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Bangladesh 
 
[Pakistan]
              14 Aug 1947 - 16 Dec 1971 
 
[Bangladesh 1971 Flag]
              26 Mar 1971 - 13 Jan 1972 
 
[Flag of
                                    Bangladesh]
                  Adopted 13 Jan 1972 
 
Map of Bangladesh
Hear National Anthem
 "Amar Shonar Bangla"
(My Golden Bengal) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted Apr 1971
(provisional to 13 Jan 1972)
Constitution
(16 Dec 1972; suspended
24 Mar 1982 -
10 Nov 1986)
Capital: Dhaka
(Dacca 1608-1704, 1770-1983;
Mujibnagar 11 Apr 1971 -
16 Dec 1971; Murshidabad
 1704- 1770; Akbarbnagar
1595 - 1608)
Currency: Taka (BDT);
1942-1972 Pakistani Rupee

(PKR)

National Holiday: 26 Mar (1971)
Independence Day
Population: 163,654,860 (2013)
GDP: $324.6 billion (2013) 
Exports: $26.5 billion (2013)
Imports: $32.9 billion (2013)
Ethnic Groups: Bengali 97.7%, tribal groups 1.9%
(Chakma 0.4%, Saontal 0.2%, Marma 0.1%),
other 0.4% (1998) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 220,953 (2010)
Merchant marine: 62 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim 89.5%, Hindu 9.6%, other 0.9% (2004)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APM, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CICA (observer), CP, CTBT, CWC, D-8, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Bangladesh
Chronology

1198                       Bengal (Bangla) sultanate
12 Jul 1576                Bengal annexed by
Moghul Empire.
1703                       Mughal governor, with the style Nawab Nazim,
                             establishes
a quasi-independent state.
21 Aug 1765                British administration begins (see India). 
26 May 1770                Part of British India (see India). 
15 Aug 1947                Bengal province of British India divided;
                             eastern part becomes Pakistan province of
                             East Bengal.
14 Oct 1955                Renamed East Pakistan. 
 7 Oct 1958                Autonomy abolished.

26 Mar 1971                Independence proclaimed (People's Republic 
                             of Bangladesh) by the exile government.
16 Dec 1971                De facto independence (capitulation of Pakistan). 
22 Feb 1974                Independence recognized by Pakistan. 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Rulers (title from 1716, Naib Nazim)
1703 - 30 Jun 1727         Murshid Quli Jafar Khan            (d. 1727)
                             (de facto to 1716)
30 Jun 1727 - 1739         Shujauddin Muhammad Khan           (d. 1739)
 
1739 -  6 Apr 1740         Alauddin Haidar Jang Sarfaraz Khan (d. 1740) 
1740 -  9 Apr 1756         Alivardi Khan (Mirza Muhammad Ali) (d. 1756) 
1756 - 23 Jun 1757         Sirajuddaula Muhammad Khan         (b. 1733 - d. 1757)
29 Jun 1757 - 20 Oct 1760  Muhammad Jafar Ali Khan (1st time) (b. 1691 - d. 1777)
20 Oct 1760 - 1763         Mir Muhammad Qasim Ali Khan        (d. c.1777)
1763 - 17 Jan 1765         Muhammad Jafar Ali Khan (2nd time) (s.a.)
17 Jan 1765 -  3 May 1766  Najimuddin Ali Khan                (b. 1750 - d. 1766) 
17 Jan 1765 -  3 May 1766  Reza Khan -Regent (1st time)       (b. 1717? - d. 1791)
 3 May 1766 - 1770 
       Saifuddaula Najabut Ali Khan       (d. c.1770)
 3 May 1766 - 1770         Reza Khan -Regent (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Governors
15 Aug 1947 -  5 Apr 1950  Sir Frederick Chalmers Bourne      (b. 1891 - d. 1977)  Non-party
16 Mar 1949 - 25 Apr 1949  A.S.M. Akram (acting for Bourne)   (b. 1888 - d. 1968)  Non-party
 
5 Apr 1950 - 26 Mar 1953  Malik Firoz Khan Noon              (b. 1893 - d. 1970)  ML
26 Mar 1953 -  4 Apr 1953  Abdur Rahman Siddiqui (acting)     (b. 1887 - d. 1953)  ML

