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Saudi Arabia  
 
[Saudi Arabia Flag 1932]
                22 Sep 1932 - 1934
 
[Saudi
                                    Arabia Flag 1934]
                  1934 - 30 Mar 1938
 
[Saudi
                                    Arabia Flag 1938]
          30 Mar 1938 - 15 Mar 1973
 
[Saudi
                                    Arabia]
               Adopted 15 Mar 1973
 
 

Map of Saudi Arabia
Hear National Anthem
"Aash al Maleek"
(Long Live Our Beloved King)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1947
(lyrics 29 Jun 1984)
Constitution (Basic Law)
(1993)
Capital: Riyadh
Currency: Saudi Riyal (SAR)
National Holiday: 23 Sep (1932)
Unification of the Kingdom
Population: 26,939,583 (2013)
note: includes 5,576,076 non-nationals
GDP: $927.8 billion (2013)
Exports: $376.3 billion (2013)
Imports: $147 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Saudi Arab 74%, expatriates 26% (of which
Indian 5%, Bangladeshi 3.5%, Pakistani 3.5%, Filipino 3%,
Egyptian 3%, Palestinian 1%, other 7%)
(2005)
Total Active Armed Forces: 233,500 (2010)
U.S. Forces: 278 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 72 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim 94% (official)(of which Sunni 84%, Shi'a 10%), 
Christian 3.5% (of which Roman Catholic 3%), Hindu 1%, 
none/other 1.5% (2000)
note: despite having a large expatriate community of various faiths, non-Muslims are not allowed to have Saudi citizenship and non-Muslim places of worship are not permitted
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, AfDB (nonregional), AFESD, AL, AMF, Arabsat, BIS, BTWC, CAEU, CP, CWC, FAO, G-20, G-77, GAFTA, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Saudi Arabia
Index
Chronology

22 Aug 1921                Sultanate of Nejd and Dependencies
29 Jan 1927                Kingdom of Nejd and Dependencies
22 Sep 1932                Hejaz and Nejd united as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 2 Dec 1922 -  7 Jul 1965  Kuwaiti-Saudi Arabian neutral zone in 
                             northeastern border area.
 2 Dec 1922 - 26 Dec 1981  Iraqi-Saudi Arabian neutral zone in northwestern
                             border area.
1983                       Iraqi-Saudi neutral zone formally partitioned 
                             between Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia
(since 1932)
Hejaz (Hijaz)
(to 1932)
Nejd (Najd)
(1735-1932)
al-Hasa
(1682-1914)
Jebel Shammar
(1835-1921)
Other
Arabian
states
Historical Map
of Arabia 1905-23
 


Hejaz (Hijaz)

 
[Flag of Turkey]
                   to 10 Jun 1916 
 
[Hejaz local
                            flag 1818-1840]
                     1819 - 1840
 
[Hejaz local
                            flag 1840-1916]
  10 Jun 1916 - 30 May 1917 (provisional)
 
[Flag of the
                            Kingdom of Hejaz 1917-1920]
                30 May 1917 - 1920
 
[Flag of the
                            Kingdom of Hejaz 1920-1926]
                 1920 - 18 Jan 1926
 
[Flag of
                            the Kingdom of Hejaz 1926-1932]
            18 Jan 1926 - 22 Sep 1932

Map of Hejaz
Hear National Anthem
Text of Anthem
Constitution
(29 Aug 1926)

Capital: Mecca
Currency: Pounds (GBP)
(1916-1925)
National Holiday: N/A
Population: 850,000 (1920 est.)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Arab
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Religions: Muslim
International Organizations/Treaties: League of Nations (signatory)

