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Venezuela
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                   to 4 Jul 1811;
             25 Jul 1812 - 1 Jun 1816
 
[Venezuela Flag of Junta of
                                    Defense 1810-1811]
            3 May 1810 - 4 Jul 1811 
            Flag of the Junta of Defense
 
[Venezuela flag
                                    1811-1812,1813-1814]
              4 Jul 1811 - 25 Jun 1812;
              8 Aug 1813 - 8 Sep 1814 
 
[Flag
                                    of Venezuela 1817-1819]
           12 May 1817 - 17 Dec 1819
 
[Great
                                    Colombia Federal Republic
                                    (1819-1834)]
            17 Dec 1819 - 14 Oct 1830
 
[Venezuela state flag
                                    1830-1836]
           14 Oct 1830 - 20 Apr 1836
 
[Venezuela state flag
                                    1836-1863]
            20 Apr 1836 - 25 Feb 1859;
            15 Jun 1859 - 29 Jul 1863
 
[Venezuela state flag 1859]
            25 Feb 1859 - 15 Jun 1859
 
 
[Venezuela civil ensign
                                    1863-1905]
            29 Jul 1863 - 28 Mar 1905
 
 
[Venezuela state flag
                                    1905-1930]
            28 Mar 1905 - 15 Jul 1930
 
[Venezuela state flag
                                    1930-2006]
            15 Jul 1930 - 7 Mar 2006
 
[Venezuela
                                    state flag]
                Adopted 7 Mar 2006
 
Map of Venezuela Hear National Anthem
"Gloria al bravo pueblo"
 (Glory to the Brave Nation)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 25 May 1881
(unofficially from 1811)
Constitution
 (30 Dec 1999; in Spanish)
Capital: Caracas
(Santa Ana de Coro

1527 - 25 Jul 1576)
Currency: Bolivar Fuerte (VEF);
 Bolivar (VEB) 1871-1 Jan 2008;
1857-87 Venezuela Venezolano
(VEV); 1830-1857 Venezuela
 Peso  (VEP)
National Holiday:  5 Jul (1811)
Independence Day
Population: 28,459,085 (2013)
GDP: $407.4 billion (2013) Exports: $91.7 billion (2013)
Imports: $59.3 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: mestizo 63.7%, local white 20%, black 10%,
other white 3.3%, Amerindian 1.3%, other 1.7% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 115,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 53 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 84.5%, Protestant 4%,
 
non-religious and other 11.5% (2005) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS, ACTO, AL (observer), ANT, APM, BTWC, CAP (observer), Caricom (observer), CDB, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-3, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA (observer), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAIA, LAP, LU, Mercosur, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, SEGIB, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Venezuela
Index
Chronology

24 Aug 1499                Discovered and claimed for Spain by Amerigo
                             Vespucci and Alonso de Ojeda.
1527                       Province of Venezuela colonized by Spain,  
                             subordinated to colony of Santo Domingo
                             (see Dominican Republic).
27 Mar 1528 - 1557         Granted to the Welser Bavarian banking house;
                             Spanish resume de facto rule in 1546.
25 Jul 1567                Santiago de Léon de Caracas founded
27 May 1717 - 11 May 1724  Subordinated to Nueva Granada (see Colombia).
11 May 1724 - 20 Aug 1739  Subordinated to Santo Domingo.
20 Aug 1739 -  8 Sep 1777  Subordinated to Nueva Granada.
 2 Dec 1742                Province of Venezuela part of Nueva Granada
                             (see Colombia); but under the audiencia
                             of Santo Domingo to 1786.
 8 Sep 1777                Separate Captaincy-general of Venezuela (incl.
                             Nueva Andalucía, Guyana, Venezuela province, 
                             Mérida-La Grita, and Trinidad).
31 Jul 1786                Audiencia of Caracas established.
18 Feb 1797                Province of Trinidad seized by Britain (ceded 
                             to Britain 1802)(see Trinidad and Tobago).
19 Apr 1810                Local junta, acting nominally in favor of deposed
                             King Fernando VII dethroned by Napoleon, depose
                             the viceroy.
14 Jul 1811                Independence (United States of Venezuela, also
                             styled Venezuelan Confederation, or United 
                             Provinces of Venezuela, or, from 3 Apr 1812,
                             the American Confederation of Venezuela
                             on the Southern Continent).
25 Jul 1812                Reconquest by Spain.
 8 Aug 1813 -  8 Sep 1814  Insurrectional government (United States of
                             Venezuela).
 7 May 1816                Renewed independence (Republic of Venezuela).
17 Dec 1819                Incorporation into Great Colombia (see Colombia)
                             (Department of Venezuela).
13 Jan 1830                Independence from Great Colombia
                             (State of Venezuela [style continues in some
                             official use to 20 Jan 1835]).
24 Oct 1830                Republic of Venezuela
 3 May 1864                United States of Venezuela
15 Apr 1953                Republic of Venezuela
30 Dec 1999                Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
12 Apr 2002                Republic of Venezuela 
13 Apr 2002                Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

