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Cambodia
 
[Cambodia National flag before 1863]
                          to c.1863
 
[Flag of
                            Cambodia 1863-1948]
              c.1863 - Jun 1940
 
[French Flag]
        1887 - 1942; 1945 - 29 Oct 1948 
 
[Cambodia flag under Japanese control
                          c.1942-1945]
               c.1942 - 13 Mar 1945
 
 
[Cambodia,
                            1948-70, 1993-current]
         13 Mar 1945 - 29 Oct 1948
[Cambodia, 1948-70,
                            1993-current]
           29 Oct 1948 - 9 Oct 1970;
           17 Apr 1975 - 5 Jan 1976
 
[Khmer
                            Republic 1970-1975 (Cambodia)]
             9 Oct 1970 - 17 Apr 1975
 
[Kampuchea
                            1976-1979 (Cambodia)]
             5 Jan 1976 - 7 Jan 1979
 
[Flag of
                            Cambodia, 1979-1989]
             7 Jan 1979 - 1 May 1989
 
[Flag of
                            Cambodia, 1989-1991]
            1 May 1989 - 24 Jun 1991
 
[Cambodia
                            1991-1993]
              24 Jun 1991 - 30 Jun 1993

[Cambodia]
              Re-adopted 30 Jun 1993

Map of Cambodia Hear National Anthem
"Nokoreach" (Royal Kingdom)
Text of National Anthem
  20 Jul 1941-1970, 1975-1976,
Re-adopted 21 Sep 1993
Constitution
 (24 Sep 1993)
Hear Anthem 1970-1975 Hear Anthem 1976-1979
"Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey"
(Glorious Seventeenth of April)
(5 Jan 1976 - 7 Jan 1979)
Hear Anthem 1979-1989
(1979-30 Apr 1989)
Former Constitutions
(6 May 1947, 30 Apr 1972-75,
 27 Jun 1981, 5  May 1989)

Capital: Phnom Penh
(Udong 1505-15.., 1618-1865;
Lovek 1528-1566, 1576-94;
Pursat 15.. -1528;
Phnom Penh 1434-1505;
Tuol Basan 1431-34;
Angkor 802-1431, 1566-76)
Currency: Riel (KHR);
1863-1955 French Indochina
Piastre (ICFP);
1650-1860
 Tical (KHT)
National Holiday:  9 Nov (1953) 
Independence Day
Population: 15,205,539 (2013)
GDP: $36.54 billion (2012) 
Exports: $6.01 billion (2012)
Imports: $7.96 billion (2012)
Ethnic groups: Khmer 85.2%, Chinese 6.4%,
Vietnamese 3%, Cham 2.5%, Lao 0.2%, other 2.3% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 124,300 (2010)
Merchant marine: 544 ships (2010)
Religions: Theravada Buddhist 84.7%, Chinese folk
religionist 4.7%, traditional beliefs 4.3% Muslim 2.3%,
Christian 1.1%, other 2.9% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APM, ARF, ASEAN, BTWC, CICA (observer), CTBT, CWC, EAS, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISO (correspondent), ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Cambodia Index
Chronology