1201                       Hashemite dynasty beings rule.
1258                       Part of Mameluke Sultanate of Egypt.
Aug 1517                   Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1819 - 1840                Egyptian occupation.
10 Jun 1916                Hejazi Kingdom (independence from Ottoman Empire declared).
29 Oct 1916                Hussein ibn Ali Al-Hashimi proclaims the independence 
                             of all the Arabs from the Ottoman Empire.
10 Aug 1920                Turkey recognizes independence by Treaty of Svres (confirmed
                             24 Jul 1923 by Treaty of Lausanne).
 5 Sep 1924                Nejd occupies of Taif.
13 Oct 1924                Nejd occupies of Mecca.
 5 Dec 1925                Nejd occupies of Medina.
19 Dec 1925                Hejaz occupied by Nejd, Sharif Ali abdicate his throne.
23 Dec 1925                Nejd occupies of Jeddah.
 8 Jan 1926                Annexed (de facto) by Nejd.
20 Nov 1930                Asir incorporated into Hejaz.
22 Sep 1932                Hejaz and Nejd united as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Ottoman Walis (governors)
1517 - 1819                ....
1819 - 1840                .... -Egyptian governors
Jan 1841 - Jan 1846        Osman Pasha                        (d. 1846)
Jan 1846 - Sep 1848        Mehmed Sherif Pasha                (d. 1851)
Sep 1848 - May 1850        Mehmed Hasib Pasha
May 1850 - Jul 1852        Agha Abdulaziz Pasha               (d. 1855) 
Jul 1852 - Jan 1855        Ahmed Izzet Pasha
Jan 1855 - May 1856        Mhendis Mehmed Kamil Pasha
May 1856 - Jul 1857        Krt Mahmud Pasha
Jul 1857 - Nov 1858        Konyali Mehemd Namik Pasha         (b. 1804 - d. 1892)
Dec 1858 - Oct 1861        Haci Kutuhyali Ali Pasha
Oct 1861 - Sep 1864        Ahmed Izzet Pasha
Sep 1864 - Aug 1867        Mehmed Vecihi Pasha
Aug 1867 - Aug 1870        Mehmed Muammer Pasha
Aug 1870 - Aug 1872        Mehmed Hurschid Pasha
Aug 1872 - Jul 1874        Mehmed Reshid Pasha
Jul 1874 - Oct 1874        Mehmed Rshd Pasha                (b. 1824 - d. 1874)
Oct 1874 - Oct 1877        Mehmed Takiyeddin Pasha
Oct 1877 - Jun 1879        Mehmed Halet Pasha                 (d. 1879)
Jun 1879 - Mar 1880        Rashid Nashid Pasha
Mar 1880 - Mar 1881        Safvet Pasha (1st time)            (d. 1895)
Aug 1882 - Jul 1886        Topal Osman Nuri Pasha (1st time)
Dec 1886 - Apr 1887        Huseyin Cemil Pasha
Apr 1887 - Mar 1890        Safvet Pasha (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Mar 1890 - Jun 1892        Ismail Hakki Pasha
Jun 1892 - Nov 1892        Topal Osman Nuri Pasha (2nd time)
Dec 1892 - Jun 1894        Ahmed Ratip Pasha (1st time)
Jun 1894 - Jun 1895        Hasan Hilmi Pasha
Jun 1895 - Aug 1908        Ahmed Ratip Pasha (2nd time)
Sep 1908 - May 1909        Alpan Kazim Pasha
May 1909 - Feb 1911        Mehemd Emin Pasha
Feb 1911 - Nov 1911        Ebubekir Azim Bey
Nov 1911 - Jan 1912        Halil Bey
Jan 1912 - Sep 1912        Mustafa Zihni Pasha
Sep 1912 - May 1913        Ahmed Reshid Pasha
May 1913 - Jan 1914        Ahmed Nedim Pasha
Jan 1914 - Feb 1915        Vehib Bey
 5 Apr 1915 - Sep 1916     Ali Galib Pasiner Pasha            (b. 1868 - d. 1939)
Grand Sharifs of Mecca (to Oct 1629 Sharifs of Mecca)

