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Iran
 
[Persia Flag, Safavid
                                    dynasty,1524-1736]
           1524 - 1736 Safavid dynasty

[Persia Flag, Safavid
                                    dynasty,1736-1747/86]
          1736 - 1747/86 Safavid dynasty

[Persia flag, Afsharid dynasty,
                                    1736-1750]
             1736 - 1750 Afsharid dynasty

[Persia flag, Zand dynasty,
                                    1750-1794]
               1750 - 1794 Zand dynasty
 
[Persia flag, Qajar dynasty,
                                    1794-1797]
               1794 - 1797 Qajar dynasty
[Persia flag, Qajar dynasty,
                                    1797-1848]
               1797 - 1848 Qajar dynasty
 
[Persia flag, Qajar dynasty,
                                    1848-1896]
                      1848 - 1896
 
[Persia flag, Qajar dynasty,
                                    1896-1907]
                     1896 - 1907
 
[Persia flag, Qajar dynasty,
                                    1907-1912]
                     1907 - 1912
 
[Persian State ensign,
                                    Qajar dynasty, 1912-1933]
                          1912 - 1933  State Flag

[Iranian State Flag,
                                    Pahlavi dynasty, 1933-1964]
                         1933 - 1964 State Flag 

[Iran State Flag,
                                    Pahlavi dynasty, 1964-1979]
                1964 - 5 Feb 1979 State Flag

[Iranian
                                    flag, 1979-1980 (civil flag
                                    1925-1979)]
                  5 Feb 1979 - 29 Jul 1980

[Iranian
                                    flag]
                    Adopted 29 Jul 1980


 Map of Iran  Hear National Anthem
"Soroud-e Melli-e Jomhouri-e
 Eslami-e Iran"
(National Anthem of the
Islamic Republic of Iran)
Adopted 1990
 Hear Former Anthem
"Payandeh Bada Iran"
 (Lasting Iran)

(24 Mar 1980-1990)
 Constitution
(3 Dec 1979)
Ethnolinguistic Map of Iran Hear Former Anthem
"Salamatih Shah"
(To the Health of the Shah)

(to 1933)
Hear Former Anthem
"Sorood-e Shahanshahi Iran"
(Imperial Salute of Iran)

(1933 - 5 Feb 1979)
Former Constitution
(9 Sep 1906-1955)
Capital: Tehran
(Shiraz 1750-1788;
Mashhad 1736-1750;
Isfahan 1598-1736;
Qazvin 1548-1598;
Tabriz 1295-1305,1469-1548)
Currency: Iranian Rial
(IRR) 
National Holidays: 1 Apr (1979)
 Republic  Day
-----------------------------------
11 Feb (1979)
Revolution Day
Population: 79,853,900 (2013)
GDP: $987.1 billion (2013)
Exports: $61.2 billion (2013)
Imports: $64.4 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Persian 34.9%, Azeri 15.9%, Kurd 13%, Luri 7.2%,
Gilaki 5.1%, Mazandarani 5.1%, Afghan 2.8%, Arab 2.5%,
Baloch, Turkmen, and others 13.5% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 523,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 76 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim (official) 99.4% (Shia 90-95%, Sunni 5-10%),
other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian) 0.3%,
unspecified 0.4% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: BTWC, CICA, CP, CTBT (signatory), CWC, D-8, ECO, ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA (observer), ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, SAARC (observer), SCO (observer), UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Iran Index
Chronology

728 BC                     Kingdom of the Medes (Scythian rule 653-625).
550 BC - 330 BC            Persian (Achaemenid) Empire.
330 BC - 312 BC            Part of Macedonian (Greek) Empire.
312 BC - 247 BC            Part of Seleucid Empire
247 BC - 224 AD            Parthian Empire
224 AD - 651               Sassanid (Aryan) Empire
649 - 867                  Arab rule.
902 - 1118                 Fragmentation into several states (incl. Khurasan,
                             Tabristan, Kerman [to 1308], Mazandaran [to 
                             1475], Sistan [to c.1500], Fars [934-1287],
                             Azerbaijan [to 1230], Shiraz [1314-1393], 
                             Gilan [to 1060], Daylam [to 1062], and Jibal 
                             [to 1141]).
1118                       Part of Seljuk Sultanate.
1194 - 1221                Fragmentation into many states (s.a.), Khwarazam
                             dominant power.
1221                       Mongol domination of local vassal states.
1295                       (Mongol) Il-Khan Empire.
1343 - 1380                Period of fragmentation.
1379                       Timurid Empire (under Tamerlane 1379-1405).
1449 - 1458                Another period of fragmentation. 
1466 - Jul/Aug 1501        Renewed period of fragmentation.
Jul/Aug 1501               Kingdom or Empire of Persia (literally "The
                             [God-] Protected Realms of Iran").
Sep 1507 - Jan 1508        Portuguese occupy Hormuz.
 1 Apr 1515 -  3 May 1622  Portuguese occupy Hormuz.
12 Oct 1722 - 13 Nov 1729  Afghan occupation and rule.
12 Sep 1723 - 1734         Gilan, Mazandaran and Astarabad annexed to Russia.
1725 - 1729                Luristan and Persian Azerbaijan (Tabriz) regions
                             occupied by the Ottoman Empire.
 9 May 1755 - Apr 1803     Shah Esmail Rokh of Afshar dynasty loses control
                             of Persia, but retains control in Khorasan.
31 Aug 1907 -  8 Nov 1917  Russia and Britain partition Persia into spheres
                             of influence.
10 Jan 1915 -  8 Aug 1919  Occupied by Britain and Russia (to Nov 1917).
Jul 1916 - Mar 1917        Ottoman occupation of Kermanshah and Hamedan area.
1919 - 1921                De facto British protectorate.
 5 Jun 1920 - 23 Oct 1921  Secession of Gilan region.
21 Mar 1935                English name "Persia" officially changed to Iran.
25 Aug 1941 -  2 Mar 1946  Occupied by Britain and Soviet Union (see
                             under Iraq for British commanders).
12 Dec 1945 - 12 Dec 1946  Azerbaijan autonomous.
22 Jan 1946 - 15 Dec 1946  Kurdistan autonomous.
 5 Feb 1979                Iran (monarchy formally abolished 11 Feb 1979).
 1 Apr 1979                Islamic Republic of Iran

Imperial Exile
(1979-1980)
Republic in Exile
Azerbaijan
(1920, 1945-1946)
Gilan
(1722-34, 1920-21)
Khorasan
(1755-1803, 1921)
Kurdistan (Mahabad)
(1945-1946)
Hormuz
(1507-1622)
Khanates
  • Arabistan
  • Ardebil
  • Khoy
  • Linga
  • Mak
  • Mohammerah
  • Qaraei Khans
  • Sarab
  • Tabriz
  • Baluchistan
  • Allied Occupations
    (1915-17, 1941-46)
     
     

    Rahbars¹
     1 Jan 1980 -  3 Jun 1989  Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini        (b. 1902 - d. 1989) 
     4 Jun 1989 -              Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei      (b. 1939) 

