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Laos 
 
[Laos
                                    French Protectorate 1893-1947]
                   1893 - 8 Apr 1945; 
            23 Apr 1946 - 11 May 1947
 
[Laos
                                    - 1947-1975]
             8 Apr 1945 - 23 Apr 1946;
            11 May 1947 - 2 Dec 1975 
 
[Flag of
                                    Laos]
           16 Oct 1945 - 23 Apr 1946; 
                Adopted 2 Dec 1975
 
 Map of Laos  Hear National Anthem
"Pheng Xat Lao"
(Hymn of the Lao People)
 Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1947
(Lyrics 1975)
 Constitution
(14 Aug 1991)
------------------------------------
Royal Constitution
(11 May 1947-1975; in French)
Capital: Vientiane
(Royal Capital: Luang Phra
Bang 1945-1975)
Currency: Kip (LAK) National Holiday: 2 Dec (1975)
Republic Day
Population: 6,695,166 (2013)
GDP: $20.7 billion (2013)
Exports: $2.31 billion (2013)
Imports: $3.23 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Lao 54.6%, Khmou 10.9%, Hmong (Miao) 8%,
 Tai 3.8%,
Phu Tai (Phouthay) 3.3%, Lue 2.2%, Katang 2.1%, Makong 2.1%, other 13% (2005)
Total Active Armed Forces: 29,100 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Buddhist 67%, Christian 1.5%, other,
non-religious and unspecified 31.5% (2005) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, ARF, ASEAN, BTWC, CCM, CP, CTBT, CWC, EAS, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IPU, ISA, ISO (subscriber), ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Laos Index
Chronology

1353                       Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao 
161. - 1946                Separate Kingdom (from 1904 Principality) of
                             Nakhon Champasak. 
1707 - 1828                Separate Kingdom of Wiang Chhan.
 3 Oct 1893                French protectorate of Laos; part of French 
                             Indochina (see Vietnam)(Luang Phra Bang a 
                             protectorate; central and south French colonies
                             until 1899 then part of Luang Phra Bang).
23 Mar 1907                West-bank Champasak and Xainyaburi provinces
                             ceded by Siam to Laos.
16 Jun 1940 -  9 Mar 1945  Administration loyal to Vichy France.
 9 May 1941 -  7 Dec 1946  Xaignabouri and right-bank of Champasak provinces
                             annexed by Thailand.
 9 Mar 1945 - 27 Aug 1945  Occupied by Japan (Japanese troops present since
                             28 Jul 1941).
 8 Apr 1945                Royal proclamation by Luang Phra Bang declares
                             end to French protectorate.
15 Sep 1945                Unification of Kingdom of Laos proclaimed.
23 Sep 1945 - Mar 1946     Allied (Chinese) occupation north of 16th 
                             parallel and British occupation below it.
23 Apr 1946                France protectorate re-established.
27 Aug 1946                France recognizes unification of Laos.
19 Jul 1949                French associated state
22 Oct 1953                Independence proclaimed (Kingdom of Laos).
21 Jul 1954                Independence recognized by France.
 2 Dec 1975                Lao People's Democratic Republic

Laos
(from 1945)
Luang Phra Bang
(Lan Xang)

(1637-1946)
Wiang Chhan
(1707-1828)
Champasak
(1700-1946)
Xiang Khuang
(1687-1888)
Historical Maps
of Laos
 
 
 
 

Luang Phra Bang  (Lan Xang)

[Luang Phra Bang flag to 1893
                (Laos)]
                    c.1707 - 1893
 
Map of Luang Phra Bang
Capital: Luang Phra Bang
(Xiang Dong Xiang Thong
to 1561; Vientiane 1561-1695)
Population: N/A

....                       Müang Xiang Dong Xiang Tong
... - ...                  Thai occupation.  
889 - ....                 Part of Khmer (Cambodian) empire.

1185 - 1191                Under Khmer suzerainty.