Aug 1455 - Aug 1497        Malik ul-Adil Muhammad (III) ibn   (d. 1497)
                             Barakat                    
Sep 1497 - Sep 1525        Barakat (II) ibn Muhammad          (b. 1456 - d. 1525)
Sep 1525 - Feb 1583        Muhammad Abu Numay (II) Nazim      (b. 1505 - d. 1583)
                             ud-din ibn Barakat
Feb 1583 - Dec 1601        Al-Hasan (III) ibn Muhammad Abu    (b. 1524 - d. 1601)
                             Numay  
Dec 1601 - 1610            Idris (II) Abu Aun ibn Hasan       (b. 1566 - d. 1624)
1610 - May 1628            Muhsin (I) ibn Hussein             (b. 1557 - d. 1692)
May 1628 - Oct 1629        Ahmad ibn Abu Talib al-Hasan
Oct 1629 - Nov 1630        Masud (I) ibn Idris                (d. 1630)
Nov 1630 - Mar 1631        Abdullah (I) ibn Hasan (1st time) 
Mar 1631 - Jul 1631        Aun bin Idris Abdul Karim
Jul 1631 - Sep 1631        Abdullah (I) ibn Hasan (2nd time) 
1631 - Jul 1666            Zeid ibn Muhsin                    (b. 1607 - d. 1666)
Jul 1666 - 1671            Saad ibn Zeid (1st time)           (b. 1647 - d. 1709)
1667 - 1668                Muhsin ibn Ahmad (1st time) -co-ruler
1669 - 1671                Ahmad ibn Zeid (1st time) -co-ruler(d. 1688)
Jun 1670 - Nov 1670        Hamud ibn Abdullah ibn Hasan       (d. 1674)
Apr 1672 - Apr 1682        Barakat (III) ibn Muhammad         (d. 1687)
1682 - 1684                Ibrahim ibn Muhammad
1682 - 1683                Said (I) ibn Barakat
Oct 1684 - 1688            Ahmad ibn Zeid (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 4 Jan 1688 - Apr 1690     Ahmad ibn Ghalib                   (d. 1701)
1689 - Apr 1690            Muhsin ibn Ahmad (2nd time)
Apr 1690 - Oct 1691        Muhsin (II) ibn Hussein            (d. 1695)
Oct 1691 - 1694            Said (II) ibn Saad (1st time)      (b. 1674 - d. 1717)
13 Mar 1693 - Aug 1694     Saad ibn Zeid (2nd time)           (s.a.)
Aug 1694 - Dec 1694        Abdullah (II) ibn Hashim           (d. 1701)
Dec 1694 - Mar 1702        Saad ibn Zeid (3rd time)           (s.a.)
Mar 1702 - Jul 1704        Said (II) ibn Saad (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Jul 1704                   Abdul Muhsin ibn Ahmad             (b. 16.. - d. 1718)
Jul 1704 - Feb 1705        Abdul Karim ibn Muhammad           (b. 16.. - d. 1719)
                             (1st time) 
Mar 1705 - Nov 1705        Said (II) ibn Saad (3rd time)      (s.a.)
Nov 1705 - Dec 1711        Abdul Karim ibn Muhammad           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Dec 1711 - Jan 1717        Said (II) ibn Saad (4th time)      (s.a.)
Jan 1717 - Apr 1718        Abdullah (III) ibn Said (1st time) (d. 1775)
Apr 1718 - Nov 1718        Ali ibn Said
1718 - 1719                Yahya (I) ibn Barakat
May 1720 - Sep 1722        Mubarak ibn Ahmad (1st time)       (d. 1727)
Sep 1722 - Oct 1723        Barakat ibn Yahya
Oct 1723 - Mar 1724        Mubarak ibn Ahmad (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Mar 1724 - May 1731        Abdullah (III) ibn Said (2nd time) (s.a.)
May 1731 - Nov 1732        Muhammad ibn Abdullah (1st time)   (b. 1715 - d. 1756)
Nov 1732 - Jan 1733        Masud ibn Said (1st time)          (d. 1752)
Feb 1733 - 1734            Muhammad ibn Abdullah (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Feb 1734 - 18 Feb 1752     Masud ibn Said (2nd time)          (s.a.) 
18 Feb 1752 - 24 Aug 1759  Masaad ibn Said (II)(1st time)     (d. 1770)
24 Aug 1759 - Jan 1760     Jaafar ibn Said                    (d. 1764)
Jan 1760 - 23 May 1770     Masaad ibn Said (II)(2nd time)     (s.a.)
23 May 1770 - 12 Jul 1770  Ahmad ibn Said                     (d. 1781)
12 Jul 1770 -  5 Feb 1773  Abdullah (IV) ibn Hussein          (d. 1788)
Oct 1770 - Oct 1770        Ahmad ibn Said (in rebellion)      (s.a.)            
 5 Feb 1773 - 21 Jan 1788  Surur ibn Masaad                   (b. 1744 - d. 1788)
21 Jan 1788 - 31 Jan 1788  Abdul Muin ibn Masaad              (b. 1747 - d. 1803)
31 Jan 1788 -  2 Nov 1813  Ghalib ibn Masaad                  (b. 1750 - d. 1817)
Emirs and Grand Sharifs of Mecca
 2 Nov 1813 - Aug 1827     Yahya (II) ibn Surur               (d. 1838)
Aug 1827 - Sep 1827        Abdul Mutalib ibn Ghalib           (b. 1790 - d. 1886)
                             (1st time) 
Sep 1827 - 1836            Muhammad (III) ibn Abdul Muin      (b. 1767 - d. 1858)
                             (1st time) 
1836 - 1840                Interregnum
1840 - Jul 1851            Muhammad (III) ibn Abdul Muin      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Jul 1851 -  6 Jan 1856     Abdul Mutalib ibn Ghalib           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
 6 Jan 1856 - 28 Mar 1858  Muhammad (III) ibn Abdul Muin      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 1 May 1858 - 26 Jun 1877  Abdullah Pasha ibn Muhammad        (b. 1823 - d. 1877)
11 Jul 1877 - 15 Mar 1880  Hussein ibn Muhammad               (b. 1838 - d. 1880)
Jun 1880 - 31 Aug 1881     Abdul Mutalib ibn Ghalib           (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
31 Aug 1881 - 30 Aug 1882  Abdullah Pasha ibn Muhammad        (b. 1845 - d. 1908)
                             (1st time)
30 Aug 1882 - 17 Jul 1905  Aun ar-Rafiq Pasha ibn Muhammad    (b. 1841 - d. 1905)
14 Oct 1905 - 26 Oct 1908  Ali Pasha ibn Abdullah             (b. 1859 - d. 1941)
26 Oct 1908 - 29 Oct 1908  Abdullah Pasha ibn Muhammad        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(did not arrive in Mecca)
29 Oct 1908 - 10 Jun 1916  Hussein Pasha ibn Ali              (b. 1856 - d. 1931)
18 Jun 1916 - 21 Mar 1917  Ali Haidar Pasha (in Medina)       (b. 1866 - d. 1935) 
                            (Ottoman designee; in opposition to Hussein)
Kings
10 Jun 1916 -  3 Oct 1924  Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi         (s.a.)
                            (assumes title of Caliph 11 Mar 1924)
 3 Oct 1924 - 19 Dec 1925  Ali ibn Hussein al-Hashimi         (b. 1879 - d. 1935)
 8 Jan 1926 - 22 Sep 1932  Abdul Aziz                         (b. 1880 - d. 1953)