802                        Khmer (Angkor) Empire
c.1340                     Kingdom of Cambodia
1369 - 1375                Occupied by Siam.
13.. - 1389                Occupied by Siam.
1431 - c.1620              Vassal of Siam.
1710 - 1720                Vassal of Vietnam.
1720 - 1834                Vassal of Siam.
1834 - 1845                Vassal of Vietnam.
1846 - 11 Aug 1863         Under joint suzerainty of Siam and Vietnam.
11 Aug 1863                French protectorate.
17 Oct 1887                Part of the French Indochina (see Vietnam).
13 Feb 1904                Melouprey and Tonle-Depo ceded by Siam
                             to Cambodia.
23 Mar 1907                Battambang, Siem Reap, and Sisophon ceded by
                             Siam to Cambodia.
16 Jun 1940 -  9 Mar 1945  French administration loyal to Vichy France.
11 Mar 1941 - 17 Nov 1947  Battambang, Siem Reap, and Sisophon re-annexed
                             by Thailand.
 9 Mar 1945 -  8 Oct 1945  Occupied by Japan (de facto since 28 Jul 1941).
18 Mar 1945 - 16 Oct 1945  Independence proclaimed (Kingdom of Kampuchea).
 8 Oct 1945 - 1946         Allied (British) occupation.
 8 Nov 1949                French associated state
 9 Nov 1953                Independence (Kingdom of Cambodia).
20 Dec 1954                Independence recognized by France.
 9 Oct 1970                Khmer Republic
17 Apr 1975                Khmer Rouge forces capture Phnom Penh.
 5 Jan 1976                Democratic Kampuchea (retains UN recognition 
                             until 20 Nov 1991).
 7 Jan 1979                People's Republic of Kampuchea.
 7 Jan 1979 - 25 Sep 1989  Occupied by Vietnam.
 1 May 1989                State of Cambodia
15 Mar 1992 - 30 Jun 1993  Under United Nations Transitional Authority in
                             Cambodia (UNTAC) administration.
24 Sep 1993                Kingdom of Cambodia (restored).

Democratic
Kampuchea
in Exile

(1979-1993,
1994-1998)
Cambodia
Historical Maps
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

General Secretary of the Central Committee the Kampuchean Communist Party (KCP)
11 Apr 1976 -  7 Jan 1979  Pol Pot (Saloth Sar)               (b. 1925 - d. 1998)
                             (elected Feb 1963; continues in exile to 1981)
Secretaries-general of the People's Revolutionary (Communist) Party of Kampuchea (KPRP)

29 May 1981 -  5 Dec 1981  Pen Sovan                          (b. 1936)
 5 Dec 1981 - 17 Oct 1991  Heng Samrin                        (b. 1934)

Kings
Oct 1658 - 1672            Barom Reachea V (Paramaraja IX)    (b. 1628 - d. 1672)
1672 - 1674                Chey Chettha III (P
adumaraja II)   (b. 1639 - d. 1674)
1674 - 1675                Keo Fa -Regent                     (b. 1652 - d. 1677)

1675 - 1695
               Chettha IV (1st time)              (b. c.1650 - d. 1725)
1695 - 1696                Outey I (Narairamadipati I)        (b. 1675 - d. 1696)
1696 - 1699                Chettha IV (2nd time)              (s.a.)
1699 - 1701                Ang Em (1st time)                  (b. 1674 - d. 1731)
1701 - 1702                Chettha IV (3rd time)              (s.a.)
1702 - 1703                Thommo Reachea II (1st time)       (b. 1689 - d. 1747)
1703 - 1706                Chettha IV (4th time)              (s.a.)
1706 - 1710                Thommo Reachea II (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1710 - 1722                Ang Em (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
1722 - 1738                Satha II Ang Chey                  (d. 1749)
1738 - 1747                Thommo Reachea II (3rd time)       (s.a.)
1747                       Thommo Reachea III                 (b. 1705 - d. 1747)
1747 - 1749                Ang Tong (1st time)                (b. 1693 - d. 1757)
1749 - 1755                Chettha V                          (b. 1709 - d. 1755)
1755 - 1758                Ang Tong (2nd time)                (s.a.)
1758 - 1775                Outey II                           (b. 1739 - d. 1777)
1775 - Aug 1779            Ang Non II                         (b. 1739 - d. 1779)
1779 -  5 May 1796         Ang Eng                            (b. 1773 - d. 1796)
1796 - 1806                Pok -Regent
1806 - 1811                Ang Chan II (1st time)             (b. 1791 - d. 1835)
1811 - 1812                Ang Em -Regent                     (b. 1794 - d. 1844)
1812 - 13 May 1813         Ang Snguon -Regent                 (b. 1794 - d. 1822)
13 May 1813 -  7 Jan 1835  Ang Chan II (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1835 - Aug 1840            Ang Mey -Queen (1st time)          (b. 1815 - d. 1875)
1841 - 1844                Ang Duong (1st time)               (b. 1796 - d. 1860)
1844 - 1845                Ang Mey -Queen (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1845 - 19 Oct 1860         Ang Duong (2nd time)               (s.a.)
19 Oct 1860 - 25 Apr 1904  Norodom (Ang Vathey)               (b. 1834 - d. 1904)
25 Apr 1904 -  9 Aug 1927  Sisowath                           (b. 1840 - d. 1927)
 9 Aug 1927 - 24 Apr 1941  Sisowath Monivong                  (b. 1875 - d. 1941)

