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Vietnam
 
[Long
                                    Tinh flag [Vietnam] 1802 - 1878]
   1802 - c.1885, Emperor's flag to 1863
 
[Dai
                                    Nam reported flag [Vietnam] c.1878 -
                                    c.1890]
  c.1878  Annam (reported approx. design) 
 
[Vietnam [Annam] 1890-1920]
                1890 - 1920 Annam
 
[Long
                                    Tinh flag [Annam] 1920 - 1945]
                1920 - 1945  Annam
 
[flag of
                                    Annam under French protectorate]
    c.1923 - 9 Mar 1945 Protectorate Flag
 
[Que Ly
                                    flag [Vietnam] 1890 - 1920]
     10 Mar 1945 - 22 Aug 1945 Vietnam
 
[Viet
                                    Nam (1945), North Vietnam
                                    1945-1954]
   29 Sep 1945 - 30 Nov 1955 North Vietnam
 
[Cochinchina, 1946-1948]
   15 Jul 1946 - 2 Jun 1948 South Vietnam
 
[South Vietnam, 1948-1975]
 2 Jun 1948 - 30 Apr 1975 South Vietnam
 
[Vietnam]
               Adopted 30 Nov 1955
            (North only to 2 Jul 1976)


Map of Vietnam Hear National Anthem
"Tien quân ca"
(The Song of the
Marching Troops
)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 2 Jul 1976
Constitution
(1 Jan 2014)
------------------------------------
Former Constitution

(15 Apr 1992 - 1 Jan 2014)
Capital: Hanoi
(Phong Chau 2809-258 BC;
Co Loa 257-111 BC
and 939-965 AD;
To Lich 544-602;
Hoa Lu 968-980;
La Thanh 1980-1010;
Hanoi 1010-1802;
Hue 1802-1945)
Currency: Dong (VND);
1978-1985 New Dong (VNN)
National Holiday: 2 Sep (1945)
Independence Day
Population: 92,477,857 (2013)
GDP: $358.9 billion (2013) Exports: $128.9 billion (2013)
Imports: $121.4 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, others 5.3% (1999)
Total Active Armed Forces: 455,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 579 ships (2010)
Religions: Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, None 80.8% (1999)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BTWC, CICA, CP, CTBT, CWC, EAS, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (applicant), IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Vietnam Index
Chronology
2809 BC - 258 BC           Van Lang kingdom under Hung Voung dynasty.
257 BC                     Renamed Au Lac kingdom.
196 BC - 111 BC            Vassal of China.
111 BC                     Annexed by China.
40 AD - 43 AD              Brief independence under the Trung sisters. 
544 AD - 602 AD            Van Xuan independent under Le dynasty.
679                        Creation by China of the protectorate general
                             of An Nam.
939                        Ngo Quyen defeated the kingdom of Nam Han
                             traditional date of Vietnamese independence.
965 - 968                  Turmoil, divided into 12 feudal lordships
                             under: Ngo Xoung Xi in Binh Kieu; Do Canh Thuc
                             in Do Dong Giang; Tran Lam in Bo Hai Khau; Kieu
                             Cong Han in Phong Chau; Nguyen Khoan in Tam 
                             Dai; Nguyen Nhat Khanh in Doung Lam; Ly Khe in
                             Sieu Loai; Nguyen Thu Tiep in Tien Du; Lu Doung
                             in Te Giang; Ngueyen Sieu in Tay Phu Liet; Kieu
                             Thuan in Cam Khe; and Pham Bach Ho in Dang Chau
1010                       Dai Viet Quoc (Great Viet Realm; [Chinese: Yue])
                             is a geographic concept of a variable
                             China/Vietnam location.
 3 Nov 1407                Dai Viet Quoc (Great Viet Realm)(literally 
                             State of Great Viet).  
Jan 1414 - 1426            Incorporated into imperial China.
1533 - 1592                Co-existence of the Le and Mac polities is referred
                             to by historians as Nam-Bac Trieu ("Southern 
                             and Northern Dynasties").
1558 - 1777/87             Division into north and south by ruling 
                             dynasties. Trinh line rules from Hanoi 
                             (Tonkin), the Nguyen line rules from Hue 
                             (Annam and Cochinchina).
1666 -  9 Jun 1885         Annam a tributary to China.
1533 - Sep 1677            Mac dynasty rules northern Vietnam, from 1592 in
                             Cao Bang province; in opposition to Le dynasty.
31 May 1802                Dai Viet Quoc (Great Viet Realm) restored after
                             defeat of the Tay Son rulers.
1804                       Viet Nam Quoc (Viet Nam Realm)(name authorized
                             by China).
15 Feb 1839                Dai Nam Quoc (literally, "Great South Realm") 
                             (name not authorized by China).
 1 Sep 1858                French occupy Da Nang (renamed Tourane).
18 Feb 1859                French occupy Saigon.
13 Apr 1862                Southern region (Cochinchina) ceded to France.
20 Nov 1873 - 15 Mar 1874  French occupy Hanoi and Haiphong in Tonkin.
15 Mar 1874                Tonkin a French protectorate by Treaty of Saigon.
27 Apr 1882 - 25 Aug 1883  French occupy Hanoi. 
25 Aug 1883                Annam and Tonkin become French protectorates
                             by Treaty of Hué.
 9 Jun 1885                China renounces its rights over Annam and Tonkin.
27 Jan 1886                French Protectorate of Annam-Tonkin. 
17 Oct 1887                Union of French Indochina formed (Cambodia, Annam,
                             Tonkin, Cochinchina, and from 3 Oct 1893 Laos).
1900 - 28 Feb 1946         Kouang-Tchéou-Wan (Kwangchowan) China leased 
                             territory administratively joined to 
                             French Indo-China, subordinated to Tonkin.
16 Jun 1940 -  9 Mar 1945  Administration loyal to Vichy France.
22 Sep 1940                Japanese troops based in northern Indochina.
28 Jul 1941                Japanese troops based in southern Indochina.
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation.
11 Mar 1945                Emperor Bao Dai proclaims the end of the
                             French protectorate and the restoration of the
                             independence of Vietnam (in full cooperation
                             with Japan).
12 Jun 1945                Viet Nam De Quoc (Empire of Vietnam).
25 Aug 1945                End of the empire; subsequently de facto 
                             division between North and South Vietnam.
30 Aug 1945                Independence proclaimed by Democratic Republic of
                             Vietnam (Hanoi); controlling North Vietnam only.
 6 Mar 1946                France recognizes the Democratic Republic of
                             Vietnam (north) as a free state within the
                             Federation of Indochina and French Union. 
6/9 Sep 1945-Jan/Mar 1946  Allied occupation of French Indo-China by
                             China above 16th parallel, and Britain below.
 1 Jun 1946                Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina (at Saigon.
 8 Oct 1947                South Vietnam (Saigon).
27 May 1948                Vietnam (Saigon).
14 Jun 1949                French associated state (State of Vietnam)(Saigon).
21 Jul 1954                Division formalized by Geneva Accords.
 5 Oct 1954                The last French troops leave Hanoi. 
26 Oct 1955                Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).
30 Apr 1975                Republic of South Vietnam
 2 Jul 1976                Unification of North and South Vietnam as the 
                             Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Socialist
Republic of
Vietnam
(from 1976)
Empire
(1675-1945)
Trinh and Nguyen Lords
(1545-1777)
Tay Son Rulers
(1776-1795)
Champa
(Panduranga)

(1695-1822)
Pulo Condor
(1702-1705)
French Indochina
(1887-1956)
Tonkin-Annam
(1875-1889)
Annam
(1886-1955)
Tonkin
(1886-1955)
French Cochinchina
(1858-1946)
North Vietnam
(1945-1976)
South Vietnam
(1946-1976)
Provisional
Revolutionary
Government of South Vietnam

(1969-1975)
Map of Ethnic
Groups
in Indochina
Historical Maps
of Vietnam
 

Empire
 
Capital: Hue
(Hanoi [Bac Thanh]
1010-1802)

Currency: 1740-1883
Annam Dong (VNAD)
Imperial Anthem
"Dang Dan Cung"

Note: Although the monarchy dealt with imperial China as a tributary state, and the ruler was addressed by the imperial court as "king of An Nam," domestically a full imperial system was established, including era names. The information listed here (there sometimes is even more available) is as follows: personal name (ho [family name] + huy [tabooed personal name]) followed by temple name (mieu hieu), posthumous style (dang ton hieu), and era name(s) (nien hieu) initiated during the respective reign; some emperors are often referred to by the nien hieu (e.g., the Bao Dai emperor).