     
    Shahs²
    (note that rules by members of different dynasties overlap)
    - Safawi dynasty -
    Jul/Aug 1501 - 23 May 1524 Esmail I                           (b. 1487 - d. 1524)
    23 May 1524 - 14 May 1576  Tahmasp I                          (b. 1514 - d. 1576)
    1524 -  5 Jul 1527         Div Sultan Rumlu -Regent           (d. 1527)
    1527 - 1530/31             Chuha Sultan Takkalu -Regent       (d. 1530/31)
    1530/31 - 1533             Husayn Khan Shamlu -Regent         (d. 1533)
    14 May 1576 - 23 May 1576  Haydar                             (d. 1576)  
    23 May 1576 - 24 Nov 1577  Esmail II                          (b. 1537 - d. 1577)
    11 Feb 1578 -  1 Oct 1588  Mohammad Khodabanda                (b. 1532 - d. 1565/96) 
     1 Oct 1588 - 19 Jan 1629  Abbas I                            (b. 1571 - d. 1629)
                                 (in opposition Apr 1581 - May 1581)
    28 Jan 1629 - 12 May 1642  Safi I                             (b. c.1611 - d. 1642)
    12 May 1642 - 25 Sep 1666  Abbas II                           (b. 1632 - d. 1666)
    12 May 1642 - 11 Oct 1645  Saru Taqi -Regent                  (d. 1645)
    1645 - 1653                Khalifa Soltan -Regent             (d. 1653) 
     1 Nov 1666 - 29 Jul 1694  Safi II                            (b. 1647/48 - d. 1694)
                                 (from 20 Mar 1668, Sulayman I Safi)
     6 Aug 1694 - 23 Oct 1722  Soltan Hoseyn I                    (b. c.1668 - d. 1726)
    10 Nov 1722 -  2 Sep 1732  Tahmasp II                         (b. 1704 - d. 1740)
                                 (in opposition to 8 Nov 1726, Jul 1728 - 9 Dec 1729)
     8 Nov 1726 - Jul 1728     Sayyed Ahmad                       (d. 1728)
                                 (in opposition, in Kerman)
     2 Sep 1732 -  8 Mar 1736  Abbas III                          (b. 1732 - d. 1740)
     2 Sep 1732 -  8 Mar 1736  Nader Khan Afshar -Regent          (b. 1688 - d. 1747)
    1747 - 1757                Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar         (b. 1722 - d. 1757) 
                                 (in opposition, in Astarabad)
    13 Jan 1750 - 20 Mar 1750  Soleyman II (in Mashhad)           (b. 1714 - d. 1763)
    1749 - 1756                Azad Khan Afghan                   (d. 1781)
                                 (in opposition, in Tabriz)
    29 Jun 1750 - 1773         Esmail III                         (b. 1733 - d. 1773)
                                 (in opposition from Jun 1750, in Isfahan)
    1753 - Jun 1753            Soltan Hoseyn II (in opposition)
    1780 - 1786                Abu al-Fath Mohammad               (d. 1794) 
                                 (in opposition)
    - Ghalzay dynasty -
    23 Oct 1722 - 25 Apr 1725  Mahmud                             (b. c.1699 - d. 1725)
    26 Apr 1725 - 13 Nov 1729  Ashraf                             (b. c.1700 - d. 1730)
    - Afshar dynasty -
     8 Mar 1736 - 20 Jun 1747  Nader (Nader Khan Afshar)          (s.a.)
     6 Jul 1747 - 29 Sep 1748  Adel                               (b. 1719 - d. 1749)
    29 Sep 1748 - May 1749     Ebrahim                            (b. c.1724 - d. 1749)
                                 (to 8 Dec 1748 regent, as Mohammad Ebrahim Khan)
    May 1749 - 30 Dec 1749     Esmail Rokh (1st time)             (b. 1734 - d. 1796)
                                 (in opposition from 1 Oct 1748)
    Jun 1750 - Jun 1750        Esmail Rokh (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                                 (in opposition)
     9 May 1755 - 14 May 1796  Esmail Rokh (3rd time)             (s.a.)
                                 (in opposition, in Khorasan)
    Wakil al-Ra`aya (Protector of the People)²
    - Zand dynasty -
    1773 -  1 Mar 1779         Mohammad Karim Khan Zand           (b. c.1707 - d. 1779)
                                 (in Shiraz)
     6 Mar 1779 - 1779         Abu al-Fath Khan Zand (1st time)   (b. 1755 - d. 1787)
                               - jointly with -
     6 Mar 1779 - 19 Jun 1779  Mohammad Ali Khan Zand             (b. 1760 - d. 1779)
    19 Jun 1779 - 22 Aug 1779  Abu al-Fath Khan Zand (2nd time)   (s.a.)
    22 Aug 1779 - 14 Mar 1781  Mohammad Sadeq Khan Zand           (d. 1781)
    15 Mar 1781 - 11 Feb 1785  Ali Morad Khan Zand                (d. 1785)
    12 Feb 1785 - 17 Feb 1785  Baqer Khan Khorasakani
    18 Feb 1785 - 23 Jan 1789  Jaafar Khan Zand                   (d. 1789)
    23 Jan 1789 - 10 May 1789  Seyd Morad Khan Zand               (d. 1789)
    10 May 1789 - Mar 1794     Lotf Ali Khan Zand                 (b. c.1766 - d. 1794) 
    Shahs²
    Mar 1794 - 30 Oct 1794     Lotf Ali Khan Zand                 (s.a.)
    - Qajar dynasty -
    12 Mar 1786 - 17 Jun 1797  Mohammad Qajar                     (b. 1742 - d. 1797)
                                 (regent as Aga Mohammad Khan Qajar to 14 May 1796)
    17 Jun 1797 - 24 Oct 1834  Fath Ali Qajar                     (b. 1772 - d. 1834)
                                 (regent as Baba Khan Qajar to 29 Jul 1797)
     9 Nov 1834 -  5 Sep 1848  Mohammad Qajar                     (b. 1808 - d. 1848)
    14 Nov 1834 - 16 Dec 1834  Ali Qajar (in rebellion, in Tehran)(b. 1789 - d. 1854)
     5 Dec 1834 - 29 Mar 1835  Hossein Ali Qajar                  (b. 1789 - d. 1835)
                                 (in rebellion, in Shiraz)
    13 Sep 1848 -  1 May 1896  Naser ad-Din Qajar                 (b. 1831 - d. 1896)
     2 May 1896 -  8 Jan 1907  Mozaffar ad-Din Qajar              (b. 1853 - d. 1907)
     8 Jan 1907 - 16 Jul 1909  Mohammad Ali Qajar (1st time)      (b. 1872 - d. 1925)
    16 Jul 1909 -  3 Oct 1925  Soltan Ahmad Qajar                 (b. 1898 - d. 1930)
                                 (left the country 2 Dec 1923, in exile 27 Feb 1930)
    18 Jul 1909 - 22 Sep 1910  Ali Reza Khan-e Qajar              (b. 1847 - d. 1910)
                                 Quyunlu, Naib as-Sultana, 
                                 Azad ul-Mulk -Regent
    23 Sep 1910 - 21 Jul 1914  Abul Qasim Khan Qarazuglu,
                                 Nasir al-Mulk -Regent
    17 Jun 1911 - Sep 1911     Mohammad Ali Qajar (2nd time)      (s.a.) 
                                 (in rebellion)
    24 Mar 1924 - 31 Oct 1925  Prince Mohammad Hassan             (b. 1899 - d. 1943)
                                 Mirza -Regent
    - Pahlavi dynasty -
    31 Oct 1925 - 16 Sep 1941  Reza Pahlavi                       (b. 1878 - d. 1944)
                                 (Provisional Head of State to 15 Dec 1925;
                                  exiled to Mauritius 16 Sep 1941)
    16 Sep 1941 - 11 Feb 1979  Mohammad Reza Pahlavi              (b. 1919 - d. 1980)
                                 (from 15 Sep 1965, Aryamehr)
                                 (in exile 16-22 Aug 1953 [Baghdad; from 18 Aug 1953, Rome]
                                 and from 16 Jan 1979 [Egypt; from 22 Jan 1979, Morocco])
    16 Jan 1979 - 22 Jan 1979  Sayyed Jalaleddin Tehrani          (b. 1893 - d. 1987) 
                                 (chairman Regency Council)
    Leader of the Revolution
     5 Feb 1979 -  4 Feb 1980  Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini        (s.a.)               Non-party
    Presidents
     4 Feb 1980 - 22 Jun 1981  Abolhassan Bani-Sadr               (b. 1933)            Non-party
    22 Jun 1981 -  2 Aug 1981  Provisional Presidential Council
                               - Ayatollah Mohammad Hossein       (b. 1928 - d. 1981)  IRP
                                   Beheshti (to 28 Jun 1981) 
                               - Ayatollah Abdolkarim Moussavi-   (b. 1932)            IRP
                                   Ardabili (1st time)
                                   (from 29 Jun 1981)
                               - Hojatolislam Ali Akbar Hashemi   (b. 1934)            IRP
                                   Rafsanjani (1st time) 
                               - Mohammad Ali Raja´i              (b. 1933 - d. 1981)  IRP
     2 Aug 1981 - 30 Aug 1981  Mohammad Ali Raja´i                (s.a.)               IRP
    30 Aug 1981 - 13 Oct 1981  Provisional Presidential Council
                               - Hojatolislam Mohammad Reza       (b. 1931)
                                   Mahdavi-Kani (from 2 Sep 1981)
                               - Ayatollah Abdolkarim Moussavi-   (s.a.)               IRP
                                   Ardabili (2nd time)
                               - Hojatolislam Ali Akbar Hashemi   (s.a.)               IRP
                                   Rafsanjani (2nd time) 
    13 Oct 1981 - 17 Aug 1989  Hojatolislam Sayyed Mohammed Ali   (s.a.)               IRP
                                 Khamenei (from 4 Jun 1989, Ayatollah
                                 Sayyed Mohammed Ali Khamenei) 
    17 Aug 1989 -  3 Aug 1997  Hojatolislam Ali Akbar Hashemi     (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 Rafsanjani 
     3 Aug 1997 -  3 Aug 2005  Hojatolislam Mohammad Khatami      (b. 1943)            Non-party
     3 Aug 2005 -  3 Aug 2013  Mahmoud Ahmadinejad                (b. 1956)          AII/Non-party
     3 Aug 2013 -              Hojatolislam Hassan Rouhani        (b. 1948)            JRM  

