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Mexico
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                   to 28 Sep 1821

[Standard of the Virgen de
                                      Guadalupe (Mexico) 1810]
                           16 Sep 1810 - Mar 1811
                             Hidalgo Revolt Banner

[Morelos
                                      Revolt Banner 1812 (Mexico)]
                       19 Aug 1812 - c.1815
                       Morelos Revolt Banner

[Mexico 14 Jul 1815 - 1821
                                    revolt flag]
                        14 Jul 1815 - 1821
                              Revolt Flag
 
[1821
                                    Flag of Ejército de las Tres
                                    Garantías (Army of Three Guarantees)
                                    (Mexico)]
                        14 Apr 1821 - 1 Nov 1821
                  Flag of the Army of Three Guarantees
 
[Mexican Empire (First Empire)
                                    flag 1821-1823]
                 2 Nov 1821 - 9 Apr 1823
 
 
[1823-1864/1823-1880 Mexican
                                    National Flag]
                9 Apr 1823 - 1 Nov 1865;
       1 Nov 1865 - 15 May 1867 (in opposition);
                15 May 1867 - 30 Dec 1880
 
[1865-1867 Mexican Imperial
                                    State Flag]
                     1 Nov 1865 - 15 May 1867
 
 
 
[1823
                                    National Mexican Flag, official
                                    varinat used in 1881-1899]
             30 Dec 1880 - 31 Dec 1898
 
 
 
[1823-National Flag, official
                                  variant used in 1899-1916]
              1 Jan 1899 - 16 Sep 1916
 
[Mexico National Flag
                                    1917-1918]
              16 Sep 1916 - 22 Aug 1918
 
[Flag of
                                    Mexico 1918-1934]
                22 Aug 1918 -  5 Feb 1934
 
[1823-National flag, official
                                    variant used in 1934-1968]
             5 Feb 1934 - 17 Sep 1968
 
[Bandera
                                    Nacional (National Flag of Mexico)]
                   Adopted 17 Sep 1968
 

Map of Mexico Hear National Anthem
"Himno Nacional Mexicano"
 (National Anthem of Mexico) or
"Mexicanos, al grito de guerra"
 (Mexicans, to the War Cry)

Text of National Anthem
in use from 15 Sep 1854;
Adopted 4 May 1943
Constitution
(5 Feb 1917)

-------------------------------
Former Constitutions

(1824, 1836, 1843, 1857)
Capital: Mexico City
(Ciudad de México)
Currency: Mexican Peso
(MXN); 1535-1822 Spanish
 Escudo (XESE) 
National Holiday: 16 Sep (1810)
Día del Grito de Independencia

(
Cry of Independence Day )
Population: 118,818,228 (2013)
GDP: $1.84 trillion (2013)
Exports: $370.9 billion (2013)
Imports: $370.7 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 64.3%,
Amerindian
18% (of which detribalized 10.5%), Mexican
 white 15%,
Arab 1%, Mexican black 05.%,
Spaniard 0.3%,
US white 0.2%, other 0.7% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 267,7506 (2010)
Merchant marine: 52 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%,
Jehovah's Witnesses 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%,
other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS, APEC, APM, BCIE (nonregional), BIS, BTWC, CAN (observer), CAP (observer), Caricom (observer), CCM, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CTBT, CWC, EBRD, ECOWAS (observer), ESCR, FAO, G-3, G-6, G-15, G-20, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAIA, LAP,  LU (permanent observer), Mercosur (observer), MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC (observer), PA, PCA, SEGIB, SICA (observer), UN, UUNASUR (observer), UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Mexico Index
Chronology

1428 - 1521                Aztec Empire ("Triple Alliance") in central Mexico.
 8 Nov 1519                Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés enters Mexico-
                             Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City)
.
31 Aug 1521                Spanish colony of New Spain (Nueva España)
                             (modern Mexico, Yucatan, Chiapas, Costa Rica,
                             Cuba, Hispaniola, El Salvador, Guatemala, 
                             Honduras, Nicaragua, Venezuela [to 1739] and
                             the U.S. states of Arizona, California, Colorado,
                             Florida, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas and Utah).
13 Dec 1527                Real Audiencia de México established in Mexico City
11 May 1535                Viceroyalty of New Spain
16 Sep 1810 - 19 Mar 1811  Independence revolt led by Hidalgo.
 6 Nov 1813                Independence of "Northern America" (or "Mexican
                             America") declared by the Congress of Anáhuac
                             at Chilpancingo (insurrection against Spain).
24 Oct 1814                Constitution of Apatzingán promulgated.
15 Dec 1815                Insurrection extinguished.
28 Sep 1821                Independence (Mexican Empire).
29 Mar 1823                Mexico
 
1 Jul 1823                Central America independent (see Guatemala).
31 May 1841 - 17 Aug 1848  Yucatan declares independence (re-incorporated
                             during 15 Dec 1843 - 1 Jan 1846).
10 Oct 1824                United Mexican States
 3 Nov 1835                Mexican Republic
 2 Mar 1836                Texas independent.
28 Dec 1836                Spain formally recognizes independence of Mexico.
17 Jan 1840 -  6 Nov 1840  Attempted secession by Republic of the Rio Grande.
22 Aug 1846                United Mexican States 
14 Sep 1847 -  1 Aug 1848  Northern and Central Mexico occupied by the
                             United States during the Mexican-American War.
 2 Feb 1848                Mexican cession territories ceded to U.S.
20 Apr 1853                Mexican Republic
16 Sep 1857                United Mexican States
21 Apr 1862                Mexico
31 May 1863                Foreign intervention.
11 Jul 1863                Mexican Empire (under French occupation).
15 May 1867                United Mexican States (restored).

