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Kazakhstan 
     
[Russian
                                    flag]
                  1824 - 5 Dec 1917 
 
[Possible Alash Autonomy flag
                                    1917-1920 (Kazakhstan)]
 13 Dec 1917 - 5 Mar 1920 Possible Alash flag
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR]
                    30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991
 
Flag of
                                    Kazakh SSR in 1953
                     10 Dec 1991 - 4 Jun 1992 
 
[Flag of
                                    Kazakhstan]
                         Adopted 4 Jun 1992
 

 
 Map of Kazakhstan  Hear National Anthem
"Mening Qazaqstanym"
(My Kazakhstan)
Adopted 6 Jan 2006
 Former National Anthem
"National Anthem of the
Republic of Kazakhstan"
1992 - 6 Jan 2006
 Constitution
(30 Aug 1995)
Capital: Astana
(Aqmola 1997- 6 May 1998;
Almaty 1993-10 Dec 1997;
Alma-Ata 1929-1993;
Kzyl-Orda 1925-1929;
 
Orenburg 1920-1925;
Alash-Kala [Semey] 1917-1920)
Currency: Tenge (KZT);
1993 Kazakh Ruble (KZR);
1991-93 Russian Ruble (RUR)
National Holiday: 25 Oct (1990)
Republic Day 
Population: 17,736,896 (2013)
GDP: $243.6 billion (2013)
Exports: $87.23 billion (2013)
Imports: $52.03 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%,
 
Uzbek 2.8%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%,
  German 1.1%, other 4.5% (2009) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 49,000 (2010)
Former Nuclear Power: 1,400 weapons (1991-1995)
Merchant marine: 11 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 70.2%, Christian 26.2%
 (Russian Orthodox 23.9%, other Christian 2.3%), Buddhist 0.1%,
other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), ADB, AIIB, ANT, BTWC, CES, CFE, CICA, CIS, CSTO, CTBT, CWC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, ENMOD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISESCO, ISA (observer), ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, Moon, NAM (observer), NPT, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC (observer), OSCE, OST, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Kazakhstan
Index
Chronology

1465                       Kazakh Khanate founded (see below).
1584                       Yaitskiy (Oral/Uralsk) founded by Cossacks
                             (see Ural Cossack Host).
1645                       Russians found Guryev (Atyrau).

1718                       Russians found Semipalatinsk (Semey).
Jul 1824 – 1864            Area of the former Khanate (Younger, Middle and
                             Elder Zhuzes, called by Russians as Little,
                             Middle and Great Kirghiz Hordes) gradually
                             annexed by Russia (see Kazakh Khanate below).

Oct 1864                   Russian boundary with China agreed.
Nov 1916 - Jan 1917        Kazakh rebellion, most actively in Turgay and
                             Akmolinsk oblasts.
13 Dec 1917              
  Alash Autonomy (Alash Avtonomiy) is declared under
                             the People's Council (Alash-Orda) at All-Kirghiz
                             Congress in Orenburg (it claimed authority within
                             a federal Russian republic over the Kazakh-
                             inhabited
oblasti of Russia - Akmolinsk, Bukey,
                             Semipalatinsk, Semirechye, Syr-Darya, Turgay,
                             and Ural).
Dec 1917                   Russian Civil War divides present-day Kazakhstan
                             into 3 parts - "White" Cossack: Semirechye (see
                             Semirechye Cossack Host), Turgay (under Orenburg
                             Cossack Host), and Ural (see Ural Cossack Host);
                             "White" Siberian: Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk,
                             both related to the Provisional Siberian Council
                             (Duma); and "Red":
Syr-Darya (from 12 Nov 1917,
                            
part of Turkestan A.S.S.R. from 30 Apr 1918) and
                            
from 15 Dec 1917, Bukey.       
Jan 1918 – Mar 1918        Bolshevik forces take all of present-day Kazakhstan
                             (Akmolinsk [modern Astana] on
7 Jan 1918, and
                             Semipalatinsk [modern Semey]
on 16 Feb 1918),
                             Alash-Orda in early Feb 1918 is located at
                             Semipalatinsk.
Jun 1918 – Jul 1918        Provisional Siberian Government troops re-take
                             the northern and central part of present-day
                             Kazakhstan (
Akmolinsk on 3 Jun 1918, and
                             Semipalatinsk on
11 Jun 1918).
18 Jun 1918                Alash-Orda returns to Semipalatinsk, recognizing
                             the authority of "Komuch" (from Jul 1918) then
                             the Provisional All-Russian Government (from Sep
                             1918)(see under Russian Civil War Polities).
 4 Nov 1918                Alash-Orda is declared dissolved by the Provisional
                             All-Russian Government, but de facto continues
                             mostly in Cossack-held areas.
Aug 1919 – Dec 191         Red Army advances against the "White" troops of
                             Kolchak, Supreme Ruler of Russia (on 28 Nov 1919
                            
