World Statesmen.org HOME >

 

 





 

Grenada
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                                  to 1875
 
Grenada flag in 1875-1903
                             1875 - 1903
 
Grenada ensign in 1903-1967
                          1903 - 3 Mar 1967
 
Grenada flag in 1967-1974
            3 Mar 1967 - 7 Feb 1974
 
[Grenada]
                   Adopted 7 Feb 1974
 

Map of Grenada
Hear National Anthem
"Hail Grenada"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 7 Feb 1974
Constitution
 (19 Dec 1973 )
Capital: Saint George's
Currency: East Caribbean
Dollar
(XCD)
National Holiday: 7 Feb (1974)
Independence Day
Population: 109,590 (2013)
GDP: $1.45 billion (2013)
Exports: $40.5 million (2012)
Imports: $297 million (2012)
Ethnic groups: black 51.7%, mixed black and
European 40%, Indo-Pakistani 4%, white 0.4%,
other 3.4%, and trace of Arawak/Carib
Amerindian (2000)
Total Active Paramilitary Forces: 900 (2012)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 57.8%, Protestant 37.6%
(Anglican 14.4%, Pentecostal 8.3%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 7%), other 4.6% (of which Rastafarian 3%) (1995)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ACS, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, C, Caricom, CCM, CDB, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ECCB, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO
Grenada Index
Chronology

15 Aug 1498                Discovered and claimed for Spain by Christopher
                             Columbus, named Isla de Concepción.
1523                       Named on maps as Isla Granada.
1609 - 1609                Brief English settlement.
20 Jun 1650                French colony (La Grenade)(under the Compagnie des
                             Indies Occidentales rule 1664 - 1674).
1649 - 1762                Part of French Antilles colony (see Martinique).
1674                       French crown colony.
 5 Mar 1762                British occupation.
10 Feb 1763                British colony, recognized by France in Treaty 
                             of Paris.
1764 - 1802                Part of (British) Southern Caribbean (Caribbee)
                             Islands colony (Dominica, St. Vincent, the
                             Grenadines, Grenada, and Tobago).
 4 Jul 1779 - Sep 1783     French occupation.
 1 Apr 1833 -  1 Jan 1960  Part of the Windward Islands (Barbados [to 1885],
                             Dominica [from 1940], Grenada, St. Lucia [from 
                             1838], St. Vincent, Tobago [to 1889]).
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  Part of the Federation of the West Indies
                             (see Trinidad and Tobago).
 3 Mar 1967                Associated state
 7 Feb 1974                Independence from U.K. (Grenada)(in much official,
                             but legally unsanctioned, use: Grenada,
                             Carriacou, and Petite Martinique‏).
13 Mar 1979 - 25 Oct 1983  People's Revolutionary Government.
25 Oct 1983 -  6 Nov 1983  Occupied by U.S. and East Caribbean forces.

Grenada
(from 1649)
Southern Caribbean
Islands

(1762-1802)
Windward
Islands
(1871-1960)
 
 

 
 
 

Southern Caribbean (Caribbee) Islands

Governors-in-chief (also governors of Grenada)
Mar 1762 - 1802            the governors of Grenada


Windward Islands
 
[Windward
                          Islands 1889-1903]
                            1886 - 1903
 
[Windward
                          Islands 1903-1958]
                          1903 - 3 Jan 1958
 
[West Indies
                          Federation, 1958-62]
                        3 Jan 1958 - 1 Jan 1960
 
Map of British Windward
Islands 1880-1958
Capital: Saint George's
(Bridgetown 1871-1885)

1871                       Federal Colony of the Windward Islands
 1 Jul 1956                Territory of the Windward Islands
 1 Jan 1960                Dissolved.