24 Apr 1941 -  3 Mar 1955  Norodom Sihanouk (1st time)        (b. 1922 - d. 2012)
 3 Mar 1955 -  3 Apr 1960  Norodom Suramarit                  (b. 1896 - d. 1960)
Heads of state
 3 Apr 1960 -  6 Apr 1960  Chuop Hell (1st time) (acting)     (b. 1909 - d. c.1975)SRN
 6 Apr 1960 - 13 Jun 1960  Prince Sisowath Monireth           (b. 1909 - d. 1975)  Non-party
                             (chairman Regency Council) 
13 Jun 1960 - 20 Jun 1960  Chuop Hell (2nd time) (acting)     (s.a.)               SRN
20 Jun 1960 - 18 Mar 1970  Prince Norodom Sihanouk (1st time) (s.a.)               SRN
                             (continues in exile in Beijing, China to 1975)
10 Jul 1960 - 18 Mar 1970  Queen Sisowath Monivong Kossamak   (b. 1904 - d. 1975)  Non-party
                             Nearireath (f)
                             (Ceremonial Head of state)¹
18 Mar 1970 - 10 Mar 1972  Cheng Heng                         (b. 1910 - d. 1996)  SRN
                             (acting to 9 Oct 1970)
10 Mar 1972 - 14 Mar 1972  Lon Nol                            (b. 1913 - d. 1985)  Mil 
Presidents
14 Mar 1972 - 12 Apr 1975  Lon Nol                            (s.a.)               Mil/SSR
 1 Apr 1975 - 12 Apr 1975  Saukam Khoy                        (b. 1915 - d. 2008)  Mil/SSR
                             (acting for Lon Nol)
12 Apr 1975 - 17 Apr 1975  Sak Sutsakhan                      (b. 1928 - d. 1994)  Mil
                             (chairman Supreme Committee)
Head of state
17 Apr 1975 - 11 Apr 1976  Prince Norodom Sihanouk (2nd time) (s.a.)               FUNK
Chairman of the State Presidium
11 Apr 1976 -  7 Jan 1979  Khieu Samphan                      (b. 1931)            KCP
President of the People's Revolutionary Council
 7 Jan 1979 - 27 Jun 1981  Heng Samrin                        (s.a.)           FUNSK;1981 PRPK
Chairmen of the Council of State
27 Jun 1981 -  6 Apr 1992  Heng Samrin                        (s.a.)               KPRP
 6 Apr 1992 - 14 Jun 1993  Chea Sim                           (b. 1932)            KPRP
Chairman of the Supreme National Council
20 Nov 1991 - 14 Jun 1993  Prince Norodom Sihanouk            (s.a.)               FUNCINPEC
Head of state
14 Jun 1993 - 24 Sep 1993  Prince Norodom Sihanouk (3rd time) (s.a.)               Non-party
Kings
24 Sep 1993 -  6 Oct 2004  Norodom Sihanouk (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (in self-imposed exile from 10 Apr 2004)
 6 Oct 1993 -  8 Apr 1994  Samdech Chea Sim (1st time)        (s.a.)               KPK
                             (acting head of state)
18 May 1994 -  4 Jan 1995  Samdech Chea Sim (2nd time)        (s.a.)               KPK
                             (acting head of state)
10 Apr 2004 - 13 Jul 2004  Samdech Chea Sim (3rd time)        (s.a.)               KPK
                             (acting head of state)
13 Jul 2004 - 22 Jul 2004  Nhek Bun Chhay                     (b. 1956)            FUNCINPEC
                             (acting head of state)
22 Jul 2004 - 20 Oct 2004  Samdech Chea Sim (4th time)        (s.a.)               KPK
                             (acting head of state)
14 Oct 2004 -              Norodom Sihamoni                   (b. 1953)

