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Laos 
 
[Laos
                                    French Protectorate 1893-1947]
                   1893 - 8 Apr 1945; 
            23 Apr 1946 - 11 May 1947
 
[Laos
                                    - 1947-1975]
             8 Apr 1945 - 23 Apr 1946;
            11 May 1947 - 2 Dec 1975 
 
[Flag of
                                    Laos]
           16 Oct 1945 - 23 Apr 1946; 
                Adopted 2 Dec 1975
 
 Map of Laos  Hear National Anthem
"Pheng Xat Lao"
(Hymn of the Lao People)
 Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1947
(Lyrics 1975)
 Constitution
(14 Aug 1991)
------------------------------------
Royal Constitution
(11 May 1947-1975; in French)
Capital: Vientiane
(Royal Capital: Luang Phra
Bang 1945-1975)
Currency: Lao Kip (LAK);
1976-79 Liberation Kip (LAL);
 1955-76 Old Kip (LAO);
1887-1955 French Indochina
Piastre (ICFP)
National Holiday: 2 Dec (1975)
Republic Day
Population: 6,695,166 (2013)
GDP: $20.7 billion (2013)
Exports: $2.31 billion (2013)
Imports: $3.23 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Lao 54.6%, Khmou 10.9%, Hmong (Miao) 8%,
 Tai 3.8%,
Phu Tai (Phouthay) 3.3%, Lue 2.2%, Katang 2.1%, Makong 2.1%, other 13% (2005)
Total Active Armed Forces: 29,100 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Buddhist 67%, Christian 1.5%, other,
non-religious and unspecified 31.5% (2005) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AIIB, ARF, ASEAN, BTWC, CCM, CP, CTBT, CWC, EAS, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IPU, ISA, ISO (subscriber), ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIF, OPCW, OST, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-PA, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Laos Index
Chronology

1353                       Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao 
161. - 1946                Separate Kingdom (from 1904 Principality) of
                             Nakhon Champasak. 
1707 - 1828                Separate Kingdom of Wiang Chhan.
 3 Oct 1893                French protectorate of Laos; part of French 
                             Indochina (see Vietnam)(Luang Phra Bang a 
                             protectorate; central and south French colonies
                             until 1899 then part of Luang Phra Bang).
23 Mar 1907                West-bank Champasak and Xaignabouri provinces
                             ceded by Siam to Laos.
16 Jun 1940 - 10 Mar 1945  Administration loyal to Vichy France.
 9 May 1941 -  7 Dec 1946  Xaignabouri and right-bank of Champasak provinces
                             annexed by Thailand.
10 Mar 1945 - 27 Aug 1945  Occupied by Japan (Japanese troops present since
                             28 Jul 1941).
 8 Apr 1945                Royal proclamation by Luang Phra Bang declares
                             end to French protectorate.
15 Sep 1945                Unification of Kingdom of Laos proclaimed.
23 Sep 1945 - Mar 1946     Allied (Chinese) occupation north of 16th 
                             parallel and British occupation below it.
23 Apr 1946                France protectorate re-established.
27 Aug 1946                France recognizes unification of Laos.
19 Jul 1949                French associated state
22 Oct 1953                Independence proclaimed (Kingdom of Laos).
21 Jul 1954                Independence recognized by France.
 2 Dec 1975                Lao People's Democratic Republic

Laos
(from 1945)
Luang Phra Bang
(Lan Xang)

(1637-1946)
Wiang Chhan
(1707-1828)
Champasak
(1700-1946)
Xiang Khuang
(1687-1888)
Historical Maps
of Laos
 
 
 
 

Luang Phra Bang  (Lan Xang)

[Luang Phra Bang flag to 1893
                (Laos)]
                    c.1707 - 1893
 
Map of Luang Phra Bang
Capital: Luang Phra Bang
(Xiang Dong Xiang Thong
to 1561; Vientiane 1561-1695)
Population: N/A

....                       Müang Xiang Dong Xiang Tong
... - ...                  Thai occupation.  
889 - ....                 Part of Khmer (Cambodian) empire.