States
(from 1989)
Aves Island
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Governors
17 Nov 1527 - 24 Feb 1529  Juan Martínez de Ampíes            (d. 1533)
24 Feb 1529 - Aug 1529     Ambrosio de Alfinger (1st time)    (b. 1500? - d. 1533)
                             (Ambrosius Dalfigner)      
Aug 1529 - 18 Apr 1530     Luis Sarmiento (acting)
18 Apr 1530 -  3 May 1530  Hans Seissenhoffer ("Juan Alemán") (d. 1532)
                             (acting)
 3 May 1530 -  1 Aug 1530  Ambrosio de Alfinger (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1530 - 12 Sep 1530  Nicolás Federman (acting)          (b. 1506 - d. 1542)
                             (Nicolaus Federmann der Jüngere)
27 Jan 1531 - 12 Jun 1531  Ambrosio de Alfinger (3rd time)    (s.a.) 
12 Jun 1531 -  2 Nov 1533  Bartolomé de Santillana (acting)
 2 Nov 1533 - 1534         Francisco Gallegos
                           + Pedro de San Martín
                           (alcaldes)
1534 -  1 Jan 1535         Rodrigo de Bastidas (1st time)
                             (interim)
 1 Jan 1535 -  6 Feb 1535  Alonso Vásquez de Acuña (acting)
 6 Feb 1535 - 11 Jun 1540  Jorge de Espira                    (b. 1500? - d. 1540)
                             (Georg Hohermuth von Speyer)  
1535 -  1 Jan 1537         Francisco Venegas
                             (acting for Espira)
 1 Jan 1537 - 6 Jul 1537   Pedro de Cuevas
                             (acting for Espira)
 6 Jul 1637 - 27 May 1538  Antonio Navarro (acting for Espira)
1539 -  7 Dec 1540         Juan de Villegas 
                             (acting for Espira to 11 Jun 1540)
 7 Dec 1540 -  2 Jan 1542  Rodrigo de Bastidas (2nd time)
                             (interim)
 2 Jan 1542 - 1543?        Diego de Buiza (acting)
Jan? 1543 - Sep 1544       Enrique Rembold (Heinrich Remboldt) 
                             (acting)
Sep 1544 -  1 Jan 1545     Bernardino Manso
                           + Juan de Bonilla
                           (alcaldes)
 1 Jan 1545 - Jan? 1546    Juan de Carvajal (interim)
Jan? 1546 -  9 Jun 1546    Juan de Frías (acting)
 9 Jun 1546 - Dec 1548     Juan Pérez de Tolosa               (d. 1548)
Dec 1548 - 14 Jul 1549     Alcaldes
14 Jul 1549 - 12 Jun 1553  Juan Ruíz de Villegas y Maldonado  (b. 1509 - d. 1553)
                             (interim) 
12 Jun 1553 - 1557         Alonso Arias de Villasinda   
1557 -  7 Jun 1558         Alcaldes
 7 Jun 1558 -  2 Aug 1559  Gutiérrez de la Peña Langayo
                             (interim) 
 2 Aug 1559 - Nov 1561     Pablo Collado
Nov 1561 -  3 Sep 1562     Alonso Bernáldez de Quirós
                             (1st time)
 3 Sep 1562 - 23 Jun 1563  Alonso Pérez de Manzanedo          (d. 1563)
23 Jun 1563 -  1 Jan 1564  Alcaldes
 1 Jan 1564 - 12 May 1566  Alonso Bernáldez de Quirós
                             (2nd time)(acting)
12 May 1566 - 23 May 1569  Pedro Ponce de León y Riquelme     (d. 1584)
23 May 1569 - 20 Dec 1569  Alcaldes
20 Dec 1569 -  5 Dec 1570  Francisco Hernández de Cháves
                             (interim)
 5 Dec 1570 - Mar/Apr 1576 Diego de Mazariegos 
Mar/Apr 1576 -  8 May 1576 Alcaldes
 8 May 1576 - 10 Nov 1583  Juan de Pimentel
10 Nov 1583 - Nov 1589     Luis Rojas y Mendoza
Nov 1589 - 13 Jun 1596     Diego de Osorio Villegas           (d. 1600)
13 Jun 1596 -  7 Apr 1597  Alcaldes
 7 Apr 1597 - 15 Apr 1600  Gonzalo de Piña y Ludueña          (b. 1545 - d. 1600)
15 Apr 1600 - 18 Sep 1600  Diego Vásquez de Escobedo
                           + Juan Martínez de Villela
                           (alcaldes)
18 Sep 1600 - Jul? 1602    Alonso Arias Vaca (interim)
Jul? 1602 -  6? Jul 1603   Alonso Suárez del Castillo
 6 Jul 1603 - 27 Oct 1603  Tomás de Aguirre y Gresala
                           + Rodrigo de León
                           (alcaldes)
27 Oct 1603 -  7 Feb 1606  Francisco Mejía de Godoy
 7 Feb 1606 -  1 Jun 1611  Sancho de Alquiza
 1 Jun 1611 - 15 Jun 1616  García Girón de Loayza
15 Jun 1616 - 14 Jul 1621  Francisco de la Hoz Berrio y Oruña (d. 1622)
14 Jul 1621 - 10 Apr 1623  Juan Tribiño Guillamas             (d. 1623)
10 Apr 1623 - 12 Sep 1623  Alonso Félix de Aguilar (1st time)
                           + Alonso Rodríguez Santos (1st time)
                           (alcaldes)
12 Sep 1623 - 31 Dec 1623  Diego Gil de la Sierpa (interim)
31 Dec 1623 - 30 May 1624  Alonso Félix de Aguilar (2nd time)
                           + Alonso Rodríguez Santos (2nd time)
                             (to 1 Jan 1624)
                           + Nicolás de Peñalosa
                             (from 1 Jan 1624)
                           (alcaldes)
30 May 1624 - 19 Jun 1630  Juan Manuel de Meneses y Padilla,  (b. c.1595 - d. 1645)
                             marqués de Marianela
19 Jun 1630 - 28 Oct 1637  Pedro Núñez Melián                 (d. 1644)
28 Oct 1637 - 29 Feb 1644  Ruy Fernández de Fuenmayor
29 Feb 1644 - 24 Apr 1649  Marcos Gedler Calatayud y Toledo
24 Apr 1649 - 14 Jul 1651  Pedro de León Villarroel           (d. 1651)
Alcaldes
14 Jul 1651 -  1 Jan 1652  Bernabé Loreto de Silva
                           + Juan del Corro
 1 Jan 1652 - 13 May 1652  Agustín Gutiérrez de Lugo
                           + Tomás de Aguirre y Gresala
13 May 1652 - 29? Dec 1653 Diego Francisco de Quero y Figueroa
                             (acting)
29? Dec 1653 - 1 Jan 1654  Gonzalo de los Ríos Almendáriz
                           + Melchor de la Riva Herrera
 1 Jan 1654 - 14 Jun 1654  Luis Arias Altamirano
                           + Pedro Hurtado de Monasterios  
Governors