Rulers (Emperors [style Dai Viet Hoang De])
- Le dynasty -
29 Apr 1428 -  5 Oct 1433  Le Loi                             (b. 1384/85 - d. 1433)
                             mieu hieu: Thai To / dang ton hieu: Thong Thien Khai Van Thanh
                               Duc Than Cong Due Van Anh Vu Khoan Minh Dung Tri Hoang Nghia
                               Chi Minh Dai Hieu Cao Hoang De
                             nien hieu 29 Apr 1428 - 9 Feb 1434: Thuan Thien
20 Oct 1433 -  7 Sep 1442  Le Nguyen Long                     (b. 1423 - d. 1442)
                             style name: Lan
                             mieu hieu: Thai Tong / dang ton hieu: Ke Thien The Dao Hien Duc
                               Thanh Cong Kham Minh Van Tu Anh Due Triet Chieu Hien Kien
                               Trung Van Hoang De
                             nien hieu 9 Feb 1434 - 25 Nov 1440: Thieu Binh
                             nien hieu 25 Nov 1440 - 31 Jan 1443: Dai Bao
15 Sep 1442 - 28 Oct 1459  Le Bang Co (Le Bang Ky)            (b. 1441 - d. 1459)
                             style name: Tuan
                             mieu hieu: Nhan Tong / dang ton hieu: Kham Van Nhan Hieu Tuyen
                               Minh Thong Due Tuyen Hoang De
                             nien hieu 31 Jan 1443 - 29 Jan 1454: Thai Hoa (Dai Hoa)
                             nien hieu 29 Jan 1454 - 1 Nov 1459: Dien Ninh
 1 Nov 1459 - 24 Jun 1460  Le Nghi Dan                        (b. 1439 - d. 1460)
                             style name: Tong / bynames: Le Duc Hau, Lang Son Vuong
                             nien hieu 1 Nov 1459 - 25 Jun 1460: Thien Hưng
25 Jun 1460 -  3 Mar 1497  Le Tu Thanh                        (b. 1442 - d. 1497)
                             style name: Hao
                             mieu hieu: Thanh Tong / dang ton hieu: Sung Thien Quang Van Cao
                               Minh Quang Chinh Chi Duc Dai Cong Thanh Van Than Vu Dat Hieu
                               Thuan Hoang De
                             nien hieu 25 Jun 1460 - 1 Feb 1470: Quang Thuan
                             nien hieu 1 Feb 1470 - 22 Jan 1498: Hong Duc
 9 Mar 1497 - 24 Jun 1504  Le Tranh (Le Tang, Le Chanh)       (b. 1461 - d. 1504)
                             style name: Huy
                             mieu hieu: Hie Tong / dang ton hieu: The Thien Ngung Dao Mau Duc
                               Chi Chieu Van Thieu Vu Tuyen Triet Kham Thanh Chuong Hieu Due
                               Hoang De
                             nien hieu 22 Jan 1498 - 17 Jul 1504: Canh Thong
17 Jul 1504 - 12 Jan 1505  Le Thuan                           (b. 1488 - d. 1505)
                             style name: Thuan
                             mieu hieu: Tuc Tong / dang ton hieu: Chieu Nghia Hieu Nhan On
                               Cung Uyen Mac Hieu Doan Cung Kham Hoang De
                             nien hieu 17 Jul 1504 - 4 Feb 1505: Thai Trinh
22 Jan 1505 - 10 Jan 1510  Le Tuan                            (b. 1488 - d. 1510)
                             style name: Huyen / byname: Uy Muc De
                             nien hieu 4 Feb 1505 - 13 Jan 1510: Doan Khanh
13 Jan 1510 -  8 May 1516  Le Oanh (Le Uynh, Le Huynh)        (b. 1495 - d. 1516)
                             style name: Tru (Chu) / bynames: Linh An Vuong, Tuong Duc De
                             nien hieu 13 Jan 1510 - 28 May 1516: Hong Thuan
1511 - 1512                Tran Tuan (in dissidence)
 7 Apr 1516 - Dec 1516     Tran Cao
                             nien hieu 7 Apr 1516 - Dec 1516: Thien Ung
                           (in rebellion)
 8 May 1516 - 11 May 1516  Le Quang Tri                       (b. 1509 - d. 1516)
28 May 1516 -  9 Jan 1526  Le Y An                            (b. 1506 - d. 1526)
                             style name: Hue
                             mieu hieu: Chieu Tong / dang ton hieu: Than Hoang De (Da Duong
                             Vuong)
                             nien hieu 28 May 1516 - 9 Jan 1526: Quang Thieu
Dec 1516 - Aug 1521        Tran Thang (Tran Cung)
                             nien hieu Dec 1516 - Aug 1521: Tuyen Hoa
                           (in rebellion)
1518 - 1518                Le Bang
                             nien hieu 1518 - 1518: Dai Duc
                           (in rebellion)
1518 - 1518                Le Du
                             nien hieu 1518 - 1518: Thien Hien
                           (in rebellion)
21 May 1522 - 12 Jul 1527  Le Xuan (Le Lu)                    (b. 1507 - d. 1527)
                             style name: Khanh
                             dang ton hieu: Cung Hoang De
                             nien hieu 21 Aug 1522 - 12 Jul 1527: Thong Nguyen
- Mac dynasty (in the north) -
12 Jul 1527 - Feb 1530     Mac Dang Dung                      (b. 1483 - d. 1541)
                             mieu hieu: Thai To / dang ton hieu: Nhan Minh Cao Hoang De
                             nien hieu 12 Jul 1527 - Feb 1530: Minh Duc
Feb 1530 - 22 Feb 1540     Mac Dang Doanh                     (d. 1540)
                             mieu hieu: Thai Tong / dang ton hieu: Kham Triet Van Hoang De
                             nien hieu Feb 1530 - 27 Jan 1541: Dai Chinh
Feb 1540 -  5 Jun 1546     Mac Phuoc Hai (Mac Duc Nguyen)     (d. 1546)
                             mieu hieu: Hien Tong / dang ton hieu: Hien Hoang De
                             nien hieu 22 Jan 1541 - 22 Jan 1547: Quang Hoa
Jun 1546 - Jan 1562        Mac Phuoc Nguyen                   (d. 1562)
                             mieu hieu: Tuyen Tong / dang ton hieu: Due Hoang De
                             nien hieu 22 Jan 1547 - 10 Feb 1548: Vinh Dinh
                             nien hieu 10 Feb 1548 - 2 Feb 1554: Canh Lih
                             nien hieu 2 Feb 1554 - Feb 1562: Quang Bao
Feb 1562 - 28 Dec 1592     Mac Mau Hop                        (b. 1560 - d. 1592)
                             mieu hieu: Anh To / dang ton hieu: Tinh Hoang De
                             nien hieu Feb 1562 - 21 Jan 1566: Thuan Phuoc
                             nien hieu 21 Jan 1566 - Aug 1578: Sung Khang
                             nien hieu Aug 1578 - 18 Feb 1586: Dien Thanh
                             nien hieu 18 Feb 1586 - 28 Jan 1588: Doan Thai
                             nien hieu 28 Jan 1588 - 25 Jan 1591: Hung Tri
                             nien hieu 25 Jan 1591 - 28 Dec 1592: Hong Ninh
28 Dec 1592 - 14 Feb 1593  Mac Toan (Mac Tuyen)               (d. 1593)
                             mieu hieu: Canh Tong / dang ton hieu: Thanh Hoang De
                             nien hieu: 28 Dec 1592 - 14 Feb 1593: Vu Anh
Jan 1593 - 14 Feb 1593     Mac Kinh Chi                       (d. 1593)
                             byname: Hung Le Cong
                             mieu hieu: Man Tong / dang ton hieu: Trinh Hoang De
                             nien hieu Jan 1593 - 1 Feb 1593: Bao Dinh
                             nien hieu 1 Feb 1593 - 14 Feb 1593: Khanh Huu
Apr 1593 - Jun 1625        Mac Kinh Cung                      (d. 1625)
                             mieu hieu: Dai Tong / dang ton hieu: Linh Hoang De
                             nien hieu Apr 1593 - 1617: Can Thong (Kien Thong)
.... - 1605                Mac Kinh Dung (in dissidence)
1605 - 1617                Mac Khanh Vuong (in dissidence)
Aug 1623 - 1638            Mac Kinh Khoan                     (d. 1638)
                             mieu hieu: Quang To / dang ton hieu: Nguyen Hoang De
                             nien hieu Aug 1623 - 1628: Long Thai
Apr 1638 - Sep 1677        Mac Kinh Vu (Mac Kinh Hoan)
                             mieu hieu: Minh Tong / dang ton hieu: Khai Hoang De
                             nien hieu Apr 1638 - Sep 1677: Thuan Duc
1677 - 1681                Mac Kinh He
                             mieu hieu: Qui Tong / dang ton hieu: Hue Vuong
                           (in China exile)
1681 - 1682                Mac Kinh Tieu
                             mieu hieu: Duc Tong / dang ton hieu: Dac Vuong
                           (in China exile)
Ruler (style Ai Lao Hoang De)
- Le dynasty -
.... - Feb 1533             Le Duy Ninh                       (b. 1514? - d. 1548)
                             style name: Huyen
Rulers (Kings [style Dai Viet Vuong]; from 1806, Emperors [style Dai Viet Hoang De]); 
from 1884, imperial title translated by the French as King)
- Le dynasty -
Feb 1533 -  9 Mar 1548     Le Duy Ninh (Le Tuan)              (s.a.)   
                             style name: Huyen
                             mieu hieu: Trang Tong / dang ton hieu: Du Hoang De
                             nien hieu Feb 1533 - 29 Jan 1549: Nguyen Hoa
 9 Mar 1548 -  5 Mar 1556  Le Duy Huyen (Le Sung)             (b. 1535 - d. 1566)
                             mieu hieu: Trung Tong / dang ton hieu: Vu Hoang De
                             nien hieu 29 Jan 1549 - 30 Jan 1557: Thuan Binh
Mar 1556 - 25 Dec 1572     Le Duy Bang                        (b. 1532 - d. 1573)
                             mieu hieu: Anh Tong / dang ton hieu: Tuan Hoang De
                             nien hieu 30 Jan 1557 - 20 Jan 1558: Thien Huu
                             nien hieu 20 Jan 1558 - Feb 1572: Chinh Tri
                             nien hieu Feb 1572 - 2 Feb 1573: Hong Phuc
 2 Feb 1573 - 16 Oct 1599  Le Duy Dam                         (b. 1567 - d. 1599)
                             mieu hieu: The Tong / dang ton hieu: Nghi Hoang De
                             nien hieu 2 Feb 1573 - 7 Feb 1578: Gia Thai
                             nien hieu 7 Feb 1578 - 14 Feb 1600: Quang Hung
1597 - 1597                Nguyen Duong Minh
                             nien hieu 1597 - 1597: Phuc Duc
                           (in rebellion)
1597 - 1597                Nguyen Minh Tri (in rebellion)
19 Oct 1599 - 23 Jun 1619  Le Duy Tan                         (b. 1588 - d. 1619)
                             mieu hieu: Kinh Tong / dang ton hieu: Hien Nhan Du Khanh
                               Tuy Phuc Hue Hoang De
                             nien hieu 14 Feb 1600 - 6 Dec 1600: Than Duc
                             nien hieu 6 Dec 1600 - 11 Jul 1619: Hoang Dinh
Jul 1619 -  3 Nov 1643     Le Duy Ky (1st time)               (b. 1607 - d. 1662)
                             nien hieu 11 Jul 1619 - 24 Jan 1629: Vinh To
                             nien hieu 24 Jan 1629 - 17 Jan 1635: Duc Long
                             nien hieu 17 Jan 1635 - 11 Nov 1643: Duong Hoa
Nov 1643 -  2 Oct 1649     Le Duy Huu (Le Duy De)             (b. 1630 - d. 1649)
                             mieu hieu: Chan Tong / dang ton hieu: Thuan Hoang De
                             nien hieu 11 Nov 1643 - 4 Nov 1649: Phuc Thai
 4 Nov 1649 -  2 Nov 1662  Le Duy Ky (2nd time)               (s.a.)
                             mieu hieu: Than Tong / dang ton hieu: Uyen Hoang De
                             nien hieu 4 Nov 1649 - 28 Feb 1653: Khanh Duc
                             nien hieu 28 Feb 1653 - 4 Feb 1658: Thinh Duc
                             nien hieu 4 Feb 1658 - 18 Feb 1662: Vinh Tho
                             nien hieu 18 Feb 1662 - 10 Dec 1662: Van Khanh
18 Nov 1662 - 16 Nov 1671  Le Duy Vu (Le Duy Cu)              (b. 1654 - d. 1671)
                             mieu hieu: Huyen Tong / dang ton hieu: Khoat Dat Due Thong Cuong
                               Nghi Trung Chinh On Nho Haa Nhac Kham Minh Van Tu Duan Cung
                               Khac Nhuong Muc Hoang De
                             nien hieu 8 Feb 1663 - 30 Jan 1672: Canh Tri
13 Dec 1671 - 27 Apr 1675  Le Duy Hoi (Ley Duy Coi)           (b. 1661 - d. 1675)
                             mieu hieu: Gai Tong / dang ton hieu: Khoan Minh Man Dat Nhan Qua
                               Huy Nhu Khac Nhan Doc Nghia My Hoang De
                             nien hieu 30 Jan 1672 - 29 Oct 1674: Duong Duc
                             nien hieu 29 Oct 1674 - 14 Feb 1676: Duc Nguyen
 3 Aug 1675 - May 1705     Le Duy Hiep (Le Duy Cap)           (b. 1663 - d. 1716)
                             mieu hieu: Hay Tong / dang ton hieu: Chuong Hoang De
                             nien hieu: 14 Feb 1676 - 31 Jan 1680 Vinh Tri
                             nien hieu 31 Jan 1680 - May 1705: Chinh Hoa
22 May 1705 - Apr 1729     Le Duy Duong (Le Duy Trinh)        (b. 1679 - d. 1731)
                             mieu hieu: Du Tong / dang ton hieu: Hoa Hoang De
                             nien hieu May 1705 - 8 Feb 1720: Vinh Thinh
                             nien hieu 8 Feb 1720 - 27 Apr 1729: Bao Thai
Apr 1729 - Sep 1732        Le Duy Phuong                      (b. 1709 - d. 1735)
                             dang ton hieu: (Hon Duc De)
                             nien hieu Apr 1729 - Sep 1732: Vinh Khanh
Sep 1732 -  7 May 1735     Le Duy Tuong (Le Duy Ho)           (b. 1699 - d. 1735)
                             mieu hieu: Thuan Tong / dang ton hieu: Gian Hoang De
                             nien hieu Sep 1732 - 7 May 1735: Long Duc
May 1735 - Jun 1740        Le Duy Thin (Le Duy Chan)          (b. 1719 - d. 1759)
                             mieu hieu: Y Tong / dang ton hieu: Huy Hoang De
                             nien hieu May 1735 - Jun 1740: Vinh Huu
Jun 1740 - 10 Aug 1786     Le Duy Dao (Le Duy Thieu)          (b. 1711 - d. 1786)
                             mieu hieu: Hien Tong / dang ton hieu: Vinh Hoang De
                             nien hieu Jun 1740 - 18 Feb 1787: Canh Hung
                             (also reputed later to have continued to 31 May 1802)
1767 - 1769                Le Duy Mat (in rebellion)          (d. 1770)
Aug 1786 - 30 Jan 1789     Le Duy Ky (Le Duy Khiem)           (b. 1765 - d. 1793)
                             mieu hieu: Man Tong / dang ton hieu: Man Hoang De
                             dang ton hieu: Man Hoang De
                             nien hieu 18 Feb 1787 - 1789/31 May 1802: Chieu Tong
                             (also reputed later to have continued to 31 May 1802)
30 Jan 1789 - 31 May 1802  rule extinguished by Tay Son rulers
1789 - 1790                Le Duy Ky                          (s.a.) 
                             (in rebellion against Tay Son rule)
- Nguyen Phuoc dynasty -
31 May 1802 -  3 Feb 1820  Nguyen Phuoc Noan                  (b. 1762 - d. 1820)
                             mieu hieu: The To / dang ton hieu: Cao Hoang De
                             nien hieu 31 May 1802 - 14 Feb 1820: Gia Long
14 Feb 1820 - 20 Jan 1841  Nguyen Phuoc Hao                   (b. 1791 - d. 1841)
                             mieu hieu: Thanh To / dang ton hieu: Nhan Hoang De
                             nien hieu 14 Feb 1820 - 11 Feb 1841: Minh Mang
11 Feb 1841 -  4 Nov 1847  Nguyen Phuoc Toan                  (b. 1807 - d. 1847)
                             mieu hieu: Hien To / dang ton hieu: Chuong Hoang De
                             nien hieu 11 Feb 1841 - 9 Nov 1847: Thieu Tri
10 Nov 1847 - 19 Jul 1883  Nguyen Phuoc Thi                   (b. 1829 - d. 1883)
                             mieu hieu: Duc Tong / dang ton hieu: Anh Hoang De
                             nien hieu 5 Feb 1848 - 27 Jan 1884: Tu Duc
19 Jul 1883 -  2 Dec 1883  Regency Council
                           - Tran Tien Thanh (to Sep 1883)    (b. 1813 - d. 1883)
                           - Nguyen Van Tuong                 (b. 1824 - d. 1886)
                           - Ton That Thuyet                  (b. 1835 - d. 1913)
20 Jul 1883 - 23 Jul 1883  Nguyen Phuoc Ung Chan              (b. 1852 - d. 1883)
                             mieu hieu: Cung Tong / dang ton hieu: Hue Hoang De
                             (often referred to by the nickname Duc Duc)
30 Jul 1883 - 29 Nov 1883  Nguyen Phuoc Thang                 (b. 1847 - d. 1883)
                             dang ton hieu: Cung Tong Hoang De
                             (often referred to as Hiep Hoa)
 2 Dec 1883 - 31 Jul 1884  Nguyen Phuoc Hieu                  (b. 1869 - d. 1884)
                             mieu hieu: Gian Tong / dang ton hieu: Nghi Hoang De
                             nien hieu 27 Jan 1884 - 15 Feb 1885: Kien Phuoc
 2 Dec 1883 -  2 Aug 1884  Regency Council
                           - Nguyen Van Tuong                 (s.a.)
                           - Ton That Thuyet                  (s.a.)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Huong Huu,   (b. 1835 - d. 1885)
                               Gia-huong Vuong 
 2 Aug 1884 -  5 Jul 1885  Nguyen Phuoc Minh                  (b. 1871 - d. 1947)
                             nien hieu 15 Feb 1885 - 18 Sep 1885: Ham Nghi
                            (continues in rebellion to Nov 1888)
 2 Aug 1884 -  5 Jul 1885  Regency Council
                           - Nguyen Van Tuong                 (s.a.)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Huong Huu,   (s.a.)
                              Gia-huong Vuong 
                               (to 21 Oct 1884)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Lam,
                               Duke of Hoai Duc               (b. 1832 - d. 1897)
                               (from Nov 1884)
15 Jul 1885 - Jul 1885     Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Dinh,     (b. 1810 - d. 1886)
                             Tho-Xuan Vuong -Regent 
19 Sep 1885 - 28 Jan 1889  Nguyen Phuoc Bien                  (b. 1864 - d. 1889)
                             mieu hieu: Canh Tong / dang ton hieu: Thuan Hoang De
                             nien hieu 7 Nov 1885 - 1 Feb 1889: Dong Khanh
 1 Feb 1889 -  3 Sep 1907  Nguyen Phuoc Buu Lan               (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
                             nien hieu 1 Feb 1889 - 5 Sep 1907: Thanh Tai
 1 Feb 1889 - 27 Sep 1897  Regency Council
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Trinh,
                               Tuy-Ly Vuong                   (b. 1820 - d. 1897)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Lam,
                               Duke of Hoai Duc               (s.a.)
                           - Nguyen Trong Hiep                (b. 1834 - d. 1902)
                               (to 4 Sep 1896 [effectively Mar 1897])
                           - Truong Quang Dan (to Apr 1896)
                           - Nguyen Than (from Apr 1896)      (b. 1840 - d. 1914)
                           - Bui An Nien (from Apr 1890)
                           - Hoang Cao Khai (from Jul 1897)   (b. 1850 - d. 1933)
29 Jul 1907 - 18 May 1916  Truong Nhu Cuong                   (b. 1843 - d. 1923)
                             (president of the Regency Council)
 5 Sep 1907 -  3 May 1916  Nguyen Phuoc Vinh San              (b. 1900 - d. 1945)
                             nien hieu 5 Sep 1907 - 18 May 1916: Duy Tan
18 May 1916 -  6 Nov 1925  Nguyen Phuoc Tuan                  (b. 1885 - d. 1925)
                             mieu hieu: Hoang Tong / dang ton hieu: Tuyen Hoang De
                             nien hieu 18 May 1916 - 13 Feb 1926: Khai Dinh
 6 Nov 1925 - 10 Sep 1932  Ton That Han                       (b. 1854 - d. 1944)
                            (president of the Regency Council)
 8 Jan 1926 - 25 Aug 1945  Nguyen Phuoc Vinh Thuy             (b. 1913 - d. 1997)
                             nien hieu 13 Feb 1926 - 25 Aug 1945: Bao Dai