1353                       Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao 
1478 - 1479                Occupied by Vietnam.
1574 - 1603                Burmese vassal.
1575 - 1591                Occupied by Burma.
1707                       Kingdom of Luang Phra Bang (officially Lan Xang Hom Khao).
Mar 1765 - 1772            Under Burmese suzerainty.
1772 - 1795                Under Thai suzerainty.
1788 - 1792                Thai occupation.
179. -  2 Jun 1794         Thai occupation.
1795 - 1828                Vassal of Vietnam. 
 3 Oct 1893                French protectorate; part of French Indochina (see Vietnam).
21 Aug 1941                Wiang Chhan and Xiang Khuang incorporated into Luang Phra Bang.
 5 Apr 1945 - 27 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation.
 8 Apr 1945                Royal proclamation declares end of French protectorate.
15 Sep 1945                Part of Kingdom of Laos

Kings
1575 - 1575                Nokeo-Koumane (1st time)           (d. 1596)
1575 - 1591                Burmese occupation
1591 - 1596                Nokeo-Koumane (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1596 - 1621                Vorouvong Sa II                    (b. 1585 - d. 1622)
1621 - 1622                Ouphagnauvarath I                  (b. 1597 - d. 1622)
1623 - 1627                Phothisarath II                    (b. 1552 - d. 1627)
1627 - 1633                Mom Keo                            (d. 1633)
1633 - 1637                Ton Khan (Ouphagnauvarath II)      (d. 1637)
1637 - 1638                Vickhsai                           (d. 1638)
1638 - 1690                Sulingvongsa                       (b. 1618 - d. 1690)
1690 - 1695                Tian Thala                         (d. 1696)
1695 - 1698                Nan Tharat                         (d. 1698) 
1698 - 1706                Setthathirath II                   (b. 1685 - d. 1735)
                             (to 1735 in Wiang Chhan)
1707 - 1713                Kingkitsarath                      (d. 1713)
1713 - 1723                Ong Kham                           (d. 1723)
1723 - 1749                Thao Ang (Inthason)                (d. 1749)
1749  (8 months)           Inthaphom                          (d. 1776)
1749 - 1768                Sotika-Koumane                     (b. bf.1734 - d. 1771)
1768 - 1788                Suryavong II                       (b. 1751? - d. 1791)
1788 - 1792                Thai occupation
 3 Feb 1792 - 179.         Anurutha (1st time)                (b. 1735 - d. 1819)
179. -  2 Jun 1794         Thai occupation
 2 Jun 1794 - 31 Dec 1819  Anurutha (2nd time)                (s.a.)
31 Dec 1819 -  7 Mar 1837  Manthaturath                       (b. 1772 - d. 1837)
                            (regent for Anurutha 1817 - 31 Dec 1819; lives as a
                             monk in Bangkok 1825-26, leaving Luang Phra Bang to
                             be administered by Thai officials)
1825 - 1826                .... -Thai official
1837 - 1838                Unkeo -Regent                      (d. 1850)
1838 - 23 Sep 1850         Sukha-Söm                          (b. 1797 - d. 1850)
23 Sep 1850 -  1 Oct 1868  Chantha-Kuman                      (b. 1799 - d. 1868)
 1 Oct 1868 - 15 Dec 1895  Unkham                             (b. 1811 - d. 1895)
15 Dec 1895 - 25 Mar 1904  Sakkarin                           (b. 1840 - d. 1904)
                            (regent for Unkham Apr 1888 - 15 Dec 1895)
26 Mar 1904 - 15 Sep 1945  Sisavang Vong (1st time)           (b. 1885 - d. 1959)
                            (also King of Laos from 12 Oct 1945)
15 May 1946 - 27 Aug 1946  Sisavang Vong (2nd time)           (s.a.)

Prime minister
21 Aug 1941 - 10 Oct 1945  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (b. 1890 - d. 1959)  Non-party