14 Jun 1654 - 20 Oct 1655  Martín de Robles Villafañe         (d. 1663)
20 Oct 1655 -  1 Jan 1656  Lorenzo de Ponte
                           + Juan Sáenz de la Varguilla
                           (alcaldes)
 1 Jan 1656 - 15 May 1656  Lázaro Vásquez de Rojas
                           + Ortuño de Tovar Bañes
                           (alcaldes)
15 May 1656 - 22 Jul 1656  Rodrigo de Bastidas y Peñalosa
22 Jul 1656 - 25 Jul 1658  Andrés de Vera y Moscoso (interim) 
25 Jul 1658 - 20 Dec 1664  Pedro de Porres Toledo y
                             Vosmediana, conde de Dabois,
                             vizconde de Booyo
20 Dec 1664 -  9 Oct 1669  Félix Garci-González de León
 9 Oct 1669 - 11 Sep 1673  Fernando de Villegas
11 Sep 1673 - 13 Sep 1674  Francisco Dávila Orejón y Gastón   (d. 1674)
13 Sep 1674 -  1 Jan 1675  Pedro Jaspe de Montenegro
                           + Diego Fernández de Araujo  
                           (alcaldes)
 1 Jan 1675 -  1 Jan 1677  Manuel Felipe de Tovar Bañes
                           + Domingo Galindo y Sayas
                           (alcaldes)
 1 Jan 1677 - 13 Jul 1677  Pedro Ruiz de Arguinzonis y Laris
                            (from 10 Jan 1677)
                           + Nuño Rodríguez de Freitas
                           (alcaldes)
13 Jul 1677 - 22 Dec 1682  Francisco de Alberró
22 Dec 1682 - 19 Mar 1688  Diego de Melo Maldonaldo
19 Mar 1688 - 19 May 1692  Diego Jiménez de Enziso, marqués   (b. 1658 - d. ....)
                             de Casal de los Griegos
19 May 1692 - 23 Dec 1693  Diego Bartolomé Bravo de Anaya
23 Dec 1693 -  9 Apr 1699  Francisco de Berrotarán y Gainza   (b. c.1661 - d. 1713)
                             (1st time)
 9 Apr 1699 - 17 Nov 1704  Nicolás Eugenio de Ponte y Hoyo    (b. 1667 - d. 1705)
17 Nov 1704 - 21 Nov 1704  Felipe Rodríguez de la Madríz
                           + Francisco Alonso Gil
                           (alcaldes)
21 Nov 1705 -  8 May 1706  Francisco de Berrotarán y Gainza,  (s.a.)
                             marqués del Valle de Santiago 
                             (2nd time)(interim)
 8 May 1706 -  6 Jul 1711  Fernando de Rojas y Mendoza        (d. 1711)
 6 Jul 1711 - 22 Sep 1714  José Francisco de Cañas y Merino   (b. 1671 - d. 17..)
22 Sep 1714 -  1 Jan 1715  Antonio de Ascanio
                           + Juan Luis Arias Altamirano y Aragón
                           (alcaldes)
 1 Jan 1715 - 13 Jan 1715  Francisco Felipe de Solórzano,
                             marqués de Mijares
                           + Juan Julián de Ibarra
                           (alcaldes)
13 Jan 1715 -  4 Jul 1716  Alberto Bertodano y Navarra (interim)
 4 Jul 1716 -  7 Nov 1720  Marcos Francisco de Betancourt y
                             Castro
 7 Nov 1720 -  1 Jan 1721  Antonio Blanco Infante (1st time)
                           + Mateo Gedler
                           (alcaldes)
 1 Jan 1721 -  4 May 1721  Alejandro Blanco de Villegas
                           + Juan de Bolívar y Villegas
                           (alcaldes)
 4 May 1721 - 11 Dec 1721  Antonio José Álvarez de Abreu,
                             marqués de Regalia (acting)
11 Dec 1721 - 21 Mar 1723  Diego de Portales y Meneses
                             (1st time)
21 Mar 1723 - Nov 1723     Miguel de Ascanio
                           + Juan Blanco Infante (2nd time)
Nov 1723 - 24 Feb 1724     Diego de Portales y Meneses
                             (2nd time)
24 Feb 1724 -  1 Jan 1725  Francisco Carlos de Herrera
                           + Ruy Fernández de Fuenmayor
                           (alcaldes)
 1 Jan 1725 - 25 Jun 1726  Gerónimo de Rada
                           + Miguel Rengifo Pimentel
                           (alcaldes)
25 Jun 1726 - 15 Jul 1726  Domingo Antonio de Tovar
                           + Diego Antonio de Liendo y Blanco
                           (alcaldes)
15 Jul 1726 - 29 Jun 1728  Diego de Portales y Meneses
                             (3rd time)
29 Jun 1728 - 31 Aug 1730  Lope Carrillo de Andrade Sotomayor
                             y Pimentel
31 Aug 1730 - 15 Dec 1732  Sebastián García de la Torre
15 Dec 1732 -  6 Oct 1737  Martín de Lardizábal y Elorza
 6 Oct 1737 - 12 Jun 1747  Gabriel José de Zuloaga y Moyúa,   (b. 1684 - d. 1764)
                             conde de al Torre Alta
12 Jun 1747 -  1 Dec 1749  Luis Francisco de Castellanos
 1 Dec 1749 - 22 Jun 1751  Fray  Julián de Arriaga y Rivera   (b. 1700 - d. 1776)
22 Jun 1751 -  9 Sep 1757  Felipe Ricardos
 9 Sep 1757 - 12 Nov 1763  Felipe Ramírez de Estenoz          (b. 1728 - d. 1764)
12 Nov 1763 -  4 Apr 1771  José Solano y Bote,                (b. 1726 - d. 1806) 
                             marqués del Socorro
 4 Apr 1771 - 21 Oct 1771  Felipe de Font de Viela y Ondiano,
                             marqués de la Torre
21 Oct 1771 - 25 Feb 1772  Francisco de Arce
25 Feb 1772 - 17 Jun 1777  José Carlos de Agüero
17 Jun 1777 -  8 Sep 1777  Luis de Unzaga y Amézaga           (b. 1721 - d. 1790)
Governors and Captains-general
 8 Sep 1777 - 10 Dec 1782  Luis de Unzaga y Amézaga           (s.a.)
10 Dec 1782 - 24 Dec 1782  Pedro de Nava (acting)
24 Dec 1782 - 14 Feb 1786  Manuel González de Aguilar Torres
                             de Navarra
14 Feb 1786 -  1 Oct 1792  Juan José de Guillelmi y Andrada-  (b. 1744 - d. 1792)
                             Vanderwilde
 1 Oct 1792 - 10 Jan 1799  Pedro Carbonell Pinto Vigo y       (b. 1720 - d. 1805)   
                             Correa
10 Jan 1799 -  6 Apr 1799  Joaquín de Subillaga (acting)
 6 Apr 1799 -  9 Oct 1807  Manuel de Guevara y Vasconcelos    (b. 1740 - d. 1807)
 9 Oct 1807 - 19 May 1809  Juan de Casas y Barrera (acting)   (b. 1740 - d. c.1810)
19 May 1809 - 19 Apr 1810  Vicente de Emparan y Orbe          (b. 1747 - d. 1820)
19 Apr 1810 - 22 Jun 1812  Fernando Miyares y Gonzáles        (b. 1749 - d. 1818)
 3 Sep 1812 - 28 Dec 1813  Juan Domingo de Monteverde         (b. 1772 - d. 1832)
28 Dec 1813 - 14 Aug 1814  Juan Manuel Cajigal y Niño         (b. 1754 - d. 1823)
14 Aug 1814 -  1 Dec 1814  José Tomás Boves Rodríguez         (b. 1782 - d. 1814)
 1 Dec 1815 -  1 Dec 1820  Pablo Morillo y Morillo            (b. 1775 - d. 1837)
 1 Dec 1820 - 24 Jun 1821  Miguel de La Torre y Pando         (b. 1786 - d. 1843)
24 Jun 1821 -  3 Aug 1823  Francisco Tomás Morales (nominal)  (b. 1791 - d. 1844)
Presidents of Junta in Defense of the Rule of Fernando VII (later, Revolutionary Junta)