1185 - 1191                Under Khmer suzerainty.

1353                       Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao 
1478 - 1479                Occupied by Vietnam.
1574 - 1603                Burmese vassal.
1575 - 1591                Occupied by Burma.
1707                       Kingdom of Luang Phra Bang (officially Lan Xang Hom Khao).
Mar 1765 - 1772            Under Burmese suzerainty.
1772 - 1795                Under Thai suzerainty.
1788 - 1792                Thai occupation.
179. -  2 Jun 1794         Thai occupation.
1795 - 1828                Vassal of Vietnam. 
 3 Oct 1893                French protectorate; part of French Indochina (see Vietnam).
21 Aug 1941                Wiang Chhan and Xiang Khuang incorporated into Luang Phra Bang.
10 Mar 1945 - 27 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation.
 8 Apr 1945                Royal proclamation declares end of French protectorate.
15 Sep 1945                Part of Kingdom of Laos

Kings
1575 - 1575                Nokeo-Koumane (1st time)           (d. 1596)
1575 - 1591                Burmese occupation
1591 - 1596                Nokeo-Koumane (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1596 - 1621                Vorouvong Sa II                    (b. 1585 - d. 1622)
1621 - 1622                Ouphagnauvarath I                  (b. 1597 - d. 1622)
1623 - 1627                Phothisarath II                    (b. 1552 - d. 1627)
1627 - 1633                Mom Keo                            (d. 1633)
1633 - 1637                Ton Khan (Ouphagnauvarath II)      (d. 1637)
1637 - 1638                Vickhsai                           (d. 1638)
1638 - 1690                Sulingvongsa                       (b. 1618 - d. 1690)
1690 - 1695                Tian Thala                         (d. 1696)
1695 - 1698                Nan Tharat                         (d. 1698) 
1698 - 1706                Setthathirath II                   (b. 1685 - d. 1735)
                             (to 1735 in Wiang Chhan)
1707 - 1713                Kingkitsarath                      (d. 1713)
1713 - 1723                Ong Kham                           (d. 1723)
1723 - 1749                Thao Ang (Inthason)                (d. 1749)
1749  (8 months)           Inthaphom                          (d. 1776)
1749 - 1768                Sotika-Koumane                     (b. bf.1734 - d. 1771)
1768 - 1788                Suryavong II                       (b. 1751? - d. 1791)
1788 - 1792                Thai occupation
 3 Feb 1792 - 179.         Anurutha (1st time)                (b. 1735 - d. 1819)
179. -  2 Jun 1794         Thai occupation
 2 Jun 1794 - 31 Dec 1819  Anurutha (2nd time)                (s.a.)
31 Dec 1819 -  7 Mar 1837  Manthaturath                       (b. 1772 - d. 1837)
                            (regent for Anurutha 1817 - 31 Dec 1819; lives as a
                             monk in Bangkok 1825-26, leaving Luang Phra Bang to
                             be administered by Thai officials)
1825 - 1826                .... -Thai official
1837 - 1838                Unkeo -Regent                      (d. 1850)
1838 - 23 Sep 1850         Sukha-Söm                          (b. 1797 - d. 1850)
23 Sep 1850 -  1 Oct 1868  Chantha-Kuman                      (b. 1799 - d. 1868)
 1 Oct 1868 - 15 Dec 1895  Unkham                             (b. 1811 - d. 1895)
15 Dec 1895 - 25 Mar 1904  Sakkarin                           (b. 1840 - d. 1904)
                            (regent for Unkham Apr 1888 - 15 Dec 1895)
26 Mar 1904 - 15 Sep 1945  Sisavang Vong (1st time)           (b. 1885 - d. 1959)
                            (also King of Laos from 12 Oct 1945)
15 May 1946 - 27 Aug 1946  Sisavang Vong (2nd time)           (s.a.)