Mexico
(since 1810)
States
A-L and M-Z
New Spain
(1521-1821)
New Spain
Provinces
Chiapas
(1821-1824)
Republic of
Rio Grande

(1840)
Yucatan
(1821-1824,
 1841-1848)
Historical Maps
of Mexico

(1821-1974)
Map of Mexican
Revolution
(1910-1920)

 

New Spain

Governors
13 Aug 1521 - 24 Dec 1521  Hernán Cortés                         (b. 1485 - d. 1547)
24 Dec 1521 - 30 Dec 1521  Cristóbal de Tapia
Governors and Captains-general
30 Dec 1521 - 12 Oct 1524  Hernán Cortés (1st time)              (s.a.)
12 Oct 1524 - 23 May 1525  Ruling Councils
                           - Alonso de Estrada                   (b. 1480 - d. 1530)    
                             (to 29 Dec 1524, 17 Feb - 20 Apr 1525)
                           - Rodrigo de Albornoz
                             (to 29 Dec 1524, 17 Feb - 20 Apr 1525)
                           - Alonso de Zuazo                     (b. 1466 - d. 1539)
                           - Pedro Almíndez Chirino
                             (from 29 Dec 1524)
                           - Gonzalo de Salazar                  (d. c.1564)
                             (from 29 Dec 1524) 
24 May 1525 - 28 Jan 1526  Gonzalo de Salazar                    (s.a.)
                           + Pedro Almíndez Chirino
29 Jan 1526 — 24 Jun 1526  Alonso de Estrada (1st time)          (s.a.)
                           + Rodrigo de Albornoz
25 Jun 1526 -  3 Jul 1526  Hernán Cortés (2nd time)              (s.a.) 
 4 Jul 1526 - 16 Jul 1526  Luis Ponce de León                    (b. c.1461 - d. 1526)
16 Jul 1526 -  1 Mar 1527  Marcos de Aguilar                     (d. 1527) 
 2 Mar 1527 — 22 Aug 1527  Alonso de Estrada (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           + Gonzalo de Sandoval                 (b. 1497 - d. 1528)
                           + Luis de la Torre (1st time)
22 Aug 1527 -  8 Dec 1528  Alonso de Estrada (3rd time)          (s.a.)
                           + Luis de la Torre (2nd time)
 9 Dec 1528 - 21 Dec 1529  Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán                (b. c.1490 - d. 1544)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
21 Dec 1529 -  9 Jan 1531  Juan Ortiz de Matienzo
                             (President of the Audiencia)
10 Jan 1531 - 16 Apr 1535  Sebastián Ramírez de Fuenleal,        (b. 1490 - d. 1547)
                             obispo de Santo Domingo
                             (President of the Audiencia)
Viceroys
17 Apr 1535 - 25 Nov 1550  Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco          (b. 1495 - d. 1552) 
25 Nov 1550 - 31 Jul 1564  Luis de Velasco y Ruiz de             (b. 1511 - d. 1564)
                             Alarcó
 1 Aug 1564 - 19 Oct 1566  Francisco Ceinos (1st time)           (d. 1570)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
19 Oct 1566 - 10 Mar 1568  Gastón de Peralta, marqués de         (b. 1510 - d. 1587) 
                             Falces 
11 Nov 1567 - 14 Apr 1568  Alonso Muñoz                          (b. c.1512 - d. 1568)  
                           + Luis Carrillo (to Apr 1568)         (d. 1568)
                           (Visitadores; Royal Commissioners)
14 Apr 1568 -  4 Nov 1568  Francisco Ceinos (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
 5 Nov 1568 -  3 Oct 1580  Martín Enríquez de Almanza            (b. c.1510 - d. 1583)
                             y Ulloa 
 4 Oct 1580 - 29 Jun 1583  Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza,            (b. 1518 - d. 1583) 
                             conde de La Coruña 
Jun 1583 - 24 Sep 1584     Luis de Villanueva y Zapata           (b. c.1505 - d. 1584?)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
25 Sep 1584 - 16 Oct 1585  Pedro Moya de Contreras,              (b. 1527 - d. 1591) 
                             arzobispo de México  
17 Oct 1585 - 26 Jan 1590  Álvaro Manrique de Zúñiga,            (b. c.1530 - d. 1590) 
                             marqués de Villamanrique 
27 Jan 1590 -  4 Nov 1595  Luis de Velasco, conde de Santiago    (b. 1539 - d. 1617)
                             (1st time) 
 5 Nov 1595 - 26 Oct 1603  Gaspar de Zúñiga Acevedo y Velasco,   (b. 1560 - d. 1606)  
                             conde de Monterrey 
27 Oct 1603 -  2 Jul 1607  Juan Manuel de Mendoza Manrique       (b. 1571 - d. 1628) 
                             Hurtado y Padilla, marqués de
                             Montesclaros 
 2 Jul 1607 - 10 Jun 1611  Luis de Velasco, conde de Santiago    (s.a.)
                             (from 1609) y marqués de Salinas
                             (2nd time)
 9 Jun 1611 - 22 Feb 1612  Fray Francisco García Guerra,         (b. 1545 - d. 1612)
                             arzobispo de México (interim) 
22 Feb 1612 - 18 Oct 1612  Pedro Otárola
                             (President of the Audiencia)
18 Oct 1612 - 14 Mar 1621  Diego Fernández de Córdoba y Lopez    (b. 1578 - d. 1630)
                             de las Roelas Benavides y Melgarejo, 
                             marqués de Guadalcázar 
14 Mar 1621 - Sep 1621     Paz de Valecillo
                             (President of the Audiencia)
12 Sep 1621 - 15 Jan 1624  Diego Carrillo de Mendoza y Pimentel, (b. c.1560 - d. 1631)
                             marqués de Gelves, y conde de Priego
15 Jan 1624 -  3 Oct 1624  Audiencia (president unknown)
 3 Oct 1624 - 16 Sep 1635  Rodrigo Pacheco y Osorio,             (b. c.1565 - d. 1652) 
                             marqués de Cerralvo 
16 Sep 1635 - 27 Aug 1640  Lope Díez de Almendáriz,              (b. 1575 - d. 1640?) 
                             marqués de Cadereita 
28 Aug 1640 - 10 Jun 1642  Diego López Pacheco Cabrera y         (b. 1599 - d. 1653)  
                             Bobadilla, marqués de Villena,
                             duque de Escalona
10 Jun 1642 - 23 Nov 1642  Juan de Palafox y Mendoza,            (b. 1600 - d. 1659)
                             obispo de Puebla y México
                             (interim)
23 Nov 1642 - 13 May 1648  García Sarmiento de Sotomayor         (b. c.1595 - d. 1659) 
                             Enríquez de Luna, conde de
                             Salvatierra y marqués de Sobroso 
13 May 1648 - 22 Apr 1649  Marcos de Torres y Rueda,             (b. 1588 - d. 1649) 
                             obispo de Yucatán (interim) 
22 Apr 1649 - 28 Jun 1650  Matías de Peralta
                             (President of the Audiencia)
28 Jun 1650 - 14 Aug 1653  Luis Enríquez de Guzmán y Coresma,    (b. c.1605 - d. 1667?) 
                             marqués de Villaflor y
                             conde de Alba de Liste 
15 Aug 1653 - 15 Sep 1660  Francisco Fernández de la Cueva,      (b. 1616 - d. 1676)