Chief ministers
1923? - 1932               Nguyen Huu Bai                     (b. 1863 - d. 1935)
11 Nov 1932 -  7 Apr 1945  Pham Quynh                         (b. 1892 - d. 1945)

Prime minister
 
7 Apr 1945 - 23 Aug 1945  Tran Trong Kim                     (b. 1883 - d. 1953)  Non-party


The Trinh and Nguyen Lords

Note: The Trinh family ruled the North from the imperial capital at or near present-day Hanoi; the Nguyen (properly Nguyen Phuoc) family ruled the South (present-day Center) from their capital at or near present-day Hue. The official style of each ruler is chua, but the Trinh
are assigned honorifics with the Sino-Viet royal style vuong. The Nguyen rulers not only acquired royal honorifics (thuy hieu) during their reign, but the full royal/imperial temple name and posthumous style, changing in time from Sino-Viet vuong (king) to hoang de (emperor) after the family became the imperial rulers after 1802. This record shows a limited choice of these often very long names and styles.

Rulers
- Trinh family -
1545 - 1570                Trinh Kiem "Minh Khang Thai Vuong" (b. 1503 - d. 1570)
1570                       Trinh Coi "Tuan Duc Hau"           (d. 1584)
1570 - 1623                Trinh Tung "
Binh An Vuong"         (b. 1550 - d. 1623)
1623 - 1657                Trinh Trang "Thanh Do Vuong"       (b. 1577 - d. 1657)
1657 - 1682                Trinh Tac "Tay Do Vuong"           (b. 1606 - d. 1682)
Aug 1682 - May 1709        Trinh Can "Dinh Vuong"             (b. 1633 - d. 1709)
May 1709 - Oct 1729        Trinh Cuong "An Do Vuong"          (b. 1686 - d. 1729)
Oct 1729 - Jan 1740        Trinh Giang "Uy Nam Vuong"         (b. 1711 - d. 1762)
1740 - 1767                Trinh Doanh "Minh Do Vuong"        (b. 1720 - d. 1767)
1767 - 1782                Trinh Sam "Tinh Do Vuong"          (b. 1739 - d. 1782)
Sep 1782 - Nov 1782        Trinh Can "Dien Do Vuong"          (b. 1777 - d. 1782)
1782 - 1786                Trinh Khai "Doan Nam Vuong"        (b. 1763 - d. 1786)
Sep 1786 - Sep 1787        Trinh Bong "An Do Vuong"
- Nguyen Phuoc family -
 7 Feb 1691 -  1 Jun 1725  Nguyen Phuoc Chu "Chua Minh"       (b. 1675 - d. 1725)
                             mieu hieu: Hien Tong /dang ton hieu: Minh Hoang De
 1 Jun 1725 -  7 Jun 1738  Nguyen Phuoc Tru "Chua Ninh"       (b. 1697 - d. 1738)
                             mieu hieu: Tuc Tong /dang ton hieu: Ninh Hoang De
 7 Jun 1738 -  7 Jun 1765  Nguyen Phuoc Khoat                 (b. 1714 - d. 1765)
                             mieu hieu: The Tong /dang ton hieu: Vo Hoang De
31 Dec 1765 - 1776         Nguyen Phuoc Thuan                 (b. 1753 - d. 1778)
                             mieu hieu: Due Tong /dang ton hieu: Dinh Hoang De
1776 - 1777                Nguyen Phuoc Duong                 (d. 1777)
                             dang ton hieu: (Tan Chinh Vuong)


The Tay Son Rulers

[Tay Son dynasty
                      flag (Vietnam), 1778-1802]
               1778 - 1802

Note: The rule by this family (family name Nguyen, changed from Ho) begins in 1776 in the Central part of the country, restricting the imperial Le line to a small area. On 22 Dec 1788
a brother of the Central ruler proclaims the Le rule extinct and assumes the imperial style. The two lines continue to rule, each in part of the country, until the "imperial" ruler
unifies the country in 1793 and rules until Jul 1802.