Prime minister
21 Aug 1941 - 10 Oct 1945  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (b. 1890 - d. 1959)  Non-party

French Vice-consul
1887 -  5 Jun 1894         Auguste Jean Marie Pavie           (b. 1847 - d. 1925)
Commissioner-general
 5 Jun 1894 - Apr 1895     Auguste Jean Marie Pavie           (s.a.)
Commandant-superior of Bas-Laos (in Khong, Champasak)
 1 Jun 1895 - 30 Apr 1899  Marie Auguste Armand Tournier      (b. 1852 - d. 1930)
Commandants-superior of Haut-Laos (in Luang Prabang)
 1 Jun 1895 -  9 Mar 1897  Joseph Vacle (1st time) (interim)  (b. 1857 - d. 1907)
10 Mar 1897 - 11 Oct 1898  Louis Paul Luce (interim)          (b. 1856 - d. 19..)
11 Oct 1898 - Apr 1899     Joseph Vacle (2nd time) (interim)  (s.a.)
Residents-superior
Sep 1895 - Mar 1896        Léon Jules Pol Boulloche           (b. 1859 - d. 1922)
30 Apr 1899 - 12 Feb 1903  Marie Auguste Armand Tournier      (s.a.)
12 Feb 1903 - May 1906     Georges Marie Joseph Mahé          (b. 1860 - d. 19..) 
                             (1st time) (interim)
11 May 1906 -  1 Apr 1907  Louis Saturnin Laffont (interim)   (b. 1853 - d. 19..)
 1 Apr 1907 -  9 Jan 1912  Georges Marie Joseph Mahé          (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
24 Aug 1910 - 27 Jul 1911  Antoine Georges Amédeé Ernest      (b. 1863 - d. 1941)
                             Outrey (acting for Mahé)
 9 Jan 1912 -  4 Jul 1913  Louis Antoine Aubry de la Noë      (b. 1862 - d. 19..)
                             (interim)
 4 Jul 1913 -  9 Oct 1913  Claude Léon Garnier (1st time)     (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
 9 Oct 1913 - Feb 1914     Jean Édouard Bourcier              (b. 1870 - d. 1941)                              Saint-Chaffray (interim)
31 May 1914 -  3 May 1918  Claude Léon Garnier (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 3 May 1918 - 21 Mar 1931  Jules Georges Théodore Bosc        (b. 1871 - d. 1959)
26 Apr 1921 - Jan 1923     Joël Daroussin (interim)           (b. 1870 - d. 1951)
                             (acting for Bosc)
 7 May 1925 - Jan 1926     Jean-Jacques Dauplay (interim)     (b. 1878 - d. 1943)
                             (acting for Bosc)
21 May 1928 - 12 Dec 1928  Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger   (b. 1884 - d. 1931)
                             (interim) (acting for Bosc)
21 Mar 1931 - 12 May 1931  Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger   (s.a.)
                             (1st time) (interim)
25 Mar 1931                Pierre André Michel Pagès          (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
                             (did not take office)
12 May 1931 -  4 Jun 1931  Yves Charles Châtel                (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
11 Jun 1931 - 21 Nov 1931  Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (interim)
21 Nov 1931 - 11 Feb 1932  Jules Nicolas Thiebaut (interim)   (b. 1884 - d. 1935)
11 Feb 1932 - 16 Dec 1933  Aristide Eugène Le Fol             (b. 1878 - d. 1967)
16 Dec 1933 -  1 Jan 1934  Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques      (b. 1891 - d. 1977)
                             (1st time) (acting)
 1 Jan 1934 - 10 Jul 1934  Louis Frédéric Eckert (interim)    (b. 1878 - d. 19..)
10 Jul 1934 -  4 Aug 1934  Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 4 Aug 1934 -  5 Apr 1938  Eugène Henri Roger Eutrope         (b. 1881 - d. 1953)
25 Nov 1934 - 13 Oct 1935  Frédéric Claire Guillaume Louis    (b. 1883 - d. 1959)
                             Marty (interim)
 5 Apr 1938 - 16 Nov 1940  André Touzet                       (b. 1883 - d. 1956)
16 Nov 1940 - 29 Dec 1941  Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (interim)
29 Dec 1941 - Aug 1945     Louis Antoine Marie Brasey         (b. 1891 - d. 1957)
                             (Japanese prisoner 10 Mar - 9 Jun 1945)
Japanese Commander in Vientiane