Governors (to 1885 also the governors of Barbados)
1833 - 1836                Sir Lionel Smith                   (b. 1778 - d. 1842)
1836                       John A. Beccles (acting)
1836 - 1841                Evan John Murray MacGregor         (b. 1785 - d. 1841)

                             (from 16 Nov 1838, Sir Evan John Murray MacGregor)
1841                       J. Brathwaite (acting)
1841 -  3 Jan 1842         Charles Henry Darling (acting)     (b. 1780 - d. 1845)
 
3 Jan 1842 - 1846         Sir Charles Edward Grey            (b. 1785 - d. 1865)
1846                       J.R. Best (acting)
1846 - 1848                William Reid                       (b. 1791 - d. 1858)
1848 - 1856                William Macbean George Colebrooke  (b. 1787 - d. 1870)
1856                       Grant E. Thomas (acting)
1856 -  4 Jan 1862         Francis Hincks                     (b. 1807 - d. 1885)
 4 Jan 1862 - 1868         James Walker                       (b. 1809 - d. 1885)
1868 - 1875                Rawson William Rawson              (b. 1812 - d. 1899)
1875                       Sanford Freeling (acting)          (b. 1828 - d. 1894)
1875 - 1876                Sir John Pope Hennessy             (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
20 Dec 1876 - 1880         George Cumine Strahan              (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
1880                       D.J. Gamble (acting)
1880 - 1885                William Robinson                   (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
1885 - 1888                Sir Walter Joseph Sendall          (b. 1833 - d. 1904)
1889 - 1892                Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson (b. 1849 - d. 1913)
1893 - 1897                Sir Charles Bruce                  (b. 1836 - d. 1920)
1897 - 1900                Sir Cornelius Alfred Moloney       (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
1900 - 1906                Sir Robert Baxter Llewelyn         (b. 1845 - d. 1919)
1906 - 1909                Sir Ralph Champneys Williams       (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
Jun 1909 - Oct 1909        Edward John Cameron (acting)       (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
1909 - 1914                Sir James Hayes Sadler             (b. 1851 - d. 1922)
May 1914 - 1914            William Douglas Young (acting)     (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
1914 - 1923                Sir George Basil Haddon-Smith      (b. 1861 - d. 1931)
Nov 1923 - Jul 1924        Wilfred Bennett Davidson-Houston   (b. 1870 - d. 1960) 
                             (acting)
1924 - 1930                Sir Frederick Seton James          (b. 1870 - d. 1934)
Sep 1930 - 1935            Sir Thomas Alexander Vans Best     (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
1935 - 19 Jan 1937         Sir Selwyn MacGregor Grier         (b. 1878 - d. 1946)
19 Jan 1937 - 18 May 1942  Henry Bradshaw Popham              (b. 1881 - d. 1947)
                             (from 9 Jun 1938, Sir Henry Bradshaw Popham) 
18 May 1942 - 1948         Sir Arthur Francis Grimble         (b. 1888 - d. 1956)
1948 - 1953                Sir Robert Duncan Harris Arundell  (b. 1904 - d. 1989)
1953 - 1955                Edward Betham Beetham              (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
1955                       Wallace Macmillan (acting)         (b. 1913 - d. 1992)
1955 -  1 Jan 1960         Colville Montgomery Deverell       (b. 1907 - d. 1995)
                             (from 1 Jan 1957, Sir Colville Montgomery Deverell) 