     
    Grand Viziers (chief ministers)
    1576 - 1577                Mirza Makhdum Khan
    1577 - 1583                Mirza Salman Jabiri                (d. 1583)
    1583? - 1590               Mirza Mohammad Kirmani             (d. 1590)
    1591 - 1610/11             Hatim Bek Ordubadi                 (d. 1610/11)
    1610/11 - 1621             Mirza Abu Talib Khan Ordubadi
     
                                 (Urdubadi)
    1621 - 1624                Salman Khan Ustajlu
    1624 - 1632                Khalifa Soltan al-Ulama
    1632 - 1633                Mirza Abu Talib Khan Ordubadi 
                                 (Urdubadi)
    Aug 1633 - 1645            Mirza Mohammad Taqi Saru Taqi      (d. 1645)
    14 Oct 1645 - 1653         Khalifa Soltan                     (s.a.)
    1654 - 1661                Mohammad Bek
    11 Mar 1661 - 1669         Mohammad Mahdi Karaki
    1669 - 1689                Ali Khan Zangana                   (d. 1689)  
    1672 - 1673                Vacant
    1689 - 1691                Mohammad Yusuf Qazvini
    1691 - 1699                Mirza Muhammad Tahir Qazvini Wahid (d. 1699)
    1699 - 1707                Mohammad Mu'min Khan Shamlu 
    1707 - 1715                Shah Quli Khan Zanganeh 
    1715 - Dec 1721            Fath Ali Khan Daghestani 
    Jan 1721 - 1722            Mohammad Quli Khan Bigdili Shamlu 
                                 (for Soltan Hoseyn I)
    23 Oct 1722 - 25 Apr 1725  Amanollah Khan (for Mahmud Ghalzay)
    10 Nov 1722 - 11 Oct 1726  Fath Ali Khan Qajar                (b. 1668 - d. 1726)
                                 (for Tahmasp II)
    12 Oct 1726 - 13 Nov 1729  Mohammad Ali Khan Qouler Aqassi

                                 (for Tahmasp II)
    1729 -  8 Mar 1736         Nader Khan Afshar                  (s.a.)
                                 (later Nader Shah)(for Thmasp II)
    1736 - 1747                Mirza Ali Akbar Shirazi                            
                                 (for Nader Shah)
    Viceroys (Nayeb-os-Saltaneh)
    1747 - 1748                Mir Sayyed Mohammad Marashi        (s.a.)
                                 (later Sulaiman II)(
    for Adel Shah)
    31 Dec 1749 -  9 Jan 1750  Amir Alam Khan Khozaima (1st time)
                                 (for Sulaiman II)
    10 Jan 1750 - Mar 1750     Yusef Ali Khan Jalayir             (d. 1750)
                                 (for
    Esmail Rokh)
    Mar 1750 -  2 Dec 1754     Amir Alam Khan Khozaima (2nd time) (d. 1754)
                                 (for Esmail Rokh)
    Grand Viziers (Sadr-i-A'zam)
    1750 - 1751                Ali Mardan Khan Bakhtiari-Chahar
                                 Lang (for Esmail III)
    1751 - 1779                Vacant
    1779 - 13 Jun 1779         Mohammad Zaki Khan Zand            (d. 1779)
                                 (for Abu al-Fath Khan Zand and Mohammad Ali Khan Zand)
    Jun 1779 - Aug 1779        Mohammad Sadeq Khan Zand           (s.a.)
    1779 - 14 Apr 1801         Haji Ibrahim Khan Zand Kalantar    (d. 1901) 
                                 Shirazi
    1801 - 1819                Mirza Mohammad Shafi Mazanderani
    1819 - 1823                Haji Mohammad Hossein Khan Nezam
                                 al-Daula
    1823 - 1825                Adallah Khan Sadr Esfahani Amin
                                 al-Daula (1st time)
    1825 - 1828                Allah Yar Khan Qajar Devehlu Asaf
                                 al-Daula
    1828 - 1834                Adallah Khan Sadr Esfahani Amin
                                 al-Daula (2nd time)
    1834 - 1835                Mirza Abul Qasim Qa'im Maqam II
    1835 - 1848                Haji Mirza Aghasi Iravani
    12 May 1848 - 13 Nov 1851  Mirza Taghi Khan Farahani          (b. 1807 - d. 1852)
    Nov 1851 - 1858            Mirza Aqa Khan-e Nouri             (b. c.1807 - d. 1865)
    1858 - Dec 1871            Post abolished
    Premiers
    12 Dec 1871 - Sep 1873     Mirza Hossein Khan Moshir          (b. 1828 - d. 1881)
                                 ud-Dowlah
    Sep 1873 - 1880            Mirza Yusuf Khan Astiani           (d. 1886)
                                 (1st time)
     1 Jul 1880 - 1884         Kamran Mirza                       (b. 1856 - d. 1927)
    1884 - Apr 1886            Mirza Yusuf Khan Astiani           (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    13 Mar 1887 - 11 Nov 1896  Mirza Ali Asghar Khan Amin         (b. 1856 - d. 1907)
                                 al-Sultan (1st time)
    Nov 1896 - Feb 1897        Vacant
    Feb 1897 - Jun 1898        Ali Khan Amin ud-Daula
     1 Jun 1898 - 24 Jan 1904  Mirza Ali Asghar Khan Amin         (s.a.)
                                 al-Sultan (2nd time) 
    24 Jan 1904 - 31 Jul 1906  Prince Sultan Abdol Majid Mirza    (b. 1845 - d. 1926)
     