Grand Vizier 
10 Jun 1916 -  3 Oct 1924  Ali ibn Hussein al-Hashimi         (s.a.)

  Full styles of the ruler:
(a) on 10 Jun 1916: the Grand Sharif assumed title of king;
from 29 Oct 1916 Malik al-Bilad al-Arabiyya and Amir al-Mumenin (King of the Arabs and Commander of the Faithful); from 6 Nov 1916: recognized by the Allied powers only as "King of the Hejaz, Commander of the Faithful, Grand Sharif and Emir of Mecca"; assumes title Caliph al-Islam on 11 Mar 1924; from 3 Oct 1924: "King of the Hejaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca";
(b) 29 Jan 1927 - 22 Sep 1932:
Malik al-Hijaz wa Najd wa Mulhaqatahu ("King of the Hejaz, the Nejd and Dependencies")


Nejd  (Najd)
 
[Diriyah Flag to
                          c.1750]
                      to c.1750
 
[Diriyah Flag
                          c.1750-1819, c.1842-1891]
         c.1750 - 1818,  c.1842 - 1891
 
[Emirate of Nejd
                          (Najd) 1902-1921]
                    1902 - 1921
 
[Sultanate of
                          Nejd (Najd) 1921-1926]
                    1921 - 1926
 
[Kingdom of Nejd
                          (Najd) 1926-1932]
                    1926 - 22 Sep 1932
 



Map of Nejd
Hear National Anthem
(None adopted)
Text of Anthem
Constitution
Capital: Riyadh
(Diriyah 1763-1818)
Currency: Saudi Riyal (SAA)
(from 1921)
National Holiday: N/A
Population: Nejd 3,100,000 
Hejaz: 1,500,00
(1937 est.)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Arab
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Religions: Muslim
International Organizations/Treaties: UPU