Prime ministers
18 Mar 1945 - 13 Aug 1945  Norodom Sihanouk (1st time)        (s.a.)               Non-party
14 Aug 1945 - 16 Oct 1945  Son Ngoc Thanh (1st time)          (b. 1908 - d. 1977)  Non-party
17 Oct 1945 - 15 Dec 1946  Prince Sisovath Monireth           (s.a.)               Non-party
15 Dec 1946 - 17 Jul 1947  Prince Sisovath Youtevong          (b. 1913 - d. 1947)  KP
25 Jul 1947 - 20 Feb 1948  Prince Sisowath Watchayavong       (b. 1891 - d. 1972)  KP
20 Feb 1948 - 14 Aug 1948  Chhean Vam                         (b. 1916 - d. 2000)  KP
15 Aug 1948 - 21 Jan 1949  Samdech Penn Nouth (1st time)      (b. 1906 - d. 1985)  KP
12 Feb 1949 - 20 Sep 1949  Yem Sambaur (1st time)             (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  KP
20 Sep 1949 - 29 Sep 1949  Ieu Koeus                          (b. 1905 - d. 1950)  KP
29 Sep 1949 - 28 Apr 1950  Yem Sambaur (2nd time)             (s.a.)               KP
28 Apr 1950 - 30 May 1950  Norodom Sihanouk (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Non-party
30 May 1950 -  3 Mar 1951  Samdech Krom Luong Sisowath        (b. 1912 - d. 1956)  Non-party
                             Monipong 
 3 Mar 1951 - 12 Oct 1951  Oum Chheang Sun (1st time)         (b. 1900 - d. 19..)  Non-party
13 Oct 1951 - 16 Jun 1952  Huy Kanthoul                       (b. 1909 - d. 1991)  KP
16 Jun 1952 - 24 Jan 1953  Norodom Sihanouk (3rd time)        (s.a.)               Non-party
24 Jan 1953 - 22 Nov 1953  Samdech Penn Nouth (2nd time)      (s.a.)               KP
23 Nov 1953 -  7 Apr 1954  Chan Nak                           (b. 1892 - d. 1954)  Non-party 
 7 Apr 1954 - 18 Apr 1954  Norodom Sihanouk (4th time)        (s.a.)               Non-party
18 Apr 1954 - 25 Jan 1955  Samdech Penn Nouth (3rd time)      (s.a.)               KP
25 Jan 1955 -  3 Oct 1955  Leng Ngeth                         (b. 1900 - d. c.1975)KP
 3 Oct 1955 -  4 Jan 1956  Prince Norodom Sihanouk (5th time) (s.a.)               SRN
 4 Jan 1956 - 29 Feb 1956  Oum Chheang Sun (2nd time)         (s.a.)               SRN
 1 Mar 1956 -  3 Apr 1956  Prince Norodom Sihanouk (6th time) (s.a.)               SRN
 3 Apr 1956 - 15 Sep 1956  Khim Tit                           (b. 1896 - d. 1975)  SRN
15 Sep 1956 - 15 Oct 1956  Prince Norodom Sihanouk (7th  time)(s.a.)               SRN
25 Oct 1956 -  9 Apr 1957  Sam Yun                            (b. 1905 - d. 1974)  SRN
 9 Apr 1957 - 27 Jul 1957  Prince Norodom Sihanouk (8th time) (s.a.)               SRN
27 Jul 1957 - 11 Jan 1958  Sim Var (1st time)                 (b. 1906 - d. 1989)  SRN
11 Jan 1958 - 17 Jan 1958  Ek Yi Oun                          (b. 1910)            SRN
17 Jan 1958 - 24 Apr 1958  Samdech Penn Nouth (4th time)      (s.a.)               SRN
24 Apr 1958 - 10 Jul 1958  Sim Var (2nd time)                 (s.a.)               SRN
10 Jul 1958 - 18 Apr 1960  Prince Norodom Sihanouk (9th time) (s.a.)               SRN
18 Apr 1960 - 28 Jan 1961  Pho Proeung                        (b. 1903 - d. c.1975)Non-party
28 Jan 1961 - 17 Nov 1961  Samdech Penn Nouth (5th time)      (s.a.)               SRN
17 Nov 1961 -  6 Aug 1962  Prince Norodom Sihanouk (10th time)(s.a.)               SRN
13 Feb 1962 -  6 Aug 1962  Nhiek Tioulong                     (b. 1908 - d. 1996)  SRN
                             (acting for Sihanouk)