10 Mar 1945 - Aug 1945     Sako Masanori
Japanese Supreme Counselor in Luang Prabang
 5 Apr 1945 - 22 Aug 1945  Ishibashi                                              Mil



Wiang Chhan (Viang Chan)

[Wiang Chhan
                [Vientiane] flag to 1828]
                   to 1828 
 
Map of Wiang Chhan
Capital: Vientiane

1707                       Kingdom of Wiang Chhan resulting from the split of
                             the Kingdom of Lan Xang.
1778 - 1780                Occupied by Thailand.
1781 - 12 Nov 1828         Vassal of Thailand.
12 Nov 1828                Annexation by Siam (see Thailand).
17 Oct 1887                French colony (Vientiane - French deformation).
10 Mar 1945 - 27 Aug 1945  Occupied by Japan.
15 Sep 1945                Part of Kingdom of Laos.

Kings
1707 - 1730                Setthathirath II                   (b. 1685 - d. 1730)
1730 - 1767                Ong Long                           (d. 1767)
1767 - 1778                Ong Bun (1st time)                 (b. 1730 - d. 1781)
1778 - 1780                Phraya Supho -Thai governor        (d. 1780)
1780 - Nov 1781            Ong Bun (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
21 Nov 1781 - Jan 1795     Nanthasen                          (d. 1795)
 2 Feb 1795 -  7 Feb 1805  Intharavong Setthathirath III      (b. 17.. - d. 1805)
                             (crowned on 23 Jul 1795)
 7 Feb 1805 - 12 Nov 1828  Anuvong                            (b. 1767 - d. 1829)



Champasak  (Nakhon Champasak)

[Flag of Champasak c.1713-
                1946 (Laos)]
               c.1713 - 27 Aug 1946
 
Map of Champasak
Capital: Pakse
(Champasak [Bassac]
 1863-1908; Nakhon
 Champasak 1791-1863;
Nakhon Champa Nakhaburisi
 1713-1791)

161.                       Kingdom of Nakhon Kala Champaknaburisi founded.
1713                       Name changed to Nakhon Champa Nakhaburisi.
1791                       Name changed to Nakhon Champasak.
1778 - 19 Sep 1904         Vasal state of Thailand.
1811 - 1813                Thai occupation.
1819 - 1821                Thai occupation.
1851 - 1856                Thai occupation.
1860 - 1863                Thai occupation.
19 Sep 1904                French protectorate.
22 Nov 1904                Principality under French protectorate.
 9 May 1941 - 17 Nov 1946  Right-bank of Champasak annexed by Thailand.
15 Sep 1945                Part of Kingdom of Laos.
27 Aug 1946                Principality extinguished.

Kings
1700 - 1713?               Nan Rath
1713 - 1738                Nokasat                            (b. 1693 - d. 1738)
1738 - 1791                Saya Kuman                         (b. 1710 - d. 1791)
                             (regent for Nokasat 1725-38)
1791                       Xiang Keo
1791 - 1811                Fai Na                             (d. 1811)
1811 (3 days)              No Muong                           (d. 1811) 
1811 - 1813                Cha Nou                            (d. 1813)
1813 - 1821                Ma Noi                             (d. 1821)
                             (fled to Thailand in 1820)
1821 - 1827                Rajabud Yo -Thai governor          (d. 1827)
1827 - 1840                Hui                                (b. 1780 - d. 1840)
1840 - 1850                Nak (regent for Hui to 1840)       (b. 1774 - d. 1850)
1851 - 1852                Süa -Regent                        (d. 1852)
1850 - 1853                Buwana -Thai governor              (d. 1853)
1853 - 1855                Suriya -Regent                     (d. 1855)