 4 Apr 1953 - 30 May 1954  Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman             (b. 1889 - d. 1973)  ML
30 May 1954 - 21 Sep 1954  Iskandar Ali Mirza                 (b. 1899 - d. 1969)  Mil
21 Sep 1954 - 22 Dec 1954  Sir Thomas Hobart Ellis (acting)   (b. 1994 - d. 1981)  Non-party
22 Dec 1954 - 14 Jun 1955  Mohammad Shahabuddin (acting)      (b. 1895 - d. 1971)  Non-party
14 Jun 1955 -  9 Mar 1956  Amiruddin Ahmad (acting)                                Non-party
 9 Mar 1956 - 31 Mar 1958  Abul Kashem Fazlul Huq             (b. 1873 - d. 1962)  KSP
 1 Apr 1958 -  3 May 1958  Muhammad Hamid Ali (acting)
 3 May 1958 - 10 Oct 1958  Sultanuddin Ahmad                  (b. 1902 - d. 1977)
10 Oct 1958 - 14 Apr 1960  Zakir Hussain                      (b. 1898 - d. 1971)  Non-party
15 Apr 1960 - 10 May 1962  Mohammad Azam Khan                 (b. 1908 - d. 1996)  Mil
 1 Jul 1961 -  5 Aug 1961  Syed Hashim Raza                   (b. 1910 - d. 2003)
                             (acting for Azam Khan)
11 May 1962 - 28 Oct 1962  Ghulam Faruque                     (b. 1899 - d. 1992)
28 Oct 1962 - 23 Mar 1969  Abdul Munim Khan                   (b. 1902 - d. 1971)  PML
23 Mar 1969 - 25 Mar 1969  Mirza Nurul Huda                   (b. 1919 - d. 1991)  Non-party
25 Mar 1969 - 23 Aug 1969  Muzaffaruddin                      (b. 1918?)           Mil
                             (martial law administrator)
23 Aug 1969 -  1 Sep 1969  Sahabzada Yaqub Khan               (b. 1920)            Mil
                             (martial law administrator)
 1 Sep 1969 -  7 Mar 1971  Saiyid Mohammad Ahsan              (b. 1921 - d. 1989)  Mil
 7 Mar 1971 - 31 Aug 1971  Tikka Khan                         (b. 1915 - d. 2002)  Mil
                             (martial law administrator)
31 Aug 1971 - 14 Dec 1971  Abdul Motaleb Malik                (b. 1905 - d. 1977)  Non-party
31 Aug 1971 - 16 Dec 1971  Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi           (b. 1915 - d. 2004)  Mil
                             (martial law administrator)
Presidents 
11 Apr 1971 - 12 Jan 1972  Mujibur Rahman (1st time)          (b. 1920 - d. 1975)  AL
                             (Pakistani prisoner to 8 Jan 1972)
11 Apr 1971 - 10 Jan 1972  Syed Nazrul Islam                  (b. 1925 - d. 1975)  AL
                             (acting for Mujibur Rahman)
12 Jan 1972 - 24 Dec 1973  Abu Sayeed Chowdhury               (b. 1921 - d. 1987)  Non-party
24 Dec 1973 - 25 Jan 1975  Mohammad Mohammadullah             (b. 1921 - d. 1999)  AL
                             (acting to 27 Jan 1974) 
25 Jan 1975 - 15 Aug 1975  Mujibur Rahman (2nd time)          (s.a.)               BAL 
15 Aug 1975 -  6 Nov 1975  Khundaqar Mushtaq Ahmed            (b. 1918 - d. 1996)  BAL
 6 Nov 1975 - 21 Apr 1977  Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem           (b. 1916 - d. 1997)  Non-party
                             (also chief martial law administrator
                             24 Aug - 4 Nov 1975 and 7 Nov 1975 - 29 Nov 1976)
21 Apr 1977 - 30 May 1981  Ziaur Rahman                       (b. 1936 - d. 1981) Mil;1979 BJD
                             (also chief martial law administrator
                             29 Nov 1976 - 6 Apr 1979)
30 May 1981 - 24 Mar 1982  Abdus Sattar                       (b. 1906 - d. 1958)  BJD
                             (acting to 20 Nov 1981) 
24 Mar 1982 - 27 Mar 1982  Hossain Mohammad Ershad (1st time) (b. 1930)            Mil
                             (chief martial law administrator 24 Mar 1982 - 30 Mar 1984)
27 Mar 1982 - 11 Dec 1983  Abul Fazal Mohammad Ahsanuddin     (b. 1915 - d. 2001)  Non-party
                             Choudhury
11 Dec 1983 -  6 Dec 1990  Hossain Mohammad Ershad (2nd time) (s.a.)           Mil;Sep 1986 JD
 6 Dec 1990 -  9 Oct 1991  Shahabuddin Ahmed (1st time)       (b. 1930)            Non-party 
                             (acting)
 9 Oct 1991 -  9 Oct 1996  Abdur Rahman Biswas                (b. 1926)            BJD 
 9 Oct 1996 - 14 Nov 2001  Shahabuddin Ahmed (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Non-party
14 Nov 2001 - 21 Jun 2002  A.Q.M. Badruddoza Chowdhury        (b. 1929)            BJD
21 Jun 2002 -  6 Sep 2002  Jamiruddin Sircar (acting)         (b. 1931)            Non-party
 6 Sep 2002 - 12 Feb 2009  Iajuddin Ahmed                     (b. 1931 - d. 2012)  Non-party
12 Feb 2009 - 20 Mar 2013  Zillur Rahman                      (b. 1929 - d. 2013)  BAL
14 Mar 2013
-              Abdul Hamid                        (b. 1944)            BAL 
                             (acting [for Rahman to 20 Mar 2013] to 24 Apr 2013)  