Ruler (title Vuong; from 1778, Thien Vuong; from Jun 1787, Trung Uong Hoang De)
1776 - Oct 1793            Nguyen Van Nhac (Ho Van Nhac)      (b. c.1752 - d. 1793)
                             nien hieu 1778 - Oct 1793: Thai Duc

Rulers (title Dai Viet Hoang De)

22 Dec 1788 - 15 Sep 1792  Nguyen Van Hue (Ho Van Hue)        (b. 1753 - d. 1792)
                             mieu hieu: Thai To / dang ton hieu: Vu Hoang De
                             nien hieu 22 Dec 1788 - 11 Feb 1793: Quang Trung
15 Sep 1792 - Jul 1802     Nguyen Quang Toan (Nguyen Trac)    (b. 1782 - d. c.1802)
                             nien hieu 11 Feb 1793 - Jun 1801: Canh Thinh
                             nien hieu Jun 1801 - Jul 1802: Bao Hung
15 Sep 1792 - 1795         Bui Doc Tuyen -Regent              (d. 1795)


Champa (Panduranga)

Note: Vietnamese sources on Champa dry up at the end of the 17th century. The royal chronicle of Pangdarang (Pali: Panduranga) claims that the polity of this name is the true continuation of Champa, and there is some meager evidence that that is the case, at least for the final portion of the chronicle (which claims to deal with events beginning in 1000).
 
Map of Champa
Capital: Panduranga
(Vijaya 986 - 1471;
 Indrapura 860-986;
Simhapura 4th - 860)
Population: N/A

192 AD                     Champa Kingdom founded in the southern part of modern day Vietnam.
c.986                      Cham abandon Indrapura.
1044 - 1084                Vassal of Dai Viet.
1145 - 1149                Occupied by Khmer Cambodia.
1203 - 1220                Annexed by Khmer Cambodia.
1283 - 1285                Mongol (Yuan) rule.
1312 - 1326                Vassal of Annam.

21 Mar 1471                Dai Viet annexes the major portions of the Champa Kingdom.
1627 - 1822               
Panduranga a vassal of Annam.
1822                       Kingdom extinguished by Annam, but retains some autonomy.
1832                      
Fully incorporated into Annam, autonomy ended.

Kings
1441 - 1446                Maija Vijaya  
1446 - 1449                Moho Kouei Lai   
1449 - 1458                Moho Kouei Yeou   
1458 - 1460                Moho Pan Lo Yue  
1460 - 1471                Pan Lo Tou Tsiuan   
1471 - 1475                Bao Tri Tri
1475 - 1478                Chai Ya Ma Fu Ngan                     (d. 1478)
1478 - 1505                Ku Lai
1505 - c.1545              Cha Ku Pu Lo
c.1545 - 1627              ....
1627 - 1651                Po Ro Me

1652 - 1660                Po Niga
1660 - 1692                Po Saut
1692 - 1695                Vacant
1695 - 1728                Po Saktirai da putih
1728 - 1730                Po Ganvuh da putih
1731 - 1732                Po Thuttirai
1732 - 1735                Vacant
1735 - 1763                Po Rattirai
1763 - 1765                Po Tathun da moh-rai
1765 - 1780                Po Tithuntirai da paguh
1780 - 1781                Po Tithuntirai da parang
1781 - 1783                Vacant
1783 - 1786                Chei Krei Brei
1786 - 1793                Po Tithun da parang
1793 - 1799                Po Lathun da paguh
1799 - 1822                Po Chong Chan
1822 - 1832                Po Bia (f) -Regent
                             (Guardian of the Royal Treasures of Cham)
1834 - 1835                Ja Thak Va (in rebellion)


Pulo Condore Island

[Flag of Great Britain 1606]

16 Jun 1702                British East India company founds post on the island 
                             of Pulo Condor off the south coast of southern Vietnam.
 2 Mar 1705                Garrison and settlement destroyed.

Factor
16 Jun 1702 -  2 Mar 1705  Allen Catchpoole (Ketchpole)       (b. 16.. - d. 1705)



French Union of Indo-China


 
Map of French Indo-China
Capital: Hanoi
(Saigon 1887- 1 Jan 1902)
Currency: 1887-1954
French Indochina

Piastre (ICFP); 1945 French
 Indochina Gumpyo Yen
 (ICFG)
Population: 21,599,582 (1935)
(incl. Kwangchowan)

Governors-general
16 Nov 1887 - 22 Apr 1888  Jean Antoine Ernest Constans       (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
22 Apr 1888 - 30 May 1889  Étienne Antione Guillaume Richaud  (b. 1841 - d. 1889)
                             (acting to 8 Sep 1888)
31 May 1889 - 18 Apr 1891  Jules Georges Piquet               (b. 1839 - d. 1923)
18 Apr 1891 - 26 Jun 1891  Bideau (acting)                    (b. 18.. - d. 1894)
26 Jun 1891 - 29 Dec 1894  Jean Marie Antoine de Lanessan     (b. 1843 - d. 1919)
10 Mar 1894 - 26 Oct 1894  Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (b. 1848 - d. 1895)
                             (acting for Lanessan)
29 Dec 1894 - 16 Mar 1895  François Pierre Rodier (acting)    (b. 1854 - d. 1913) 
16 Mar 1895 - 10 Dec 1896  Paul Armand Rosseau                (b. 1835 - d. 1896)
21 Oct 1895 - 14 Mar 1896  Augustin Julien Fourès             (b. 1853 - d. 1915)
                             (acting for Rosseau)
10 Dec 1896 - 13 Feb 1897  Augustin Julien Fourès (acting)    (s.a.)
13 Feb 1897 - 14 Mar 1902  Joseph Athanase Paul Doumer        (b. 1857 - d. 1932)
29 Sep 1898 - 24 Jan 1899  Augustin Julien Fourès             (s.a.)
                             (acting for Doumer)
16 Feb 1901 - 20 Aug 1901  Édouard Broni (acting for Doumer)
14 Mar 1902 - 14 Oct 1902  Édouard Broni (acting)
15 Oct 1902 - 28 Feb 1908  Jean Baptiste Paul Beau            (b. 1857 - d. 1927)
28 Feb 1907 - 23 Sep 1908  Louis Alphonse Bonhoure (acting)   (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
24 Sep 1908 - 17 Feb 1911  Antony Wladislas Klobukowski       (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
13 Jan 1910 - 10 Jun 1910  Albert Jean George Marie Louis     (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
                             Picquié (acting for Klobukowski)
17 Feb 1911 - 14 Nov 1911  Louis Paul Luce (acting)           (b. 1856 - d. 19..)
15 Nov 1911 - 22 Nov 1913  Albert Pierre Sarraut (1st time)   (b. 1872 - d. 1962)
22 Nov 1913 -  3 Mar 1915  Joost van Vollenhouven (acting)    (b. 1877 - d. 1918)
 3 Mar 1915 - 22 May 1916  Ernest Nestor Roume                (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
23 May 1916 - 21 Jan 1917  Jean-François dit Eugène Charles   (b. 1865 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
22 Jan 1917 -  9 Dec 1919  Albert Pierre Sarraut (2nd time)   (s.a.)
22 May 1919 - 19 Feb 1920  Maurice Antoine François           (b. 1874 - d. 19..)
                             Montguillot (1st time)(acting)
20 Feb 1920 - 15 Apr 1922  Maurice Long                       (b. 1866 - d. 1923)
18 Nov 1920 - 31 Mar 1921  Joseph Maurice Le Gallen           (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
                             (acting for Long)
15 Apr 1922 -  9 Aug 1923  François Marius Baudoin (acting)   (b. 1867 - d. 1957)
 9 Aug 1923 - 27 Jul 1925  Martial Henri Merlin               (b. 1860 - d. 1935)
23 Apr 1925 - 18 Nov 1925  Maurice Antoine François           (s.a.)
                             Montguillot (2nd time)
18 Nov 1925 - 22 Aug 1928  Alexandre Varenne                  (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
 4 Oct 1926 - 16 May 1927  Pierre Marie Antoine Pasquier      (b. 1877 - d. 1934)
                             (acting for Varenne)
 1 Nov 1927 -  7 Aug 1928  Maurice Antoine François           (s.a.)
                             Montguillot (3rd time)
                             (acting for Varenne)
 7 Aug 1928 - 26 Dec 1928  Eugène Jean Louis René Robin       (b. 1872 - d. 1954)
                             (1st time)(acting)
26 Dec 1928 - 15 Jan 1934  Pierre Marie Antoine Pasquier      (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1930 - 30 Jun 1931  Eugène Jean Louis René Robin       (s.a.)
                             (acting for Pasquier)
 4 Jan 1934 - 23 Jul 1934  Maurice Fernand Graffeuil          (b. 1882 - d. 1941)
                             (acting)
15 Jul 1934 -  9 Sep 1936  Eugène Jean Louis René Robin       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 9 Sep 1936 - 14 Jan 1937  Achille Louis Auguste Silvestre    (b. 1879 - d. 1937)
                             (acting)
14 Jan 1937 - 23 Aug 1939  Joseph Jules Brévié                (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
23 Aug 1939 - 19 Jul 1940  Georges Catroux (acting)           (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
19 Jul 1940 -  9 Mar 1945  Jean Decoux                        (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
 9 Mar 1945 - 28 Aug 1945  Yuitsu Tsuchihashi                 (b. 1891 - d. 1975)
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Takeshi Tsukamoto                  (b. 1896 - d. 19..) 
                             (acting for Tsuchihashi)
Commander of Allied (Chinese) Occupation Force for Indochina
- above 16th parallel -
 9 Sep 1945 -  6 Mar 1946  Lu Han (China)                     (b. 1895 - d. 1974)
Chairman of the Allied Control Commission and Commander,
Allied Land Forces French Indochina (ALFFIC)