19 Apr 1810 - Aug 1810     José de las Llamosas
Aug 1810 -  2 Mar 1811     Martín Tovar Ponte                 (b. 1772 - d. 1843)
President of the General Congress of the United Provinces of Venezuela
 2 Mar 1811 - 28 Mar 1811  Felipe Fermín Paúl                 (b. 1777 - d. 1843)
Supreme Executive Power (president rotating weekly)
28 Mar 1811 -  3 Apr 1812  First Triumvirate¹
                           - José Cristóbal Hurtado de        (b. 1772 - d. 1829)
                               Mendoza y Montilla 
                           - Juan de Escalona y Ruiz de       (b. 1768 - d. 1833)
                               Arguinzones
                           - Baltasar Padrón                  (b. 17.. - d. 1817)
 3 Apr 1812 - 19 May 1812  Second Triumvirate (provisional) 
                           (continuing nominally to 25 Jul 1812)
                           - Francisco Javier Mayz y Márquez  (b. 1766 - d. 1833)
                               de Valenzuela (to Apr 1812)
                           - Fernando Rodríguez del Toro e    (b. 1772 - d. 1822)
                               Ibarra (from Apr 1812)
                           - Juan Germán Roscio Nieves        (b. 1763 - d. 1821)
                               (from Apr 1812)
                           - Francisco Javier de Ustáriz y    (b. 1772 - d. 1814)
                               Mijares de Solórzano
                           - Francisco Silvestre Espejo       (b. 1758 - d. 1814)
                               Caamaño
Generals-in-Chief
19 May 1812 - 25 Jul 1812  Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y   (b. 1750 - d. 1816)
                             Rodríguez 
 8 Aug 1813 - 14 Oct 1813  Simón José Antonio de la Santísima (b. 1783 - d. 1830)
                             Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios
Liberator
14 Oct 1813 -  8 Sep 1814  Simón José Antonio de la Santísima (s.a.)
                             Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios 
Supreme Chief
 7 May 1816 - 15 Feb 1819  Simón José Antonio de la Santísima (s.a.)
                             Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios 
 9 May 1817 - 31 May 1817  Abortive attempt at restoring the 
                           United States of Venezuela and its
                           Supreme Executive Power (in dissidence)
                           - Francisco Javier Mayz y          (s.a.)
                               Márquez de Valenzuela
                           - Juan Francisco Antonio           (b. 1766 - d. 1822)
                               Hilarión Zea y Díaz
                             (alternate to Bolívar [s.a.], who did not accept office)
                           - José Joaquín Cortés de           (b. 1766 - d. 1826)
                               Madariaga y Lecuna  
                             (alternate to del Toro [s.a.], who did not take office)
Presidents
15 Feb 1819                Francisco Antonio Hilarión Zea y   (s.a.)
                             Díaz (acting)
15 Feb 1819 - 17 Dec 1819  Simón José Antonio de la Santísima (s.a.)               Mil
                             Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios 
                             (acting to 17 Feb 1819)
13 Jan 1830 - 20 Jan 1835  José Antonio Páez Herrera          (b. 1790 - d. 1873)  PC
                             (1st time)(Chief of State to 27 May 1830,
                             President of the State to 11 Apr 1831)
20 Jan 1835 -  9 Feb 1835  Andrés Narvarte Pimentel (1st time)(b. 1781 - d. 1853)  PC
                             (acting)
 9 Feb 1835 -  8 Jul 1835  José María de los Dolores Vargas   (b. 1786 - d. 1854)  PC
                             Ponce (1st time)
 8 Jul 1835 - 13 Jul 1835  Pedro Briceño Méndez (provisional) (b. 1792 - d. 1835)  PC
13 Jul 1835 - 28 Jul 1835  Santiago Mariño Carige             (b. 1788 - d. 1854)  PC
                             (Superior Chief of State) 
28 Jul 1835 - 20 Aug 1835  José María Carreño Blanco          (b. 1792 - d. 1849)  PC
                             (1st time) (acting) 
20 Aug 1835 - 24 Apr 1836  José María de los Dolores Vargas   (s.a.)               PC
                             Ponce (2nd time) 
24 Apr 1836 - 20 Jan 1837  Andrés Narvarte Pimentel           (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time) (acting)
20 Jan 1837 - 11 Mar 1837  José María Carreño Blanco          (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time) (acting)
11 Mar 1837 -  1 Feb 1839  Carlos Valentín José de la Soledad (b. 1789 - d. 1870)  PC
                             Antonio del Sacramento Soublette
                             y Jerez de Aristeguieta 
                             (1st time) (acting) 
 1 Feb 1839 - 20 Jan 1843  José Antonio Páez Herrera          (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time)
20 Jan 1843 - 28 Jan 1843  Santos Michelena y Rojas Queipo    (b. 1797 - d. 1848)  PC
                             (acting)
28 Jan 1843 - 20 Jan 1847  Carlos Valentín José de la Soledad (s.a.)               PC
                             Antonio del Sacramento Soublette  
                             y Jerez de Aristeguieta 
                             (acting) (2nd time)
20 Jan 1847 -  1 Mar 1847  Diego Bautista García de Urbaneja  (b. 1782 - d. 1856)  PL
                             y Sturdy (acting)
 1 Mar 1847 - 20 Jan 1851  José Tadeo Monagas Burgos          (b. 1784 - d. 1868)  PC
                             (1st time)
20 Jan 1851 -  5 Feb 1851  Antonio Leocadio Guzmán García     (b. 1801 - d. 1884)  PL
                             (acting) 
 5 Feb 1851 - 20 Jan 1855  José Gregorio Monagas Burgos       (b. 1795 - d. 1858)  PL
20 Jan 1855 - 31 Jan 1855  Joaquín Herrera y Valdés (acting)  (b. 1813 - d. 1884)  PL 
31 Jan 1855 - 15 Mar 1858  José Tadeo Monagas Burgos          (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