1735                       al-Diriyah Emirate (under Wahhabi rule).
by 1802                    al-Diriyah dominates almost all of central Arabia.
17 Dec 1817 - 1822         Egyptian occupation.
1819                       Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1838 - 1843                Egyptian occupation.
1887                       Conquest by Jebel Shammar.
1891 - 15 Jan 1902         Direct rule by Jebel Shammar.
15 Jan 1902                Abdul Aziz ibn Sa`ud takes Riyadh (Emirate of Nejd).
May 1913                   al-Hasa annexed.
May 1914 - 1914            Ottoman-Saudi treaty recognizes Ottoman suzerainty
                             (as hereditary Wali of vilyet of Nejd). 
22 Aug 1921                Sultanate of Nejd and Dependencies
 2 Nov 1921                Jebel Shammar incorporated into Nejd.
 5 Sep 1924                Nejd capture of Taif.
13 Oct 1924                Nejd capture of Mecca.
 5 Dec 1925                Nejd capture of Medina.
 8 Jan 1926                Hejaz annexed (de facto).
29 Jan 1927                Kingdom of Nejd and Dependencies.
22 Sep 1932                Hejaz and Nejd united as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Emirs (1744 - 1817, from 15 Jan 1902 also Imams and Protectors of the Wahhabis)
1735 - 1765                Muhammed I ibn Saud                   (b. 17.. - d. 1765)
1765 -  2 Oct 1803         Abdul Aziz I ibn Muhammad             (b. 1721 - d. 1803)
                             al-Sa`ud
 2 Oct 1803 -  1 May 1814  Sa`ud I ibn Abdul Aziz                (b. 1748 - d. 1814)
 1 May 1814 - 1818         Abdullah I ibn Sa`ud                  (d. 1818)
Mar 1820 - Dec 1820        Misrahi ibn Sa`ud                     (d. 1820?)
                            (Mar 1820 occupied Dariyah, but captured by the Egyptians)
1822 - 10 May 1834         Turki ibn Abdullah                    (b. 1755 - d. 1834)
May 1834 - Jun 1834        Mishari ibn Abdul Rahman              (d. 1834)
18 Jun 1834 - 1838         Faysal I ibn Turki (1st time)         (b. 1785 - d. 1865)
1838 - 1841                Khalid I ibn Sa`ud                    (d. 1861)
1841 - 13 Jul 1843         Abdullah II ibn Thunayan              (d. 1843)
13 Jul 1843 -  2 Dec 1865  Faysal I ibn Turki (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 2 Dec 1865 -  9 Apr 1871  Abdullah III ibn Faysal (1st time)    (b. c.1820 - d. 1889)
10 Apr 1871 - Jan 1875     Saud II ibn Faisal                    (d. 1875)
Jan 1875 - Aug 1875        Abdul Rahman ibn Faysal               (d. 1928)
1875 - 1887                Abdullah III (2nd time)               (s.a.)
1887                       Muhammad II                           (d. 1887)
1887 - 15 Jan 1902         the Emirs of Jebel Shammar
Governors
1887 - 1889                Abdullah III                          (s.a.)
1889 - 1891                Abdul Rahman
1891                       Muhammad III
Emir
15 Jan 1902 - 22 Aug 1921  Abdul Aziz                            (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
                            (called Ibn Sa`ud outside Saudi Arabia;
                             also May 1914 - 1914 hereditary Wali of Nejd) 
Sultan
22 Aug 1921 - 29 Jan 1927  Abdul Aziz                            (s.a.)
King
29 Jan 1927 - 22 Sep 1932  Abdul Aziz                            (s.a.)

 Full style: Malik al-Hijaz wa Najd wa Mulhaqatahu ("King of the Hejaz and Nejd and Dependencies")


al-Hasa`
 
[Ottoman flag]
                 1871 - 1914
 
[Flag of Al-Hasa
                          1872-1913]
                         1872 - Apr 1913 
 
Map of al-Hasa
Capital: Damman
(to 1905, al-Hufuf)
Population: N/A

1550 - 1670                Part of Ottoman Empire
1670                       Sheikdom of al-Hasa` (Ahsa).
1735 1795                Vassal of al-Diriyah Emirate.
1795                       Annexed by al-Diriyah.
1813 1830                Under Egyptian rule.
1830 - 1838                al-Diriyah restored.
1838 - 1843                Under Egyptian rule.
1843 - Jun 1871            Under al-Diriyah Emirate rule.
Jun 1871                   Ottoman rule restored (as Necd sanjak of Baghdad
                             [from 1875 Basra] vilayet [see Iraq]).
May 1913                   Annexed by Nejd (nominally Ottoman to 1914).

