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Bahrain
 
[Bahrain c.1783
                            - 1820]
                           c.1783 - c.1820 

[Bahrain 1820-1932]
                            c.1820 - 1932 

[Bahrain 1932 - 1972]
                 1932 - 19 Aug 1972
 
[Bahrain 1972
                            - 2002]
             19 Aug 1972 - 14 Feb 2002
 
[Bahrain]
                   Adopted 14 Feb 2002


Map of Bahrain Hear National Anthem
"Bahrainona"
(Our Bahrain)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1971 (lyrics 2002)
Constitution
(14 Feb 2002)
--------------------------
1973 Constitution
(26 May 1973 - 14 Feb 2002)
Capital: Manama
(1783-1870 Zubara)
Currency: Bahraini Dinar
(BHD); 1959-1965 Persian Gulf
Rupee (XPGR); 1880-1959
Indian Rupee (INR) 
National Holiday: 16 Dec (1971)
National Day
Population: 1,281,332 (2013)
note: includes 235,108 non-nationals
GDP: $34.9 billion (2013)
Exports: $20.6 billion (2013)
Imports: $14.4 billion (2013)
Ethnic Groups: Bahraini 46%, Asian 45.5%, other Arabs 4.7%,
African 1.6%, European 1%, other 1.2% (includes GCC country
 nationals, North and South Americans, and Oceanians) (2010)
Total Active Armed Forces: 19,460 (2010)
U.S. Military Forces: 2,961 (2012)
Merchant marine: 8 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim 70.2%, other 29.8% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, Arabsat, BTWC, CAEU, CICA, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, GAFTA, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Bahrain Index
Chronology

Jul 1521 - 1602            Portuguese occupation.
1602                       Re-incorporated into Persia (unoccupied until 1753)
1718 - 1736                Occupied by Muscat and Oman.
23 Jul 1783                Al Khalifah lineage conquers and settles Bahrain
                             (Bahrain and its Dependencies).
1800 - 1801                Occupied by Muscat and Oman.
1801 - 1813                Vassal of Diriyah (see Saudi Arabia).
 5 Feb 1820                Informal protection treaty with Britain.
31 May 1861                British protectorate (spelled Bahrein).
22 Dec 1880 - 15 Aug 1971  British protected state (Bahrain)(U.K. forces
                             depart on 16 Dec 1971).
29 Jul 1913                Ottomans recognizes British administration.
15 Aug 1971                State of Bahrain
14 Feb 2002                Kingdom of Bahrain.

British Persian
Gulf Residency
(1822-1971)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Portuguese Commanders
(subordinated to the captains-major in Hormuz)

Jul 1521 - 1521            António Correia
156. (or 157.)             Bernardino Ribeiro
Portuguese governors

1521 - 15..                ....
15.. - 1602                Jalal ed-Din Mahmud Murad Shah

Persian governors (from 1736 the governors of Fars)

c.1602                     Behjad Soltan
1602? -  3 Jun 1613        Allah-Vardi Khan Shirazi           (d. 1613)
1613? - 1633               Imam Qoli Khan Shirazi             (d. 1633)
1633 - 16..                Davud Khan Shirazi
16.. - 1737                ....
1737 - 1753?               Muhammad Taqi Khan Zand