 6 Aug 1962 -  6 Oct 1962  Chau Sen Cocsal Chhum              (b. 1905 - d. 2009)  SRN
 6 Oct 1962 - 22 Oct 1966  Prince Norodom Kantol              (b. 1920 - d. 1976)  SRN
22 Oct 1966 -  2 May 1967  Lon Nol (1st time)                 (s.a.)               SRN/Mil
 2 May 1967 - 30 Jan 1968  Son Sann                           (b. 1911 - d. 2000)  SRN
30 Jan 1968 - 14 Aug 1969  Samdech Penn Nouth (6th time)      (s.a.)               SRN
14 Aug 1969 - 10 Mar 1972  Lon Nol (2nd time)                 (s.a.)               Mil
 5 May 1970 - 17 Apr 1975  Samdech Penn Nouth (7th time)      (s.a.)               FUNK
                             (in Beijing, China exile)
 6 May 1971 - 12 Mar 1972  Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak        (b. 1914 - d. 1975)  Non-party
                             ("prime minister-delegate" acting for Lon Nol to 10 Mar 1972)
18 Mar 1972 - 14 Oct 1972  Son Ngoc Thanh (2nd time)          (s.a.)               KS
14 Oct 1972 - 16 May 1973  Hang Thun Hak                      (b. 1926 - d. 1975)  SSR
16 May 1973 - 26 Dec 1973  In Tam                             (b. 1922 - d. 2006)  SSR
26 Dec 1973 - 17 Apr 1975  Long Boret                         (b. 1933 - d. 1975)  SSR
17 Apr 1975 -  4 Apr 1976  Samdech Penn Nouth (8th time)      (s.a.)               FUNK
                             (in exile [Sihanoukist government] from 5 May 1970)
 4 Apr 1976 - 13 May 1976  Khieu Samphan                      (s.a.)               KCP 
13 May 1976 -  7 Jan 1979  Pol Pot                            (s.a.)               KCP
 7 Jan 1979 - 27 Jun 1981  Vacant
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers)

27 Jun 1981 -  5 Dec 1981  Pen Sovan                          (s.a.)               KPRP
 5 Dec 1981 - 26 Dec 1984  Chan Sy                            (b. 1932 - d. 1984)  KPRP
                            (acting to 9 Feb 1982)
14 Jan 1985 -  2 Jul 1993  Hun Sen                            (b. 1952)          KPRP;1991 KPK
Coequal Prime ministers
 2 Jul 1993 - 21 Sep 1993  Hun Sen                            (s.a.)               KPK
                           + Prince Norodom Ranariddh         (b. 1944)            FUNCINPEC 
First Prime ministers
21 Sep 1993 -  6 Jul 1997  Prince Norodom Ranariddh           (s.a.)               FUNCINPEC 
16 Jul 1997 - 30 Nov 1998  Ung Huot                           (b. 1945)            FUNCINPEC 
Second Prime minister
21 Sep 1993 - 30 Nov 1998  Samdech Hun Sen                    (s.a.)               KPK
Prime Minister
30 Nov 1998 -              Samdech Hun Sen                    (s.a.)               KPK
 