taking Akmolinsk, Semipalatinsk on 2 Dec 1919);
                             on 21 Dec 1919, Alash-Orda submits to the Soviet
                             government.
 5 Mar 1920                Alash-Orda is dissolved by the Soviet government.
26 Aug 1920                Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 

                             within the Russian S.F.S.R. (see Russia)
15 Jun 1925                Renamed Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist
                             Republic.
 5 Dec 1936                Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic.
25 Oct 1990                State sovereignty declared.
10 Dec 1991                Republic of Kazakhstan
16 Dec 1991                Independence declared.
26 Dec 1991                Final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.).

Kazakhstan
Administrative
Divisions

Kazakh S.S.R.
(1920-1991)
Kazakh
Khanates

(1680-1849)
Inner Kirghiz
Horde
(1801-1858)

Semirechye Cossacks
(1917-1920)
Ural Cossacks
(1699-1723,
1917-1920)

Historical Maps
of Kazakhstan
 

Emir
Nov 1916 - Jan 1917        Abdighapar Zhanbosynuly            (b. 1870 - d. 1919)
                             (in rebellion; in Turgay and Akmolinsk oblasts)
Chairman of the All-Kirghiz People's Council (Alash-Orda)

13 Dec 1917 -  5 Mar 1920  Alikhan Bokeikhan                  (b. 1866 - d. 1937)  AP
                             (Alikhan Nurmukhamedovich Bukeikhanov)
President
24 Apr 1990 -              Nursultan Äbishuly Nazarbayev      (b. 1940)          KPK;1991 Ind;
                             (from 14 Jun 2010) "Elbasy"                         1999 OTAN

Prime ministers
10 Dec 1991 - 12 Oct 1994  Sergey Aleksandrovich Tereshchenko (b. 1951)            Ind
12 Oct 1994 - 10 Oct 1997  Akezhan Magzhanovich Kazhegeldin   (b. 1952)            PPU
10 Oct 1997 -  1 Oct 1999  Nurlan Utebuluyevich Balgimbayev   (b. 1947 - d. 2015)  PPU
 1 Oct 1999 - 28 Jan 2002  Kasymzhomart Kemelevich Tokayev    (b. 1953)            OTAN
                             (acting to 12 Oct 1999)
28 Jan 2002 - 13 Jun 2003  Imangali Nurgaliyevich             (b. 1956)            OTAN
                             Tasmagambetov
13 Jun 2003 - 10 Jan 2007  Danial Kenzhetayevich Akhmetov     (b. 1954)            OTAN
10 Jan 2007 - 
24 Sep 2012  Karim Kazhymkanovich Masimov       (b. 1965)            OTAN
                             (1st time)
24 Sep 2012 -  2 Apr 2014  Serik Nyghmetuly Akhmetov
          (b. 1958)            OTAN
 2 Apr 2014 -  8 Sep 2016  Karim
Kazhymkanovich Masimov       (s.a.)               OTAN
                             (2nd time)
  8 Sep 2016 -             Bakytzhan Abdirovich Sagintayev    (b. 1963)            OTAN
                             (acting to 9 Sep 2016)

Territorial Disputes: Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries commenced with Uzbekistan in 2004 and with Turkmenistan in 2005; ongoing demarcation with Russia began in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea.