1753? - 1783               Sheikh Nasir Al-Mazkur
                             (Sheikh Nasireddin Shah Bushehri
)
Rulers (Hakim)
¹
23 Jul 1783 - 1796         Sheikh Ahmad ibn Muhammad          (d. 1796)
                             Al Khalifah 
1796 - Apr 1843            Sheikh Abdullah ibn Ahmad          (b. 17.. - d. 1843)
                             Al Khalifah 
                            (detained in Diriyah 1801-1810)
                           - jointly with the following three -
1796 - 1825                Sheikh Sulman ibn Ahmad            (b. 17.. - d. 1825)
                             Al Khalifah 
                            (detained in Diriyah 1801-1810)
1825 - 31 May 1834         Sheikh Khalifah ibn Sulman         (d. 1834)
                             Al Khalifah 
31 May 1834 - Jun 1842     Sheikh Muhammad ibn Khalifah       (b. 1813 - d. 1890)
                             Al Khalifah (1st time) 
Apr 1843 -  6 Sep 1868     Sheikh Muhammad ibn Khalifah       (s.a.)
                             Al Khalifah (2nd time) 
 6 Sep 1868 - Sep 1869     Sheikh Ali ibn Khalifah            (b. 1814 - d. 1869)
                             Al Khalifah 
Sep 1869 -  1 Dec 1869     Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abdullah       (b. 1813 - d. 1890)
                             Al Khalifah 
Dec 1869 -  9 Dec 1932     Sheikh `Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifah    (b. 1848 - d. 1932)
                           - jointly with following -
 1 Dec 1869 - Oct 1888     Sheikh Ahmad ibn Ali Al Khalifah   (b. 1850 - d. 1888)
                           - jointly with preceding -
10 Dec 1932 - 24 Feb 1942  Sheikh Hamad ibn `Isa Al Khalifah  (b. 1872 - d. 1942)
24 Feb 1942 -  2 Nov 1961  Sheikh Sulman ibn Hamad            (b. 1895 - d. 1961)
                             Al Khalifah 
 2 Nov 1961 - 15 Aug 1971  Sheikh `Isa ibn Sulman             (b. 1933 - d. 1999)
                             Al Khalifah 
Emirs¹
15 Aug 1971 -  6 Mar 1999  Sheikh `Isa ibn Sulman             (s.a.)
                             Al Khalifah 
 6 Mar 1999 - 14 Feb 2002  Sheikh Hamad ibn `Isa Al Khalifah  (b. 1950)
King¹
14 Feb 2002 -              Sheikh Hamad ibn `Isa Al Khalifah  (s.a.)


President of the State Council

19 Jan 1970 - 16 Aug 1971  Sheikh Khalifah ibn Sulman         (b. 1936)            Non-party
                             Al Khalifah 
Prime minister
16 Aug 1971 -              Sheikh Khalifah ibn Sulman         (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Al Khalifah 
 