                             duque de Alburquerque 
16 Sep 1660 - 29 Jun 1664  Juan de Leyva de la Cerda,            (b. 1604 - d. 1678) 
                             marqués de de Leiva y de Ladrada
                             y conde de Baños 
29 Jun 1664 - 15 Oct 1664  Diego Osorio de Escobar y Llamas,     (b. c.1608 - d. 1673) 
                             obispo de Puebla (interim)
15 Oct 1664 - 20 Nov 1673  Antonio Sebastián de Toledo Molina    (b. c.1625 - d. 1715) 
                             y Salazar, marqués de Mancera 
20 Nov 1673 - 13 Dec 1673  Pedro Nuñez Colón de Portugal y       (b. c.1615 - d. 1673) 
                             Castro, duque de Veragua y 
                             de la Vega y marqués de Jamaica
13 Dec 1673 -  7 Nov 1680  Payo Enríquez de Rivera Manrique,     (b. 1622 - d. 1685) 
                             arzobispo de México
 7 Nov 1680 - 16 Jun 1686  Tomás Antonio de la Cerda y Aragón,   (b. 1638 - d. 1692)
                             conde de Paredes y marqués de 
                             la Laguna 
16 Jun 1686 - 19 Nov 1688  Melchor Portocarrero Lasso de la      (b. 1636 - d. 1705) 
                             Vega, conde de Monclova 
20 Nov 1688 - 26 Feb 1696  Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva y   (b. 1653 - d. 1697)
                             Mendoza, conde de Galves 
27 Feb 1696 - 13 Dec 1696  Juan de Ortega y Montañés (1st time)  (b. 1627 - d. 1708)
                             (acting)
13 Dec 1696 -  4 Nov 1701  José Sarmiento y Valladares,          (b. 1643 - d. 1688)
                             conde de Moctezuma y de Tula
 4 Nov 1701 - 27 Nov 1702  Juan de Ortega y Montañés (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
27 Nov 1702 - 15 Jan 1711  Francisco Fernández de la Cueva       (b. c.1655 - d. 1733)
                             Enríquez, duque d'Albuquerque,
                             marqués de Cuéllar 
15 Jan 1711 - 16 Aug 1716  Fernando de Alencastre Noroña y       (b. c.1641 - d. 1717)
                             Silva, marqués de Valdefuentes,
                             duque de Linares 
16 Aug 1716 - 14 Oct 1722  Baltasar de Zúñiga, marqués de        (b. 1658 - d. 1727)
                             Valero, duque de Arión 
15 Oct 1722 - 17 Mar 1734  Juan de Acuña, marqués de             (b. 1657 - d. 1734)
                             Casafuerte 
17 Mar 1734 - 17 Aug 1740  Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y            (b. 1682 - d. 1747)
                             Eguiarreta             
17 Aug 1740 - 22 Aug 1741  Pedro de Castro y Figueroa,           (b. c.1685 - d. 1741)
                             marqués de Gracía Real,
                             duque de la Conquista
23 Aug 1741 -  3 Nov 1742  Pedro Malo de Villavicencio           (b. 1673 - d. 1744)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
 3 Nov 1742 -  8 Jul 1746  Pedro Cebrián y Agustín, conde        (b. 1687 - d. 1752)
                             de Fuenclara 
 9 Jul 1746 -  9 Nov 1755  Juan Francisco de Güemes y            (b. 1682 - d. 1768)
                             Horcasitas, conde de Revillagigedo 
10 Nov 1755 -  5 Feb 1760  Agustín de Ahumada y Villalón,        (b. 1702 - d. 1760)
                             marqués de las Amarillas 
 5 Feb 1760 - 28 Apr 1760  Francisco Antonio de Echévarri        (b. 1700 - d. 1774)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
28 Apr 1760 -  5 Oct 1760  Francisco Antonio Cajigal de la       (b. 1695 - d. 1777)
                             Vega Salinas y Acevedo (acting)
 6 Oct 1760 - 23 Aug 1766  Joaquín de Montserrat y Ciurana,      (b. 1700 - d. 1771)
                             marqués de Cruillas 
23 Aug 1766 - 23 Sep 1771  Carlos Francisco de Croix,            (b. 1699 - d. 1786)
                             marqués de Croix 
23 Sep 1771 -  9 Apr 1779  Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa     (b. 1717 - d. 1779)
                             Hinostrosa Lasso de la Vega 
 9 Apr 1779 - 23 Aug 1779  Francisco Romá y Rosell               (b. 1725 - d. 1784)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
23 Aug 1779 - 28 Apr 1783  Martín de Mayorga Ferrer              (b. 1721 - d. 1783)
29 Apr 1783 -  3 Nov 1784  Matías de Gálvez García Madrid y      (b. 1717 - d. 1784)
                             Gallardo
Nov 1784 - 17 Jun 1785     Vicente de Herrera y Rivero           (b. 1743 - d. 1794)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
17 Jun 1785 - 30 Nov 1786  Bernardo Vicente Polinarde de         (b. 1746 - d. 1786)
                             Gálvez y Gallardo, conde de Gálvez 
30 Nov 1786 -  8 May 1787  Eusebio Sánchez Pareja y Beleño
                             (President of the Audiencia)
 8 May 1787 - 18 Aug 1787  Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta,       (b. 1729 - d. 1800)
                             arzobispo de México (acting)
18 Aug 1787 - 17 Oct 1789  Manuel Antonio Flores Maldonado       (b. 1723 - d. 1799)
                             Martínez de Angulo y Bodquín 
17 Oct 1789 - 11 Jul 1794  Juan Vicente de Güemes-Pacheco de     (b. 1740 - d. 1799)
                             Padilla y Horcasitas,
                             conde de Revillagigedo 
12 Jul 1794 - 31 May 1798  Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca           (b. c.1755 - d. 1812)
                             y Branciforte, marqués de 
                             Branciforte
31 May 1798 - 30 Apr 1800  Miguel José de Azanza                 (b. 1746 - d. 1826)
30 Apr 1800 -  4 Jan 1803  Félix Berenguer de Marquina           (b. 1738 - d. 1826)
 4 Jan 1803 - 16 Sep 1808  José de Iturrigaray y Aréstegui       (b. 1742 - d. 1815)
16 Sep 1808 - 19 Jun 1809  Pedro de Garibay                      (b. 1727 - d. 1815)
19 Jun 1809 -  8 May 1810  Francisco Javier de Lizana y          (b. 1750 - d. 1811)
                             Beaumont, arzobispo de México
 8 May 1810 - 14 Sep 1810  Pedro Catani 
                             (President of the Audiencia)
14 Sep 1810 -  4 Mar 1813  Francisco Javier Venegas de Saavedra, (b. 1760 - d. 1838)
                             marqués de la Reunión de Nueva España
 4 Mar 1813 - 20 Sep 1816  Félix María Calleja del Rey,          (b. 1753 - d. 1828)
                             conde de Calderón
20 Sep 1816 -  5 Jul 1821  Juan Ruíz de Apodaca y Eliza López    (b. 1754 - d. 1835)
                             de Letona y Lasquetty, conde de 
                             Venadito
 6 Jul 1821 - 30 Jul 1821  Francisco Novella Azabal Pérez y      (b. 1769 - d. 18..)
                             Sicardo (acting)
30 Jul 1821 - 28 Sep 1821  Juan O'Donojú                         (b. 1762 - d. 1821)