French Representatives

Apr 1863 - Jul 1866        Ernest Marc Louis de Gonzague      (b. 1823 - d. 1868)
                             Doudart de Lagrée 
Jul 1866 - 20 Feb 1868     Armand Pottier (1st time)
20 Feb 1868 - 10 Mar 1870  Jean Moura (1st time)              (b. 1827 - d. 1885)
10 Mar 1870 - 11 Nov 1870  Armand Pottier (2nd time)(acting)
11 Nov 1870 -  1 Jan 1871  Jules Marcel Brossard de Corbigny  (b. 1841 - d. 1934)
                             (acting)
 1 Jan 1871 -  1 May 1876  Jean Moura (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 1 May 1876 -  9 Nov 1876  Paul Louis Félix Philastre         (b. 1837 - d. 1907)
                             (acting)
 9 Nov 1876 -  6 Jan 1879
  Jean Moura (3rd time)              (s.a.)
 6 Jan 1879 - 10 May 1881  Étienne François Aymonier (acting) (b. 1844 - d. 1929)
10 May 1881 - 12 Aug 1885  Augustin Julien Fourès             (b. 1853 - d. 1915)
Residents-general
12 Aug 1885 - 16 Oct 1885  Jules Victor Renaud
(acting)
18 Oct 1885 - 17 May 1886  Pierre de Badens (provisional)     (b. 1847 - d. 1897)
17 May 1886 - 28 Oct 1887  Jules Georges Piquet               (b. 1839 - d. 1923)
14 Nov 1887 - 10 May 1889  Louis Eugène Palasne de Champeaux  (b. 1840 - d. 1889)
                             (acting)
10 May 1889 -  4 Jul 1889  Orsini (acting)
Residents-superior
 4 Jul 1889 - 24 Jan 1894  Albert Louis Huyn de Vernéville    (b. 1845 - d. 1909)
                             (1st time)
24 Jan 1894 -  4 Aug 1894  Flore Léonce Marquant (acting)     (b. 1845 - d. 1921)
 4 Aug 1894 - 14 May 1897  Albert Louis Huyn de Vernéville    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
14 May 1897 - 16 Jan 1900  Antoine Étienne Alexandre Ducos    (b. 1851 - d. 1907)
16 Jan 1900 -  3 Jun 1901  Louis Paul Luce (1st time)         (b. 1856 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
 3 Jun 1901 - 17 Jul 1902  Léon Jules Pol Boulloche           (b. 1859 - d. 1922)
17 Jul 1902 - 26 Oct 1902  Charles Pierre Pallier (acting)    (b. 1862 - d. 192.)
26 Oct 1902 - 25 Sep 1904  Henri Félix de Lamothe             (b. 1843 - d. 1926)
25 Sep 1904 - 16 Oct 1905  Louis Jules Morel                  (b. 1853 - d. 1911)
16 Oct 1905 - 16 Dec 1905  Olivier Charles Arthur de          (b. 1853 - d. 1910)
                             Lalande de Calan (acting)
29 Dec 1905 - 26 Jul 1911  Louis Paul Luce (2nd time)         (s.a.)
26 Jul 1911 - 26 Mar 1914  Ernest Amédée Antoine Georges      (b. 1863 - d. 1941)
                             Outrey (acting to 8 Oct 1911) 
26 Mar 1914 - 25 Jul 1914  Fran
çois Xavier Tessarech (acting) (b. 1866 - d. 19..)
25 Jul 1914 - 22 Oct 1914  Joseph Maurice Le Gallen (acting)  (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
22 Oct 1914 - 20 Jan 1927  François Marius Baudoin
           (b. 1867 - d. 1957)
15 Apr 1920 -  6 Dec 1920  Gaston René Georges Maspéro        (b. 1872 - d. 1942)
                             (acting for Baudoin)
 6 Dec 1920 - 21 Feb 1921  Hector Clair Joseph Henri Létang   (b. 1862 - d. 1948)
                             (acting for Baudoin)
10 Apr 1922 -  8 May 1924  Victor Édouard Marie L'Helgoualc'h (b. 1870 - d. 1968)
                             (acting for Baudoin)
20 Jan 1927 -  1 Jan 1929  Aristide Eugène Le Fol             (b. 1878 - d. 1967)
 1 Jan 1929 - 12 Jan 1929  Achille Louis Auguste Silvestre    (b. 1879 - d. 1937)
                             (1st time) (acting)
12 Jan 1929 -  4 Mar 1932  Fernand Marie Joseph Antoine Lavit (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
 4 Mar 1932 - 15 Jan 1935  Achille Louis Auguste Silvestre    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting to 7 Dec 1932)
15 Jan 1935 - 12 Dec 1936  Henri Louis Marie Richomme (acting)(b. 1880 - d. 1945)
12 Dec 1936 - 29 Dec 1941  Léon Emmanuel Thibaudeau           (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
                             (acting to 16 Jun 1937)
29 Dec 1941 -  2 Mar 1943  Jean Delens (acting)               (b. 1891 - d. 1965)
 2 Mar 1943 - Nov 1944     Georges Armand Léon Gautier        (b. 1901 - d. 1987)
Nov 1944 -  9 Mar 1945     André Joseph Berjoan (1st time)    (b. 1903 - d. 1990) 
                             (acting)
                             (Japanese prisoner 9 Mar 1945-Aug 1945)
 9 Mar 1945 - 1945         Manaki Takanobu -Japanese commander(b. 1894 - d. 1974)
 9 Mar 1945 - 17 Aug 1945  Kubota -Japanese Supreme Adviser
1945 - 15 Oct 1945         André Joseph Berjoan (2nd time)    (s.a.) 
                             (acting) 
 8 Oct 1945 - 1946         Edward Dymoke Murray (U.K.)        (b. 1910 - d. 2002)
                             (Allied military commander)
Commissioners