Grenada


Governors

1649 - Jul/Aug 1654        Jean Le Comte                      (d. 1654)
23 Sep 1654 - 1658         Louis de Cacqueray de Valmeniére   (b. 1628 - d. 1682)
1658 - 1662                Jean III de Faudoas, comte         (b. 1600 - d. 1679) 
                             de Sérillac                      
 8 Jul 1658 -  8 Oct 1659  François de Coussé, chevalier      (d. 1659)
                             du Bu (acting for Sérillac)
1662 - 1664                Jean IV de Faudoas, seigneur
                             de Sérillac
1664 - 1670                Vincent
1671 - 1674                Louis de Canchy, sieur de Lerolle
1675 - 1679                Pierre de Sainte-Marthe, marquis   (b. c.1618 - d. 1692)
                             de la Lande
1679 - 1680                Jacques de Chambly                 (d. 1687)
1680 - 1689                Gabriel Jean Nicolas de Gabaret,   (b. 1641 - d. 1712)
                             seigneur de Saint-Sornin         
1690 - 1695                Louis Ancelin de Gemostat          (d. 1695)
1695 - 1696                Jean-Léon Fournier de Carles       (b. 1673 - d. 1748) 
                             de Pradines (1st time)(acting)
1696 - Apr 1698            de Bellair de Saint-Aignan (acting)
Apr 1698 - 19 Dec 1700     de la Hogue                        (b. 16.. - d. 1700)
1701                       Pierre Guyon, chevalier de La  
                             Rocheguyon (acting)
1701 - 1708                Joseph de Bouloc                   (b. 16.. - d. 1708)
1709 - 1710                Laurent de Valernod                (b. 16.. - d. 1711)
1711 - Jan 1716            Guillaume-Emmanuel-Théodore de     (b. 1664 - d. 1725)
                             Maupéou, comte de l'Estrange,
                             chevalier de Maupéou-Ribaudon
1716 - 1717                François de Pas de Mazencourt,
                             marquis de Feuquières 
1717 -  3 Jan 1721         Jean-Michel L'Espinay de la        (b. c.1667 - d. 1721)
                             Longueville             
1721                       Jean-Léon Fournier de Carles       (s.a.)
                             de Pradines (2nd time) (acting)
1721 - 29 Aug 1722         Jean Balthazar du Houx             (d. 1722)
1722                       Bonaventure-François de Boisfermé  (b. 1661 - d. 1722)
1723 - 1727                Robert Giraut du Poyet             (b. 1665 - d. 1740)
1727 - 1734                Charles de Brunier,                (b. 1687 - d. 1746)
                             marquis de Larnage
1734 - 1748                Jean-Léon Fournier de Carles       (s.a.)
                             de Pradines (3rd time)
1748 - 1757                Robert Philippe de Longvilliers    (b. 1671? - d. 1761)
                             de Poincy
1757 -  5 Mar 1762         Pierre François Claude Antoine de  (d. 1785)
                             Prulay de Bonvoust d'Aulnay
1762                       Robert Swanton                     (d. 1765)
1762 - Dec 1764            George Scott                       (d. 1767)
12 Dec 1764 - 1765         Robert Melville (1st time)(acting) (b. 1723 - d. 1809)
1765 - Jul 1768            Francis Gore (acting)
26 Jul 1768 -  5 Apr 1770  Ulysses FitzMaurice                (d. 1774)
 
5 Apr 1770 - 1771         Robert Melville (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1771 -  1 Nov 1771         Frederick Corsar (1st time)(acting)  
 