    1 Aug 1906 - 17 Mar 1907  Mirza Nasrullah Khan Moshir        (b. 1840 - d. 1907)  NM
                                 ud-Dowlah
    Mar 1907 - 30 Apr 1907     Soltan Ali Khan Vazir-e-Afkham     (b. 1867 - d. 1918)
    Prime ministers
     1 May 1907 - 31 Aug 1907  Mirza Ali Asghar Khan Amin         (s.a.)               NM
                                 al-Sultan
     9 Sep 1907 - 13 Sep 1907  Mirza Nasrullah Khan, Mushir       (s.a.)               NM
                                 ud-Daula 
    25 Oct 1907 - 13 Dec 1907  Abul Qasim Khan Qarazuglu, 
                                 Nasir ul-Mulk (1st time)
    21 Dec 1907 - 21 May 1908  Hossein Quli Khan Mafi, Nizam      (b. 1869 - d. 1947)  NM
                                 as-Sultana
    21 May 1908 -  7 Jun 1908  Murtaza Quli Khan, Sani ud-Daula   (b. 1856 - d. 1911)  NM
     7 Jun 1908 - 29 Apr 1909  Amir Mustafa Quli Khan-e Qajar     (b. 1872 - d. 1935)
                                 Quyunlu, Mushir as-Sultana 
    29 Apr 1909 - May 1909     Prince Kamran Mirza, Amir-i-Kabir  (b. 1856 - d. 1910) 
     3 May 1909 - 16 Jul 1909  Saad ad-Daula (1st time)           (b. 1851 - d. 1931)  NM
                                (= Najaf Qoli Khan Bakhtiari)
    16 Jul 1909 -  6 Oct 1909  Abul Qasim Khan Qarazuglu, 
                                 Nasir ul-Mulk (2nd time)
     6 Oct 1909 - Jul 1910     Mohammed Wali Khan Tuknakabuni,    (b. 1846 - d. 1926)  NM
                                 Sipahdar ul-Azam (1st time) 
    15 Jul 1910 - 19 Jul 1911  Mirza Hassan Khan (1st time)       (b. 1874 - d. 1932)  NM
    19 Jul 1911 - 26 Jul 1911  Mohammed Wali Khan Tuknakabuni,    (s.a.)               NM
                                 Sipahdar ul-Azam (2nd time)   
    26 Jul 1911 - 23 Nov 1912  Najaf Quli Khan, Samsam as-Sultana (b. 1850 - d. 1930)  NM
                                 (1st time) 
    23 Nov 1912 - 11 Jan 1913  Saad ad-Daula (2nd time)           (s.a.)               NM
    11 Jan 1913 -  1 Jul 1914  Mirza Mohammed Ali Khan Ala-       (b. 1872 - d. 1918)  Non-party
                                 as-Soltana 
     1 Jul 1914 -  1 Feb 1915  Mirza Hassan Khan (2nd time)       (s.a.)               NM/Eted
     1 Feb 1915 - Apr 1915     Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza         (b. 1858 - d. 1939)  Eted
                                 Farmanfarma (1st time) 
    Apr 1915 -  2 Jul 1915     Mirza Hassan Khan (3rd time)       (s.a.)               NM
     2 Jul 1915 - 18 Aug 1915  Prince Sultan Abdol Majid Mirza    (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 (1st time) 
    18 Aug 1915 - 25 Dec 1915  Mirza Hassan Khan (4th time)       (s.a.)               Eted
    25 Dec 1915 -  1 Mar 1916  Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza         (s.a.)               Eted
                                 Farmanfarma (2nd time) 
    Jan 1916 - Nov 1918        Reza Qoli Khan (provisional; in 
                                 Kermanshah to Mar 1916, in Qasr-e
                                 Shirin Mar-Apr 1916, Baghdad Apr -
                                 Jul 1916 Baghdad, Jul 1916-Mar 1917
                                 Kermanshah, then in Constantinople;
                                 in dissidence) 
     1 Mar 1916 -  7 Jul 1917  Mohammed Wali Khan Tuknakabuni,    (s.a.)               NM
                                 Sipahdar ul-Azam (3rd time)  
    28 Dec 1917 - 20 May 1918  Prince Sultan Abdol Majid Mirza    (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 (2nd time) 
    20 May 1918 - 20 Aug 1918  Najaf Quli Khan, Samsam as-Sultana (s.a.)               NM
                                 (2nd time)
    20 Aug 1918 - 16 Oct 1920  Mirza Hassan Khan (6th time)       (s.a.)               Eted
    16 Oct 1920 - 21 Feb 1921  Fathollah Khan Akbar               (b. 1878 - d. 1967)  Non-party
    21 Feb 1921 -  4 Jun 1921  Seyed Ziyaddin Tabatabai           (b. 1888 - d. 1969)  HV
     4 Jun 1921 - 12 Oct 1921  Ahmad Qawam as-Saltana (1st time)  (b. 1876 - d. 1955)  HDI
    12 Oct 1921 - 20 Jan 1922  Shaw as-Saltana
    20 Jan 1922 - 11 Jun 1922  Mirza Hassan Khan Pirnia           (b. 1872 - d. 1935)  NM
                                 (1st time) 
    11 Jun 1922 - 30 Jan 1923  Ahmad Qawam as-Saltana (2nd time)  (s.a.)               HDI
    30 Jan 1923 - 15 Jun 1923  Mirza Hassan Khan (7th time)       (s.a.)               Eted
    15 Jun 1923 - 28 Oct 1923  Mirza Hassan Khan Pirnia           (s.a.)               NM
                                 (2nd time) 
    28 Oct 1923 -  1 Nov 1925  Mohammad Reza Khan (Reza Pahlavi)  (s.a.)               Mil
     1 Nov 1925 - 13 Jun 1926  Mohammad Ali Khan Forughi          (b. 1877 - d. 1942)  HTj
                                 (1st time)
    13 Jun 1926 -  2 Jun 1927  Mirza Hassan Khan (8th time)       (s.a.)               Eted
     2 Jun 1927 - 18 Sep 1933  Mahdi Quli Khan Hidayat            (b. 1864 - d. 1955)  HTj
    18 Sep 1933 -  3 Dec 1935  Mohammad Ali Khan Forughi          (s.a.)               HTj
                                 (2nd time)
     3 Dec 1935 - 26 Oct 1939  Mahmud Jam                         (b. 1885 - d. 1969)  HTj
    26 Oct 1939 - 26 Jun 1940  Ahmad Matin-Daftari                (b. 1896 - d. 1971)  HTj
    26 Jun 1940 - 27 Aug 1941  Ali Mansur (1st time)              (b. 1895 - d. 1974)  HTj
    27 Aug 1941 -  9 Mar 1942  Mohammad Ali Khan Forughi          (s.a.)               HTj
                                 (3rd time) 
     9 Mar 1942 -  9 Aug 1942  Ali Zohayli (1st time)             (b. 1896 - d. 1958)  HTj
     9 Aug 1942 - 15 Feb 1943  Ahmad Qawam as-Saltana (3rd time)  (s.a.)               HDI
    15 Feb 1943 -  6 Apr 1944  Ali Zohayli (2nd time)             (s.a.)               HTj
     6 Apr 1944 - 25 Nov 1944  Mohammad Said Maraghei (1st time)  (b. 1881 - d. 1973)  HDI
    25 Nov 1944 - 13 May 1945  Morteza Qoli Khan Bayat            (b. 1882 - d. 1955)  HTj
    13 May 1945 -  6 Jun 1945  Ebrahim Hakimi (1st time)          (b. 1869 - d. 1959)  HT
     6 Jun 1945 - 30 Oct 1945  Mohsen Sadr (acting)               (b. 1883 - d. 1962)  HS
    30 Oct 1945 - 28 Jan 1946  Ebrahim Hakimi (2nd time)          (s.a.)               HT
    28 Jan 1946 - 18 Dec 1947  Ahmad Qawam as-Saltana (4th time)  (s.a.)               HDI
    18 Dec 1947 - 29 Dec 1947  Sardar Fakher Hekmat               (b. 1890 - d. 1977)  HDI
    29 Dec 1947 - 13 Jun 1948  Ebrahim Hakimi (3rd time)          (s.a.)               HT
    13 Jun 1948 -  9 Nov 1948  Abdol Hossein Hajir                (b. 1897 - d. 1949)
     9 Nov 1948 - 23 Mar 1950  Mohammad Said Maraghei (2nd time)  (s.a.)               HDI
    23 Mar 1950 - 26 Jun 1950  Ali Mansur (2nd time)              (s.a.)               Htj
    26 Jun 1950 -  7 Mar 1951  Ali Razmara                        (b. 1901 - d. 1951)  Mil
    12 Mar 1951 - 30 Apr 1951  Hossein Ala (1st time)             (b. 1882 - d. 1964)  Mil
    30 Apr 1951 - 17 Jul 1952  Mohammad Mossadegh (1st time)      (b. 1882 - d. 1967)  NF
    17 Jul 1952 - 22 Jul 1952  Ahmad Qawam as-Saltana (5th time)  (s.a.)               HDI
    22 Jul 1952 - 19 Aug 1953  Mohammad Mossadegh (2nd time)      (s.a.)               NF
    19 Aug 1953 -  7 Apr 1955  Fazlollah Zahedi                   (b. 1897 - d. 1963)  Mil
     7 Apr 1955 -  3 Apr 1957  Hossein Ala (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Mil
     3 Apr 1957 - 31 Aug 1960  Manuchehr Ekbal                    (b. 1909 - d. 1977)  Mel
    31 Aug 1960 -  5 May 1961  Jaafar Sharif-Emami (1st time)     (b. 1910 - d. 1998)  Mel
     5 May 1961 - 19 Jul 1962  Ali Amini                          (b. 1905 - d. 1992)  HDI
    19 Jul 1962 -  7 Mar 1964  Asadullah Alam                     (b. 1919 - d. 1978)  Mar;1963 IN
     7 Mar 1964 - 26 Jan 1965  Hassan Ali Mansur                  (b. 1923 - d. 1965)  IN
    21 Jan 1965 -  7 Aug 1977  Amir Abbas Hoveida                 (b. 1919 - d. 1979)  IN;1975 Ras
                                 (acting to 27 Jan 1965 [for Mansur to 26 Jan 1965])
     7 Aug 1977 - 27 Aug 1978  Jamshid Amouzegar                  (b. 1923)            Ras
    27 Aug 1978 -  6 Nov 1978  Jaafar Sharif-Emami (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Ras
     6 Nov 1978 -  4 Jan 1979  Gholam Reza Azhari                 (b. 1917 - d. 2001)  Mil
     4 Jan 1979 -  5 Feb 1979³ Shahpur Bakhtiar                   (b. 1914 - d. 1991)  NF
     5 Feb 1979 -  6 Nov 1979  Mehdi Bazargan                     (b. 1907 - d. 1995)  NAI 
     6 Nov 1979 - 12 Aug 1980  Islamic Revolutionary Council 
    12 Aug 1980 -  4 Aug 1981  Mohammad Ali Raja´i                (s.a.)               IRP
     4 Aug 1981 - 30 Aug 1981  Hojatolislam Mohammad Javad        (b. 1933 - d. 1981)  IRP
                                 Bahonar 
     2 Sep 1981 - 31 Oct 1981  Ayatollah Mohammad Reza            (s.a.)               IRP
                                 Mahdavi-Kani 
    31 Oct 1981 -  3 Aug 1989  Mir Hossein Moussavi               (b. 1941)            IRP
     3 Aug 1989                Post Abolished
     