1856 - 1858                Kham Nhai                          (b. 1830 - d. 1858)
1858 - 1860                Chu -Regent
1862 - 28 Jul 1900         Kham Suk                           (b. 1838 - d. 1900)
                             (governor to 1863)
28 Jul 1900 - 22 Nov 1904  Bua Laphan                         (b. 1874 - d. 1945)
Princes
22 Nov 1904 - Nov 1945     Bua Laphan                         (s.a.)
Nov 1945 - 26 Aug 1946     Boun Oum                           (b. 1912 - d. 1980)



Xiang Khuang
 
Map of Xiang Khuang
Capital: Xiang Khuang

698                        Müang Maharatanaburirom Phommachakkhati 
                             Simahanakkharatakkasela Nakhon Xiang Khuang Rajathani
                             state founded in the Plain of Jars.
889 - 1368                 Part of Khmer (Cambodian) empire.
1478 - ....                Vassal of Vietnam.
1568 - 1598                Vassal of Pegu (Burma).
1772 - 1835                Under Thai suzerainty.
1835                       Annexed by Thailand.
18..                       Annexed by Vietnam.
1848                       Restored as a vassal state of Vietnam.
1851                       Sovereignty restored.
1875                       Annexed by Thailand.
1876                       Sovereignty restored.
1887                       Made a vassal state of Thailand.
1888                       Annexed by Thailand.
 3 Oct 1893                Made a French colonial possession as part of Laos.
15 Sep 1945                Part of Kingdom of Laos.

Kings (rath, chao xiwit)
1687 - 1688                Chao Kham Lan                      (d. 1688)
1688 - 1690                Chao Kham Phuttha                  (d. 1690)
1690 - 1694                Chao Kham Sattha                   (d. 1694)
1694                       Chao Bun Lang Thai                 (d. 1694)
1694 - 1698                Chao Bun Lot                       (d. 1698)
1698 - 1712                Chao Kham Bun Khong
1712 - 1714                Phraña Kham Thewo -Regent          (d. 1714)
                             (Phraña Thammatewo) 
1714 - 1740                Chao Bun Chan
1740 - 1751                Chao Kham Un Müang
1751 - 1753                Chao Ong Lo (1st time)
1753  (3 months)           Chao Ong Bun
1753 - 1779                Chao Ong Lo (2nd time)
1779 - 1781                Chao Ong Si Phom
1781 - 1782                Chao No Müang
1782 - 1802                Chao Som Phu
1802 - 1803                Chao Xiang
1803 - 1831                Chao Suthakasuvannakuman 
                             (Chao Noi)
1831 - 1835                Chao San -Regent
1835 - 1848                Annexed to Thailand, then Vietnam
1848 - 1865                Phra Chao Issarasettha (Chao Po)
1865 - 1874                Chao Üng
1875 - 1876                Annexed to Thailand
1876 - 1887                Chao Khanti
1887 - 1888                Thao Xiang Phet -Regent


Laos

15 Sep 1945                The united Kingdom of Laos proclaimed.
23 Sep 1945 - Mar 1946     Allied (Chinese) occupation north of 16th parallel 
                             and British occupation below it.
23 Apr 1946                France re-establishes protectorate.
27 Aug 1946                France recognizes unification of Laos.
19 Jul 1949                French associated state.
22 Oct 1953                Independence (Kingdom of Laos).
21 Jul 1954                Independence recognized by France.
 2 Dec 1975                Lao People's Democratic Republic

General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Lao People's Party 
(from Feb 1972, Lao People's Revolutionary Party)
22 Mar 1955 - 29 Mar 1991  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (b. 1920 - d. 1992)
Presidents of the Central Committee of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party
29 Mar 1991 - 21 Nov 1992  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (s.a.)
25 Nov 1992 - 21 Mar 2006  Khamtai Siphandon                  (b. 1924)
General Secretaries of the
Central Committee of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party
21 Mar 2006 - 22 Jan 2016  Choummaly Sayasone                 (b. 1936)
22 Jan 2016 -              Boungnang Vorachith                (b. 1937)