1 Nov 1771 - 16 Apr 1775  William L. Leybourne               (d. 1775)
Apr 1775 - May 1775        Frederick Corsar (2nd time)(acting)  
Apr 1775 - Jun 1776        William Young (acting)             (d. 1788)
Jun 1776 -  4 Jul 1779     Sir George Macartney, Baron        (b. 1737 - d. 1806)
                             Macartney
Governor-general
1779 - 1783                Jean-François, comte de Durat      (b. 1736 - d. 1830)
Governors
Jan 1784 - 31 May 1785     Edward Matthew                     (b. 1729 - d. 1805)
 1 Jun 1785 - 30 Sep 1787  William Lucas (acting)
1787 - 1788                Samuel Williams (1st time)         (b. 17.. - d. 1808/09)
                             (acting)
1788 - 1789                James Campbell (acting)            (b. 1763 - d. 1819)
1789 – Jan 1793            Samuel Williams (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                             (acting)
Lieutenant governors
Jan 1793 - Mar 1795        Ninian Home                        (b. 1732 - d. 1795)
Mar 1795 - Jun 1796        Julien Fédon (in rebellion)    
Mar 1795 - Dec 1795        Kenneth Francis Mackenzie (acting) (b. 1748 - d. 1831)
Dec 1795 - Apr 1796        Samuel Williams (acting)           (s.a.)
 6 Apr 1796 -  9 Mar 1797  Alexander Houston
10 Mar 1797 - 1798         Charles Green (1st time)           (b. 1749 - d. 1831)
1798                       Samuel Mitchell (acting)
1798 -  8 Jun 1801         Charles Green (2nd time)           (s.a.)
Jun 1801 - 1802            Samuel Dent (1st time) (acting)
Sep 1802 -  5 Nov 1802     George Vere Hobart                 (b. 1761 - d. 1802)
Jan 1803 - Mar 1803        Samuel Dent (2nd time) (acting)
Mar 1803 - 1803            Thomas Hislop                      (b. 1764 - d. 1843)
1803 -  4 Nov 1803         William Douglas MacLean Clephane   (b. 1759 - d. 1803)
 4 Nov 1803 - Jul 1805     Abraham Charles Adye (1st time)    (d. 1815)
                             (acting)
Governors
Jul 1805 - 1807            Frederick Maitland (1st time)      (b. 1763 - d. 1848) 
Nov 1807 - Jan 1808        John Harvey (1st time)(acting)
Jan 1808 - Dec 1808        Frederick Maitland (2nd time)      (s.a.)      
Dec 1808 - May 1809        Abraham Charles Adye (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
May 1809 - Jun 1809        Frederick Maitland (3rd time)      (s.a.)   
Jun 1809 - Jul 1810        Abraham Charles Adye (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
Jul 1810 - Oct 1810        Frederick Maitland (4th time)      (s.a.)   
Oct 1810 - Nov 1810        Abraham Charles Adye (4th time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
Nov 1810 - May 1811        Frederick Maitland (5th time)      (s.a.)
May 1811 - May 1812        Abraham Charles Adye (5th time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
May 1812 - 1813            George Robert Ainslie              (b. 1776 - d. 1839)
                             (vice governor)
1813 - Aug 1813            John Harvey (2nd time)(acting)
Aug 1813 - Jul 1815        Sir Charles Shipley (1st time)     (b. 1755 - d. 1815)
Jul 1815 - Sep 1815        George Paterson (1st time)(acting)
Sep 1815 - Nov 1815        Sir Charles Shipley (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Nov 1815 - Aug 1816        George Paterson (2nd time)(acting)
Aug 1816 - May 1819        Phineas Riall (1st time)           (b. 1775 - d. 1850)
May 1819 - Feb 1821        Andrew Houston (1st time)(acting)
Feb 1821 - Jun 1823        Phineas Riall (2nd time)           (s.a.)
Jun 1823 - Jan 1826        George Paterson (3rd time)(acting)
Jan 1826 - May 1829        Sir James Campbell (1st time)      (b. 1778 - d. 1835)
May 1829 - May 1830        Andrew Houston (2nd time)(acting)
May 1830 - Jun 1831        Sir James Campbell (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Jun 1831 - Jul 1831        Felix Palmer (acting)
Jul 1831 - 1833            Sir James Campbell (3rd time)      (s.a.)
Lieutenant governors
May 1833 - Jul 1835        George Middlemore                  (d. 1850)
Jul 1835 - 1836            John Hastings Mair                 (b. 1790 - d. 1836)
Mar 1836 - Aug 1836        John Berkeley (acting)
Aug 1836 - 1841            Carlo Joseph Doyle (1st time)      (b. 1787 - d. 1848)
1841                       Matthew Davies (acting)
1841 - 1845                Carlo Joseph Doyle (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1845 - 1846                F.Y. Checkley (1st time)(acting)