- below 16th parallel -
 6 Sep 1945 - 28 Jan 1946  Douglas David Gracey (U.K.)        (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
High Commissioners
23 Sep 1945 -  5 Oct 1945  Jean Marie Arsène Cédile (acting)  (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
 5 Oct 1945 - 31 Oct 1945  Philippe François Marie de         (b. 1902 - d. 1947)
                             Hauteclocque, dit Leclerc (acting)
31 Oct 1945 -  1 Apr 1947  Georges Louis Marie Thierry        (b. 1889 - d. 1964)
                             d'Argenlieu       
 1 Apr 1947 - 11 Oct 1948  Émile Bollaert                     (b. 1890 - d. 1978)
20 Oct 1948 - 17 Dec 1950  Léon Marie Adolphe Pascal Pignon   (b. 1908 - d. 1976)
17 Dec 1950 - 11 Jan 1952  Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de       (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
                             Lattre de Tassigny        
11 Jan 1952 -  1 Apr 1952  Raoul Albin Louis Salan (acting)   (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
 1 Apr 1952 - 27 Apr 1953  Jean Letourneau                    (b. 1907 - d. 1986)
Commissioners-general
27 Apr 1953 - 28 Jul 1953  Jean Letourneau                    (s.a.)
28 Jul 1953 - 10 Apr 1954  Maurice Dejean                     (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
10 Apr 1954 - Apr 1955     Paul Henri Romuald Ély             (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
Apr 1955 - 21 Jul 1956     Henri Hoppenot                     (b. 1891 - d. 1977)
 

Heads of the Japanese Delegation to French Indochina
29 Jun 1940 -  2 Oct 1940  Issaku Nishihara                   (b. 1893 - d. 1945)
 3 Oct 1940 - Oct 1941     Raishiro Sumida                    (b. 1890 - d. 1979)
Oct 1941 - af.Dec 1942     Tyo                                (d. 1945) 
Japanese Military Commanders in Indochina

 7 Sep 1940 -  5 Jul 1941  Takuma Nishimura                   (b. 1899 - d. 1951)
1941                       Shojiro Iida                       (b. 1888 - d. 1980)
10 Nov 1942 - 22 Nov 1944  Kazumoto Machijiri                 (b. 1889 - d. 1950)
22 Nov 1944 - 15 Aug 1945  Yuitsu Tsuchihashi                 (s.a.)  


Annam - Tonkin

French Chargés d'Affaires (at Hué)
30 Jul 1875 - 13 Dec 1876  Pierre Paul Rheinart (1st time)    (b. 1840 - d. 1902)
                             (provisional)
14 Dec 1876 -  3 Jul 1879  Paul Louis Félix Philastre         (b. 1837 - d. 1907)

 3 Jul 1879 -  5 Oct 1880  Pierre Paul Rheinart (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 6 Oct 1880 - 17 Aug 1881  Louis Eugène Palasme de Champeaux  (b. 1840 - d. 1889)
18 Aug 1881 - 28 Mar 1883  Pierre Paul Rheinart (3rd time)    (s.a.)
23 Jul 1883 - 24 Dec 1885  François Jules Harmand             (b. 1845 - d. 1921)
                             (commissioner-general)
Residents-general
(at Hué)
11 Jun 1884 -  1 Oct 1884  Pierre Paul Rheinart (1st time)    (s.a.)
                             (provisional)
 1 Oct 1884 - 31 May 1885  Victor Gabriel Lemaire             (b. 1839 - d. 1907)
31 May 1885 - 26 Jan 1886  Philippe Marie André Roussel       (b. 1827 - d. 1887)
                             de Courcy
27 Jan 1886 -  6 Apr 1886  Charles Auguste Louis Warnet       (b. 1828 – d. 1913)
                             (acting)
 8 Apr 1886 - 11 Nov 1886  Paul Bert                          (b. 1833 - d. 1886)
12 Nov 1886 - 28 Jan 1887  Paulin François Alexandre Vial     (b. 1831 - d. 1907)
                             (acting)
29 Jan 1887 - 17 Nov 1887  Paul Louis Georges Bihourd         (b. 1846 - d. 1914)
17 Nov 1887 - 25 Jun 1888  Berger (acting)
25 Jun 1888 -  8 Sep 1888  Eusèbe Irénée Parreau (1st time)   (b. 1842 - d. 1922)
                             (acting)
 8 Sep 1888 - 29 May 1889  Pierre Paul Rheinhard (2nd time)   (s.a.)
29 May 1889                Eusèbe Irénée Parreau (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)

Annam

Residents-superior (at Hué)
 8 Apr 1886 - 1888         Charles Dillon                     (b. 1842 - d. 1889)
1888 - 1889                Séraphin Hector (1st time)         (b. 1846 - d. 1925)
                             (acting)
1889                       Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (s.a.)
                             (acting)
10 May 1889 - 27 Oct 1891  Séraphin Hector (2nd time)         (s.a.)
27 Oct 1891 - 11 Apr 1894  Ernest Albert Brière (1st time)    (b. 1848 - d. 1904)
11 Apr 1894 - 27 Nov 1894  Léon Jules Pol Boulloche (1st time)(b. 1859 - d. 1922)
                             (acting)
28 Nov 1894 - 26 Apr 1895  Charles-Fdéric Baille (acting)   (b. 1848 - d. 19..)
27 Apr 1895 -  1 Jan 1897  Ernest Albert Brière (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1897 -  7 Mar 1898  Jean Calixte Alexis Auvergne       (b. 1859 - d. 1942) 
                             (1st time) (acting)
 7 Mar 1898 - 1900         Léon Jules Pol Boulloche (2nd time)(s.a.)
22 Feb 1900 - 1902         Jean Calixte Alexis Auvergne       (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time) (acting to 9 May 1901)
1902 - 1903                Louis Paul Luce (acting)           (b. 1856 - d. 19..)
1903 - Aug 1904            Jean Calixte Alexis Auvergne       (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time)
1904 - 1906                Jean-Ernest Moulié (interim)       (b. 1858 - d. 19..)
1906 - Jul 1908            Fernand Ernest Lévecque            (b. 1852 - d. 19..)
Jul 1908 - 1910            Élie Jean-Henri Groleau            (b. 1859 - d. 1932)
1910 -  1 Jan 1912         Henri Victor Sestier               (b. 1857 - d. 1918)
 1 Jan 1912 - 15 May 1913  Georges Marie Joseph Mahé          (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
16 May 1913 - 16 May 1916  Jean-François dit Eugène Charles   (b. 1865 - d. 19..)
                             (1st time)(acting to 17 May 1914)
16 May 1916 - 27 Jan 1917  Henri Le Marchant de Trigon        (b. 1867 - d. 19..)
                             (interim)
27 Jan 1917 - May 1919     Jean-François dit Eugène Charles   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 8 May 1919 -  5 May 1921  Honoré Louis Joseph Tissot (interim)
 5 May 1921 - 1927         Pierre Marie Antonie Pasquier      (s.a.)
20 May 1922 - 11 Sep 1922  Jules Friès (acting for Pasquier)  (b. 1874 - d. 1957)
13 Jan 1924 - 28 Sep 1924  Aristide Eugène Le Fol             (b. 1878 - d. 1967)
                             (acting for Pasquier)
 4 Oct 1926 - 13 Feb 1927  Jean Charles Joseph d'Elloy
                             (interim)
13 Feb 1927 - 1928         Jules Friès                        (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1928 - 1931         Aristide Eugène Le Fol             (s.a.)
21 Nov 1931 - Mar 1933     Yves Charles Châtel                (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
23 May 1929 - 28 Feb 1930  Pierre Charles Edmond Jabouille    (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
                             (acting for Chatel)
25 Feb 1933 - 13 Mar 1934  Léon Emmanuel Thibaudeau (interim) (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
13 Mar 1934 - Jun 1941     Maurice Fernand Graffeuil          (b. 1882 - d. 1941)
15 May 1936 - 16 Apr 1937  Eugène Guillemain                  (b. 1885 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Graffeuil)
18 Jun 1941 - Aug 1944     Émile Louis François Grandjean     (b. 1888 - d. 1986)
23 Aug 1944 - 23 Aug 1945  Jean Maurice Norbert Haelewyn      (b. 1901 - d. 1945)
                             (Japanese prisoner Mar - Aug 1945)
Japanese Supreme Adviser

Mar 1945 - Aug 1945        Yokoyama Masayuki                  (b. 1892 - d. 1978)
French Commissioners for Annam
24 Aug 1945 - 1947?        Jean Marie Arsène Cédile           (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
1947                       Georges Edouard Jules Marie
                             Saint-Mleux (interim)
1947 - 1955                the Commissioners of Tonkin


Tonkin


Residents-superior
(at Hanoi; subordinated to Annam to 1888)
 8 Apr 1886 - 11 Nov 1886  Paulin François Alexandre Vial     (s.a.)
12 Nov 1886 - 29 Jan 1887  Jean Thomas Raoul Bonnal (1st time)(b. 1847 - d. 1925)
1887 - 1888                Antony Wladislas Klobukowski       (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
                             (acting)
29 Apr 1888 - 10 May 1889  Eusèbe Irénée Parreau              (b. 1842 - d. 1922)
29 May 1889 -  6 Apr 1890  Ernest Albert Brière (1st time)    (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1890 -  3 Feb 1891  Jean Thomas Raoul Bonnal (2nd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting)
 3 Feb 1891 - 27 Oct 1891  Ernest Albert Brière (2nd time)    (s.a.)
27 Oct 1891 - 20 Jul 1893  Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
20 Jul 1893 - 30 Mar 1895  François Pierre Rodier             (b. 1854 - d. 1913)
                             (acting to 15 Oct 1894)
30 Mar 1895 - 13 May 1895  Louis Paul Luce (acting)           (b. 1856 - d. 19..)
13 May 1895 - 18 Jun 1895  Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
18 Jul 1895 -  9 Mar 1899  Augustin Julien Fourès (acting)    (s.a.)
1897                       Léon Jules Pol Boulloche           (b. 1859 - d. 1922)
26 Jul 1897 - 30 Aug 1905  Augustin Julien Fourès             (s.a.)
30 Aug 1905 -  2 Apr 1907  Élie Jean-Henri Groleau (acting)   (b. 1859 - d. 1932)
Apr 1907 - Jul 1907        Louis Alphonse Bonhoure            (b. 1865 - d. 1909)
Jul 1907 - Apr 1909        Louis Jules Morel                  (b. 1853 - d. 1911)
Apr 1909 - Sep 1909        Marie Joseph Ulderic de Miribel    (b. 1858 - d. 1911)
                             (acting)
Sep 1909 - Aug 1912        Jules Simoni
20 Aug 1912 - 15 Dec 1912  Jean-François dit Eugène Charles   (b. 1865 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
16 Dec 1912 -  8 Jun 1915  Léon Louis Jean Georges Destenay   (b. 1861 - d. 1915)
 8 Jun 1915 - 1916         Maurice Joseph Le Gallen           (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
1917 - 1921                Jean Baptiste Édouard Bourcier     (b. 1870 - d. 1941) 
                             de Saint-Chaffray
1921 - 1925                Maurice Antoine François           (s.a.)
                             Monguillot
1925 - 1930                Eugène Jean Louis René Robin       (b. 1872 - d. 1954)
1930 - 1937                Auguste Eugène Ludovic Tholance    (b. 1878 - d. 1938)
1937 - 1940                Yves Charles Châtel                (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
1940 - 1941                Émile Louis François Grandjean     (b. 1888 - d. 1986)
1941 - 1942                Edouard André Delsalle             (b. 1893 - d. 1945)
1942 - 1944                Jean Maurice Norbert Haelewyn      (b. 1901 - d. 1945)
1944 -  9 Mar 1945         Camille Auphelle                   (b. 1908 - d. 1945)
Japanese Resident
Mar 1945 - Aug 1945        Nishimura Kumao                    (b. 1899 - d. 1980)
French Commissioners for Tonkin (later, North Vietnam)
18 Aug 1945 - 22 Aug 1945  Pierre Messmer (acting)            (b. 1916 - d. 2007)
22 Aug 1945 - Mar 1946     Jean-Roger Sainteny (1st time)     (b. 1907 - d. 1978)
Mar 1946 - Jun 1946        Jean Etienne Valluy                (b. 1899 - d. 1970)
Jun 1946 - 17 Aug 1946     Jean Crépin (acting)               (b. 1908 - d. 1996)
17 Aug 1946 -  2 Dec 1946  Louis Constant Morlière            (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
 2 Dec 1948 - 1948         Jean-Roger Sainteny (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (interim)
1948 - 1949                Yves Jean Digo                     (b. 1897 - d. 1974)
1949 - Nov 1950            Marcel Jean Marie Alessandri       (b. 1895 - d. 1968)
24 Nov 1950 - 29 Dec 1950  Pierre Georges Jacques Marie Boyer (b. 1896 - d. 1976)
                             De La Tour du Moulin  
29 Dec 1950 - 10 Feb 1951  Raoul Albin Louis Salan (interim)  (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
10 Feb 1951 - 28 May 1953  François Jean Antonin Marie Amédée (b. 1897 - d. 1955)
                             Gonzalez de Linarès   
28 May 1953 - 1955         René Cogny                         (b. 1904 - d. 1968)