Mexico


Generalissimo of the North American Armies 

16 Sep 1810 - 19 Mar 1811  Miguel Gregorio Antonio Hidalgo y  (b. 1753 - d. 1811)
                             Costilla Gallaga Mandarte y
                             Villaneñor 
Supreme Governing Junta of America (or Supreme Junta of the Nation) 
19 Aug 1811 - 15 Sep 1813  Ignacio López Rayón                (b. 1733 - d. 1832)
Generalissimo of the North American Armies in charge of the Executive
(from Jan 1814, Executive Power)
15 Sep 1813 - 14 Mar 1814  José María Teclo Morelos y Pavón   (b. 1765 - d. 1815)
President of the Supreme Mexican Congress
14 Mar 1814 - 24 Oct 1814  José María Nestorio Liceaga y Reyna(b. 1780? - d. 1818)
Presidents of the Supreme Mexican Government
24 Oct 1814 - 24 Feb 1815  José María Nestorio Liceaga y Reyna(s.a.)
24 Feb 1815 - 13 Nov 1815  José María Teclo Morelos y Pavón   (s.a.) 
13 Nov 1815 - 15 Dec 1815  Ignácio Alas                       (b. 1780 - d. 1843)
15 Dec 1815 - 1817         Executive Commission 
                           - Manuel de Mier y Terán y Teruel  (b. 1789 - d. 1832) 
                           - Ignácio Alas                     (s.a.)
                           - Antonio Cumplido
President of the Provisional Governing Junta
24 Aug 1821 - 28 Sep 1821  Agustín de Iturbide y Arámburu     (b. 1783 - d. 1824)  Mil
President of the Regency of the Empire
28 Sep 1821 - 19 May 1822  Agustín de Iturbide y Arámburu     (s.a.)               Mil
Emperor¹
19 May 1822 - 29 Mar 1823  Agustín I                          (s.a.)
President of the Constituent Congress
29 Mar 1823 -  2 Apr 1823  José Mariano Marín                 (b. 1782 - d. 1863)  Lib 
Presidents of the Supreme Executive Power
 2 Apr 1823 - 30 Apr 1823  Pedro Celestino Negrete            (b. 1777 - d. 1846)  Lib
 1 May 1823 - 31 May 1823  José Mariano de Michelena          (b. 1772 - d. 1852)  Lib
                             (1st time)
 1 Jun 1823 - 30 Jun 1823  Nicolás Bravo Rueda (1st time)     (b. 1786 - d. 1854)  Lib
 1 Jul 1823 - 31 Jul 1823  José Mariano de Michelena          (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)
 1 Aug 1823 - 31 Aug 1823  José Miguel Domínguez Alemán       (b. 1756 - d. 1830)  Lib 
                             (1st time) 
 1 Sep 1823 - 30 Sep 1823  Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña     (b. 1783 - d. 1831)  Lib
                             (1st time) 
 1 Oct 1823 - 31 Oct 1823  José Mariano de Michelena          (s.a.)               Lib
                             (3rd time)
 1 Nov 1823 - 30 Nov 1823  José Miguel Domínguez Alemán       (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)
 1 Dec 1823 -  8 Dec 1823  Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña     (s.a.)               Lib 
                             (2nd time)
 8 Dec 1823 - 31 Dec 1823  José Miguel Domínguez Alemán       (s.a.)               Lib 
                             (3rd time)
 1 Jan 1824 - 31 Jan 1824  José Mariano de Michelena          (s.a.)               Lib
                             (4th time)
 1 Feb 1824 - 29 Feb 1824  José Miguel Domínguez Alemán       (s.a.)               Lib 
                             (4th time)
 1 Mar 1824 - 31 Mar 1824  Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña     (s.a.)               Lib 
                             (3rd time)
 1 Apr 1824 - 30 Apr 1824  Nicolás Bravo Rueda (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Lib
 1 May 1824 - 31 May 1824  José Miguel Domínguez Alemán       (s.a.)               Lib 
                             (5th time)
 1 Jun 1824 - 30 Jun 1824  Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña     (s.a.)               Lib 
                             (4th time)
 1 Jul 1824 - 31 Jul 1824  Guadalupe Victoria (1st time)      (b. 1786 - d. 1843)  Lib
                             (José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix
 1 Aug 1824 - 31 Aug 1824  Nicolás Bravo Rueda (3rd time)     (s.a.)               Lib
 1 Sep 1824 - 30 Sep 1824  José Miguel Domínguez Alemán       (s.a.)               Lib 
                             (6th time)
 1 Oct 1824 - 10 Oct 1824  Guadalupe Victoria (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Lib
Presidents
10 Oct 1824 -  1 Apr 1829  Guadalupe Victoria                 (s.a.)               Lib
 1 Apr 1829 -  4 Feb 1830  Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña     (s.a.)               Lib 
                             (absent from 18 Dec 1829; deposed on 4 Feb 1830,
                             but continues in dissidence to 20 Jan 1831
)
18 Dec 1829 - 23 Dec 1829  José Maria Bocanegra y Villalpando (b. 1787 - d. 1862)  Lib
                             (acting for absent Guerrero)  
23 Dec 1829 -  1 Jan 1830  Provisional Supreme Executive Power
                           - José Pedro Vélez de Zúñiga       (b. 1787 - d. 1848)  Lib
                           - Lucas Ignacio de Paula Alamán y  (b. 1792 - d. 1853)  Con
                               Escalada 
                           - José Luis Quintanar y Soto       (b. 1772 - d. 1837)  Mil
                           (acting for Guerrero)
 1 Jan 1830 - 26 Dec 1832  Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera    (b. 1780 - d. 1853)  Con
                             (1st time)(acting [ostensibly for Guerrero to 4 Feb 1830])
14 Aug 1832 - 27 Dec 1832  Melchor de Eca y Múzquiz           (b. 1790 - d. 1844)  Lib
                             (acting [for Bustamante to 26 Dec 1832])
26 Dec 1832 -  1 Apr 1833  Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez   (b. 1789 - d. 1851)  Lib
 