Party abbreviations: OTAN = Partiya "Nur Otan" ("Light of Fatherland Party" Party, secular, centrist, pro-Nazarbayev, named Otan [Fatherland] 1 Mar 1999-22 Dec 2006, then 22 Dec 2006-18 Oct 2013 named Narodno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya "Nur Otan" [People's Democratic Party "Light of Fatherland"], est.1 Mar 1999); Ind = Independent; 
- Former parties: AP = Alash Partiyasy (Alash Party, Kazakh moderate nationalist party of Alash Autonomy, to 1919 anti-Bolshevik, 1917-1920); KPK = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Kazakhstana (Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Marxist-Leninist communist, former KPK-B, 13 Oct 1952-7 Sep 1991); PPU = Partiey Narodnogo Yedinstva Kazakhstana (Party of People's Unity of Kazakhstan, liberal nationalist, pro-Nazarbayev, 1993-1 Mar 1999, merged into OTAN)



Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Flag of Kirghiz ASSR c.1920-24]
                         c.1920 - 20 Sep 1924 
 
[Flag of USSR]
                    20 Sep 1924 - 26 Mar 1937
 
[Flag of Kazakh
                          SSR in 1937]
                    26 Mar 1937 - 10 Nov 1940 
 
[Flag of Kazakh
                          SSR in 1940]
                    10 Nov 1940 - 24 Jan 1953 

[Flag of Kazakh
                          SSR in 1953]
                     24 Jan 1953 - 4 Jun 1992

Capital: Alma-Ata
(Orenburg 1920-1925;
Kzyl-Orda 1925-1929)
Hear SSR Anthem
"Qazaq Keñes Socïalïstik
 Respwblïkasınıñ memlekettik
 änuranı" /
"Gosudarstvennyy gimn
 Kazakhskoy S.S.R."
(State Anthem of Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic)
(1945-1992)
Constitution
(20 Apr 1978; in Russian)
Population: 14,684,000 (1980)

26 Aug 1920                Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 
                             within the Russian S.F.S.R.
15 Jun 1925                Renamed Kazakh A.S.S.R.
 5 Dec 1936                Kazakh A.S.S.R within Russian S.F.S.R. becomes Kazakh S.S.R.

Secretaries of the Kirghiz Regional Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian
Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

30 Apr 1920 - Sep 1920     Stanislav Stanislavovich Pestkovskiy    (b. 1882 - d. 1937)
Sep 1920 - 10 Jan 1921     Ivan Alekseyevich Akulov                (b. 1888 - d. 1937)
Jan 1921 - Jun 1921        Mukhamedkhafiy Murzagaliyev             (b. 1887 - d. 1938)
Secretaries of the Kirghiz Regional Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
Jun 1921 - Jul 1921        Mukhamedkhafiy Murzagaliyev             (s.a.)
Jul 1921 - Aug 1921        Mariya Mikhaylovna Kostelovskaya (f)    (b. 1878 - d. 1964)

Sep 1921 - Sep 1924        Georgiy Alekseyevich Korostelyev        (b. 1885 - d. 1932)
Sep 1924 - 19 Feb 1925     Viktor Ivanovich Naneyshvili            (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
Secretaries of the Kazakh Regional Committee of the Russian Communist Party
(Bolsheviks)
(from 31 Dec 1925, All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks])

19 Feb 1925 - Jun 1925     Viktor Ivanovich Naneyshvili            (s.a.)
12 Sep 1925 - Feb 1933     Filipp Isayevich Goloshchekin           (b. 1886 - d. 1941)
Feb 1933 - 23 Apr 1937     Levon Isayevich Mirzoyan                (b. 1887 - d. 1939)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Kazakhstan (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of
Kazakhstan)

23 Apr 1937 -  3 May 1938  Levon Isayevich Mirzoyan                (s.a.)

 3 May 1938 - 14 Sep 1945  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Skvortsov        (b. 1899 - d. 1974)
14 Sep 1946 -  6 Mar 1954  Zhumabay Shayakhmetovich Shayakhmetov   (b. 1902 - d. 1966)
 6 Mar 1954 -  7 May 1955  Panteleimon Kondratyevich Ponomarenko   (b. 1902 - d. 1984)
 7 May 1955 -  6 Mar 1956  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev                  (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
 6 Mar 1956 - 26 Dec 1957  Ivan Dmitriyevich Yakovlev              (b. 1910 - d. 1999)
26 Dec 1957 - 19 Jan 1960  Nikolay Ilyich Belyayev                 (b. 1903 - d. 1966)
19 Jan 1960 - 26 Dec 1962  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunayev         (b. 1912 - d. 1993)
                             (1st time) 
26 Dec 1962 -  7 Dec 1964  Ismail Yusupovich Yusupov               (b. 1914 - d. 2005)
 7 Dec 1964 - 16 Dec 1986  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunayev         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
16 Dec 1986 - 22 Jun 1989  Gennadiy Vasilyevich Kolbin             (b. 1927 - d. 1998)
22 Jun 1989 - 28 Aug 1991  Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev         (b. 1940)