15 Oct 1945 - 10 Apr 1946  Paul Huard                         (b. 1903 - d. 1994)
10 Apr 1946 - 20 May 1947  Romain Victor Joseph Pénavaire     (b. 1904 - d. 1968)
                             (acting 26 Jul 1945)
20 May 1947 - 20 Oct 1948  Léon Marie Adolphe Pascal Pignon   (b. 1908 - d. 1976)
20 Oct 1948 - 26 Feb 1949  Lucien Vincent Loubet (acting)     (b. 1905 - d. ....)
26 Feb 1949 - 29 Oct 1951  Jean Léon François Marie de        (b. 1907 - d. 1951)
                             Raymond                 
29 Oct 1951 - 16 May 1952  Yves Jean Digo                     (b. 1897 - d. 1974)
16 May 1952 - 27 Apr 1953  Jean Risterucci                    (b. 1911 - d. 1982)
High Commissioner
27 Apr 1953 -  9 Nov 1953  Jean Risterucci                    (s.a.) 


Head of the UN Transitional Authority
15 Mar 1992 - 26 Sep 1993  Yasushi Akashi (Japan)             (b. 1931)

 

Democratic Kampuchea in Exile

[Kampuchea 1976-1979]

 7 Jan 1979                Vietnamese military forces occupy Phnom Penh.
22 Jun 1982                Democratic Kampuchea coalition government formed, it retains 
                             UN recognition (after establishment of the Vietnam-backed
                             People's Republic of Kampuchea) and operates in exile 
                             and in the far western provinces along border with Thailand.
 3 Feb 1990                Renamed the National Government of Cambodia.
 2 Jul 1993                Dissolved.
11 Jul 1994 - 22 Jun 1998  Provisional Government of National Union and National Salvation
                             of Cambodia set up by Khmer Rouge at Pailin after failure to
                             reach settlement with the government. Defections and loss
                             of area to the government end in its collapse.

