           - José María Cabral y Baéz         (b. 1864 - d. 1937)
                           - Manuel de Jesús María Ulpiano    (b. 1878 - d. 1955)
                               Troncoso de la Concha 
                           - Federico Velásquez y Hernández   (s.a.)
                               (1st time)
                           - Manuel Lamarche García           (s.a.) 
                           - Emilio Tejera Bonetti            (b. 1880 - d. 1968)
                              (to 30 Nov 1911)
                           - Rafael Díaz
 6 Dec 1911 - 30 Nov 1912  Eladio Abdom Victoria Victoria     (s.a.)               PR
                             (interim to 27 Feb 1912)
 1 Dec 1912 - 13 Apr 1913  Adolfo Alejandro Nouel y           (b. 1862 - d. 1937)  Non-party
                             Bobadilla (interim)
14 Apr 1913 - 27 Aug 1914  José Bordas Valdés (interim)       (b. 1874 - d. 1968)  Non-party 
28 Aug 1914 -  5 Dec 1914  Ramón Báez Machado (provisional)   (b. 1858 - d. 1929)  Non-party
 5 Dec 1914 -  7 May 1916  Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra        (s.a.)               PA
                             (2nd time)
 7 May 1916 - 31 Jul 1916  Council of Secretaries
                           - Jaime Mota Vidal                 (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
                           - Bernardo José Arturo Pichardo y  (b. 1877 - d. 1924)
                               Patín 
                           - José Manuel Jimenes Domínguez    (d. 1947) 
                               (to 1916)
                           - Federico Velásquez y Hernández   (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)(from 1916) 
31 Jul 1916 - 29 Nov 1916  Francisco Hilario Henríquez y      (b. 1859 - d. 1935)  PA
                             Carvajal (provisional)
Governors
29 Nov 1916 - 18 Nov 1918  Harry Shepard Knapp                (b. 1856 - d. 1923)  Mil
23 Aug 1917 - 11 Sep 1917  Edwin Alexander Anderson, Jr.      (b. 1860 - d. 1933)  Mil
                             (acting for Knapp)
 5 Feb 1918 - 17 Mar 1918  Joseph Henry Pendleton (1st time)  (b. 1860 - d. 1942)  Mil
                             (acting for Knapp)
 6 Apr 1918 -  1 Jun 1918  Joseph Henry Pendleton (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (acting for Knapp)
 2 Jul 1918 -  1 Sep 1918  Joseph Henry Pendleton (3rd time)  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (acting for Knapp)
18 Nov 1918 - 25 Feb 1919  Benjamin Hebard Fuller             (b. 1870 - d. 1937)  Mil
25 Feb 1919 -  3 Jun 1921  Thomas Snowden, Jr.                (b. 1857 - d. 1930)  Mil
 3 Jun 1921 - 21 Oct 1922  Samuel S. Robinson                 (b. 1867 - d. 1952) 
 3 Jan 1922 - 19 Feb 1922  Harry Lee (1st time)               (b. 1872 - d. 1935)  Mil
                             (acting for Robinson)
14 Jun 1922 - 24 Jul 1922  Harry Lee (2nd time)               (s.a.)               Mil
                             (acting for Robinson)
Presidents
21 Oct 1922 - 12 Jul 1924  Juan Bautista Vicini Burgos        (b. 1871 - d. 1935)  Lib 
                             (provisional)
12 Jul 1924 -  2 Mar 1930  Felipe Horacio Vásquez Lajara      (s.a.)               PN
                             (3rd time)
 3 Mar 1930 - 16 Aug 1930  Juan Rafael Estrella Ureña (acting)(b. 1889 - d. 1945)  Rep
16 Aug 1930 - 16 Aug 1938  Rafael Leonidas Trujillo y Molina  (s.a.)               Mil/PD
                             (1st time)
16 Aug 1938 -  7 Mar 1940  Jacinto Bienvenido Peynado y       (b. 1878 - d. 1940)  PD
                             Peynado 
 7 Mar 1940 - 18 May 1942  Manuel de Jesús María Ulpiano      (s.a.)               PD
                             Troncoso de la Concha 
18 May 1942 - 16 Aug 1952  Rafael Leonidas Trujillo y Molina  (s.a.)               PD/Mil
                             (2nd time)(acting to 16 Aug 1942)
16 Aug 1952 -  3 Aug 1960  Héctor Bienvenido Trujillo         (b. 1908 - d. 2002)  PD
                             y Molina
 3 Aug 1960 - 16 Jan 1962  Joaquín Antonio Balaguer Ricardo   (b. 1906/7 - d. 2002)PD
                             (1st time)
16 Jan 1962 - 17 Jan 1962  Civic-Military Council
                           - Armando Óscar Pacheco Román      (b. 1901 - d. 1983)
                           - Luis Emilio Amiama Tió           (b. 1914 - d. 1980)
                           - Antonio Cosme Imbert Barrera     (b. 1920)            Mil
                           - Enrique Rafael Valdez Vidaurre   (b. 1927 - d. 2003)
                           - Wilfredo Medina Natalio          (d. ....)
17 Jan 1962 - 18 Jan 1962  Huberto Carlos Conrado Godofred    (b. 1901 - d. 1962)  Mil
                             Bogaert Román (president of
                             Civic-Military Council)
18 Jan 1962 - 27 Feb 1963  Rafael Filiberto Bonnelly Fondeur  (b. 1904 - d. 1979)  Rep
27 Feb 1963 - 25 Sep 1963  Juan Emilio Bosch Gaviño           (b. 1909 - d. 2001)  PRD
25 Sep 1963 - 26 Sep 1963  Víctor Elby Viñas Román            (b. 1925? - d. 2004) Mil
                            (chairman Provisional Junta)
26 Sep 1963 - 25 Apr 1965  Triumvirate
                           - Emilio de los Santos y Salcié    (b. 1903 - d. 1986) 
                              (to 22 Dec 1963) (chairman)
                           - Manuel Enrique Tavares Espaillat (b. 1924 - d. 1984)
                              (to 27 Jun 1964)
                           - Ramón Tapia Espinal              (b. 1926 - d. 2002)
                              (to 8 Apr 1964)
                           - Donald Joseph Reid Cabral        (b. 1923 - d. 2006)  UCN
                              (from 29 Dec 1963) (chairman)
                           - Ramón Cáceres Troncoso           (b. 1930)
                              (from 18 Apr 1964)
13 Oct 1963 -  4 Nov 1963  Juan Casasnovas Garrido            (b. 1918 - d. ....)  PRD 
                             (provisional; in dissidence)
25 Apr 1965  (hours)       Revolutionary Committee
                           - Vinicio Antonio Fernández Pérez                       Mil
                           - Giovanni Gutiérrez Ramírez                            Mil
                           - Francisco Alberto Caamaño Deñó   (b. 1932 - d. 1973)  Mil
                           - Eladio Ramírez Sánchez
                           - Pedro Bartolomé Benoît           (b. 1921 - d. 2012)  Mil
                              Vanderhorst
25 Apr 1965 - 27 Apr 1965  José Rafael Molina Ureña           (b. 1921 - d. 2000)  PRD
                             (provisional)
 1 May 1965 -  7 May 1965  Pedro Bartolomé Benoit Vanderhorst (s.a.)               Mil
                             (chairman military junta)
 7 May 1965 - 30 Aug 1965  Antonio Cosme Imbert Barrera       (s.a.)               Mil
 4 May 1965 -  3 Sep 1965  Francisco Alberto Caamaño Deñó     (s.a.)               Mil
                             (in dissidence)
 3 Sep 1965 -  1 Jul 1966  Héctor Federico García Godoy       (b. 1921 - d. 1970)  PRSC
                             Cáceres (provisional)
 1 Jul 1966 - 16 Aug 1978  Joaquín Antonio Balaguer Ricardo   (s.a.)               PRSC 
                             (2nd time)
16 Aug 1978 -  4 Jul 1982  Silvestre Antonio Guzmán Fernández (b. 1911 - d. 1982)  PRD
 4 Jul 1982 - 16 Aug 1982  Jacobo Majluta Azar                (b. 1934 - d. 1996)  PRD 
16 Aug 1982 - 16 Aug 1986  José Salvador Omar Jorge Blanco    (b. 1926 - d. 2010)  PRD 
16 Aug 1986 - 16 Aug 1996  Joaquín Antonio Balaguer Ricardo   (s.a.)               PRSC 
                             (3rd time)
16 Aug 1996 - 16 Aug 2000  Leonel Antonio Fernández Reyna     (b. 1953)            PLD 
                             (1st time)
16 Aug 2000 - 16 Aug 2004  Rafael Hipólito Mejía Domínqez     (b. 1941)            PRD 
16 Aug 2004 - 16 Aug 2012  Leonel Antonio Fernández Reyna     (s.a.)               PLD 
                             (2nd time)
16 Aug 2012 -              Danilo Medina Sánchez              (b. 1951)            PLD 