1 Apr 1833 -  1 Apr 1837  Antonio López de Santa Anna y      (b. 1794 - d. 1876)  Lib
                             Pérez de Lebrón (1st time)
                            
(Texan prisoner 22 Apr - 26 Nov 1836, then
                            
in the U.S. Nov 1836 - 31 Jan 1837)
 1 Apr 1833 - 16 May 1833  José María Valentín Gómez de la    (b. 1781 - d. 1858)  Lib

                             Vara y Martínez Farías (1st time)
                             (acting
for Santa Anna)
28 Jan 1835 - 27 Feb 1836  Miguel Francisco Barragán Andrade
  (b. 1789 - d. 1836)  Lib
                             (acting for Santa Anna)
27 Feb 1836 - 19 Apr 1837  José Justo Corro Silva (interim)   (b. 1794 - d. 1864)  Con
                             (acting for Santa Anna to 1 Apr 1837)
19 Apr 1837 -  6 Oct 1841  Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera    (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time) 
18 Mar 1839 - 10 Jul 1839  Antonio López de Santa Anna y      (s.a.)               Lib
                             Pérez de Lebrón
                             (acting for Bustamante)
10 Jul 1839 – 17 Jul 1839  Nicolás Bravo Rueda                (s.a.)               Lib
                             (acting for Bustamante)
23 Sep 1841 –  1 Oct 1841  Francisco Javier Echeverría
       (b. 1797 - d. 1852)  Con
                             (acting for Bustamante)
 
6 Oct 1841 - 10 Oct 1841  Vacant
10 Oct 1841 -  1 Feb 1844  Antonio López de Santa y Pérez     (s.a.)               Lib 

                             de Lebrón Anna (2nd time)
                             (provisional) 
26 Oct 1842 -  3 Mar 1843  Nicolás Bravo Rueda                (s.a.)               Lib
                             (acting for Santa Anna)
 
4 Oct 1843 -  4 Jun 1844  José Valentín Raimundo Canalizo    (b. 1794 - d. 1850)  Lib
                             Bocadillo (acting for Santa Anna
                             to 1 Feb 1844; then interim)

 4 Jun 1844 - 21 May 1845  Antonio López de Santa y Pérez     (s.a.)               Lib
                             de Lebrón Anna (3rd time) 
                             (captured by a belligerent force 15 Jan 1845)
12 Sep 1844 - 21 Sep 1844  José Joaquín Antonio Florencio de  (b. 1792 - d. 1854)  Lib
                             Herrera y Ricardos
                             (acting for Santa Anna)
21 Sep 1844 -  7 Dec 1844  José Valentín Raimundo Canalizo    (s.a.)               Lib
                            
Bocadillo (acting for Santa Anna)  
15 Dec 1844 - 30 Dec 1845  José Joaquín Antonio Florencio de  (s.a.)               Lib

                             Herrera y Ricardos (1st time)
                             (interim to 16 Sep 1845)
30 Dec 1845 -  2 Jan 1846  Gabriel Valencia (interim)         (b. 1799 - d. 1848)  Lib
 2 Jan 1846 -  4 Aug 1846  José Mariano Epifanio Paredes y    (b. 1797 - d. 1849)  Con
                             Arrillaga 
                             (General-in-Chief to 4 Jan 1846, then interim)
 5 Aug 1846 - 24 Dec 1846  José Mariano de Salas (1st time)   (b. 1797 - d. 1867)  Con
                             (General-in-chef, exercising supreme executive power)
24 Dec 1846 - 16 Sep 1847  Antonio López de Santa Anna y      (s.a.)               Lib 
                             Pérez de Lebrón (4th time)(interim) 
24 Dec 1846 - 22 Mar 1847  José María Valentín Gómez de la    (s.a.)               Lib
                             Vara y Martínez Farías (2nd time)
                             (acting for Santa Anna)

16 Sep 1847 - 22 Sep 1847  Vacant
22 Sep 1847 - 12 Nov 1847  Manuel José de la Peña y Peña      (b. 1789 - d. 1850)  Lib
                             (1st time) (acting) 
12 Nov 1847 -  8 Jan 1848  Pedro María Anaya y de Álvarez     (b. 1794 - d. 1854)  Lib
                             (interim) 
 8 Jan 1848 -  3 Jun 1848  Manuel José de la Peña y Peña      (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)(acting to 15 May 1848, then interim)
 3 Jun 1848 - 15 Jan 1851  José Joaquín Antonio Florencio de  (s.a.)               Lib
                             Herrera y Ricardos (2nd time) 
15 Jan 1851 -  6 Jan 1853  José Mariano García de Arista y    (b. 1802 - d. 1855)  Lib 
                            
Nuez
 6 Jan 1853 -  7 Feb 1853  Juan Bautista Ceballos Gómez       
(b. 1811 - d. 1859)  Lib
                             Sañudo (interim) 
 