Dec 1846 - 1853            Ker Baillie Hamilton               (b. 1804 - d. 1889)
1853 - 1855                Robert William Keate               (b. 1814 - d. 1873)
1855 - 1856                F.Y. Checkley (2nd time)(acting)
1856 - 1857                James Walker (acting)
1857 - 1864                Cornelius Hendricksen Kortright    (b. 1817 - d. 1899)
1864 - 1871                Robert Miller Mundy                (b. 1813 - d. 1892)
1871                       Edward Laborde (1st time)(acting)
1871 - 1875                Sanford Freeling                   (b. 1828 - d. 1894)
1875                       Edward Laborde (2nd time)(acting)
1875 - 1877                Cyril Clerke Graham                (b. 1834 - d. 1895)
24 Sep 1877 - Sep 1881     Robert William Harley (1st time)   (b. 1829 - d. 1892)
1878 - 1879                Thomas Kerr (acting for Harley)
Sep 1881 - Jan 1882        Irwin Charles Maling (acting)      (b. 1841 - d. 1918)
Jan 1882 - Mar 1882        Robert William Harley (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Administrators
Mar 1882 - Nov 1882        Irwin Charles Maling (1st time)    (s.a.)
Nov 1882 - Apr 1883        Roger Tuckfield Goldsworthy        (b. 1839 - d. 1900)
Apr 1883 - Sep 1886        Edward Daniel Laborde (1st time)   (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
Sep 1886 - May 1887        Irwin Charles Maling (2nd time)    (s.a.)
May 1887 - May 1888        Henry Rawlins Pipon Schooles       (b. 1850 - d. 1913)
                             (1st time)
Jun 1888 - Dec 1888        John Elliott
Dec 1888 - Jan 1889        R.B. Llewelyn (1st time)
Jan 1889 - Nov 1889        Edward Daniel Laborde (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Nov 1889 - Sep 1890        R.B. Llewelyn (2nd time)
Sep 1890 - Nov 1890        Lawrence R. Fyfe
Nov 1890 - 1891            Edward Rawle Drayton (1st time)    (b. 1859 - d. 1927)
1891 - Aug 1892            Henry Rawlins Pipon Schooles       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Aug 1892 - 1915            Edward Rawle Drayton (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Sep 1915 - Oct 1915        Edward Daniel Laborde (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
1915 - 1930                Herbert Ferguson                   (b. 1874 - d. 1953)
1930 - 1935                Hilary Rudolph Robert Blood        (b. 1893 - d. 1967)
1935 - 1940                William Leslie Heape               (b. 1896 - d. 1972)
1940 - 1942                Charles Henry Vincent Talbot       (b. 1902 - d. 19..)
1942 - 1951                George Conrad Green                (b. 1897 - d. 1976)
1951 - 1957                Wallace Macmillan                  (b. 1913 - d. 1992)
1957 - 1962                James Monteith Lloyd               (b. 1911 - d. 1995)
1962 - 1964                Lionel Achille Pinard              (b. 1912)
1964 - 1967                Ian Graham Turbott                 (b. 1922)
Governors
1967 - 1968                Ian Graham Turbott                 (s.a.)
Jun 1968 - 21 Jan 1974     Hilda Louise Bynoe (f)             (b. 1921 - d. 2013)
                             (from 1 Jan 1969, Dame Hilda Louise Bynoe)
24 Jan 1974 -  7 Feb 1974  Leo Victor de Gale (acting)        (b. 1921 - d. 1986)
Queen¹
 7 Feb 1974 -              the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 7 Feb 1974 -  4 Oct 1978  Leo Victor de Gale                 (s.a.)
                             (from 12 Feb 1974, Sir Leo Victor de Gale)            
 4 Oct 1978 - 31 Jul 1992  Paul Scoon                         (b. 1935 - d. 2013)
                             (from 8 Mar 1979, Sir Paul N. Scoon) 
                             (prevented from exercising functions 20-25 Oct 1983)
31 Jul 1992 -  8 Aug 1996  Reginald Oswald Palmer             (b. 1923)
                             (from 6 Sep 1992, Sir Reginald Oswald Palmer)
                             (acting to 6 Aug 1992)
 8 Aug 1996 - 18 Nov 2008  Daniel Charles Williams            (b. 1935)
                             (from 9 Aug 1996, Sir Daniel Charles Williams)
18 Nov 2008 - 27 Nov 2008  Vacant
27 Nov 2008 -  3 May 2013  Sir Carlyle Arnold Glean           (b. 1932)
 3 May 2013 -  7 May 2013  Lawrence Joseph (acting)           (b. 1944)
 7 May 2013 -              Cécile Ellen Fleurette La
                             Grenade (f)                      (b. 1952)