French Vice-consul
1887 -  5 Jun 1894         Auguste Jean Marie Pavie           (b. 1847 - d. 1925)
Commissioner-general
 5 Jun 1894 - Apr 1895     Auguste Jean Marie Pavie           (s.a.)
Commandant-superior of Bas-Laos (in Khong, Champasak)
 1 Jun 1895 - Apr 1899     Marie Auguste Armand Tournier      (b. 1852 - d. 1930)
Commandants-superior of Haut-Laos (in Luang Prabang)
 1 Jun 1895 -  9 Mar 1897  Joseph Vacle (1st time) (interim)  (b. 1857 - d. 1907)
 1 May 1897 - 11 Oct 1898  Louis Paul Luce (interim)          (b. 1856 - d. 19..)
11 Oct 1898 - Apr 1899     Joseph Vacle (2nd time) (interim)  (s.a.)
Residents-superior
Sep 1895 - Mar 1896        Léon Jules Pol Boulloche           (b. 1859 - d. 1922)
1899 - Feb 1903            Marie Auguste Armand Tournier      (s.a.)
12 Feb 1903 - May 1906     Georges Marie Joseph Mahé          (b. 1860 - d. 19..) 
                             (1st time) (interim)
11 May 1906 -  1 Apr 1907  Louis Saturnin Laffont (interim)   (b. 1853 - d. 19..)
 1 Apr 1907 - Jan 1912     Georges Marie Joseph Mahé          (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
24 Aug 1910 - 27 Jul 1911  Antoine Georges Amédeé Ernest      (b. 1863 - d. 1941)
                             Outrey (acting for Mahé)
 9 Jan 1912 - Jul 1913     Louis Antoine Aubry de la Noé      (b. 1862 - d. 19..)
                             (interim)
 4 Jul 1913 - Oct 1913     Claude Léon Garnier (1st time)     (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
 9 Oct 1913 - Feb 1914     Jean Édouard Bourcier              (b. 1870 - d. 1941)                              Saint-Chaffray (interim)
31 May 1914 - May 1918     Claude Léon Garnier (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 3 May 1918 - Mar 1931     Jules Georges Théodore Bosc        (b. 1871 - d. 1959)
26 Apr 1921 - Jan 1923     Joël Daroussin (interim)           (b. 1870 - d. 1951)
                             (acting for Bosc)
 7 May 1925 - Jan 1926     Jean-Jacques Dauplay (interim)     (b. 1878 - d. 1943)
                             (acting for Bosc)
21 May 1928 - 12 Dec 1928  Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger   (b. 1884 - d. 1931)
                             (interim) (acting for Bosc)
21 Mar 1931 - 12 May 1931  Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger   (s.a.)
                             (1st time) (interim)
25 Mar 1931                Pierre André Michel Pagès          (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
                             (did not take office)
21 May 1931 -  4 Jun 1931  Yves Charles Châtel                (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
11 Jun 1931 - 21 Nov 1931  Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (interim)
21 Nov 1931 - 11 Feb 1932  Jules Nicolas Thiebaut (interim)   (b. 1884 - d. 1935)
11 Feb 1932 - 16 Dec 1933  Aristide Eugène Le Fol             (b. 1878 - d. 1967)
16 Dec 1933 -  1 Jan 1934  Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques      (b. 1891 - d. 1977)
                             (1st time) (acting)
 1 Jan 1934 - Jul 1934     Louis Frédéric Eckert (interim)    (b. 1878 - d. 19..)
10 Jul 1934 -  4 Aug 1934  Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 4 Aug 1934 - Apr 1938     Eugène Henri Roger Eutrope         (b. 1881 - d. 1953)
25 Nov 1934 - 13 Oct 1935  Frédéric Claire Guillaume Louis    (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
                             Marty (interim)
 5 Apr 1938 - 16 Nov 1940  André Touzet
16 Nov 1940 - 29 Dec 1941  Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (interim)
29 Dec 1941 -  5 Apr 1945  Louis Antoine Marie Brasey         (b. 1891 - d. 1957)
Japanese Resident in Vientiane

Mar 1945 - Aug 1945        Sako Masanori
Japanese Supreme Counselor in Luang Prabang
 5 Apr 1945 - 22 Aug 1945  Ishibashi 



Wiang Chhan (Viang Chan)

[Wiang Chhan
                [Vientiane] flag to 1828]
                   to 1828 
 
Map of Wiang Chhan
Capital: Vientiane

1707                       Kingdom of Wiang Chhan resulting from the split of
                             the Kingdom of Lan Xang.
1778 - 1780                Occupied by Thailand.
1781 - 12 Nov 1828         Vassal of Thailand.
12 Nov 1828                Annexation by Siam (see Thailand).
17 Oct 1887                French colony (Vientiane - French deformation).
 9 Mar 1945 - 27 Aug 1945  Occupied by Japan.
15 Sep 1945                Part of Kingdom of Laos.

Kings
1707 - 1730                Setthathirath II                   (b. 1685 - d. 1730)
1730 - 1767                Ong Long                           (d. 1767)
1767 - 1778                Ong Bun (1st time)                 (b. 1730 - d. 1781)
1778 - 1780                Phraya Supho -Thai governor        (d. 1780)
1780 - Nov 1781            Ong Bun (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
21 Nov 1781 - Jan 1795     Nanthasen                          (d. 1795)
 2 Feb 1795 -  7 Feb 1805  Intharavong Setthathirath III      (b. 17.. - d. 1805)
                             (crowned on 23 Jul 1795)
 7 Feb 1805 - 12 Nov 1828  Anuvong                            (b. 1767 - d. 1829)



Champasak  (Nakhon Champasak)