British Native Agents
c.1816 - 1819              Sadah Anandadas 
1820 - 182.                Thompson
1822 - 1834                the Chief British Political
                           Residents of the Gulf (see below)
1829                       Aziz (?)
1829                       Parran
1829 - 1830                Chanda
1830 - 1833                .... [unknown]
Apr 1833                   Kushal (acting)
1834 - 1841                Haji Mirza Muhammad `Ali Safar     (b. 1778 - d. 1845)
1841 - 1852                Haji Jasun (Haji Abdul Qasim)
1852 - 1862                ....
1862 - 1864                Haji Ibrahim ibn Rajab             (c. 1820/30 - d. ....)
1864 - 1872?               Vacant?
1872 - 10 Jul 1884         Haji `Abd al-Nabi Khan Safar       (b. c.1803 - d. 1884)
1884 - 1891                Haji Mirza Ahmad Khan Safar        (b. c.1820/30 - d. 1891) 
Nov 1891 - Mar 1892        .... (acting)
Mar 1892 - Nov 1893        Haji Muhammad Amin
Nov 1893 - Feb 1900        Aga Muhammad Rahim Safar           (b. c.1830 - d. 1900)
Political Agents
10 Feb 1900 - Oct 1904     John Calcott Gaskin 
                             (
Assistant Political Agent)
Oct 1904 - 1909            Francis Beville Prideaux           (b. 1871 - d. 1938)
1909 - 1910                Charles Fraser Mackenzie           (b. 1880 - d. 1965)
1910 - 1911                Stuart George Knox                 (b. 1869 - d. 1956)
1911 - 1912                David Lockhart Robertson Lorimer   (b. 1876 - d. 1962)
1912 - 1914                Arthur Prescott Trevor             (b. 1872 - d. 1930)
1914 - 1916                Terence Humphrey Keyes             (b. 1877 - d. 1939)
1916                       Hugh Stewart                       (b. 1872 - d. 1931)
1916                       J.M. Da Costa (acting)
1916                       Trenchard Craven William Fowle     (b. 1884 - d. 1940)
                             (acting)
1916 - 1918                Percy Gordon Loch (1st time)       (b. 1887 - d. 1963)
1918                       George Alexander Gavin Mungavin    (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
1918 - 1919                Norman Napier Bray                 (b. 1885 - d. 1962)
1919                       Sayid Siddiq Hassan (1st time)
                             (acting)
1919 - 1920                Harold Richard Patrick Dickson     (b. 1881 - d. 1959)
1920 - 1921                Sayid Siddiq Hassan (2nd time)
                             (acting)
1921 - 1926                Clive Kirkpatrick Daly             (b. 1878 - d. 1966)
1926 - 1929                Cyril Charles Johnson Barrett      (b. 1884 - d. 1933)
1929 - 1932                Charles Geoffrey Prior             (b. 1896 - d. 1972)
1932 - 1937                Percy Gordon Loch (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1937                       Tom Hickinbotham (1st time)        (b. 1903 - d. 1983)
1937 - 1940                Hugh Weightman                     (b. 1898 - d. 1949)
1940 - 1942                Reginald George Evelyn William     (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
                             Alban 
1942 - 1943                Edward Birkbeck Wakefield          (b. 1903 - d. 1969)
                             (1st time) 
1943                       Michael Gray Dixon (acting)        (b. 1910)
1943 - 1945                Tom Hickinbotham (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1945                       Cornelius James Pelly (1st time)   (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
1945 - 1947                Edward Birkbeck Wakefield          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
1947 - 1951                Cornelius James Pelly (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1951 - 1952                William Scott Laver                (b. 1909 - d. 1988)
1952 - 1955                John William Wall                  (b. 1910 - d. 1989)
1955 - 1959                Charles Alexander Gault            (b. 1908 - d. 1996)
1959 - 1962                Edward Parr Wiltshire              (b. 1910 - d. 2004)
1962 - 1965                John Peter Tripp                   (b. 1927 - d. 1986)
1965 - 1969                Anthony Derrick Parsons            (b. 1922 - d. 1996)
1969                       J.C. Philip
1969 - 1971                Alexander John Stirling            (b. 1926)

 ¹The style of the ruler:
(a) 1783 - 15 Aug 1971: Hakim al-Bhrayn wa Tawabi‘hu ("Ruler of Bahrain and its Dependencies");
(b) 15 Aug 1971 - 14 Feb 2002: Emir Dawlat al-Bahrayn ("Emir of the State of Bahrain");
(c) from 14 Feb 2002: Malik Mamlakat al-Bahrayn ("King of the Kingdom of Bahrain").

Territorial Disputes: None; On 16 Mar 2001, the World Court granted to Bahrain sovereignty on the Hawar Islands (which U.K. recognized as Bahraini since 11 Jul 1939) and Qitat Jaradah shallows, and to Qatar sovereignty on Zubara and the shallows surrounding the islet of Fasht-el-Dibal.

Party abbreviations: (political parties illegal; from 2005 political associations legalized)



British Residency of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf
[Flag of the United Kingdom]
                  2 Jul 1763 - 2 Dec 1971
NoteDuring this period the "Persian Gulf" was referred to as "Arabian Gulf" or simply
the "Gulf" by the British to distance themselves from the term "Persian"
which was viewed as implying Persian sovereignty over the gulf.