    Democratic Islamic Republic of Iran in Exile

    [Iran flag 1979-1980]

    29 Jul 1981                Democratic Islamic Republic of Iran formed in exile in
                                 in Paris, in opposition
    to the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Presidents-Elect of the National Council of Resistance of Iran
    29 Jul 1981 - 10 Aug 1993  Abolhassan Bani-Sadr               (s.a.)               Non-party 
    10 Aug 1993 -              Maryam Rajavi (f)                  (b. 1953)            MEK
                                 (17 Jun - 3 Jul 2003, imprisoned in France)


    Imperial Rulers in Exile

    [Iranian State flag
                    1964-1979]

    Shahs 
    16 Jan 1979 - 27 Jul 1980  Mohammad Reza Pahlavi              (s.a.)
                                (16 Jan 1979, left Iran but did not abdicate;
                                 [Egypt; from 22 Jan 1979, Morocco; then Panama
                                 the U.S. and finally Egypt]
    27 Jul 1980 - 31 Oct 1980  Shahbanou Farah 
                                 Pahlavi -Dowager Empress-Regent  (b. 1938)
    31 Oct 1980 - ....         Reza II Cyrus Pahlavi              (b. 1960)
                                 ([s.a.] in Egypt, then U.S. exile)
     

    Allied Occupations
     

    Commander of British forces
    1915 - 1920                Lionel Charles Dunsterville        (b. 1865 - d. 1946)
    25 Aug 1941 -  2 Mar 1946  see British Commanders in Iraq
     
    Commander of the Russian Force
    10 Jan 1915 -  Nov 1915     Foma Ivanovich Nazarbekov         (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
    Commander of the Russian Expeditionary Force in Persia
    Nov 1915 - 1918             Nikolay Nikolayevich Baratov      (b. 1865 - d. 1932) 

    Commanders of Soviet occupation forces
    (subordinated to commanders of Transcaucasian military district in Tiblisi)
    25 Aug 1941 - 16 Dec 1941  Aleksandr Alexandrovich Khadeyev   (b. 1894 - d. 1957)
                               + Vasiliy Vasilyevich Novikov      (b. 1898 - d. 1965)
                                 (1st time)(to 19 Oct 1941)
    30 Jul 1941 - 19 Oct 1941  Konstantin Fyodorovich Baronov     (b. 1890 - d. 1943)
    19 Oct 1941 - 18 Dec 1941  Andrey Alexandrovich Kharitonov    (b. 1895 - d. 1967)
                                 (acting)
    18 Dec 1941 - 15 Apr 1942  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Novikov        (s.a.) 
                                 (2nd time)
    15 Apr 1942 - May? 1945    Fyodor Nikitich Remezov            (b. 1896 - d. 1990)
    1945 -  2 Mar 1946         ....

    Central Powers Occupation

    Ottoman Commanders in Persia
    Mar 1915 - Oct 1915        Hüseyin Rauf Orbay                 (b. 1881 - d. 1964)
    Apr 1916 - Oct 1918        Khalil Pasha                       (b. 1882 - d. 1957)
    1917 - 18 Oct 1918         Mustafa Nuri Pasha                 (b. 1889 - d. 1949)

     ¹Often called spiritual leaders, but the term rahbar that appears in the constitution simply means "leader." Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (s.a.) retained the paramount leadership from 1979 to his death in 1989 as "Guide of the Revolution", with supreme religious and political power.

     ²full style: Shahanshah-i Iran ("Emperor of Iran"; literally "King of Kings of Iran"); in occasional official use until 3 Oct 1925: Padshah-i kull-i Mamslik-i Iran ("Great King of All the Realms of Iran"). The rulers of the Zand dynasty refused (with one exception as noted) the style Shahanshah. The founding ruler adopted the style Wakil al-Ra`aya (roughly, "Protector of the People"); it appears that his successors used the same style, although documentation is obscure.

     ³Bakhtiar initially did not recognize Khomeini's appointment of Bazargan as prime minister
    and resigned only on 11 Feb 1979.

    Territorial Disputes: United Arab Emirates disputes Iran's, 30 Nov 1971, occupation of Greater Tunb Island (called Tunb al Kubra in Arabic and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg by Iran) and Lesser Tunb Island (called Tunb as Sughra in Arabic and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek by Iran); Iran protests Afghanistan's limiting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought; Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey
     

    Party abbreviations: AII = Abadgaran-e Iran-e Islami (Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, conservative Islamist, est.2003); JRM = Jame'e-ye Rowhaniyyat-e Mobarez (Combatant Clergy Association, pragmatic conservative, clerical, est.1977); MEK = Sazeman-e-Mojaheddin-e-Khalq-e-Iran (People's Mujaheddin Organization of Iran, militant, illegal, est.1965); NAI = Nehzat-e Azadi-e Iran (Iran Liberation Movement, islamic socialist, anti-Shah opposition 1961-79, banned 1965-79, est.1961); Mil = Military;
    - Former parties: Eted = Etedalion (Moderates, conservative constitutionalist, est.1910); HDI = Hezb-e Demokrat-e Iran (Democratic Party of Iran, radical constitutionalist, est.1910); HS = Hizb-e Socialyist (Socialist Party, socialist, 1944-1946); HT = Hezb-e Taraqqi (Party for Progress); HTj = Hezb-e Tajaddod (Revival Party, secular, reformist, 1920-1960); HV = Hezb-e Vatan (Homeland Party); IN = Iran Novin (New Iran Party, secular, monarchist, center-right, Sep 1963 - 2 Mar 1975, merged into Ras); IRP = Hezb-e Jomhouriy-e Eslami (Islamic Republican Party, Khomieni personalist, authoritarian, Islamic republican, 18 Feb 1979 - 2 May 1987); Mel = Hezb-e Melliyoun (Nationalist Party, monarchist, government majority party 1958-1963, replaced by IN); Mar = Hezb-e Mardum (People's Party, monarchist, loyal opposition party, 1958-1975); NF = National Front of Iran (reformist, nationalist, center-left, est.1949, banned 1953-1961, from 1981); NM = Nehzat-e-Mashrooteh (Constitutional Movement, constitutionalist, est.1906); Ras = Hezb-e Rastakhiz (Resurgence Party, secular right, monarchist, merger of Mar and IN, 2 Mar 1975 - 1 Nov 1978)



    Gilan
    [Soviet
                      Republic of Gilan Flag]
              5 Jun 1920 - 23 Oct  1921
    Map of Gilan
    Capital: Rasht
    Population: N/A

    1567                       Annexed to Persia.
    Dec 1722                   Occupied by Russia.
    12 Sep 1723 - 1734         Gilan, Mazandaran and Astarabad annexed to Russia.
    18 May 1920 -  5 Sep 1920  Occupied by Soviet Russia.
    28 May 1920                Autonomy declared.
     5 Jun 1920                Secession as Soviet Republic of Gilan (officially 
                                 Persian Soviet Socialist Republic).
    23 Oct 1921                Re-incorporated into Persia.