King (Rath)¹
15 Sep 1945 - 20 Oct 1945  Sisavang Vong (1st time)           (b. 1885 - d. 1959)
Commander of Chinese (Nationalist) 93rd Division
23 Sep 1945 - Mar 1946     Lu Kuo-chuan                       (b. 1903 - d. 1980?)
Head of State
20 Oct 1945 - 23 Apr 1946  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (b. 1890 - d. 1959)  LI
Kings (Rath)¹
23 Apr 1946 - 29 Oct 1959  Sisavang Vong (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                             (king of Luang Phra Bang 15 May - 27 Aug 1946)
28 Nov 1946 - 25 Oct 1949  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (s.a.)               LI
                             (Head of State, in Bangkok exile) 
21 Aug 1959 -  2 Dec 1975  Savang Vatthana                    (b. 1907 - d. 1978?)
                             (regent to 4 Nov 1959)
Presidents

 3 Dec 1975 - 15 Aug 1991  Prince Souphanouvong               (b. 1912 - d. 1995)  PPPL
31 Oct 1986 - 15 Aug 1991  Phoumi Vongvichit                  (b. 1909 - d. 1994)  PPPL
                             (acting for Souphanouvong)
15 Aug 1991 - 21 Nov 1992  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (s.a.)               PPPL
25 Nov 1992 - 24 Feb 1998  Nouhak Phoumsavan                  (b. 1914 - d. 2008)  PPPL
24 Feb 1998 -  8 Jun 2006  Khamtai Siphandon                  (s.a.)               PPPL
 8 Jun 2006 - 19 Apr 2016  Choummaly Sayasone                 (s.a.)               PPPL
19 Apr 2016 -              Boungnang Vorachith                (s.a.)               PPPL

Prime ministers
15 Sep 1945 - 20 Oct 1945  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Oct 1945 - 23 Apr 1946  Prince Phaya Khammao               (b. 1911 - d. 1984)  LI
                             (chairman of Provisional Government; continues
                             in Bangkok, Thailand exile to 25 Oct 1949)
23 Apr 1946 - 15 Mar 1947  Prince Kindavong                   (b. 1900 - d. 1951)  Non-party
15 Mar 1947 - 25 Mar 1948  Prince Souvannarath                (b. 1893 - d. 1960)  Non-party
25 Mar 1948 - 24 Feb 1950  Prince Boun Oum (1st time)         (b. 1912 - d. 1962)  Non-party
24 Feb 1950 - 15 Oct 1951  Phoui Sananikone (1st time)        (b. 1903 - d. 1983)  PS
21 Nov 1951 - 20 Oct 1954  Prince Souvanna Phouma (1st time)  (b. 1901 - d. 1984)  NPP
25 Nov 1954 - 21 Mar 1956  Katay Don Sasorith                 (b. 1904 - d. 1959)  NPP
21 Mar 1956 - 17 Aug 1958  Prince Souvanna Phouma (2nd time)  (s.a.)               NPP
17 Aug 1958 - 31 Dec 1959  Phoui Sananikone (2nd time)        (s.a.)               RPL
31 Dec 1959 -  7 Jan 1960  Sounthone Pathammavong             (b. 1911 - d. 1985)  Mil/CDIN
                             (Army Chief of Staff)
 7 Jan 1960 -  3 Jun 1960  Kou Abhay                          (b. 1892 - d. 1964)  Non-party
 3 Jun 1960 - 15 Aug 1960  Prince Somsanith                   (b. 1913 - d. 1975)  CDIN
30 Aug 1960 - 13 Dec 1960  Prince Souvanna Phouma (3rd time)  (s.a.)               RLP
                             (from 9 Dec 1960, continues in Cambodia exile and
                            