 2 Jul 1763 - 1822         British Residency established at Bushire (Bushehr) in Persia
                             by the British East India Company (see under Iran).
 5 Feb 1820                Treaty with the "Trucial Coast States" and Bahrain,
                             abolishing slave trade and forbidding piracy.
Jul 1820 - Dec 1822        British agents for the Lower Gulf stationed at Qishm Island
                             in Persia
(see under Iran).
Dec 1822                   Persian Gulf Residency established by Britain.
1822 - 1873                Subordinated to the governor of Bombay.
21 Aug 1835                Treaty with the Trucial States, installing a truce of six months 
                             a year, during the pearling season.
20 May 1843                Treaty of 1835 renewed for another 10 years.
 4 May 1853                Perpetual Maritime Truce with Trucial States, renews the treaty
                             of 1835 for
an unlimited period.
 9 Dec 1856 - 1857         British occupy Bushire, Persia.
1873 - 1946                Subordinated to British India (from 1946 to resident in Bahrain).
31 May 1861                Protectorate treaty with Bahrain (completed by treaties of 
                             2 Dec 1880 and 1892).
19 Mar 1891                Protectorate treaty with Oman.
 8 Mar 1892                Protectorate of the Trucial States (or Trucial Oman).
23 Nov 1899                Protectorate treaty with Kuwait (completed 3 Nov 1914).
 8 Aug 1915 - 16 Oct 1915  British occupy Bushire.
 3 Nov 1916                Protectorate treaty with Qatar.
16 Dec 1971                End of British protectorate presence in the Gulf.
 

Chief Political Residents of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf
(for Bahrain, Bushire, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the Trucial States)
Dec 1822 - Sep 1823        John Mcleod                            (d. 1851)
Oct 1823 - Dec 1823        Henry Hardy
Dec 1823 - Jan 1827        Ephraim Gerrish Stannus                (b. 1784 - d. 1850) 
Jan 1827 - Mar 1831        David Wilson
Mar 1831 - Jan 1832        Samuel Hennell (1st time)              (b. 1800 - d. 1880)
Jan 1832 - Jun 1834        David Anderson Blane                   (b. 1801 - d. 1879)
Jun 1834 - Jul 1835        Samuel Hennell (2nd time)(acting)      (s.a.)
Jul 1835 - Oct 1835        Thomas Mackenzie (1st time)(acting) 
Oct 1835 - Oct 1837        James Morison                          (b. 1790 - d. 1857)
Oct 1837 - Apr 1838        Thomas Mackenzie (2nd time)
May 1838 - Mar 1852        Samuel Hennell (3rd time)              (s.a.)
Jan 1842 - Apr 1843        Henry D. Robertson (
acting for Hennell)
Apr 1843 - Dec 1843        Arnold Burrowes Kemball (1st time)     (b. 1820 - d. 1908)
                             (acting for Hennell)
Dec 1843 - Mar 1852        Samuel Hennell (4th time)              (s.a.)
Mar 1852 - Jul 1855        Arnold Burrowes Kemball (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Jul 1855 - Oct 1855        Vacant
Oct 1855 - Apr 1862        James Felix Jones (acting to Jul 1856) (b. 1813 - d. 1878)
Apr 1862 - Nov 1862        Herbert Frederick Disbrowe (acting)    (b. 1826 - d. 19..)
Nov 1862 - Oct 1872        Lewis Pelly (acting to Mar 1863)       (b. 1825 - d. 1892)
Oct 1872 - Mar 1891        Edward Charles Ross (acting to 1877)   (b. 1836 - d. 1913)
May 1876 - Aug 1877        William Francis Prideaux            
  (b. 1840 - d. 1914)
                             (acting for Ross)    
1885 - Oct 1886            Samuel Barrett Miles                   (b. 1838 - d. 1913)
                             (acting for Ross)    
Mar 1891 - May 1893        Adelbert Cecil Talbot                  (b. 1845 - d. 1920)
                             (acting to Sep 1891)
May 1893 - Jun 1893        Stuart Hill Godfrey (acting)           (b. 1861 - d. 1941)
Jun 1893 - Jul 1893        James Hayes Sadler (1st time)(acting)  (b. 1851 - d. 1922)
Jun 1893 - Dec 1893        James Adair Crawford (acting)          (b. 1857 - d. 1936)
Dec 1893 - Jan 1894        James Hayes Sadler (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.)
Jan 1894 - Jun 1897        Frederick Alexander Wilson             (b. 1842 - d. 1899)
Jun 1897 - Apr 1900        Malcolm John Meade (acting to Mar 1898)(b. 1854 - d. 1933)
Apr 1900 - Apr 1904        Charles Arnold Kemball (acting)        (b. 1860 - d. 1943)
Apr 1904 - Oct 1920        Percy Zachariah Cox                    (b. 1864 - d. 1937)
                             (from 12 Dec 1911, Sir Percy Zachariah Cox)
- Acting for Cox -
Aug 1909 - Mar 1910        Arthur P
rescott Trevor (1st time)      (b. 1872 - d. 1930)
Dec 1913 - Feb 1914        John G. Lorimer                        (b. 1870 - d. 1914)
Feb 1914 - Mar 1914        Richard Lockinton Birdwood             (b. 1879 - d. 1914)
Mar 1914 - Nov 1914        Stuart George Knox (1st time)          (b. 1869 - d. 1956)
Jan 1915 - Apr 1915        Stuart George Knox (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Apr 1915 - Dec 1917        Arthur Prescott Trevor (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Dec 1917 - Sep 1919        John Hugo Bill                         (b. 1877 - d. 1919)
Sep 1919 - Nov 1919        Cecil Hamilton Gabriel                 (b. 1879 - d. 1947)
Nov 1919 - Oct 1920        Arthur Prescott Trevor (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Chief Political Residents
Oct 1920 - Nov 1920        Arnold Talbot Wilson (acting)          (b. 1884 - d. 1940)
Nov 1920 - Apr 1924        Arthur Prescott Trevor                 (s.a.)
Apr 1923 - Oct 1923        Stuart G. Knox (acting)
Apr 1924 - Jan 1927        Francis Beville Prideaux               (b. 1871 - d. 1938)
Jun 1925 - Oct 1925        Charles Gilbert Crosthwaite            (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
Jan 1927 - Nov 1928        Lionel Berkeley Holt Haworth           (b. 1873 - d. 1951)
Nov 1928 - Apr 1929        Frederick William Johnston             (b. 1872 - d. 1947)
Apr 1929 - Nov 1929        Cyril Charles Johnson Barrett (acting) (b. 1884 - d. 1932)
Nov 1929 - Jul 1932        Hugh Vincent Biscoe                    (b. 1881 - d. 1932)