7 Feb 1853 - 20 Apr 1853  Manuel Apolinario José María       (b. 1802 - d. 1853)  Con
                             Ignacio Lombardini de la Torre
                             (acting) 
20 Apr 1853 - 12 Aug 1855  Antonio López de Santa Anna y      (s.a.)               Con
                             Pérez de Lebrón (5th time) 
13 Aug 1855 - 15 Aug 1855  Rómulo Díaz de la Vega (1st time)  (b. 1804 - d. 1877)  Mil/Con
                             (Division General-in-Chief of the Forces of District of Mexico)
15 Aug 1855 - 12 Sep 1855  Martín Carrera Sabat (interim)     (b. 1806 - d. 1871)  Con
12 Sep 1855 -  4 Oct 1855  Rómulo Díaz de la Vega (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Mil/Con
                            (Governor of District of Mexico and Commander-in-Chief)
 4 Oct 1855 - 15 Sep 1856  Juan Nepomuceno Álvarez Hurtado    (b. 1790 - d. 1867)  Mil/Lib
                            (interim)(in dissidence as general-in-chief of Army 
                             of Restoration of Liberty 14 Mar - 4 Oct 1855)
15 Sep 1856 - 21 Jan 1858  Ignacio Gregorio Comonfort de los  (b. 1812 - d. 1863)  Lib
                             Ríos (substitute to 1 Dec 1857; 
                             provisional from 19 Dec 1857)
19 Jan 1858 - 15 May 1867  Benito Pablo Juárez García         (b. 1806 - d. 1872)  Lib
                             (in opposition [interim to 11 Jun 1861];
                             in Mexico City 11 Jan 1861 - 31 May 1863)
21 Jan 1858 - 23 Dec 1858  Félix María Zuloaga Trillo         (b. 1813 - d. 1898)  Mil/Con
                             (1st time)(General-in-chief to 23 Jan 1858; then interim)
23 Dec 1858 - 21 Jan 1859  Manuel Robles Pezuela (acting)     (b. 1817 - d. 1862)  Con
21 Jan 1859 - 23 Jan 1859  José Mariano de Salas (acting)     (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time) 
23 Jan 1859                Miguel Gregorio de la Luz          (b. 1831 - d. 1867)  Con
                             Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo 
                             (1st time) (interim)
23 Jan 1859 - 13 Aug 1860  Félix María Zuloaga Trillo         (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time) (acting)
13 Aug 1860 - 15 Aug 1860  José Ignacio Pavón (acting)        (b. 1791 - d. 1866)  Con
15 Aug 1860 - 24 Dec 1860  Miguel Gregorio de la Luz          (s.a.)               Con
                             Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo 
                             (2nd time)
28 Dec 1860 - 23 Mar 1862  Félix María Zuloaga Trillo         (s.a.)               Con
                             (3rd time) 
21 Apr 1862 - 12 Jan 1863  Juan Nepomuceno Almonte            (b. 1803 - d. 1869)  Con
                             (Supreme Chief of the Nation)
22 Jun 1863 - 24 Jun 1863  Teodosio Lares                     (b. 1806 - d. 1870)  Con
                             (President of the Superior Governing Junta)
24 Jun 1863 - 20 May 1864  Supreme Provisional Executive Power 
                              (from 11 Jul 1863, Imperial Regency)
                           - Juan Nepomuceno Almonte          (s.a.)               Con
                           - Juan Bautista de Ormaechea y     (b. 1812 - d. 1884)  Con
                               Ernaíz, obispo de Tulancingo
                               (to 18 Oct 1863)
                           - Pelagio Antonio de Labastida y   (b. 1816 - d. 1891)  Con
                               Dávalos, arzobispo de México
                               (18 Oct - 17 Nov 1863)
                           - José Mariano de Salas            (s.a.)               Con
Emperor¹
10 Apr 1864 - 15 May 1867  Maximiliano I                      (b. 1832 - d. 1867)
                            (Fernando Maximiliano José de Austria y Baviera)
                            (lands in Veracuz on 29 May 1864) 
Lieutenants of the Emperor
20 Apr 1864 - 12 Jun 1864  Juan Nepomuceno Almonte            (s.a.)               Con
19 Mar 1867 - 15 May 1867  Leonardo Teófilo Guadalupe Ignacio (b. 1820 - d. 1913)  Con
                             Márquez Araujo
Presidents 
15 May 1867 - 18 Jul 1872  Benito Pablo Juárez García         (s.a.)               Lib
                            (in opposition from 19 Jan 1858)
19 Jul 1872 - 28 Nov 1876  Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada y Corral (b. 1825 - d. 1889)  Lib

                            (interim to 30 Nov 1872; in dissidence to 25 Jan 1877)
28 Oct 1876 - 17 Jan 1877  José María Iglesias Inzáurraga     (b. 1823 - d. 1891)  Lib
                            (interim; in dissidence)
28 Nov 1876 - 30 Nov 1880  José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz      (b. 1830 - d. 1915) Mil;1877 Lib
                             Mori (1st time)(general-in-chief of
                             Constitutionalist Army to 5 May 1877,
                             then interim president)
 6 Dec 1876 - 15 Feb 1877  Juan N. Méndez (acting for Díaz)   (b. 1820 - d. 1894)  Lib
 1 Dec 1880 - 30 Nov 1884  Manuel del Refugio González Flores (b. 1833 - d. 1893)  Lib