[Flag of Champasak c.1713-
                1946 (Laos)]
               c.1713 - 27 Aug 1946
 
Map of Champasak
Capital: Pakse
(Champasak [Bassac]
 1863-1908; Nakhon
 Champasak 1791-1863;
Nakhon Champa Nakhaburisi
 1713-1791)

161.                       Kingdom of Nakhon Kala Champaknaburisi founded.
1713                       Name changed to Nakhon Champa Nakhaburisi.
1791                       Name changed to Nakhon Champasak.
1778 - 19 Sep 1904         Vasal state of Thailand.
1811 - 1813                Thai occupation.
1819 - 1821                Thai occupation.
1851 - 1856                Thai occupation.
1860 - 1863                Thai occupation.
19 Sep 1904                French protectorate.
22 Nov 1904                Principality under French protectorate.
 9 May 1941 - 17 Nov 1946  Right-bank of Champasak annexed by Thailand.
15 Sep 1945                Part of Kingdom of Laos.
27 Aug 1946                Principality extinguished.

Kings
1700 - 1713?               Nan Rath
1713 - 1738                Nokasat                            (b. 1693 - d. 1738)
1738 - 1791                Saya Kuman                         (b. 1710 - d. 1791)
                             (regent for Nokasat 1725-38)
1791                       Xiang Keo
1791 - 1811                Fai Na                             (d. 1811)
1811 (3 days)              No Muong                           (d. 1811) 
1811 - 1813                Cha Nou                            (d. 1813)
1813 - 1821                Ma Noi                             (d. 1821)
                             (fled to Thailand in 1820)
1821 - 1827                Rajabud Yo -Thai governor          (d. 1827)
1827 - 1840                Hui                                (b. 1780 - d. 1840)
1840 - 1850                Nak (regent for Hui to 1840)       (b. 1774 - d. 1850)
1851 - 1852                Süa -Regent                        (d. 1852)
1850 - 1853                Buwana -Thai governor              (d. 1853)
1853 - 1855                Suriya -Regent                     (d. 1855)

1856 - 1858                Kham Nhai                          (b. 1830 - d. 1858)
1858 - 1860                Chu -Regent
1862 - 28 Jul 1900         Kham Suk                           (b. 1838 - d. 1900)
                             (governor to 1863)
28 Jul 1900 - 22 Nov 1904  Bua Laphan                         (b. 1874 - d. 1945)
Princes
22 Nov 1904 - Nov 1945     Bua Laphan                         (s.a.)
Nov 1945 - 26 Aug 1946     Boun Oum                           (b. 1912 - d. 1980)



Xiang Khuang
 
Map of Xiang Khuang
Capital: Xiang Khuang

698                        Müang Maharatanaburirom Phommachakkhati 
                             Simahanakkharatakkasela Nakhon Xiang Khuang Rajathani
                             state founded in the Plain of Jars.
889 - 1368                 Part of Khmer (Cambodian) empire.
1478 - ....                Vassal of Vietnam.
1568 - 1598                Vassal of Pegu (Burma).
1772 - 1835                Under Thai suzerainty.
1835                       Annexed by Thailand.
18..                       Annexed by Vietnam.
1848                       Restored as a vassal state of Vietnam.
1851                       Sovereignty restored.
1875                       Annexed by Thailand.
1876                       Sovereignty restored.
1887                       Made a vassal state of Thailand.
1888                       Annexed by Thailand.
 3 Oct 1893                Made a French colonial possession as part of Laos.
15 Sep 1945                Part of Kingdom of Laos.

Kings (rath, chao xiwit)
1687 - 1688                Chao Kham Lan                      (d. 1688)
1688 - 1690                Chao Kham Phuttha                  (d. 1690)
1690 - 1694                Chao Kham Sattha                   (d. 1694)
1694                       Chao Bun Lang Thai                 (d. 1694)
1694 - 1698                Chao Bun Lot                       (d. 1698)
1698 - 1712                Chao Kham Bun Khong
1712 - 1714                Phraña Kham Thewo -Regent          (d. 1714)
                             (Phraña Thammatewo) 
1714 - 1740                Chao Bun Chan
1740 - 1751                Chao Kham Un Müang
1751 - 1753                Chao Ong Lo (1st time)
1753  (3 months)           Chao Ong Bun
1753 - 1779                Chao Ong Lo (2nd time)
1779 - 1781                Chao Ong Si Phom
1781 - 1782                Chao No Müang
1782 - 1802                Chao Som Phu
1802 - 1803                Chao Xiang
1803 - 1831                Chao Suthakasuvannakuman 
                             (Chao Noi)
1831 - 1835                Chao San -Regent
1835 - 1848                Annexed to Thailand, then Vietnam
1848 - 1865                Phra Chao Issarasettha (Chao Po)
1865 - 1874                Chao Üng
1875 - 1876                Annexed to Thailand
1876 - 1887                Chao Khanti
1887 - 1888                Thao Xiang Phet -Regent