May 1931                   Trenchard Craven William Fowle
         (b. 1884 - d. 1940)
                             (acting for Biscoe)
Jul 1932 - 1939            Trenchard Craven William Fowle         (s.a.)
Jul 1933 - Oct 1933        Percy Gordon Loch (acting)             (b. 1887 - d. 1963)
Aug 1938 - Sep 1939       
Hugh Weightman (acting)                (b. 1898 - d. 1949)
Sep 1939 - 1946            Charles Geoffrey Prior                 (b. 1896 - d. 1972)
Oct 1941 - Sep 1942        William Rupert Hay (acting for Prior)
 (b. 1893 - d. 1962)
May 1946 - 1953            William Rupert Hay                     (s.a.)
                             (from 1 Jan 1952, Sir William Rupert Hay) 
Jun 1947 - Oct 1947        Arnold Crawshaw Galloway               (b. 1901 - d. 1988)
                             (acting for Hay)   
22 Oct 1953 - Oct 1958     Bernard Alexander Brocas Burrows       (b. 1910 - d. 2002)
                             (from 6 Jan 1955, Sir Bernard Alexander Brocas Burrows) 
 8 Nov 1958 - May 1961     Sir George Humphrey Middleton          (b. 1910 - d. 1998)
May 1961 - Sep 1966        Sir William Henry Tucker Luce          (b. 1907 - d. 1977)
Sep 1966 - Sep 1970        Sir Robert Stewart Crawford            (b. 1913 - d. 2002)
Sep 1970 - 15 Aug 1971     Sir Geoffrey Arthur                    (b. 1920 - d. 1984)





© Ben Cahoon