 1 Dec 1884 - 25 May 1911  José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz      (s.a.)               PNP
                             Mori (2nd time) 
 5 Oct 1910 - 21 May 1911  Francisco Ignacio Madero González  (b. 1873 - d. 1913)  PCP
                             (provisional; in dissidence)
25 May 1911 -  6 Nov 1911  Francisco León de la Barra y       (b. 1863 - d. 1939)  Non-party
                             Quijano (interim)
 6 Nov 1911 - 19 Feb 1913  Francisco Ignacio Madero González  (s.a.)               PCP
 6 Nov 1911 - 19 Feb 1913  Pascual Orozco Vázquez             (b. 1882 - d. 1915)  PNA
                             (pretender in opposition; in Chihuahua) 
15 Feb 1913  (hours)       Emilio Vázquez Gómez               (b. 1858 - d. 1926)  PNA
                             (pretender, in opposition)
19 Feb 1913  (minutes)     Pedro José Domingo de la Calzada   (b. 1858 - d. 1952)  Non-party
                             Manuel María Lascuraín Paredes 
                             (interim)
19 Feb 1913 - 15 Jul 1914  José Victoriano Huerta Márquez     (b. 1854 - d. 1916)  Mil
                             (interim)
19 Feb 1913 - 15 Jul 1914  José Venustiano Carranza Garza     (b. 1859 - d. 1920)  PNA
                             (pretender, in opposition; in Coahuila and Sonora)
19 Jun 1914 - 10 Apr 1919  Emiliano Zapata Salazar            (b. 1879 - d. 1919)  Conv
                             (commander of Liberation Army of
                             the South; in rebellion, in Morelos)
15 Jul 1914 - 13 Aug 1914  Francisco Sebastián Carvajal y     (b. 1870 - d. 1932)  Non-party
                             Gual (interim)
20 Aug 1914 - 31 Oct 1914  José Venustiano Carranza Garza     (s.a.)               PNA
                            (1st time)(first chief of Constitutionalist
                             Army in charge of the executive power;
                             continues in dissidence to 1 May 1917)
30 Sep 1914 - 29 Jul 1920  Francisco "Pancho" Villa           (b. 1878 - d. 1923)  Conv
                             (commander of Division of the North;
                             in rebellion, in Chihuahua)
31 Oct 1914 -  6 Nov 1914  Antonio I. Villarreal González     (b. 1879 - d. 1944)  Lib
                             (president of Sovereign Revolutionary Convention)
 6 Nov 1914 - 16 Jan 1915  Eulalio Martín Gutiérrez Ortiz     (b. 1881 - d. 1939)  Conv
                             (provisional; continues in dissidence to 2 Jun 1915)
16 Jan 1915 - 10 Jun 1915  Roque Victoriano González Garza    (b. 1885 - d. 1962)  Conv
                             (acting) (loyal to Zapata)
10 Jun 1915 - 10 Oct 1915  Francisco Jerónimo de Jesús Lagos  (b. 1878 - d. 1932)  Conv
                             Cházaro Mortero (acting)
10 Oct 1915 - 21 May 1920  José Venustiano Carranza Garza     (s.a.)             Conv;1917 PLC
                             (2nd time)(first chief of Constitutionalist
                             Army in charge of the executive power;
                             in dissidence until 1 May 1917)
23 Apr 1920 - 30 Nov 1920  Felipe Adolfo de la Huerta Marcor  (b. 1881 - d. 1955)  PLC 
                             (interim supreme chief of Constitutionalist
                             Liberal Army to 1 Jun 1920, then substitute president)
 1 Dec 1920 - 30 Nov 1924  Álvaro Obregón Salido              (b. 1880 - d. 1928)  PLM
 1 Dec 1924 - 30 Nov 1928  Plutarco Elías Calles              (b. 1877 - d. 1945)  PLM
 1 Dec 1928 -  5 Feb 1930  Emilio Cándido Portes Gil          (b. 1891 - d. 1978)  PNR
                             (provisional)
 5 Feb 1930 -  4 Sep 1932  Pascual Ortiz Rubio                (b. 1877 - d. 1963)  PNR
 4 Sep 1932 - 30 Nov 1934  Abelardo Luján Rodríguez           (b. 1889 - d. 1969)  PNR 
                             (substitute)
 1 Dec 1934 - 30 Nov 1940  Lázaro Cárdenas del Río            (b. 1895 - d. 1970) PNR;1938 PRM
 1 Dec 1940 - 30 Nov 1946  Manuel Ávila Camacho               (b. 1897 - d. 1955) PRM;1946 PRI
 1 Dec 1946 - 30 Nov 1952  Miguel Alemán Váldez               (b. 1900 - d. 1983)  PRI
 1 Dec 1952 - 30 Nov 1958  Adolfo Ruiz Cortines               (b. 1891 - d. 1973)  PRI
 1 Dec 1958 - 30 Nov 1964  Adolfo López Mateos                (b. 1910 - d. 1969)  PRI
 1 Dec 1964 - 30 Nov 1970  Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Bolaños Cacho   (b. 1911 - d. 1979)  PRI
 1 Dec 1970 - 30 Nov 1976  Luis Echeverría Álvarez            (b. 1922)            PRI
 1 Dec 1976 - 30 Nov 1982  José López Portillo y Pacheco      (b. 1920 - d. 2004)  PRI
 1 Dec 1982 - 30 Nov 1988  Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado        (b. 1934 - d. 2012)  PRI
 1 Dec 1988 - 30 Nov 1994  Carlos Salinas de Gortari          (b. 1948)            PRI
 1 Dec 1994 - 30 Nov 2000  Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León      (b. 1951)            PRI
 1 Dec 2000 - 30 Nov 2006  Vicente Fox Quesada                (b. 1942)            PAN 
 1 Dec 2006 - 30 Nov 2012  Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa  (b. 1962)            PAN
 1 Dec 2012 -              Enrique Peña Nieto                 (b. 1966)            PRI

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
13 Jun 1864 -  6 Oct 1866  José María de la Asunción Juan     (b. 1809 - d. 1869)  Con
                             Nepomuceno de Lacunza y Blengua
 6 Oct 1866 - 19 Mar 1867  Teodosio Lares                     (s.a.)               Con
19 Mar 1867 - 15 May 1867  Santiago Vidaurri Valdez           (b. 1808 - d. 1867)  Con
15 May 1867                Post abolished

Commanding generals of the French Expeditionary Corps
 5 Mar 1862 - 24 Sep 1862  Charles-Ferdinand Latrille,        (b. 1814 - d. 1892)
                             comte de Lorencez 
24 Sep 1862 -  5 Sep 1863  Elié-Frédéric Forey                (b. 1804 - d. 1872) 
 5 Sep 1863 - 12 Mar 1867  François-Achille Bazaine           (b. 1811 - d. 1888)

U.S. Commanding generals in Mexico City
14 Sep 184718 Feb 1848  Winfield Scott                     (b. 1786 - d. 1866)
18 Feb 1848 - 16 Mar 1848  William O. Butler                  (b. 1791 - d. 1880)
16 Mar 1848 - 12 Jun 1848  Stephen W. Kearny                  (b. 1794 - d. 1848)

 ¹Full style of the ruler was:
(a) 19 May 1822 - 29 Mar 1823: por la Divina Providencia y por el Congreso de la Nación, primer Emperador constitucional de México ("by Divine Providence and the National Congress, First Constitutional Emperor of Mexico");
(b) 10 Apr 1864 - 15 May 1867: Emperador de México ("Emperor of Mexico"), long form: por la gracia del Dios y la Voluntad de la Gente, Emperador de México ("by the grace of God and the Will of the People, Emperor of Mexico").

Territorial Disputes: Abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-U.S. border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the U.S. has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, drugs, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the U.S.; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty.

Party abbreviations: PAN = Partido Acción Nacional (National Action Party, conservative, est.1939); PRI = Partido Revolucionario Institucional (Institutional Revolutionary Party, social democratic, 1929-1989 authoritarian, 1929-38 National Revolutionary Party [PNR]; 1938-46 Party of the Mexican Revolution [PRM]); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: Con = Partido Conservador (Conservative Party, conservative, traditionalist, Lib opposition, 1822/49-1867); Conv = Convencionistas (Conventionists, revolutionary supporters of Convention of Aguascalientes, incl. Carranza, Zapata and Pancho Villa, 1914-1915); Lib = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party or Progressive Party [Partido del Progreso], liberal, republican, Con opposition, 1822-1911); PCP = Partido Constitucional Progresista (Constitutional Progressive Party, Maderismo, pro-Madero, then Carranza, 1910-1929, merged into PNR); PLC = Partido Liberal Constitucionalista (Constitutionalist Liberal Party, social democatic, 1916-1924); PLM = Partido Laborista Mexicano (Mexican Labour Party, socialist, 1919-1940); PNA = Partido Nacional Antirreeleccionista (National Anti-Reelection Party, democratic, constitutionalist, anti-Porfirio Díaz, 1909-c.1929); PNP = Partido Nacional Porfirista (Porfirist National Party, Porfiriato, party of Porfirio Diaz, 1884-1911)