Presidents
 7 Jan 1979 - 22 Jun 1982  Khieu Samphan                      (s.a.)             KCP;1981 PKP
22 Jun 1982 -  2 Jul 1993  Nordom Sihanouk (1st time)         (s.a.)               FUNCINPEC
                             (in Beijing, China exile)  

Prime ministers
 7 Jan 1979 - Dec 1979     Pol Pot                            (s.a.)               KCP
Dec 1979 - 22 Jun 1982     Khieu Samphan (1st time)           (s.a.)             KCP;1981 PKP
22 Jun 1982 -  2 Jul 1993  Son Sann                           (s.a.)               PKP
11 Jul 1994 - 22 Jun 1998  Khieu Samphan (2nd time)           (s.a.)               KSCK

 ¹Queen Sisovath Monivong Kossamak Nearireath (f) (s.a.) ruled together with her husband King Norodom Suramarit (s.a.) from 3 Mar 1955 to his death on 3 Apr 1960 as virtual co-head of State. When her son, Prince Norodom Sihanouk (s.a.), ruled as chief of State (20 Jun 1960 - 18 Mar 1970), as the throne was declared vacant, she served as "Ceremonial Head of State, Symbol, Incarnation and Representative of the Crown." 

Territorial Disputes: Cambodia is concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Vietnam is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands.

Party abbreviationsKPK = Kanakpak Pracheachon Kâmpuchéa (Cambodian People's Party, democratic-socialist, authoritarian, former KPRP, est.17 Oct 1991); FUNCINPEC = Front Uni National pour un Cambodge Indépendant, Neutre, Pacifique, et Coopératif (National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia, Sihanouk's main political group, royalist, center-right, est.1981); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: FUNK = Front Uni National du Kampuchéa (National United Front of Kampuchea, coalition of Sihanoukists and Khmer Rouge, 1970-1976); GRUNK = Gouvernement Royal d'Union Nationale du Kampuchéa (Royal Government of National Union of Kampuchea, Government-in-exile formed by Sihanouk, May 1970-1975); FUNSK = Front d'Union Nationale pour le Salut du Kampuchéa (Kampuchean National United Front for National Salvation, anti-Khmer Rouge, pro-Vietnam coalition of KPRP, 1978-1981); FNLPK = Front National de Libération du Peuple Khmer (Khmer People's National Liberation Front (right-wing, pro-Western, anti-Communist faction in opposition to Vietnamese occupation, 1979-1992); KCP = Parti Communiste du Kampuchéa (Communist Party of Kampuchea (known publicly as Angkar Loeu [High Organization] was actually Khmer Rouge, from 29 Sep 1977 officially announced to be Kampuchean Communist Party, only legal party 1976-79, Maoist communist, 1966-1981); KP = Krom Pracheathipodei (Democratic Party, social-democratic, pro-independence, 1946-1957); KS = Khmer Serei (Free Khmer, anti-communist, anti-monarchist, 1956-1979); KSCK = Kanakpak Samakki Cheat Kampuchea (Cambodian National Unity Party, est. by KRP, former PDK, 1992-1998); PKP = Pheakki Kampuchea Pracheathippatatei (Party of Democratic Kampuchea, democratic-socialist, est. by KRP, 1981-1994); KPRP = Parti Révolutionnaire du Peuple Khmer (Khmer People's Revolutionary Party (Marxist Leninist, communist, anti-Khmer Rouge, pro-Vietnam, to 1981 named Cambodian Communist, only legal party 1981-91, in 1991 renounces communism, 1979-1991, renamed KPK); SSR = Sangkum Sathéaranak Râth (Social Republican Party, nationalist, anti-communist, Lon Nol personalist, 1972-1975); KRP = Kanakpak Khemara Ponnakar (Khmer Renovation Party, nationalist, right-wing, 1947-1955, merged into SRN); SRN = Sangkum Reastr Niyum (Popular Socialist Community, nationalist, Buddhist socialism, anti-communist, 1955-1970)




© Ben Cahoon