Vietnamese Crown Representatives (Kinh Luoc Bac Ky) for Tonkin
188. - 188.                Nguyen Huu Do                      (b. 1813 - d. 1888)
1890 - 1897                Hoang Cao Khai                     (b. 1850 - d. 1933)
Vietnamese Imperial Lieutenants in Tonkin
17 Apr 1945 - 17 Aug 1945  Phan Ke Toai                       (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
17 Aug 1945 - Aug 1945     Nguyen Xuan Chu                    (b. 1898 - d. 1967)


French Cochinchina
 
            
               Sep 1858 - 9 Mar 1945 

 
Map of Cochinchina
Capital: Saigon
(Tourane 1858-1860)
Currency: 1862-1954
French Indochina

Piastre (ICFP); 1941-44 French Indochina
Military Yen (ICF)
Population: 4,616,000 (1936)

1689                       Annexed by Annam from Cambodia.
 1 Sep 1858                French occupy Da Nang (renamed Tourane).
18 Feb 1859                French occupy Saigon and the three southern Vietnamese provinces
                             of Bien Hoa, Gia Dinh and Dinh Tuong.
13 Apr 1862                Territories ceded to France.
1864                       French colony of Cochinchina.
1867                       Provinces of Chau Doc, Ha Tien and Vinh Long annexed.
16 Nov 1887                Part of Union of French Indochina.
21 Dec 1933                Spratly Islands are annexed to French Cochinchina.
28 Jul 1941                Japanese troops based in French Cochinchina (de facto occupation).
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation (see under Indo-China). 
15 Aug 1945                Japan transfers Cochinchina renamed Nam Bo to Empire of Vietnam.
 6 Sep 1945 - 28 Jan 1946  British occupation (s.a.).
 4 Jun 1949                Cochinchina formally ceded to State of Vietnam by France.

Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Division of Réunion and Indochina, and Commander-in
-Chief of the Expeditionary Corps of the Chinese Seas

 1 Sep 1858 -  1 Nov 1859  Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (b. 1807 - d. 1873)
Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Division of the Chinese Seas
 1 Nov 1859 -  6 Feb 1861  Théogène François Page             (b. 1807 - d. 1867)
Governors
- in Tourane (Da Nang) -
 1 Sep 1858 - 18 Feb 1859  Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (s.a.)
19 Oct 1859 - 23 Mar 1860  Théogène François Page             (s.a.)
- in Saigon -
18 Feb 1859 - 1859         Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (s.a.)
Mar 1859 -  1 Apr 1860     Jean Bernard Jauréguiberry (acting)(b. 1815 - d. 1887)
 1 Apr 1860 -  6 Feb 1861  Théogène François Page             (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1860 -  6 Feb 1861  Joseph Hyacinthe Louis Jules       (b. 1813 - d. 1878)
                             d'Ariès (acting for Page)
 6 Feb 1861 - 30 Nov 1861  Léonard Victor Joseph Charner      (b. 1797 - d. 1869)
30 Nov 1861 - 16 Oct 1863  Louis Adolphe Bonard               (b. 1805 - d. 1867)
16 Oct 1863 - 31 Mar 1865  Pierre Paul Marie de La Grandière  (b. 1807 - d. 1876)
                             (1st time)
 1 Apr 1865 - 28 Nov 1865  Pierre Gustave Roze (interim)      (b. 1812 - d. 1883)
28 Nov 1865 -  4 Apr 1868  Pierre Paul Marie de La Grandière  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 4 Apr 1868 - 10 Dec 1869  Marie Gustave Hector Ohier         (b. 1814 - d. 1870)
                             (acting)
10 Dec 1869 -  9 Jan 1870  Joseph Faron (interim)             (b. 1819 - d. 1881)
 9 Jan 1870 -  1 Apr 1871  Alphonse Jean Claude René Théodore (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
                             de Cornulier-Lucinière
 1 Apr 1871 - 16 Mar 1872  Marie Jules Dupré (1st time)       (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
16 Mar 1872 - 16 Dec 1872  Charles Joseph Basher d'Arbaud     (b. 1816 - d. 1876)
                             (acting)
16 Dec 1872 - 15 Mar 1874  Marie Jules Dupré (2nd time)       (s.a.)
16 Mar 1874 - 30 Nov 1874  Jules François Émile Krantz        (b. 1821 - d. 1914)
                             (acting)
30 Nov 1874 - 31 Jan 1876  Victor Auguste, baron Duperré      (b. 1825 - d. 1900)
                             (1st time)
 1 Feb 1876 -  6 Jul 1876  Henri Gaëtan Ernest Bossant        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
                             (acting)
 7 Jul 1876 - 16 Oct 1877  Victor Auguste, baron Duperré      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
16 Oct 1877 -  7 Jul 1879  Louis Charles Georges Jules Lafont (b. 1824 - d. 1908)
 7 Jul 1879 -  7 Nov 1882  Charles Le Myre de Vilers          (b. 1833 - d. 1918)
 4 Mar 1881 - 31 Oct 1881  Arthur de Trentinian               (b. 1822 - d. 1885)
                             (acting for de Vilers
 7 Nov 1882 - 27 Jul 1885  Charles Antoine François Thomson   (b. 1845 - d. 1898)
27 Jul 1885 - 19 Jun 1886  Charles Auguste Frédéric Bégin     (b. 1835 - d. 1901)
20 Jun 1886 - 22 Oct 1887  Ange Michel Filippini              (b. 1834 - d. 1887)
23 Oct 1887 -  2 Nov 1887  Marie Jacques Noël Pardon (acting) (b. 1854 - d. 1910)
 3 Nov 1887 - 15 Nov 1887  Jules Georges Piquet (acting)      (b. 1839 - d. 1928)
Lieutenant governors (subordinated to the Governors-general of Indochina)
 3 Nov 1887 - 15 Jan 1888  Jean Antoine Ernest Constans       (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
15 Jan 1888 -  2 Aug 1888  Eugène Auguste Navelle             (b. 1846 - d. 19..)
Directors of Local Service