Chiapas
[Chiapas Flag
                  1823-1824]
             31 Jul 1823 - 14 Sep 1824 
 
 
Map of Chiapas
Capital: San Cristóbal de
Las Casas (1786-1892)
Population: 144,100 (1850)
 
1529 - 1821                Part of the colonial Kingdom of Guatemala (see provinces 
                             of New Spain).
20 Sep 1786                Intendencia of Ciudad Real de Chiapas.
 1 Sep 1821                Chiapas declares its acceptance of Mexico's Plan de Iguala,
                             expecting Guatemala to follow.
 3 Sep 1821                Chiapas declares its independence from Spain.
26 Sep 1821                Chiapas, confronted with the declaration of independence of
                             the Kingdom of Guatemala on 15 Sep 1821, protests its inclusion
                             in the text of that declaration and the fact that it does not 
                             adhere to Mexico.
16 Jan 1822                The Regency of the Mexican Empire decrees the incorporation of
                             Chiapas.
 8 Jun 1823                Chiapas establishes a Provisional Supreme Government Junta.
 1 Jul 1823                The declaration of independence of the United Provinces of Central
                             America omits Chiapas and does not include it in the list of
                             Provinces invited to re-join.
30 Jul 1823                The United Provinces of Central America recognize the Chiapas
                             Provisional Supreme Government Junta. and declare the right of 
                             Chiapas to decide its future freely.
31 Jul 1823                The "absolute" independence of Chiapas declared.
 5 Sep 1823                General Filísola (who governed Central America originally on
                             behalf of Mexico, but later served to facilitate the transition 
                             to independence) dissolves the Junta and re-installs the Imperial
                             Diputación Provincial.
26 Oct 1823                Revolts in various parts of the Province demand independence.
31 Oct 1823                The Junta is re-installed.
26 May 1824                Mexico's Constituent Congress declares that Chiapas is free to
                             choose its future.
24 Jul 1824                The district of Soconusco declares its will to be incorporated
                             into Guatemala. It is eventually successful, but remains a source
                             of discord between Guatemala and Mexico throughout the 19th 
                             century.
14 Sep 1824                Following a referendum on either joining Federal Republic of 
                             Central America or Mexico, the government junta proclaims the 
                             definitive incorporation of Chiapas into Mexico.

Political Chiefs
1821 - 1823                Manuel José de Rojas (1st time)
Jun 1823 - 1823            Gregorio Suasnavar (1st time)
27 Sep 1823 - 29 Oct 1823  Manuel José de Rojas (2nd time)
29 Oct 1823 - 182.         Manuel Zebadúa
16 Feb 1824 - 1824         Gregorio Suasnavar (2nd time)
Intendants

1821 - Jun 1823            Luis Antonio García
31 May 1823 - Jun 1823     Fernando Luis Corona
Presidents of the Provisional Supreme Junta

Jun 1823 - 20 Jun 1823     Fernando Luis Corona
20 Jun 1823 - 1823         Francisco Guillén
President of the Provincial Junta
1823 -  5 Sep 1823         José Diego Lara
Presidents of the Provisional Supreme Junta
 5 Sep 1823 - 29 Oct 1823  ....
29 Oct 1823 - 1823         Luis Antonio García
(16 Dec 1823)              Carlos Castañón
16 Feb 1824 - 1824         Manuel Ignacio Escarra (1st time)
24 Mar 1824?               José Simón Moguel
(24 Apr 1824)              Manuel Ignacio Escarra (2nd time)
12 Sep 1824? - 14 Sep 1824 Manuel de Jesús Robles


Republic of the Rio Grande

Flag of the Republic of the Rio Grande 1840
             17 Jan 1840 - 6 Nov 1840
 
Map of Rio Grande
Republic
Capital: Laredo
(Guerrero
1840-Mar 1840;
 Victoria, Texas
 Mar-Nov 1840)

Currency: Mexican
Peso
(MXN)
Population: N/A

 
17 Jan 1840                Federalist leaders in states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and
                             Tamaulipas declare independence from the centralist
                             government of Mexico.
 6 Nov 1840                Leaders surrender to the Mexican army. 

President
17 Jan 1840 -  6 Nov 1840  Jesús de Cárdenas



Yucatan
[Yucatán Republic, later
                  unofficial state flag]
 20 Oct 1841 - 15 Dec 1843, 1 Jan 1846 - 17 Aug 1848
Map of the Yucatán Capital: Mérida Currency: Mexican
 Peso
(MXN)
Constitution
(20 Oct 1841;
in Spanish)
Population: 504,600
 (1850 est.)

15 Sep 1821                Yucatan declares independence from Spain.
 2 Nov 1821                Incorporation into Mexico (see Mexican states).
16 Mar 1841                Independence rebellion begins.
20 Oct 1841                Yucatan declares independence from Mexico.
15 Dec 1843                Re-incorporated into Mexico.
 1 Jan 1846                Independence declared.
23 Feb 1847                Re-incorporation into Mexico declared; Campeche proclaims itself
                             the "State of Yucatán" and subsequently occupies entire 
                             peninsula.
17 Aug 1848                Re-incorporated into Mexico.

Superior Political Chief
 1 Jan 1821 - 12 Nov 1821  Juan María de Echéverri y Chacón
Governors
22 Aug 1840 - 11 Jun 1841  Santigao Méndez Ibarra (1st time)  (b. 1789 - d. 1872)
11 Jun 1841 - 13 Oct 1841  Miguel Barbachano Terrazo          (b. 1806 - d. 1859)
                             (1st time)
13 Oct 1841 - 18 Aug 1842  Santigao Méndez Ibarra (2nd time)  (s.a.)
18 Aug 1842 - 14 Nov 1843  Miguel Barbachano Terrazo          (b. 1806 - d. 1859)
                             (2nd time)
14 Nov 1843 - 15 May 1844  Santiago Méndez Ibarra (3rd time)  (s.a.)
15 May 1844 -  2 Jun 1844  Miguel Barbachano Terrazo          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 2 Jun 1844 -  1 Jan 1846  José Tiburcio López Constante      (b. c.1790 - d. 1858)
                             (4th time)
 1 Jan 1846 - 23 Jan 1847  Miguel Barbachano Terrazo          (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
23 Jan 1847 -  3 Oct 1847  Domingo Barret (provisional)
 3 Oct 1847 - 26 Mar 1848  Santiago Méndez Ibarra (4th time)  (s.a.)
26 Mar 1848 - 13 Feb 1853  Miguel Barbachano Terrazo          (s.a.)
                             (5th time)







© Ben Cahoon