Chairmen of the Kirghiz Revolutionary Committee 
10 Jul 1919 - Aug 1920     Stanislav Stanislavovich Pestkovskiy    (s.a.)               RKP
Aug 1920 - 26 Aug 1920     Sakhiygirey Argancheyev (acting)                             RKP
26 Aug 1920 - Oct 1920     Viktor Alekseyevich Radus-Zenkovich     (b. 1877 - d. 1967)  RKP 
Oct 1920                   Abdrakhman Aytiyevich Aytiyev           (b. 1886 - d. 1936)  RKP 
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee of the Kirghiz A.S.S.R.
12 Oct 1920 - 19 Apr 1925  Seytgali Mendeshevich Mendeshev         (b. 1882 - d. 1937)  RKP
19 Apr 1925 - Jun 1925     Zhalau Mynbayev                                              RKP
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee of the Kazakh A.S.S.R.
(from 5 Dec 1936,
Kazakh S.S.R.)
Jun 1925 - 1927            Zhalau Mynbayev                                        RKP;1925 VKP
1927 - 1933                Eltay Ernazarov                         (b. 1887 - d. 1945)  VKP

11 Oct 1933 - 22 Jun 1937  Uzakbay Dzhelderbayevich Kulumbetov     (b. 1891 - d. 1938)  VKP
Jun 1937 - Jul 1937        Ismail Salvafeka (acting)                                    KPK-B
Jul 1937 - 28 Oct 1937     Alibey Togzhanovich Dzhangildin (acting)(b. 1884 - d. 1953)  KPK-B
28 Oct 1937 - 15 Jul 1938  Nurbapa Umirzakov                       (b. 1907 - d. 1947)  KPK-B
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
15 Jul 1938 - 17 Jul 1938  Salken Daulenovich Daulenov             (b. 1907 - d. 1984)  KPK-B
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
17 Jul 1938 - Jan 1947     Abdisamet Kazakpayev                    (b. 1898 - d. 1959)  KPK-B
Jan 1947 - 20 Mar 1947     I.K. Lukyanets (acting)                                      KPK-B
20 Mar 1947 - 23 Jan 1954  Daniyal Kerimbayevich Kerimbayev        (b. 1909 - d. 1982)  KPK-B
23 Jan 1954 - 19 Apr 1955  Nurtas Dandibayevich Undasynov          (b. 1904 - d. 1989)  KPK
19 Apr 1955 - 20 Jan 1960  Zhumabek Akhmetovich Tashenev           (b. 1915 - d. 1986)  KPK
20 Jan 1960 - 25 Aug 1960  Fazyl Karibzhanovich Karibzhanov        (b. 1912 - d. 1960)  KPK
25 Aug 1960 -  3 Jan 1961  Kapitolina Nikolayevna Kryukova (f)     (b. 1914 - d. 2002)  KPK
                             (acting)
 3 Jan 1961 -  5 Apr 1965  Isagali Sharipovich Sharipov            (b. 1905 - d. 1976)  KPK
 5 Apr 1965 - 20 Dec 1978  Sabir Bilyalovich Niyazbekov            (b. 1912 - d. 1989)  KPK
20 Dec 1978 - 14 Dec 1979  Isatay Abdukarimovich Abdukarimov       (b. 1923 - d. 2001)  KPK
14 Dec 1979 - 22 Feb 1984  Sattar Nurmashevich Imashov             (b. 1925 - d. 1984)  KPK
22 Feb 1984 - 22 Mar 1984  Andrey P. Plotnikov (acting)                                 KPK
22 Mar 1984 - 27 Sep 1985  Bayken Ashimovich Ashimov               (b. 1917 - d. 2010)  KPK
27 Sep 1985 -  9 Feb 1988  Salamat Mukashevich Mukashev            (b. 1927 - d. 2004)  KPK
 9 Feb 1988 - Dec 1988     Zakash Kamalidenovich Kamalidenov       (b. 1936 - d. 2017)  KPK
Dec 1988 - 10 Mar 1989     Vera Vasilyevna Sidorova (f) (acting)   (b. 1934)            KPK 
10 Mar 1989 - 22 Feb 1990  Makhtay Ramazanovich Sagdiyev           (b. 1929 - d. 2012)  KPK
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
22 Feb 1990 - 24 Apr 1990  Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev         (s.a.)               KPK