Laos

15 Sep 1945                The united Kingdom of Laos proclaimed.
23 Sep 1945 - Mar 1946     Allied (Chinese) occupation north of 16th parallel 
                             and British occupation below it.
23 Apr 1946                France re-establishes protectorate.
27 Aug 1946                France recognizes unification of Laos.
19 Jul 1949                French associated state.
22 Oct 1953                Independence (Kingdom of Laos).
21 Jul 1954                Independence recognized by France.
 2 Dec 1975                Lao People's Democratic Republic

General Secretary of the Lao People's Party (Phak Pativat Lao)(PPL)
(from Feb 1972, Lao People's Revolutionary Party)
22 Mar 1955 - 29 Mar 1991  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (b. 1920 - d. 1992)
Presidents of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party
29 Mar 1991 - 21 Nov 1992  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (s.a.)
25 Nov 1992 - 21 Mar 2006  Khamtai Siphandon                  (b. 1924)
General Secretary the Lao People's Revolutionary Party
21 Mar 2006 -              Choummaly Sayasone                 (b. 1936) 

King (Rath)¹
15 Sep 1945 - 20 Oct 1945  Sisavang Vong (1st time)           (b. 1885 - d. 1959)
Commander of Chinese (Nationalist) 93rd Division
23 Sep 1945 - Mar 1946     Lu Kuo-chuan                       (b. 1903 - d. 1980?)
Head of State
20 Oct 1945 - 23 Apr 1946  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (b. 1890 - d. 1959)  LI
Kings (Rath)¹
23 Apr 1946 - 29 Oct 1959  Sisavang Vong (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                             (King of Luang Phra Bang 15 May - 27 Aug 1946)
28 Nov 1946 - 25 Oct 1949  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (s.a.)               LI
                             (Head of State, in Bangkok exile) 
21 Aug 1959 -  2 Dec 1975  Savang Vatthana                    (b. 1907 - d. 1978?)
                             (regent to 4 Nov 1959)
Presidents

 3 Dec 1975 - 15 Aug 1991  Prince Souphanouvong               (b. 1912 - d. 1995)  PPPL
31 Oct 1986 - 15 Aug 1991  Phoumi Vongvichit                  (b. 1909 - d. 1994)  PPPL
                             (acting for Souphanouvong)
15 Aug 1991 - 21 Nov 1992  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (s.a.)               PPPL
25 Nov 1992 - 24 Feb 1998  Nouhak Phoumsavan                  (b. 1914 - d. 2008)  PPPL
24 Feb 1998 -  8 Jun 2006  Khamtai Siphandon                  (s.a.)               PPPL
 8 Jun 2006 -              Choummaly Sayasone                 (s.a.)               PPPL

Prime ministers
15 Sep 1945 - 20 Oct 1945  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Oct 1945 - 23 Apr 1946  Prince Phaya Khammao               (b. 1911 - d. 1984)  LI
                             (chairman of provisional government; continues
                             in Bangkok, Thailand exile to 25 Oct 1949)
23 Apr 1946 - 15 Mar 1947  Prince Kindavong                   (b. 1900 - d. 1951)  Non-party
15 Mar 1947 - 25 Mar 1948  Prince Souvannarath                (b. 1893 - d. 1960)  Non-party
25 Mar 1948 - 24 Feb 1950  Prince Boun Oum (1st time)         (b. 1912 - d. 1962)  Non-party
24 Feb 1950 - 15 Oct 1951  Phoui Sananikone (1st time)        (b. 1903 - d. 1983)  PS
21 Nov 1951 - 20 Oct 1954  Prince Souvanna Phouma (1st time)  (b. 1901 - d. 1984)  NPP
25 Nov 1954 - 21 Mar 1956  Katay Don Sasorith                 (b. 1904 - d. 1959)  NPP
21 Mar 1956 - 17 Aug 1958  Prince Souvanna Phouma (2nd time)  (s.a.)               NPP
17 Aug 1958 - 31 Dec 1959  Phoui Sananikone (2nd time)        (s.a.)               RPL
31 Dec 1959 -  7 Jan 1960  Sounthone Pathammavong             (b. 1911 - d. 1985)  Mil/CDIN
                             (Army Chief of Staff)
 7 Jan 1960 -  3 Jun 1960  Kou Abhay                          (b. 1892 - d. 1964)  Non-party
 3 Jun 1960 - 15 Aug 1960  Prince Somsanith                   (b. 1913 - d. 1975)  CDIN
30 Aug 1960 - 13 Dec 1960  Prince Souvanna Phouma (3rd time)  (s.a.)               RLP
                             (from 9 Dec 1960, continues in Cambodia exile and
                            