Chief ministers

15 Aug 1947 - 14 Sep 1948  Khawaja Nazimuddin                 (b. 1894 - d. 1964)  ML
14 Sep 1948 -  3 Apr 1954  Nurul Amin                         (b. 1893 - d. 1974)  ML
 3 Apr 1954 - 29 May 1954  Abul Kashem Fazlul Huq             (s.a.)               KSP+UF
29 May 1954 - Aug 1955     Governor's rule
Aug 1955 - Sep 1956        Abu Hossain Sarkar (1st time)      (b. 1894 - d. 1969)  KSP
                             (suspended 26 May - 1 Jun 1956)
Sep 1956 - Mar 1958        Ataur Rahman Khan (1st time)       (b. 1905 - d. 1991)  AL
Mar 1958                   Abu Hossain Sarkar (2nd time)      (s.a.)               KSP
Mar 1958 - 18 Jun 1958     Ataur Rahman Khan (2nd time)       (s.a.)               AL
18 Jun 1958 - 22 Jun 1958  Abu Hossain Sarkar (3rd time)      (s.a.)               KSP
22 Jun 1958 - 25 Aug 1958  Governor's rule
25 Aug 1958 -  7 Oct 1958  Ataur Rahman Khan (3rd time)       (s.a.)               AL
 7 Oct 1958 - 30 Jun 1970  Post abolished
 1 Jul 1970 - 16 Dec 1971  Martial law
Prime ministers 

11 Apr 1971 - 12 Jan 1972  Tajuddin Ahmed                     (b. 1925 - d. 1975)  BAL
12 Jan 1972 - 26 Jan 1975  Mujibur Rahman                     (s.a.)               BAL
26 Jan 1975 - 15 Aug 1975  Mohammad Mansoor Ali               (b. 1919 - d. 1975)  BAL
29 Jun 1978 - 12 Mar 1979  Mashiur Rahman (senior minister)   (b. 1924 - d. 1979)  BJD
15 Apr 1979 - 24 Mar 1982  Shah Azizur Rahman                 (b. 1925 - d. 1988)  BJD
30 Mar 1984 -  9 Jul 1986  Ataur Rahman Khan                  (b. 1905 - d. 1991)  JD
 9 Jul 1986 - 27 Mar 1988  Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury           (b. 1928 - d. 2006)  JD
27 Mar 1988 - 12 Aug 1989  Moudud Ahmed                       (b. 1940)            JD
12 Aug 1989 -  6 Dec 1990  Kazi Zafar Ahmed                   (b. 1940)            JD
20 Mar 1991 - 30 Mar 1996  Khaleda Zia (f) (1st time)         (b. 1945)            BJD
30 Mar 1996 - 23 Jun 1996  Mohammad Habibur Rahman            (b. 1930 - d. 2014)  Non-party 
                             (chief adviser)
23 Jun 1996 - 15 Jul 2001  Sheikh Hasina Wajed (f)(1st time)  (b. 1947)            BAL
15 Jul 2001 - 10 Oct 2001  Latifur Rahman (chief adviser)     (b. 1936)            Non-party
10 Oct 2001 - 29 Oct 2006  Khaleda Zia (f) (2nd time)         (s.a.)               BJD
29 Oct 2006 - 11 Jan 2007  Iajuddin Ahmed (chief adviser)     (s.a.)               Non-party
11 Jan 2007 - 
12 Jan 2007  Fazlul Haque                       (b. 1938)            Non-party
                             (acting chief adviser)
 
12 Jan 2007 -  6 Jan 2009  Fakhruddin Ahmed (chief adviser)   (b. 1940)            Non-party
 6 Jan 2009 -  
           Sheikh Hasina Wajed (f)(2nd time)  (s.a.)               BAL
       

Territorial Disputes: Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea, which were settled in favor of Bangladesh on 14 Mar 2012 and 8 Jul 2014 respectively; Indian Prime Minister Singh's Sep 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 29,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border.

Party abbreviations: BAL = Bangladesh Awami League (Bangladesh People's League, nationalist, social-democratic, secular, as Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League Jun-Aug 1975, only legal party Jan-Aug 1975, former AL, est.1975); BJD = Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dal (Bengal Nationalist Party, center-right, moderate islamist, est.1978); JD = Jatiya Dal (National Party, authoritarian, pro-Ershad, est.1986); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: AL = Awami Muslim League (People's Muslim League, pro-East Pakistan autonomy, Bangala nationalist, 1949-1975, then BAL); KSP = Krishak Sramik Party (Worker's and Peasant's Party, socialist, 1953-1975); ML = Muslim League (formerly All India Muslim League, Dec 1947-Oct 1958); UF = United Front ("Jukto Front," AL & KSP coalition supported by Jamaat, 1953-1954); PP = Jana Dal (People's Party, 1983-85, part of National Front 1985-1986, from 1986-90 part of JD)




Ben Cahoon