                             (from 14 May 2013, Dame Cécile Ellen Fleurette La Grenade)

Chief ministers
1954 - 1956                Eric Matthew Gairy (1st time)      (b. 1922 - d. 1997)  GULP
1958 - Jan 1960            Eric Matthew Gairy (2nd time)      (s.a.)               GULP
Jan 1960 -  6 Apr 1961     Herbert Augustus Blaize (1st time) (b. 1918 - d. 1989)  GNP
 6 Apr 1961 - Aug 1961     George Elliott Dunbar Clyne        (b. .... - d. 1984)  GULP
Aug 1961 - 19 Jun 1962     Eric Matthew Gairy (3rd time)      (s.a.)               GULP
Sep 1962 - Aug 1967        Herbert Augustus Blaize (2nd time) (s.a.)               GNP
Prime ministers
Aug 1967 - 13 Mar 1979     Eric Matthew Gairy                 (s.a.)               GULP
                             (from 11 Jun 1977, Sir Eric Matthew Gairy)
13 Mar 1979 - 19 Oct 1983  Maurice Rupert Bishop2             (b. 1944 - d. 1983)  NJ
                             (de facto deposed 14 Oct 1983)
26 Sep 1983 -  8 Oct 1983  Bernard Coard (acting for Bishop)  (b. 1944)            NJ
19 Oct 1983 - 25 Oct 1983  Hudson Austin                      (b. 1938)            Mil
                             (head of Revolutionary Military Council)
 9 Dec 1983 -  4 Dec 1984  Nicholas Alexander Brathwaite      (b. 1925)            NDC
                             (chairman interim advisory council
                             [acting to 9 Dec 1983]) (1st time)
 4 Dec 1984 - 19 Dec 1989  Herbert Augustus Blaize            (s.a.)               NNP
20 Dec 1989 - 16 Mar 1990  Ben Joseph Jones                   (b. 1924 - d. 2005)  NNP
16 Mar 1990 -  1 Feb 1995  Nicholas Alexander Brathwaite      (s.a.)               NDC
                             (2nd time)
 1 Feb 1995 - 22 Jun 1995  George Ignatius Brizan             (b. 1942 - d. 2012)  NDC
22 Jun 1995 -  9 Jul 2008  Keith Claudius Mitchell (1st time) (b. 1946)            NNP
 9 Jul 2008 - 20 Feb 2013  Tillman Joseph Thomas              (b. 1945)            NDC
20 Feb 2013 -              Keith Claudius Mitchell (2nd time) (s.a.)               NNP


Commander of U.S. and East Caribbean Forces
25 Oct 1983 -  9 Dec 1983  Joseph "Joe" Metcalf III (U.S.)    (b. 1927 - d. 2007)

 ¹The style:
(a) 7 Feb 1974 - 1974: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of The Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(b) from 1974: "By the Grace of God, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Grenada and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

 2an attempt to overthrow Bishop was launched by Bernard Coard (s.a.) on 14 Oct 1983, Bishop's supporters resisted, during this chaotic period no one was clearly in charge. Coard was toppled by the army under Hudson Austin (s.a.) before 19 Oct 1983.

Party abbreviations: GULP = Grenada United Labor Party (democratic socialist, authoritarian in 1972-1979, est.1950); NDC = National Democratic Congress (liberal, center-left, est.1987); NNP = New National Party (conservative, center-right, est.1984); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: GNP = Grenada National Party (conservative, merged into NNP, 1955-1984); NJ = New JEWEL Movement (New Joint Endeavour for Welfare, Education, and Liberation "New Jewel", Marxist-Lenninist, 1979-1983)






© Ben Cahoon