at Ban Khangkhai, recognized by communist states)
11 Dec 1960 - 13 Dec 1960  Quinim Pholsena (not recognized)   (b. 1915 - d. 1963)  SPK
13 Dec 1960 - 23 Jun 1962  Prince Boun Oum (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
23 Jun 1962 -  2 Dec 1975  Prince Souvanna Phouma (4th time)  (s.a.)               NLPK 
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers)
 8 Dec 1975 - 15 Aug 1991  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (s.a.)               PPPL
15 Aug 1991 - 24 Feb 1998  Khamtai Siphandon                  (s.a.)               PPPL
24 Feb 1998 - 27 Mar 2001  Sisavath Keobounphanh              (b. 1928)            PPPL
27 Mar 2001 -  8 Jun 2006  Boungnang Vorachith                (b. 1937)            PPPL
 8 Jun 2006 - 23 Dec 2010  Bouasone Bouphavanh                (b. 1954)            PPPL
23 Dec 2010 -              Thongsing Thammavong               (b. 1944)            PPPL
 
 
French Commissioners
 8 Aug 1945 -  6 Apr 1946  Hans Imfeld (acting to 23 Sep 1945)(b. 1902 - d. 1947)
 6 Apr 1946 - Jul 1947     Jean Léon François Marie de        (b. 1907 - d. 1951)
                             Raymond 
29 Jul 1947 - 20 Mar 1948  Maurice Marie Auguste Michaudel    (b. 1901 - d. 1975)
                             (interim)
20 Mar 1948 - Aug 1949     Alfred Gabriel Joseph Valmary      (b. 1901 - d. 1970)
                             (interim)
 8 Aug 1949 - Apr 1953     Robert Louis Aimable Régnier       (b. 1897 - d. 1962)
High Commissioners
27 Apr 1953 - Jan 1954     Miguel Joaquim de Pereyra          (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
 6 Jan 1954 - 1955         Michel Georges Eugène Breal        (b. 1896 - d. 1973)

 
 
[Flag of the Hmong]
  Ethnic Hmong 'Chao Fah' flag
  ¹The full style of the ruler was: Somdetch Brhat Chao Lan Xang Hom Khao Luang Prabang Parama Sidha Khatiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri.

Territorial Disputes: Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Thailand but disputes remain over islands in the Mekong River; concern among Mekong River Commission members that China's construction of dams on the Mekong River and its tributaries will affect water levels; Cambodia and Vietnam are concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction

Party abbreviations: PPPL = Phak Paxaxôn Pativat Lao (Revolutionary People's Party of Laos, part of mainly Vietnamese Indochinese Communist Party [DCSD] founded 1930 by Ho Chi Minh, a Committee for Laos, known 1950-1955 as Neo Lao Issara [Free Lao Front] which on 22 Mar 1955 became Phak Passason Lao [Lao People's Party] [PPL]; renamed PPPL Feb 1972, dictatorial, communist, only Legal Party since 1975, est.1936); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: CDIN = Comité pour la Défense des Interêts Nationaux/Khana Kammakan Pongkan Phongphanyot Haeng Xat (Committee for Defense of National Interests, rightist, anti-communist, military backed, 1958-1965); LI = Lao Issara (Free Lao, nationalist, anti-communist, 1945-1949); NLPK = Lao Pen Kang (Lao Neutralist Front, neutralist, 1961-1975); NPP = Parti National Progressif/Phak Xat Kaona (National Progressive Party, 1950-1958, merged into RLP); PS = Phak Seri (Independent Party, NPP opposition, 1950-1958, merged into RLP); RLP = Rassemblement du Peuple Laotien/Lao Laum Lao (Rally of the Lao People, formed by NPP and IP, 1958-1975); SPK = Santhiphap Pen Kang (Peace Through Neutrality, leftist, 1955-1963)








© Ben Cahoon