    Russian Governors of Gilan (and from Sep 1723, Mazandaran and Astarabad) 
    Dec 1722 - 1723            Mikhail Athanasevich Matyushkin    (b. 1676 - d. 1737)
    23 Sep 1723 - 1732         V.I. Levashev
    Rulers
    20 May 1920 -  5 Jun 1920  Mohammed Amin Resulzadeh           (b. 1884 - d. 1955)
     5 Jun 1920 - 30 Jun 1920  Mirza Koochak Khan                 (b. 1880 - d. 1921)  NJ
    President
    Jul 1920 - 23 Oct 1921     Ihsan Allah Khan Doustdar          (b. 1883 - d. 1938)  HE

    Commissar of Soviet Russia
    1920 - 1921                Batirbek Abukov

    Party abbreviations: HE = Hezb-e Edalat (Party of Justice, Jun 1920 renamed Communist Party of Persia, banned 1921); NJ = Nehzat-e Jangal (Jungle ["Foresters"] Movement, liberal, 1914-1921)



    Khorasan (Khurasan)

    [Persian State ensign
                1905-1933]
               2 Apr 1921 - 6 Oct 1921
     
    Map of Khorasan
    Capital: Mashhad
    Population: N/A

    1506                       Part of Persia
    1724                       Khorasan governor Mahmud Sistani proclaims himself Shah
                                 of Khorasan with the dynasty name Kiyanid.
    1726                       Mahmud Sistanti is deposed by Shah Tahmasp II.
     9 May 1755                Shah Esmail Rokh of Afshar dynasty loses control of
                                 Persia but retains control over Khorasan province.
    Apr 1803                   Re-incorporated into Persia.
    1846 - 1851                Rebellion under Qajar prince Hasan Khan Salar.
     2 Apr 1921                Independent State of Khorasan (not recognized). 
     6 Oct 1921                Dissolved. 

    Shahs
    1724 - 1726                Mahmoud Kiyani (Mahmoud Sistani)   (d. 1726)
     9 May 1755 - 14 May 1796  Esmail Rokh (3rd time)             (b. 1734 - d. 1796)
    15 May 1796 - Apr 1803     Nadir Mirza                        (d. 1803)
    Governor-general
    1845 - 1851                Hasan Khan Salar (in rebellion)
    Governor (from Sep 1921, President of the National Committee of Khorasan)

     2 Apr 1921 -  6 Oct 1921  Mohammad Taghi Khan Pessyan        (b. 1888 - d. 1921)  Mil; NCK
     

    Grand Vizier
    1724 - 1726                Mahdi Khan
    Viceroys (style Nayeb-os-Saltaneh)
    1749                       Noor Mohammad Khan Afghan
    1749                       Amir Khan Qaraei
    1750                       Fereydoun Khan Gorji                (d. 1755)
    1750                       Yousef Khan Jalayir
    1750 - 1755                Amir Alam Khan Khozaima 
    1755                       Amir Khan Qaraei
    1755                       Fereydoun Khan Gorji                (d. 1755)
    1755 - 1768                Prince Nasrollah Mirza Afshar       (b. 1751 - d. 1786)
                                 (1st  time)
    1768                       Prince Nader Mirza Afshar (1st time)(d. 1803)
    1768 - 1775                Prince Nasrollah Mirza Afshar       (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    1775 - 1782                Prince Nader Mirza Afshar (2nd time)(s.a.)
    1782 - 1786                Prince Nasrollah Mirza Afshar       (s.a.)
                                 (3rd time)
    1786 - 1796                Prince Nader Mirza Afshar (3rd time)(s.a.)

    Party abbreviations: NCK = Komiteye Melli-ye Khorasan (National Committee of Khorasan, a coalition of two parties: Hezb-e Demokrat-e Khorasan [Democratic Party of Khorasan] and Hezb-e Soosiyalist-e Khorasan [Socialist Party of Khorasan], Sep 1921-1921); Mil = Military



    Azerbaijan 
     
    ["Azadistan" flag 1920]
                    1920 - 12 Sep 1920
     
    Flag of
                          Autonomous Azerbaijan 1946
                           1945 - 11 Dec 1946
     
    Map of Azerbaijan (Tabriz)
    National Anthem
    Text of   Anthem
    (1945-1946)
    Constitution
    Capital: Tabriz
    Currency: Tomans (IRZT);
    Iranian Rial (IRR)
    Local Holiday: 12 Dec (1945)
    Population: N/A
    GDP: $N/A 
    Ethnic groups: Azeri, Persian,
    Lur, Kurd, Turkic
    Total Armed Forces: N/A (1946)
    Soviet Troops: N/A (1946)
    Religions: Shi'a Muslim, Sunni
    Muslim, Zoroastrian 
    International Organizations: None

    24 Jun 1920                Provincial autonomy proclaimed in Tabriz, renamed
                                 Azadistan (Land of Freedom).
     4 Sep 1920                Autonomy ended by central government.
    12 Dec 1945                Autonomous government declared (National Autonomous State
                                 of Azerbaijan). 
    13 Jun 1946                Agreement with Iranian government, autonomy ended.
    12 Dec 1946                Fully disbanded by Iran.

    Chairman of the National Government
    24 Jun 1920 -  4 Sep 1920  Sheikh Mohammad Khiabani           (b. 1880 - d. 1920)  HDA
    President of the Assembly
    12 Dec 1945                Ali Shabestari                     (b. 1898 - d. ....)  HDAz
    Prime Minister (Bash Vazir)
    12 Dec 1945 - 13 Jun 1946  Cafar Pishavari                    (b. 1892 - d. 1947)  HDAz
                                 (Jafar Sayyid Pishevari

    Party abbreviations: HDA = Hezb-e Demokrat-e Azarbayejan (Democratic Party of Azerbaijan, Azeri nationalist, 1917-1920); HDAz = Hezb-e Demokrat-e Azarbayejan, Iran-e Ma (Democratic Party of Azerbaijan, Azeri nationalist, social-democratic, 1945-1960)



    Kurdistan

    [Kurdish Republic
                          at Mahabad, 1945-1946 (Iran)]
                17 Dec 1945 - 11 Dec 1946
    [Kurdish
                              Republic at Mahabad, 1945-1946
                              (Variant)(Iran)]
                            Variant

    Map of Kurdistan
    (Mahabad)
    Hear National Anthem
    "Ey Raqip" (Hey Enemy)
    Text of Anthem
    Adopted 1946
    Constitution
    Capital: Mahabad
    Currency: Iranian Rial
    (IRR)
    National Holiday: N/A
    Population: 200,000 (1946)
    GDP: $N/A
    Ethnic groups: Kurd, Persian,
    Arab, Lur
    Total Armed Forces: 10,000 (1946)
    Soviet Troops: 2,000,000 (1946)
    Religions: Sunni Muslim, 
    Christian, Zoroastrian
    International Organizations: None

    22 Jan 1946                State of Republic of Kurdistan proclaimed at Mahabad.
    15 Dec 1946                Disbanded by Iran.