Governors
.... - ....                Fati-eh Pasha
.... - ....                Ali Pasha
.... - ....                Muhammad Pasha
16.. - 1670                Umar Pasha
Sheikhs 
1670 - 1682                Barrak I bin Ghurair
1682 1691                Muhammad I                            (d. 1691)
1723 - 1736                `Ali                                  (d. 1736)
1736 1752                Sulayman (pretender 17231726)        (d. 1752) 
1752 1774                `Uray'ir ibn Dudjayn ibn Sa`dun       (d. 1774) 
1752                       Hamada (pretenter)
1774                       Butaiyin                              (d. 1774) 
1774                       Dudjayn                               (d. 1774) 
1774 1789                Sa`dun II 
1774 1789                Muhammad II 
1789 1791                `Abd al-Muhsin bin `Abd Allah         (d. 1791) 
                             (in the North) (regent 1787-1789) 
1789 1793                Zayid (1st time) (in South) 
1791 1793                Barrak II (1st time) (in North) 
1793 - 1794                Zayid (2nd time)
1794 - 1795                Barrak II (2nd time)
Governors
1795 179.                Nadjim ibn Duhaynim 
1798 1804                Sulayman ibn Muhammad ibn Madjid 
1804 - 1809                Ibrahim ibn `Ufaysan
1809 - 1810                `Abd Allah ibn `Ufaysan, Bahrayn 
1810 1812                Fahd ibn Sulayman ibn `Ufaysan
1813 - 1818                ....
1818                       Madjid (1st time)                     (d. 1830) 
                           + Muhammad III (1st time)
1819 182.                Mehmed Agha (in Hufuf)
1819 - 1819                Halil Agha (in Qatif)
1819 182.                Musrif (in Qatif)
Sheiks
1823 - 1830                Madjid (2nd time)                     (s.a.)
                           + Muhammad III (2nd time)
1830 - 1838                `Umar ibn Muhammad (1st time)
1830 - 1839                `Abd Allah ibn Ghanim (in Qatif)
1839                       Mehmed Efendi I (in Hufuf)            (d. 1839)
1839 1840                Mehmed Efendi II (in Hufuf)
1840 1841                Hamad ibn Mubarak
1841                       Musa al-Hamli
1842                       `Umar ibn Muhammad (2nd time)
1842                       Fahd ibn `Abd Allah (acting)
1842                       Bilal ibn Salim al-Harq
1843                       `Abd Allah ibn Battal al-Mutayri
1844 - 1853                Ahmad ibn Muhammad as-Sudayri 
                             (1st time) 
1853 1857                Muhammad ibn Ahmad (1st time)
1857 1861                Ahmad ibn Muhammad as-Sudayri 
                             (2nd time)
1861 1870                Muhammad ibn Ahmad (2nd time)
1870 1871                Nasir ibn Djabir al-Khalidi
1871 1872                Fariq Pasha
Mutassarrifs (Lieutenant-governors)
1871 - 1872                Nafiz Pasha
1872 - 1873                Mehmet Pasha
1873 - 1874                Faiz Pasha
1874 - 1875                Baz`i al-Khalidi Pasha
1875 - 1876                Mazyad Pasha
1876 - 1877                Said Bey (1st time)
1877                       Husyein Bey
1877 - 1879                Said Pasha (1st time)
1879 - 1880                Said Bey (2nd time)
1880 - 1881                Abdulgani Pasha
1881 - 1885                Said Pasha (2nd time)
1885 - 1886                Nazih Pasha
1886 - 1887                Mehmet Salih Pasha
1887 - 1890                Rifaat Pasha
1890 - 1891                Akif Bey                           (d. 1890)
1891 - 1894                Said Pasha (3rd time)
1894 1896                Ibrahim Pasha
1896                       Abdallah Pasha
1896 - 1900                Said Pasha (4th time)
1900 - 1901                Musa Kazim Efendi
1901 - 1902                Tevfik Bey 
1902 - 1904                Sayyid Talib Pasha
1904 - 1905                Faik Pasha
1905 1907                Necib Pasha
1907                       Reshid Pasha
1908                       Mumtaz Efendi
1908 - 1909                Mahmud Mahir Bey
1909                       Arif Bey
1909 - 1911                Ail Suad Bey
1911 - 1912                Nedim Bey
1912 - Apr 1913            Abbas Hilmi Bey
Apr 1913 - 1914            Abdul Aziz al-Saud Pasha           (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
                            (called Ibn Sa`ud outside Arabia)


Jebel Shammar  (Hil)
 
[Jebel Shammar
                          (Hil) 1835-1921]
                  1835 - 2 Nov 1921
Map of Jebel Shammar
Capital: Hail
Population: 200,000 (1921 est.)