at Ban Khangkhai, recognized by Communist states)
11 Dec 1960 - 13 Dec 1960  Quinim Pholsena (not recognized)   (b. 1915 - d. 1963)  SPK
13 Dec 1960 - 23 Jun 1962  Prince Boun Oum (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
23 Jun 1962 -  2 Dec 1975  Prince Souvanna Phouma (4th time)  (s.a.)               NLPK 
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers)
 8 Dec 1975 - 15 Aug 1991  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (s.a.)               PPPL
15 Aug 1991 - 24 Feb 1998  Khamtai Siphandon                  (s.a.)               PPPL
24 Feb 1998 - 27 Mar 2001  Sisavath Keobounphanh              (b. 1928)            PPPL
27 Mar 2001 -  8 Jun 2006  Boungnang Vorachith                (b. 1937)            PPPL
 8 Jun 2006 - 23 Dec 2010  Bouasone Bouphavanh                (b. 1954)            PPPL
23 Dec 2010 - 19 Apr 2016  Thongsing Thammavong               (b. 1944)            PPPL
19 Apr 2016 -              Thongloun Sisoulith                (b. 1945)            PPPL
  
 
French Commissioners
29 Aug 1945 -  6 Apr 1946  Hans Imfeld (acting to 23 Sep 1945)(b. 1902 - d. 1947)
 6 Apr 1946 - 29 Jul 1947  Jean Léon François Marie de        (b. 1907 - d. 1951)
                             Raymond 
29 Jul 1947 - 20 Mar 1948  Maurice Marie Auguste Michaudel    (b. 1901 - d. 1975)
                             (interim)
20 Mar 1948 - Aug 1949     Alfred Gabriel Joseph Valmary      (b. 1901 - d. 1970)
                             (interim)
 8 Aug 1949 - 27 Apr 1953  Robert Louis Aimable Régnier       (b. 1897 - d. 1962)
High Commissioners
27 Apr 1953 -  6 Jan 1954  Miguel Joaquim de Pereyra          (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
 6 Jan 1954 - 1954         Michel Georges Eugène Breal        (b. 1896 - d. 1973)

 
 
[Flag of the Hmong]
  Ethnic Hmong 'Chao Fah' flag
  ¹The full style of the ruler was: Somdetch Brhat Chao Lan Xang Hom Khao Luang Prabang Parama Sidha Khatiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri.

Territorial Disputes: Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Thailand but disputes remain over islands in the Mekong River; concern among Mekong River Commission members that China's construction of dams on the Mekong River and its tributaries will affect water levels; Cambodia and Vietnam are concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction

Party abbreviations: PPPL = Phak Paxaxôn Pativat Lao (Revolutionary People's Party of Laos, part of mainly Vietnamese Indochinese Communist Party [DCSD] founded 1930 by Ho Chi Minh, a Committee for Laos, known 1950-1955 as Neo Lao Issara [Free Lao Front] which on 22 Mar 1955 became Phak Passason Lao [Lao People's Party] [PPL]; renamed PPPL Feb 1972, dictatorial, communist, only Legal Party since 1975, est.1936); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: CDIN = Comité pour la Défense des Interêts Nationaux/Khana Kammakan Pongkan Phongphanyot Haeng Xat (Committee for Defense of National Interests, rightist, anti-communist, military backed, 1958-1965); LI = Lao Issara (Free Lao, nationalist, anti-communist, 1945-1949); NLPK = Lao Pen Kang (Lao Neutralist Front, neutralist, 1961-1975); NPP = Parti National Progressif/Phak Xat Kaona (National Progressive Party, 1950-1958, merged into RLP); PS = Phak Seri (Independent Party, NPP opposition, 1950-1958, merged into RLP); RLP = Rassemblement du Peuple Laotien/Lao Laum Lao (Rally of the Lao People, formed by NPP and IP, 1958-1975); SPK = Santhiphap Pen Kang (Peace Through Neutrality, leftist, 1955-1963)








© Ben Cahoon