15 Mar 1858 - 18 Mar 1858  Pedro José Ramón Gual Escandón     (b. 1783 - d. 1862)  Non-party
                             (1st time)(President of Provisional Government)
18 Mar 1858 -  2 Aug 1859  Julián Castro Contreras            (b. 1805 - d. 1875)  PL
                            (Supreme Chief of Liberating Army to 26 Jul 1858,
                             Provisional Chief of State 26 Jul 1858 - 5 Jan 1859,
                             then interim president)
 1 Aug 1859 - 1859         Juan Crisóstomo Falcón y Zavarce   (b. 1820 - d. 1870)  PL
                             (1st time)(Supreme Chief, in rebellion) 
 2 Aug 1859 - 29 Sep 1859  Pedro José Ramón Gual Escandón     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time) (acting)
29 Sep 1859 - 20 May 1861  Manuel Felipe de Tovar y de Tovar  (b. 1803 - d. 1866)  PC
                             (acting; interim to 12 Apr 1860)
21 May 1861 - 10 Sep 1861  Pedro José Gual Escandón (3rd time)(s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting)
10 Sep 1861 - 17 Jun 1863  José Antonio Páez Herrera          (s.a.)               PC
                             (Supreme Chief) (3rd time)
17 Jun 1863 - 24 Jul 1863  Antonio Leocadio Guzmán Blanco     (b. 1829 - d. 1899)  PL
                             (1st time) (acting) 
24 Jul 1863 - 18 Mar 1865  Juan Crisóstomo Falcón y Zavarce   (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time)(provisional [in rebellion from 22 May 1863])
18 Mar 1865 -  7 Jun 1865  Antonio Leocadio Guzmán Blanco     (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 7 Jun 1865 - 27 Jun 1868  Juan Crisóstomo Falcón y Zavarce   (s.a.)               PL
                             (3rd time) 
27 Jun 1868 - 28 Jun 1868  José Tadeo Monagas Burgos          (s.a.)               PL
                             (3rd time)(General-in-Chief of Armies of the Revolution)
28 Jun 1868 -  8 Mar 1869  Guillermo Tell Villegas (1st time) (b. 1823 - d. 1907)  PL
                             (president of the National Executive; 
                             acting president from 22 Feb 1869)
 8 Mar 1869 - 20 Mar 1870  José Ruperto Saturnino Monagas     (b. 1831 - d. 1880)  Mil
                             Oriach (acting) 
20 Mar 1870 - 11 Apr 1870  Juan Vicente González Delgado      (b. 1825 - d. 1902)  Non-party
                             (acting) 
11 Apr 1870 - 27 Apr 1870  Esteban de Palacios y Vegas        (b. 1835 - d. 1876)  Non-party
                             (acting)
27 Apr 1870 - 20 Feb 1877  Antonio Leocadio Guzmán Blanco     (s.a.)               PL
                            (3rd time)(General-in-Chief to 22 Jul 1870,
                             provisional to 27 Apr 1873)
21 Feb 1877 -  2 Mar 1877  Jacinto Gutiérrez y Martínez de    (b. 1808 - d. 1884)  PL
                             Alemán (1st time) (acting) 
 2 Mar 1877 - 30 Nov 1878  Francisco de Paula Linares         (b. 1825 - d. 1878)  PL
                             Alcántara
30 Nov 1878 -  1 Jan 1879  Jacinto Gutiérrez y Martínez de    (s.a.)               PL
                             Alemán (2nd time) (acting) 
 1 Jan 1879 - 13 Feb 1879  José Gregorio Valera Linares                            PL 
                             (acting)
13 Feb 1879 - 26 Feb 1879  José Gregorio Cedeño               (b. 1830 - d. 1891)  PL
                             (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 29 Dec 1878])
26 Feb 1879 -  8 May 1879  Antonio Leocadio Guzmán Blanco     (s.a.)               PL
                             (4th time)(Supreme Director)
 8 May 1879 - 12 May 1879  José Rafael Pacheco Rodríguez      (b. 1829 - d. 1884)  PL
                             (acting) 
12 May 1879 - 27 Apr 1884  Antonio Leocadio Guzmán Blanco     (s.a.)               PL
                             (5th time)(provisional to 17 Mar 1880)
27 Apr 1884 - 27 Apr 1886  Joaquín Sinforiano de Jesús Crespo (b. 1841 - d. 1898)  PL
                             Torres (1st time) 
27 Apr 1886 - 15 Sep 1886  Manuel Antonio Díez y López de     (b. 1838 - d. 1916)  PL
                             Umérez (acting)
15 Sep 1886 -  5 Jul 1888  Antonio Leocadio Guzmán Blanco     (s.a.)               PL
                             (6th time) 
 5 Jul 1888 - 19 Mar 1890  Juan Pablo Rojas Paúl              (b. 1826 - d. 1905)  PL
19 Mar 1890 - 17 Jun 1892  Raimundo Ignacio Andueza Palacio   (b. 1846 - d. 1900)  PC
17 Jun 1892 -  2 Sep 1892  Guillermo Tell Villegas (2nd time) (s.a.)               PL
                             (acting)
 2 Sep 1892 -  6 Oct 1892  Guillermo Tell Villegas Pulido     (b. 1854 - d. 1949)  PL
                             (acting)
 7 Oct 1892 - 28 Feb 1894  Joaquín Sinforiano de Jesús Crespo (s.a.)               PL
                             Torres (2nd time)
                             (acting Chief to 15 Jun 1893, then provisional)
28 Feb 1894 - 14 Mar 1894  Manuel Guzmán Álvarez (1st time)   (b. 1830 - d. 1912)  PL
                             (acting)
14 Mar 1894 - 20 Feb 1898  Joaquín Sinforiano de Jesús Crespo (s.a.)               PL
                             Torres (3rd time) 
20 Feb 1898 - 28 Feb 1898  Manuel Guzmán Álvarez (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PL 
                             (acting)
28 Feb 1898 - 20 Oct 1899  Ignacio Andrade Troconis           (b. 1839 - d. 1925)  PL
20 Oct 1899 - 23 Oct 1899  Víctor Rodríguez Párraga (acting)  (b. 1836 - d. 1918)  Mil
23 Oct 1899 - 11 Aug 1909  José Cipriano Castro Ruiz          (b. 1858 - d. 1924)  Mil
                            (Supreme Chief to 9 Mar 1901; 
                             provisional president 9 Mar 1901 - 20 Feb 1902
                             and 6 May 1904 - 10 Jun 1905)
17 Feb 1909 - 19 Apr 1910  Juan Vicente Gómez Chacón          (b. 1857 - d. 1935)  Mil
                             (1st time)(provisional; acting
                             for suspended Castro to 11 Aug 1909) 
19 Apr 1910 - 29 Apr 1910  Emilio Constantino Guerrero        (b. 1866 - d. 1920)  Non-party