 

U.S. High Commissioner
Sep 1922 - 1924            Benjamin Sumner Welles             (b. 1892 - d. 1961)
Commander of U.S. Land Forces (from 28 May 1965, Commander U.S. Forces and 
Deputy Commander Inter-American Peace Force)

 1 May 1965 - Jan 1966     Bruce Palmer, Jr.                  (b. 1913 - d. 2000)
Commanders of the Inter-American Peace Force (IAPF)
23 May 1965 - 28 May 1965  Bruce Palmer, Jr. (U.S.)(acting)   (s.a.)
28 May 1965 - Jan 1966     Hugo Panasco Alvim (Brazil)        (b. 1901 - d. 1978)
Jan 1966 - 21 Sep 1966     Álvaro Alves da Silva Braga        (b. 1906 - d. 1971)
                             (Brazil)

Territorial Disputes: Haitian migrants cross the porous border into the Dominican Republic to find work; illegal migrants from the Dominican Republic cross the Mona Passage each year to Puerto Rico to find better work

Party abbreviations: PLD = Partido de la Liberación Dominicana (Dominican Liberation Party, progressive centrist, est.1973); PRD = Partido Revolucionario Dominicano (Dominican Revolutionary Party, social-democratic, center-left, est.1939); PRSC = Partido Reformista Social Cristiano (Social Christian Reformist Party, conservative, center-right, est.1963); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: Con = Conservative; Lib = Liberal; PA = Partido Azule ("Blue" Party, "los Bolos," liberal, from 1899 nicknamed "Jimenistas," later becomes Partido Nacional Liberal and Partido Nacional, 19th cent.-1916); PD = Partido Dominicano (Dominican Party, conservative, authoritarian, Trujillo personalist, de facto only party, 1931-1961); PN = Partido Nacional (National Party); PR = Partido Rojo ("Red" Party, "los Coludos," conservative, from 1899 nicknamed "Horacistas", 19th cent.-1916); Rep = Partido Republicano (Republican Party); Res = Restaurador (Restoration, opponents of Spanish rule); Tri = Trinitario (Trinitarin, conservative, pro-independence, 1838-1858); Ver = Partido Verde ("Green" party, Unionist, union between PA and PR)








© Ben Cahoon