 3 Aug 1888 - 25 Aug 1888  Eugène Auguste Navelle (acting)    (s.a.)
25 Aug 1888 - 16 May 1889  Paul Louis Maxime Céloron de       (b. 1831 - d. 1889)
                             Blainville                
Lieutenant governors (subordinated to the Governors-general of Indochina)
21 May 1889 -  9 Aug 1889  Augustin Julien Fourès (1st time)  (b. 1853 - d. 1915)
                             (acting)
 9 Aug 1889 - 11 Sep 1892  Henri-Eloi Danel                   (b. 1850 - d. 1900)
11 Sep 1892 - 25 Mar 1894  Augustin Julien Fourès (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting to 21 Oct 1892)
25 Mar 1894 - 15 Sep 1894  Eugène Auguste Navelle (acting)    (s.a.)
15 Sep 1895 - 18 Jul 1895  Augustin Julien Fourès (3rd time)  (s.a.)
18 Jul 1895 - 22 Mar 1896  Alexandre Antoine Étienne Gustave  (b. 1851 - d. 1907) 
                             Ducos (1st time)
22 Mar 1896 - 19 Nov 1896  Gustave Guillaume Sandret (acting) (b. 1852 - d. 1909)
19 Nov 1896 -  9 May 1897  Alexandre Antoine Étienne Gustave  (s.a.) 
                             Ducos (2nd time) 
10 May 1897 -  1 Jan 1898  Ange Eugène Nicolai (acting)       (b. 1845 - d. 1908)
 1 Jan 1898 - 11 Apr 1899  Édouard Picanon (1st time)         (b. 1854 - d. 1939)
11 Apr 1899 -  1 Nov 1900  Ferdinand Georges Jules Bocquet    (b. 1849 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
 1 Nov 1900 - 28 Jul 1901  Édouard Picanon (2nd time)         (s.a.)
28 Jul 1901 -  3 Sep 1901  Louis Paul Luce (acting)           (b. 1856 - d. 19..)
 5 Sep 1901 - 18 Sep 1902  Henri Félix de Lamothe             (b. 1843 - d. 1926)
18 Sep 1902 - 10 Mar 1906  François Pierre Rodier             (b. 1854 - d. 1913)
                             (1st time)
10 Mar 1906 - Feb 1907     Olivier Charles Arthur de Lalande  (b. 1853 - d. 1910) 
                             de Calan (acting)
Feb 1907 - 29 Jun 1907     François Pierre Rodier             (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
29 Jun 1907 - 18 Feb 1908  Louis Alphonse Bonhoure (1st time) (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
18 Feb 1908 - 23 Sep 1908  Ernest Outrey (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1863 - d. 1941)
23 Sep 1908 -  9 Jan 1909  Louis Alphonse Bonhoure (2nd time) (s.a.)
 9 Jan 1909 - 15 Jun 1909  Ernest Outrey (2nd time)(acting)   (s.a.)
16 Jun 1909 - Dec 1911     Jules Maurice Gourbeil             (b. 1867 - d. 19..)
Governors (subordinated to the Governors-general of Indochina)
Dec 1911 - 22 Mar 1912     Jules Maurice Gourbeil (1st time)  (s.a.)
22 Mar 1912 - 13 Dec 1912  Leon Destenay (acting)             (b. 1861 - d. 1915)
13 Dec 1912 - Jan 1914     Jules Maurice Gourbeil (2nd time)  (s.a.)
31 Jan 1914 -  7 Jul 1914  Maurice Joseph Le Gallen (1st time)(b. 1873 - d. 1956)
                             (acting)
 7 Jul 1914 - 26 Apr 1916  Jules Maurice Gourbeil (3rd time)  (s.a.)
26 Apr 1916 - 1917         Louis Félix Marie Édouard Rivet    (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
                             (acting)
 9 Oct 1917 - 22 Jun 1920  Maurice Joseph Le Gallen (2nd time)(s.a.)
22 Jun 1918 - 20 Feb 1920  Georges René Gaston Maspéro        (b. 1872 - d. 1942)
                             (acting for Le Gallen)
20 Feb 1920 - 18 Nov 1920  Maurice Joseph Le Gallen (3rd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting)
18 Nov 1920 - 14 Feb 1922  Paul Achille Michel Quesnel        (b. 1871 - d. 1945)
                             (acting)
14 Feb 1922 - 1926         Maurice Cognacq                    (b. 1870 - d. 1949)
                             (acting to 12 Apr 1922)
24 May 1924 - 17 Dec 1924  Auguste Eugène Ludovic Tholance    (b. 1878 - d. 1938)
                             (acting for Cognacq)   
19 Apr 1926 - 30 Dec 1926  Aristide Eugène Le Fol (acting)    (b. 1878 - d. 1967)
30 Dec 1926 - 12 Jan 1929  Paul Marie Alexis Joseph Blanchard (b. 1872 - d. 19..) 
                             de la Brosse
12 Jan 1929 -  6 Mar 1929  Eugène Henri Roger Eutrope         (b. 1881 - d. 1953)
                             (interim)
 6 Mar 1929 - 1934         Jean-Félix Krautheimer             (b. 1874 - d. 1943)
21 Nov 1931 - 11 Nov 1932  Eugéne Henri Eutrope               (s.a.)
                             (acting for Krautheimer) 
20 May 1934 - 1939         Pierre André Michel Pagès          (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
 1 Mar 1936 - 12 Oct 1936  Henri Georges Rivoal               (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
                             (acting for Pagès)
1939 - 1940                René Veber                         (b. 1888 - d. 1972)
16 Nov 1940 - 1942         Henri Georges Rivoal               (s.a.)
                             (acting to 11 Dec 1940)
1942 - 1945                Ernest Thimothée Hoeffel           (b. 1900 - d. 1952)
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Fujio Minoda
Vietnamese (Hue)Imperial Representative in the South
1945 - 25 Aug 1945         Nguyen Van Sam                     (b. 18.. - d. 1947)
President of the Provisional Executive Committee
25 Aug 1945 - 23 Sep 1945  Tran Van Giau (in opposition)      (b. 1911 - d. 2006)  DCSD
French Commissioner for Cochinchina and South Annam
24 Aug 1945 - 13 Oct 1945  Jean Marie Arsène Cédile           (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
                             (prisoner to 1 Sep 1945)
Chairman of the Allied Control Commission
 6 Sep 1945 - 28 Jan 1946  Douglas David Gracey (U.K.)        (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
Commissioners for
Cochinchina
Oct 1945 - 1946            Marcel Jean Marie Alessandri       (b. 1895 - d. 1968)
Oct 1946 - May 1947        Albert Torel (acting)              (b. 1895 - d. 1987)
May 1947 - 1948            Robert Dufour                      (b. 1891? - d. 19..)
1948 - 1949                Pierre Boyer De LaTour du Moulin   (b. 1896 - d. 1976)
                             (acting)
 1 Dec 1949 - 31 Jul 1951  Charles Marie Chanson              (b. 1902 - d. 1951)
 1 Aug 1951 -  9 Apr 1952  Raoul Albert Louis Salan           (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
                             (acting to 1 Sep 1951)
 9 Apr 1952 - 1953         Paul Louis Bondis                  (b. 1895 - d. 1986)
1953                       Georges Émile LeBlanc              (b. 1896 - d. 1989)
1953 - 1954                Gabriel Louis Marie Bourgund       (b. 1898 - d. 1993)

President of the Council of the South
1945 - 25 Aug 1945         Tran Van An                        (b. 1906 - d. 2002)  


South Vietnam
 
[Cochinchina,
                          1946-1948 (South Vietnam)]
            15 Jul 1946 - 2 Jun 1948
 
[Cochinchina
                          flag Variant 1946-1948 (South Vietnam)]
           1946 - 2 Jun 1948 Variant
[South Vietnam,
                          1948-1975]
            2 Jun 1948 - 30 Apr 1975 
 
[South Vietnam,
                          1975]
            30 Apr 1975 - 2 Jul 1976
 
Map of South Vietnam
Hear National Anthem
"Tieng Goi Công Dân"
(Call to the Citizens)
(14 Jun 1948-30 Apr 1975)
Hear National (NLF)  Anthem
"Giài phóng mién Nam"
(Liberate the South)
(30 Apr 1975 - 2 Jul 1976)
Constitution
(26 Oct 1956 [suspended
Nov 1963]; 1 Apr 1967-Apr 1975)
Capital: Saigon
Currency: 1975-1978 Viet Nam
 South Dong (VNS);

1954-75 South Vietnam
Dong
 (VNR);
1946-54 French
 Indochina
Piastre (ICFP)
National Holiday: 26 Oct (1955)
Republic Day
Population: 19,370,000 (1973)
GDP: $ N/A
Exports:  $40 million (1965)
Imports: $300 million (1965)
Ethnic groups: Vietnamese 80%, Chinese, Montagnard,
Khmer, Cham, Malay, others 20% (1970)
Total Armed Forces (ARVAN): 1,000,000 (1971)
U.S. Forces: 525, 000 (1968)
Merchant marine: 39 ships (1974)
Religions: majority Buddhist, Roman Catholic 10%,
Cao Dai, Hoa Hao, animists, others (1970)
International Organizations/Treaties (1946-1976): ACCT, ADB, ASPAC, BTWC (signatory), CP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, LORCS, NAM (from 1975), NPT, SEATO (observer), UN (observer 1952-76), UNCTAD, UNDP, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

 1 Jun 1946                Republic of Cochinchina (literally, "Republic of the Southern
                             Part"; French: République de Cochinchine)
 8 Oct 1947                South Vietnam (literally, "Southern Region of Vietnam")
27 May 1948                Vietnam
14 Jun 1949                French associated state (State of Vietnam).
21 Jul 1954                Division formalized by Geneva Accords.
26 Oct 1955                Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam)
27 Jan 1973                Paris Peace Accords signed.
30 Apr 1975                Republic of South Vietnam (North Vietnamese forces
                             occupy Saigon).
 2 Jul 1976                Unification with North Vietnam as the
                             Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Presidents of the Provisional Government
 1 Jun 1946 - 10 Nov 1946  Nguyen Van Thin                    (b. 1884 - d. 1946)  IDP
15 Nov 1946 -  7 Dec 1946  Nguyen Van Xuan (1st time)         (b. 1892 - d. 1989)  Mil
 7 Dec 1946 -  8 Oct 1947  Le Van Hoach                       (b. 1896 - d. 1978)  Non-party
 8 Oct 1947 - 27 May 1948  Nguyen Van Xuan (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Mil
President of the Central Government of Vietnam
27 May 1948 - 14 Jun 1949  Nguyen Van Xuan                    (s.a.)               Mil
Chief of state
14 Jun 1949 - 26 Oct 1955  Bao Dai                            (b. 1913 - d. 1997)  Non-party
                            (= Nguyen Vinh Thuy)
30 Apr 1955 - 26 Oct 1955  Ngo Dinh Diem (acting for Bao Dai) (b. 1901 - d. 1963)  CL+NRM
Presidents
26 Oct 1955 -  2 Nov 1963  Ngo Dinh Diem                      (s.a.)               CL+NRM
 2 Nov 1963 - 30 Jan 1964  Duong Van Minh (1st time)          (b. 1916 - d. 2001)  Mil
                             (chairman Revolutionary Military Committee)
30 Jan 1964 -  8 Feb 1964  Nguyen Khanh (1st time)            (b. 1927 - d. 2013)  Mil 
 8 Feb 1964 - 16 Mar 1964  Duong Van Minh (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Mil 
16 Mar 1964 - 27 Aug 1964  Nguyen Khanh (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Mil
27 Aug 1964 -  8 Sep 1964  Provisional Leadership Committee
                           - Duong Van Minh                   (s.a.)               Mil
                           - Nguyen Khanh                     (s.a.)               Mil
                           - Tran Thien Khiem                 (b. 1925)            Mil
 8 Sep 1964 - 26 Oct 1964  Duong Van Minh (3rd time)          (s.a.)               Mil
                             (chairman Provisional Leadership Committee)
26 Oct 1964 - 14 Jun 1965  Phan Khac Suu                      (b. 1905 - d. 1970)  Non-party
14 Jun 1965 - 21 Apr 1975  Nguyen Van Thieu                   (b. 1923 - d. 2001)Mil;1968 NSDF
                             (chairman National Leadership Committee to 31 Oct 1967)
21 Apr 1975 - 28 Apr 1975  Tran Van Huong                     (b. 1903 - d. 1982)  Non-party 
28 Apr 1975 - 30 Apr 1975  Duong Van Minh (4th time) (acting) (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Government
30 Apr 1975 -  2 Jul 1976  Huynh Tan Phat                     (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  NLF
                             (in opposition from 8 Jun 1969)