                             Guerrero (acting) 
29 Apr 1910 -  3 Jun 1910  Jesús Ramón Ayala Anzola (acting)  (b. c.1842 - d. 1920)Mil
 3 Jun 1910 - 19 Apr 1914  Juan Vicente Gómez Chacón          (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)
19 Apr 1914 - 24 Jun 1922  Victorino Márquez Bustillos        (b. 1858 - d. 1941)  Non-party
                             (provisional)
24 Jun 1922 - 19 Apr 1929  Juan Vicente Gómez Chacón          (s.a.)               Mil
                             (3rd time)
19 Apr 1929 - 13 Jun 1931  Juan Bautista Pérez de Velasco     (b. 1869 - d. 1952)  Non-party
                             Pérez (acting to 31 May 1929)
13 Jun 1931 - 13 Jul 1931  Pedro Itriago Chacín (acting)      (b. 1875 - d. 1936)  Non-party
13 Jul 1931 - 17 Dec 1935  Juan Vicente Gómez Chacón          (s.a.)               Mil
                             (4th time)
17 Dec 1935 - 18 Dec 1935  Cabinet ministers
                           - Pedro Rafael Tinoco Smith        (b. 1887 - d. 1966)
                           - Pedro Itriago Chacín             (s.a.)               Mil
                           - José Eleazar López Contreras     (b. 1883 - d. 1973)  Mil
                           - Efraín González Cárdenas         (b. 1880 - d. 1969)
                           - Rafael Cayama Martínez           (b. 1868 - d. 1944)  Mil
                           - Antonio Díaz González
                           - Rafael González Rincones         (b. 1885 - d. 1958)  Non-party
                           - Henrique Toledo Trujillo         (b. 1885 - d. 1986)
18 Dec 1935 - 19 Apr 1936  José Eleazar López Contreras       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (1st time)(acting to 31 Dec 1935)
19 Apr 1936 - 29 Apr 1936  Arminio Borjas Pérez (acting)      (b. 1868 - d. 1942)  Non-party
29 Apr 1936 -  5 May 1941  José Eleazar López Contreras       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)(acting from 19 Apr 1941)
 5 May 1941 - 19 Oct 1945  Isaías Medina Angarita             (b. 1897 - d. 1953)  PDV
19 Oct 1945 - 15 Feb 1948  Rómulo Ernesto Betancourt Bello    (b. 1908 - d. 1981)  AD
                             (1st time)(chairman Revolutionary Junta)
15 Feb 1948 - 24 Nov 1948  Rómulo Ángel del Monte Carmelo     (b. 1884 - d. 1969)  AD
                             Gallegos Freire
24 Nov 1948 -  2 Dec 1952  Military Junta
                           - Carlos Román Delgado Chalbaud    (b. 1909 - d. 1950)  Mil
                               Gómez (to 13 Nov 1950)(chairman)
                           - Marcos Evangelista Pérez Jiménez (b. 1914 - d. 2001)  Mil
                           - Luis Felipe Llovera Páez Secocín (b. 1913 - d. 1977)  Mil
                           - German Suárez Flamerich          (b. 1907 - d. 1990)  Non-party
                              (from 27 Nov 1950)(chairman)
 2 Dec 1952 - 23 Jan 1958  Marcos Evangelista Pérez Jiménez   (s.a.)               Mil
                             (provisional to 19 Apr 1953)
23 Jan 1958 - 14 Nov 1958  Wolfgang Enrique Larrazábal Ugueto (b. 1911 - d. 2003)  Mil
                             (chairman Government Junta)
14 Nov 1958 - 13 Feb 1959  Édgar Sanabria Arcia               (b. 1911 - d. 1989)  Non-party
                             (chairman Government Junta)
13 Feb 1959 - 11 Mar 1964  Rómulo Ernesto Betancourt Bello    (s.a.)               AD
                             (2nd time)
11 Mar 1964 - 11 Mar 1969  Raúl Leoni Otero                   (b. 1905 - d. 1972)  AD
11 Mar 1969 - 12 Mar 1974  Rafael Caldera Rodríguez (1st time)(b. 1916 - d. 2009)  COPEI
12 Mar 1974 - 12 Mar 1979  Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez      (b. 1922 - d. 2010)  AD
                             (1st time)
12 Mar 1979 -  2 Feb 1984  Luis Antonio Herrera Campins       (b. 1925 - d. 2007)  COPEI
 2 Feb 1984 -  2 Feb 1989  Jaime Ramón Lusinchi               (b. 1924 - d. 2014)  AD
 2 Feb 1989 - 31 Aug 1993  Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez      (s.a.)               AD
                             (2nd time)(suspended from 21 May 1993)
21 May 1993 -  5 Jun 1993  Octavio Lepage Barreto             (b. 1923)            AD
                             (acting for suspended Pérez)
 5 Jun 1993 -  2 Feb 1994  Ramón José Velásquez Mujica        (b. 1916 - d. 2014)  Non-party
                             (interim; acting for suspended Pérez to 31 Aug 1993)
 2 Feb 1994 -  2 Feb 1999  Rafael Caldera Rodríguez (2nd time)(s.a.)               CN
 2 Feb 1999 - 12 Apr 2002  Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (1st time)(b. 1954 - d. 2013)  MVR
11 Apr 2002 - 12 Apr 2002  Efraín Vásquez Velasco                                  Mil
                             (chairman of the military commission,
                             in rebellion)
12 Apr 2002 - 13 Apr 2002  Pedro Francisco Carmona Estanga    (b. 1941)            Non-party
                             (president of transitional government on 12 Apr 2002)
13 Apr 2002 - 14 Apr 2002  Diosdado Cabello Rondón (acting)   (b. 1963)            MVR
14 Apr 2002 -  5 Mar 2013  Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (2nd time)(s.a.)             MVR:2007 PSUV
10 Jun 2011 -  4 Jul 2011  Elias José Jaua Milano (1st time)  (b. 1969)            PSUV
                             (acting for absent Chávez)
17 Jul 2011 - 23 Jul 2011  Elias José Jaua Milano (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PSUV
                             (acting for absent Chávez)
24 Feb 2012 - 17 Mar 2012  Elias José Jaua Milano (3rd time)  (s.a.)               PSUV
                             (acting for absent Chávez)
10 Dec 2012 5 Mar 2013  Nicolás Maduro Moros               (b. 1962)            PSUV
                             (acting for incapacitated Chávez)
 5 Mar 2013 -              Nicolás Maduro Moros               (s.a.)               PSUV
                             (acting2 to 19 Apr 2013)    