1835                       Emirate of Jebel Shammar 
 2 Nov 1921                Jebel Shammar incorporated into Nejd.

Emirs
1835 - 1847                Abdullah (I) ibn Ali al Rashid
1847 - 1867                Talal ibn Abdullah al Rashid      (d. 1867)
1867 - 1869                Mitaab (I) ibn Abdullah al Rashid (d. 1869)
1869 - 1872                Bandar ibn Talal al Rashid        (d. 1872)
1872 - 1897                Muhammad (I) ibn Abdullah al 
                             Rashid
Dec 1897 - 13 Apr 1906     Abdul Aziz ibn Mitaab Al Rashid   (b. 1870 - d. 1906)
13 Apr 1906 - Jan 1907     Mitaab (II) ibn Abdul Aziz Al     (b. 1888 - d. 1907)
                             Rashid 
Jan 1907 - Jan 1908        Sultan ibn Hammud Al Rashid       (b. 1870 - d. 1908)
Jan 1908 - Sep 1908        Sa`ud (I) ibn Hammud Al Rashid    (b. 1875 - d. 1909)
14 Sep 1908 - 1920         Sa`ud (II) ibn Abdul Aziz Al      (b. 1885 - d. 1920)
                             Rashid 
May 1920 - 1921            Abduallah (II) ibn Mitaab Al      (b. 1906? - d. 1947)
                             Rashid 
1921 -  2 Nov 1921         Muhammad (II) ibn Talal Al Rashid (d. 1954)


Saudi Arabia

22 Sep 1932                Hejaz and Nejd united as Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Kings
22 Sep 1932 -  9 Nov 1953  Abdul Aziz                         (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
                            (called Ibn Sa`ud outside Saudi Arabia)
 9 Nov 1953 -  2 Nov 1964  Sa`ud                              (b. 1902 - d. 1969)
30 Mar 1964 -  2 Nov 1964  Faysal -Regent                     (b. 1906 - d. 1975)
 2 Nov 1964 - 25 Mar 1975  Faysal                             (s.a.)
25 Mar 1975 - 13 Jun 1982  Khalid                             (b. 1913 - d. 1982)
13 Jun 1982 -  1 Aug 2005  Fahd                               (b. 1923? - d. 2005)
 1 Jan 1996 - 21 Feb 1996  Abdullah -Regent                   (b. 1924)
21 Feb 1996 -  1 Aug 2005  Abdullah (de facto regent)         (s.a.)
 1 Aug 2005 -              Abdullah                           (s.a.)
22 Nov 2010 - 23 Feb 2011  Sultan (de facto regent)           (b. 1928 - d. 2011)

Prime ministers
 9 Oct 1953 - 16 Aug 1954  Sa`ud (1st time)                   (s.a.)               Non-party
16 Aug 1954 - 21 Dec 1960  Faysal (1st time)                  (s.a.)               Non-party
21 Dec 1960 - 31 Oct 1962  Sa`ud (2nd time)                   (s.a.)               Non-party
31 Oct 1962 - 25 Mar 1975  Faysal (2nd time)                  (s.a.)               Non-party
29 Mar 1975 - 13 Jun 1982  Khalid                             (s.a.)               Non-party
13 Jun 1982 -  1 Aug 2005  Fahd                               (s.a.)               Non-party
 1 Aug 2005 -              Abdullah                           (s.a.)               Non-party

 Full style: Malik al-Mamlaka al-`Arabiyya al-Sa`udiyya ("King of of Saudi Arabia" [literally: Saudi Arab Kingdom]); from 1986 ruler's name is prefixed with: Khadim al-Haramayn ash-Sharifayn ("Servant of the Two Noble Sanctuaries [Mecca and Medina]"). 

Political Parties Are Not Allowed.

Territorial Disputes: Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the now fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue discussions on a maritime boundary with Iran; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir








  Ben Cahoon