    President
    22 Jan 1946 - 15 Dec 1946  Qazi Mohammad bin `Ali             (b. 1901 - d. 1947)  KDP

    Prime minister
    11 Feb 1946 - 15 Dec 1946  Haji Baba Sheikh                   (d. 1947)            KDP

    Party abbreviation: KDP = Parti Demokirati Kurdistani Eran / Hezb-e Demokrat-e Kordestan-e Iran (Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, Kurdish nationalist, social-democratic, est.1945)



    British Residency of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf at Bushire
    [Flag of the United
                      Kingdom]
                        2 Jul 1763 - 1948
    Note: During this period the "Persian Gulf" was referred to as "Arabian Gulf" or simply
    the "Gulf" by the British to distance themselves from the term "Persian" which was viewed as implying Persian sovereignty over the gulf.

     2 Jul 1763                British Residency established at Bushire (Bushehr) in Persia
                                 by the British East India Company.
    1769 - 1775                Residency in abeyance.
     8 Jan 1820 - 15 Mar 1820  Treaty with the "Trucial Coast States" and Bahrain,
                                 abolishing slave trade and forbidding piracy.
    Jul 1820 - Dec 1822        British agents for the Lower Gulf stationed at Qishm Island
                                 in Persia.
    1822                       Persian Gulf Residency established by Britain.
    1822 - 1873                Subordinated to the governor of Bombay.
     9 Dec 1856 - 1857         British occupy Bushire.
    1873 - 1946                Subordinated to British India (from 1946 to resident in Bahrain).
     8 Aug 1915 - 16 Oct 1915  British occupy Bushire.
    1948                       Residency abolished.
     

    Agents 
    Apr 1763 - 1767            Benjamin Jarvis
    Jul 1767 - 1767            William Bowyear
    Nov 1767 - 1769            James Morely
                                 (acting to Jan 1768)
    1769 - 1775                Vacant
    May 1775 - 1780            John Beaumont
    Jan 1781 - 1787?           Edward Galley
    Jun 1787 - 1792            Charles Watkins

    Oct 1792 - Sep 1798        Nicholas Hankey Smith (1st time)   (b. 1771 - d. 1837) 
    Oct 1798 - 1803            Mirza Mahdi Ali Khan (native agent)
    Apr 1803 - Feb 1804        Jonathan Henry Lovett              (b. 1779 - d. 1805)
    Feb 1804 - Mar 1804        Samuel Manesty (self-appointed)    (b. 1758 - d. 1812)
    Mar 1804 - 1807            William Bruce (1st time)(acting)
    May 1807 - 1808            Nicholas Hankey Smith (2nd time)   (s.a.) 
    Jul 1808 - Sep 1808        C. Pasley (
    acting)
    Sep 1808 - Dec 1808        William Bruce (2nd time)(acting)
    Dec 1808 - May 1809        Andrew Jukes (in charge)           (b. 1774 - d. 1821)
    May 1809 - Apr 1810        William Bruce (3rd time)(
    acting)
    Apr 1810 - May 1810        Stephen Babington (acting)
    May 1810 - Sep 1810        William Bruce (4th time)(acting)
    Sep 1810 - Oct 1810        Nicholas Hankey Smith (3rd time)   (s.a.) 
    Oct 1810 - Apr 1812        William Bruce (5th time)
    Apr 1812 - Nov 1812        Robert Taylor (
    acting)
    Nov 1812 - Aug 1813        William Bruce (6th time)
    Aug 1813 - Apr 1814        James Orton (acting)
    Apr 1814 - Nov 1819        William Bruce (7th time)
    Nov 1819 - Jan 1820        James Dow (1st time)(
    acting)
    Jan 1820 - Jun 1820        William Bruce (8th time)
    Jun 1820 - Jan 1822        James Dow (2nd time)(acting)
    Jan 1822 - Mar 1822        John Tod (acting)
    Mar 1822 - Jul 1822        William Bruce
    (9th time)
    Jul 1822 - Sep 1822        .... (broker and linguist) (acting)
    Sep 1822 - Dec 1822        William Bruce
    (10th time)
    Political residents
    1904 - 1948                the Chief political residents of the
                               Arabian (Persian) Gulf (see Bahrain)


    Agents for the Lower Gulf (at Qishm Island)
    Jul 1820 - 1821            Thomas Perronet Thompson            (b. 1783 - d. 1869)
    Mar 1821 - 1821            F. Faithful (1st time)
    Jun 1821 - 1821            Andrew Jukes                        (s.a.)
    Nov 1821 - Dec 1822        F. Faithful (2nd time)(acting)



    Hormuz

    [1667 flag of
                    Portugal]

    Sep 1507 - Jan 1508        Portuguese occupation of Hormuz (Ormuz) as Fort Nossa Senhora
                                 da Victoria.
     1 Apr 1515                Hormuz (Ormuz) Island (renamed Nossa Senhora da Conceiçao)
                                 and nearby Persian coast
                                 a Portuguese possession (capital at Gambaroun, renamed Comorao
                                 [later Bandar Abbas]) which also includes Muscat
                                 to 26 Jan 1650 and Bahrain Jun 1521 - 1602)
                                (subordinated to Goa).
    1521 - 1621                Kingdom of Ormuz a Portuguese vassal.
     3 May 1622                Retaken by Persia.

    Shahs
    1475 - 1505                Salghur Shah I
    1505 - 1507                Turan Shah III
    1507 - 1513                Seyf al Din Abu Nasr

    1513 - 1521                Turan Shah IV                      (d. 1521)
    1521 - 1534                Soltan Mohammad Shah II
    1534 - 1543                Mozaffar ad-Din Salghur Shah II
    1543 - 1564                Fakhr ad-Din Turan Shah V
    1565                       Soltan Mohammad Shah III
    1565 - 1597                Farrokh Shah I
    1597                       Turan Shah VI
    1597 - 1602                Farrokh Shah II
    1602 - 1609                Firuz Shah
    1609 - 1621                Mohammad Shah IV

    Portuguese Captains-major

    Sep 1507 - Jan 1508        Alfonso de Albuquerque             (b. 1460 - d. 1515)

    1515 - 1518                Pedro de Albuquerque
    1518 - 1521                Garcia Coutinho
    1521 - 1523                João Rodrigues de Noronha
    1523 - 1527                Diogo de Melo
    1527 - 1532                Cristóvão de Mendonça              (b. c.1475 - d. 153.)
    1532                       Belchior de Sousa Tavares

    1532 - 1536                António da Silveira de Meneses
    1536 - 1538                Pedro de Castelo Branco
    1539                       Fernão de Lima
    1540 - 1544                Martim Afonso de Melo Zuzarte
    1544 - 1547                Luís Falcão
                           (b. c.1510 - d. 15..)
    1547                       Manuel da Silviera
    1547 - 1550                Manuel de Lima                     (b. c.1510 - d. 15..)
    1550 - 1553                Álvaro de Noronha
    1553 - 1556                Antão de Noronha (1st time)
    1556 - 1557                Bernaldim de Sousa
    1557 - 1558                João de Atíde (1st time)
    1558 - 1560                Antão de Noronha (2nd time)
    1560                       Francisco Mascarenhas Palha
    1560 - 1563                João de Atíde (2nd time)
    1564? - 1566               Pedro de Sousa

    1566 - 1569                Luís de Melo
    1569 - 1572                Francisco Mascarenhas              (b. c.1520 - d. 15..)
    1572 - 1574                Fernão Teles
    1574 - 1577                Diogo de Meneses
    1580 - 1583                Gonçalo de Meneses
    1584 - 1587                Matias de Albuquerque
    1587 - 1589                João Gomes da Silva
    1589 - 1593                João Pereira
    1593 - 1597                Jeronimo Mascarenhas
    1597 - 1599                Antonio da Lima
    1600                       Antonio da Silveira
    1600 - 1605                Diogo Moniz Barreto
    1605 - 1607                Pedro Coutinho
    1607 - 1609                Henrique da Noronha
    1610 - 1612                Jorge de Castelo Branco
    1612 - 1613                Pedro de Brito de Lima
    1613 - 1619                Luís da Gama
    1619 - 1620                Luís de Sousa
    1620 - 1622                Francisco de Sousa
    1622 -  3 May 1622         Simão de Melo



    Iranian Khanates

    Arabistan (al-Ahwaz)

    1435                       With the fragmentation of the Timurid Empire, and the subsequent
                                 extension of control over western Persia by the Horde
                                 of the Black Sheep, the region between the Persian Gulf and the
                                 Zagros Mountains fell into the hands of the Musha'aha'ids, a
                                 Shi'ite millenarian movement.
    1514                       Re-incorporated into Persia (as autonomous province of Arabistan, 
                                 Musha'sha'id emirs continue as governors).
    20 Apr 1925                Emirs deposed, autonomy abolished.
    1936                       Renamed Khuzestan province.