Executive vice-presidents
24 Jan 2000 - 28 Dec 2000  Julían Isaías Rodríguez Daíz       (b. 1942)            MVR
28 Dec 2000 - 13 Jan 2002  Adina Mercedes Bastidas Castillo(f)(b. 1943)            MVR   
13 Jan 2002 - 12 Apr 2002  Diosdado Cabello Rondón (1st time) (s.a.)               MVR
14 Apr 2002 -  5 May 2002  Diosdado Cabello Rondón (2nd time) (s.a.)               MVR
 5 May 2002 -  8 Jan 2007  José Vicente Rangel Vale           (b. 1929)            MVR
 8 Jan 2007 -  6 Jan 2008  Jorge Rodríguez Gómez              (b. 1965)          MVR;2007 PSUV
 6 Jan 2008 - 25 Jan 2010  Ramón Alonso Carrizales Rengifo    (b. 1952)            PSUV
26 Jan 2010 - 13 Oct 2012  Elias José Jaua Milano             (s.a.)               PSUV
13 Oct 2012 -  5 Mar 2013  Nicolás Maduro Moros               (s.a.)               PSUV
 5 Mar 2013 -  8 Mar 2013  Vacant2
 8 Mar 2013 -              Jorge Alberto Arreaza Monserrat    (b. 1973)            PSUV