Chief of the Provisory Government 
26 Mar 1946 - 30 May 1946  Nguyen Van Thin                    (s.a.)               IDP
Prime ministers
13 Jun 1949 - 21 Jan 1950  Bao Dai                            (s.a.)               Non-party
21 Jan 1950 - 26 Apr 1950  Nguyen Phan Long                   (b. 1888 - d. 1960)  DLH
27 Apr 1950 -  6 Jun 1952  Tran Van Huu                       (b. 1896 - d. 1984)  Non-party
 6 Jun 1952 - 17 Dec 1953  Nguyen Van Tam                     (b. 1895 - d. 1990)  VNQ
12 Jan 1954 - 16 Jun 1954  Pham Buu Loc                       (b. 1914 - d. 1990)  Non-party
16 Jun 1954 - 26 Jun 1954  Phan Huy Quat (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1909 - d. 1979)  DVP
26 Jun 1954 - 26 Oct 1955  Ngo Dinh Diem                      (s.a.)               NRM
26 Oct 1955 -  4 Nov 1963  Post abolished
 4 Nov 1963 - 30 Jan 1964  Nguyen Ngoc Tho                    (b. 1908)            Non-party
 8 Feb 1964 - 29 Aug 1964  Nguyen Khanh (1st time)            (s.a.)               Mil
29 Aug 1964 -  3 Sep 1964  Nguyen Xuan Oanh (1st time)        (b. 1921 - d. 2003)  Non-party
                             (acting)
 3 Sep 1964 -  4 Nov 1964  Nguyen Khanh (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Mil
 4 Nov 1964 - 28 Jan 1965  Tran Van Huong (1st time)          (s.a.)               Mil
28 Jan 1965 - 15 Feb 1965  Nguyen Xuan Oanh (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting)
16 Feb 1965 -  8 Jun 1965  Phan Huy Quat (2nd time)           (s.a.)               DVP
19 Jun 1965 - 31 Oct 1967  Nguyen Cao Ky                      (b. 1930 - d. 2011)  Mil
31 Oct 1967 - 17 May 1968  Nguyen Van Loc                     (b. 1922)            Mil
28 May 1968 -  1 Sep 1969  Tran Van Huong (2nd time)          (s.a.)               NSDF
 1 Sep 1969 -  4 Apr 1975  Tran Thiem Khiem                   (s.a.)               DVP+NSDF
 4 Apr 1975 - 24 Apr 1975  Nguyen Ba Can                      (b. 1930 - d. 2009)  DC
28 Apr 1975 - 30 Apr 1975  Vu Van Mau                         (b. 1914 - d. 1998)  NRF
Chairman of the Presidium of the Consultative Council
30 Apr 1975 -  2 Jul 1976  Nguyen Huu Tho                     (b. 1910 - d. 1996)  NLF
                             (in opposition from 8 Jun 1969)

French High Commissioners (at Saigon)
14 Aug 1945 - 27 Apr 1953  the Commissioners of French Indochina
Commissioners-general
27 Apr 1953 - 21 Jul 1956  the Commissioners of French Indochina

Commanders of U.S. Military Assistance Command in Vietnam (MACV)
 8 Feb 1962 - 20 Jun 1964  Paul D. Harkinss                   (b. 1904 - d. 1984)
20 Jun 1964 - 22 Mar 1968  William Childs Westmoreland        (b. 1914 - d. 2005)
22 Mar 1968 - 30 Jun 1972  Creighton Williams Abrams, Jr.     (b. 1914 - d. 1974)
30 Jun 1972 - 29 Mar 1973  Frederick C. Weyand                (b. 1916 - d. 2010)

Party abbreviationsCL = Can Lao Nhan Vi Cach Mang Dang (Personalist Labor Revolutionary Party, "Can Lao", personalist, anti-communist, 1954-1963); DC = Dan Chu Dang (Democratic Party, 1973-1975); DLH = Dan Lap Hien/Parti Constitutionnaliste (Constitutional Party, 1923-1939); DVP = Dai Viet Quoc Dan Dang (Nationalist Party of Greater Vietnam, "Dai Viet", nationalist, anti-communist, 1939-1975); IDP = Parti Democrate Indochinois (Indochinese Democratic Party, 1937-1947); NLF = Mat tran Dan toc Giai phong mien Nam Viet Nam (National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, "Vietcong", communist, 1954-1976); NRF = Luc Luong Hoa Giai Hoa Hop Dan Toc (National Reconciliation Force, pacificist, Buddhist, 1974-1975); NRM = Phong Trao Cach Mang Quoc (National Revolutionary Movement, pro-Dinh Diem party, 1954-1963); NSDF = National Social Democratic Front (anti-communist, center-right, Nguyen Van Thieu led coalition of 6 parties: Greater Union Force, Social Humanist Party [successor to CL], Revolutionary Dai Viet, the Social Democratic Party, United Vietnam Kuomintang, and People's Alliance for Social Revolution, 1968-1975); VNQ = Viet-Nam Quoc Dan Dang (Vietnamese Nationalist Party, socialist, 1927-1975); Mil = Military


Alternative Government: Provisional Revolutionary Government of Republic of South Vietnam

[National Liberation Front of
                Vietnam (Viet-Cong) (Vietnam) 1963-1975]
         8 Jun 1969 - 30 Apr 1975
        (from 1963 in use by NLF)

 8 Jun 1969                Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of
                             South Vietnam, established in rebellion against the
                             Saigon government.
30 Apr 1975                NLF assumes control of South Vietnam.

Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Government
 8 Jun 1969 - 30 Apr 1975  Huynh Tat Phat                       (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  NLF

Chairman of the Presidium of the Consultative Council
 8 Jun 1969 - 30 Apr 1975  Nguyen Huu Tho                       (b. 1910 - d. 1996)  NLF

Party abbreviation: NLF = Mat tran Dan toc Giai phong mien Nam Viet Nam (National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, "Vietcong", South Vietname insurgent communist, 1954-1976)



North Vietnam
 
[Vietnam
                          (1945)]
           29 Sep 1945 - 30 Nov 1955 
 
[Vietnam]
             Adopted 30 Nov 1955
 
Map of North Vietnam Hear National Anthem
"Tien quân ca"
(The Song of the
Marching Troops
)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1945
Constitution
(1 Jul 1960)
Capital: Hanoi Currency: 1958-1978 North Vietnam New Dong (VDD);
 1953-1958 North Vietnam
 Piastre Dong (VDD); 1946-1953
Viet Minh Piastre Dong
Viet (VDP)
National Holiday: 2 Sep (1945)
Independence Day
Population: 23,930,000
 (1973 est.)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $50-60 million (1965)
Imports: $110-220 million (1965)
Ethnic groups: Vietnamese, Chinese, Thai
Total Armed Forces (NVA): N/A
Merchant marine: 5 ships (1974)
Religions: Buddhist, Roman Catholic, atheist
International Organizations/Treaties (1946-1976): ACCT, ICRM, LORCS, UN (observer 1975-76), WFTU, WHO, WMO

30 Aug 1945                Democratic Republic of Vietnam proclaimed.
 9 Sep 1945 -  6 Mar 1946  Allied (Chinese) occupation (see under French Indo-China).

President of the Indochinese Communist Party (from Feb 1951, Vietnam Workers' Party)
Oct 1930 -  2 Sep 1969     Ho Chi Minh (Nguyen Ai Quoc)       (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
First Secretaries (top party post from 2 Sep 1969)
May 1941 -  1 Nov 1956     Truong Chinh                       (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
 1 Nov 1956 - 10 Sep 1960  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)
10 Sep 1960 - 20 Dec 1976  Le Duan                            (b. 1908 - d. 1986) 

Chairman of the Provisional Government
28 Aug 1945 -  2 Mar 1946  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)               DCSD
Presidents
 2 Mar 1946 -  2 Sep 1969  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)            DCSD;1951 DLDV
                             (president of the government to 14 Aug 1948)
 3 Sep 1969 -  2 Jul 1976  Ton Duc Thang                      (b. 1888 - d. 1980)  DLDV
                             (acting to 23 Sep 1969)

Prime ministers
30 Aug 1945 - 20 Sep 1955  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)            DCSD;1951 DLDV
20 Sep 1955 -  2 Jul 1976  Pham Van Dong                      (b. 1908 - d. 2000)  DLDV

Party abbreviation: DCSV = Dang Cong san Viet Nam (Communist Party of Vietnam, Marxist-Lenninst communist, only legal party in North Vietnam; original name Vietnamese Communist Party [Dang Cong san Viet Nam][DCSV] Feb 1930-Oct 1930, successive names were: Indochinese Communist Party [Dong Duong Cong san Dang][DCSD], Oct 1930-Feb 1951, which was officially dissolved 11 Nov 1945 and merged into League for the Independence of Vietnam [Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi] "Viet Minh", although DCSD continued in secret to 1951; Vietnam Workers's Party [Dang Lao Dong Viet Nam][DLDV] Feb 1951-Dec 1976; and from 20 Dec 1976 renamed DCSV)


Socialist Republic of Vietnam


 2 Jul 1976                Unification as Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

First Secretary of the Vietnam Workers' Party (DLDV)
 2 Jul 1976 - 20 Dec 1976  Le Duan                            (b. 1908 - d. 1986) 
General Secretaries of the Communist Party (DCSV)
20 Dec 1976 - 10 Jul 1986  Le Duan                            (s.a.)
14 Jul 1986 - 18 Dec 1986  Truong Chinh                       (b. 1908 - d. 1988)
18 Dec 1986 - 27 Jun 1991  Nguyen Van Linh                    (b. 1915 - d. 1998)
27 Jun 1991 - 29 Dec 1997  Do Muoi                            (b. 1917)
29 Dec 1997 - 22 Apr 2001  Le Kha Phieu                       (b. 1931)
22 Apr 2001 - 19 Jan 2011  Nong Duc Manh                      (b. 1940)
19 Jan 2011 -              Nguyen Phu Trong                   (b. 1944)


Presidents
 2 Jul 1976 - 30 Mar 1980  Ton Duc Thang                      (s.a.)            DLDV;1976 DCSV
30 Mar 1980 -  4 Jul 1981  Nguyen Huu Tho (acting)            (b. 1910 - d. 1996)  DCSV
Chairmen of the State Council
 4 Jul 1981 - 18 Jun 1987  Truong Chinh                       (s.a.)               DCSV
18 Jun 1987 - 23 Sep 1992  Vo Chi Cong                        (b. 1913 - d. 2011)  DCSV
Presidents
23 Sep 1992 - 24 Sep 1997  Le Duc Anh                         (b. 1920)            DCSV
24 Sep 1997 - 27 Jun 2006  Tran Duc Luong                     (b. 1937)            DCSV
27 Jun 2006 - 25 Jul 2011  Nguyen Minh Triet                  (b. 1942)            DCSV 
25 Jul 2011 -              Truong Tan Sang                    (b. 1949)            DCSV 
 

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 2 Jul 1976 - 18 Jun 1987  Pham Van Dong                      (s.a.)            DLDV;1976 DCSV
18 Jun 1987 - 10 Mar 1988  Pham Hung                          (b. 1912 - d. 1988)  DCSV
10 Mar 1988 - 22 Jun 1988  Vo Van Kiet (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1922 - d. 2008)  DCSV
22 Jun 1988 -  8 Aug 1991  Do Muoi                            (s.a.)               DCSV
 8 Aug 1991 - 24 Sep 1992  Vo Van Kiet (2nd time)             (s.a.)               DCSV
Prime ministers
24 Sep 1992 - 25 Sep 1997  Vo Van Kiet                        (s.a.)               DCSV
25 Sep 1997 - 27 Jun 2006  Phan Van Khai                      (b. 1933)            DCSV
27 Jun 2006 -              Nguyen Tan Dung                    (b. 1949)            DCSV

Territorial Disputes: Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area and establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China;  the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in Mar 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Economic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary.

Party abbreviation: DCSV = Dang Cong san Viet Nam (Communist Party of Vietnam, communist, 
authoritarian, government party, to 20 Dec 1976 named Vietnam Workers's Party [Dang Lao Dong Viet Nam], est.1930)








© Ben Cahoon