    Emirs
    1686 - 1700                Sayyed Farajallah 
    1700 - 1707                Sayyed Ali III (1st time)
    1707 - 1715                Sayyed Abdallah
    1715 - 1720                Sayyed Ali III (2nd time)
    1720 - 1737                Sayyed Mohammed III
    1737 - 1747                Sayyed Farajallah (at Dawraq)
    1747 - 1762                Sayyed Muttalib (at Huwayza)
    17.. - 17..                Sayyed Mawla Judallah
    17.. - 17..                Sayyed Mawla Ismail
    c.1779                     Sayyed Mawla Muhsin
    17.. - 17..                Sayyed Mawla Mohammed I
    af.1797                    Sayyed Mawla Muttalib I
    .... - ....                Sayyed Mawla Abd al-Ali I 
    1841 - 1872                Sayyed Mawla Farajallah
    1872 - 1881                Sayyed Mawla Mohammed II
    1881 - c.1888              Sayyed Mawla Muttalib II           (d. 1895)
    c.1888                     Sayyed Mawla Nasrallah (at Huwayza)
    .... - 1910                Sayyed Mawla Abd al-Ali (1st time)
    1910 - 1924                Shaykh Khazal
    1924 - 20 Apr 1925         Sayyed Mawla Abd al-Ali (2nd time)



    Ardebil

    1502                       Part of Persia.
    1516                       Part of Ottoman Empire.
    1620                       Part of Persia.
    1723 - 1732                Annexed by Russia.
    1747                       Badiroghlu Khanate (at Ardebil)(in northwestern Iran east of
                                 Sarab and west of the southwest corner of the Caspian Sea).
    1808                       Re-incorporated into Persia.

    Khans
    1747 - 1763                Badir Khan
    1763 - 1792                Nazarali Khan                      (d. 1792)
                               - jointly with the following -
    1747 - 1808                Nasir Khan



    Khoy

    1502                       Part of Persia.
    1516                       Part of Ottoman Empire.
    1620                       Part of Persia.
    1747                       Donboli Khanate (at Khoy) (northwestern Iran, north of Lake
                                 Urmia, between Tabriz and Lake Van). 
    1813                       Re-incorporated into Persia.
    1827 - 1827                Russian occupation.
    1911                       Annexed to Ottoman Empire.
    1918                       Re-incorporated into Persia. 

    Khans 
    1747 - 1763                Sahbaz Khan II ibn Murtuzaqulu

                                 (ruler from 1744)
    1763 - 1786                Ahmad Khan Donboli                 (b. 1745 - d. 1786)
    1786 - 1797                Jafar Qoli Khan Donboli            (d. 1814)
    1797 - 1813                Hossein Qoil Khan Donboli



    Linga

    1805                       Qawasim clan from Sharjah settles a Bandar-i Linga.
    1887                       Abolished by Iran.

    Rulers (Hakim)
    1805 - 1829                Sheikh Qadib ibn Rashid al-Qasimi 
    1829 - 1854                Sheikh Said ibn Qadhib al-Qasimi 
    1854 - 1874                Sheikh Khalifa ibn Said al-Qasimi  (d. 1874)
    1874 - 1878                Sheikh Ali ibn Khalifa al-Qasimi   (d. 1878)
    1878 - 1885                Sheikh Yusuf ibn Muhammad al-Qasimi 
    1885 - 1887                Sheikh Qadib ibn Rashid al-Qasimi 



    Maku

    1502                       Part of Persia.
    1516                       Part of Ottoman Empire.
    1620                       Part of Persia.
    1747                       Kangarli Khanate (at Maku)(in extreme northwestern ran, northwest
                                 of Khoy and 60 miles south of Yerevan, Armenia).
    1829                       Re-incorporated into Persia, dynasty continues.
    1911                       Part of Ottoman Empire.
    1918                       Part of Persia. 
    1922                       Khanate abolished.

    Khans
    1747 - 1778                Ahmad Soltan  Kangarli
    1778 - 1822                Hasan Khan Kangarli
                               - jointly with the following - 
    1778 - 1822                Hossein Khan Kangarli
    1822 - 1866                Ali Khan Kangarli
    1866 - 1899                Haji Ismail Khan 
    1899 - 1922                Teymur Pasha Khan 
    1922                       Murtuzqulu Khan Bayat              (b. 1863 - d. 1923)


    Mohammerah

    17..                       Sheikdom of Mohammerah
    1924                       Autonomy abolished.

    Sheikhs
    17.. - 17..                'Ali Mardan al-Muhaisin
    17.. - 1819                Haji Yusuf bin Mardo               (d. 1819)
    1819 -  2 Nov 1881         Haji Jabir Khan bin Mardo          (b. c.1800 - d. 1881)
     2 Nov 1881 -  2 Jun 1897  Miza'al Khan ibn Haji Jabir Khan   (b. bf.1839 - d. 1897)
     2 Jun 1897 - 1924         Khaz'al Khan ibn Haji Jabir Khan   (b. 1863 - d. 1936)



    Qaraei
     
    1801 - 1816                Qaraei Khanate of Torbat-e-Heydariyeh and Khaf semi-independent
                                 under powerful tribal chief Eshaq Khan (who was Grand Vizier to
                                 the Khorasan governor Mohammad Wali Mirza Qajar).
    1813 - 1816                Eshaq Khan with support of various khans in Khorsan has Mohammad
                                 Wali Mirza deposed from his post and takes the position of
                                 governor of Khorasan.
    1823 - 1832                Mohammad Khan's independence revolts against Persia.
    1833                       Qaraei Khanate's independence ended by Persia.

    Khans
    1801 - 1816                Sardar Eshaq Khan Qaraei-Torbati   (b. 1735 - d. 1816) 
    1823 - 14 Jun 1833         Sardar Mohammad Khan Qaraei-Torbati(b. 1790 - d. c.1850)


    Qashqaei

    Khans
    1904 - 1933                Ismaeel Khan Soulat-od-Dowleh      (d. 1933)
                                 Qashqaei
    1933 - 19..                Nasser Khan Qashqaei



    Sarab

    1508                       Part of Persia.
    1747                       Shaqaqi Khanate (at Sarab)(northwestern Iran east of Tabriz).
    1797                       Re-incorporated into Persia.

    Khans
    1747 - 1786                'Ali Khan Shaqaqi
    1786 - 1797                Sadiq Khan Shaqaqi                 (d. 1800)



    Tabriz

    1747                       Khanate of Tabriz
    1802                       Re-incorporated into Persia.

    Khans
    1747 - 1784                Najafqoli Khan I (ruler from 1731) 
    1784 - 1786                Najafqoli Khan II
    1786 - 1797                Donboli
    1797 - 1802                Jafar Qoli Khan Donboli



    [West] Baluchistan

    1839                       Eastern Baluchistan within British sphere of influence;
                                 western Baluchistan under Persia.
    1849                       Persian army captures Bampur the capital of Narui dynasty. 
    Sep 1871                   Baluchistan formally split into two regions: East Baluchistan
                                 as British Baluchistan (see Pakistan princely states
                                 and West Baluchistan part of Persia. 

    Rulers
    1758 - Jun 1795            Nasir Khan Brahui                  (d. 1795) 

    Jun 1795 - ....            Mahmud Khan Brahui                 (b. 1791 - d. ....) 
    c.1810                     Mehrab Khan Narui 
    c.1839                     Mohammed Ali Khan 







    © Ben Cahoon