 ¹The weekly rotating chairmanship was occasionally held by alternate members: Manuel Moreno de Mendoza (b. 1755 - d. 1841)(alternate to Mendoza), Mauricio Ayala Soriano (b. 1774 - d. 1813)(alternate to Escalona), and perhaps also Andrés Narvarte (b. 1781 - d. 1853)(alternate to Padrón). 

  2Due to the ambiguous situation caused by the fact that Hugo Chávez (s.a.) was prevented by illness from taking the oath for his next presidential term, which he nevertheless was deemed to have begun on 10 Jan 2013, it is initially unclear whether the vice president, Nicolás Maduro Moros (s.a.) (as provided in the constitution for the regular case of the death of a sitting president), or the president of the National Assembly, Diosdado Cabello Rondón (s.a.) (as provided for in the case of an elected president dying before being sworn in), becomes acting president. The government adopts the first interpretation, and it is confirmed by the Supreme Court on 8 Mar 2013, which rules that Maduro became acting president immediately on the death of Chávez and then ceased to be vice president; later on 8 Mar he is sworn in as acting president.

Territorial Disputes: Claims all of the area west of the Essequibo River in Guyana (as Guayana Esequiba or Zona en Reclamación), preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Guyana has expressed its intention to join Barbados in asserting claims before the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into their waters; dispute with Colombia over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Venezuela's shared border region; in 2006, an estimated 139,000 Colombians sought protection in 150 communities along the border in Venezuela; U.S., France, and the Netherlands recognize Venezuela's granting full effect to Aves Island, thereby claiming a Venezuelan EEZ/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea; Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines protest Venezuela's full effect claim.

Party abbreviations: AD = Acción Democrática (Democratic Action, social-democratic, center-left, est.1941); CD = Convergencia Nacional (National Convergence, christian democratic, center-right, split from COPEI, est.1993); COPEI = Comité de Organización Política Electoral Independiente/Partido Social Cristiano de Venezuela (Political Electoral Independent Organization Committee/Social Christian Party of Venezuela, christian-democratic, est.1946); PSUV = Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela (United Socialist Party of Venezuela, authoritarian, socialist, Hugo Chávez personalist, Bolivarianismo, est.Oct 2007); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: MVR = Movimiento Quinta República (Fifth Republic Movement, authoritarian, socialist, Hugo Chávez personalist, Bolivarianismo, 1997-18 Dec 2006, merged into PSUV); PC = Partido Conservador (Conservative Party, conservative, centralist, 1830-1908); PDV = Partido Democrático Venezolano (Venezuelan Democratic Party, progressive, I.M. Angarita personalist, to 1943 named Partidarios de las Políticas del Gobierno, 1941-1945); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, liberal, federalist, 1840-1908)


Aves Island

1587                          Claimed for Spain by Avaro Sanzze (Isla de Aves),
                                not settled; island is later occupied by the English,
                                Dutch and Portuguese.
Jul 1854                      Claimed for U.S. by Nathaniel Gibbs on the brig J.W. Dow,
                                claim disputed by Netherlands, U.K. and Venezuela.
30 Dec 1854                   Claimed by Venezuela, Dutch and America are traders evicted.
14 Jan 1859                   By Convention U.S. settles its claims in favor of Venezuela.
30 Jun 1865                   Arbitration by Queen Isabella II of Spain awards sovereignty
                                over Aves Island to Venezuela.
23 Aug 1972                   Made a nature preserve.
28 Mar 1978                   Venezuela agreed on its maritime borders with the U.S. between
                                Aves and Puerto Rico (ratified 24 Nov 1980).
30 Mar 1978                   Netherlands-Venezuela agreement gives full effect to Aves 
                                which creates a Venezuelan EEZ/continental shelf extending
                                over a large portion of the Caribbean Sea.
 2 Jun 1978                   Venezuelan Navy establishes Simón Bolívar Scientific Naval
                                Base.
17 Jun 1980                   Venezuela agrees with France on the maritime border between
                                Aves and Guadeloupe and Martinique.







©  Ben Cahoon