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
12 Oct 1920 - 1921         Viktor Alekseyevich Radus-Zenkovich     (s.a.)               RKP
Oct 1921 - Sep 1922        Mukhamedkhafiy Murzagaliyev             (b. 1887 - d. 1941)  RKP
Sep 1922 - Oct 1924        Saken Seyfullin                         (b. 1894 - d. 1939)  RKP
Oct 1924 - May 1928        Nygmet Nurmakovich Nurmakov             (b. 1895 - d. 1937) RKP/VKP
May 1928 - Sep 1937        Uraz Dzaizakovich Isayev                (b. 1899 - d. 1938)  VKP
Sep 1937 - 17 Jul 1938     Ibragim Tausiyevich Tazhiyev            (b. 1904 - d. 1960)  KPK-B
17 Jul 1938 - 15 Mar 1946  Nurtas Dandybayevich Undasynov          (s.a.)               KPK-B
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
15 Mar 1946 - 24 Mar 1954  Nurtas Dandybayevich Undasynov          (s.a.)               KPK-B
24 Mar 1954 - 31 Mar 1955  Elubay Bazimovich Taibekov              (b. 1901 - d. 1991)  KPK
31 Mar 1955 - 20 Jan 1960  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunayev         (s.a.)               KPK
                             (1st time)
20 Jan 1960 -  6 Jan 1961  Zhumabek Akhmetovich Tashenev           (s.a.)               KPK
 6 Jan 1961 - 13 Sep 1962  Salken Daulenovich Daulenov             (s.a.)               KPK
13 Sep 1962 - 26 Dec 1962  Masymkhan Beysembayevich Beysembayev    (b. 1908 - d. 1987)  KPK
                             (1st time) 
26 Dec 1962 -  7 Dec 1964  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunayev         (s.a.)               KPK
                             (2nd time)
 7 Dec 1964 - 31 Mar 1970  Masymkhan Beysembayevich Beysembayev    (s.a.)               KPK
                             (2nd time)
31 Mar 1970 - 22 Mar 1984  Bayken Ashimovich Ashimov               (s.a.)               KPK
22 Mar 1984 - 27 Jul 1989  Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev         (s.a.)               KPK
27 Jul 1989 - 16 Oct 1991  Uzakbay Karamanovich Karamanov          (b. 1937)            KPK
16 Oct 1991 - 10 Dec 1991  Sergey Aleksandrovich Tereshchenko      (b. 1951)         Non-party

Party abbreviation: KPK = Kazakhstan Kommunistіk Partiyasy/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Kazakhstana (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Kazakhstan, Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former KPK, 13 Oct 1952-7 Sep 1991);
- Former parties:
KPK-B = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov) Kazakhstana (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Kazakhstan, Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, 23 Apr 1937-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPK); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], communist, former RSDRP-B, state party, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party); VKP = Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, state party, former RKP, 31 Dec 1925-13 Oct 1952, renamed Communist Party of the Soviet Union)



Kazakh Khanates

1459                       Zhanibek (Jänibek) and Kerey (Giray), sultans of Abulhair
                             (khan of Ak Ordu and Tyumen), moved with their adherents
                             (called "Kazakh Horde") to Zhetysu (territory to the south of
                             Lake Balkhash).
1465                       Kazakh Khanate founded.
1469                       Kazakhs capture of most of the territory of modern day Kazakhstan,
                             except its western (to Greater Nogai Horde), northern (to Tyumen,
                             then Siberian khanate) and south-eastern (to Chagataid Khanate
                             of Mogholistan) parts.
1718                       After death of Qayyp Khan, several khans are elected in different
                             parts of the Khanate; by then the Kazakh Khanate is divided into
                             three parts called Zhuz (the “side”) – Elder Zhuz (Uly Zhuz) in
                             eastern and southern parts of the khanate; Middle Zhuz (Orta
                             Zhuz) in central and northern parts of khanate; and Younger
                             Zhuz (Kishi Zhuz) in western part of khanate); each of them
                             ruled by several Khans, the principal khans in Middle Zhuz
                             until 1781 (by Russia until 1771) recognized as Kazakh Senior
                             Khans.
1723 – 1755                Elder Zhuz under Dzungarian suzerainty.
Oct 1731                   Younger Zhuz (called by Russians as Little Kirghiz Horde) accepts
                             Russian protectorate; only its northern part were effectively
                             under protectorate of Russia.
Jul 1732                   Middle Zhuz (called by Russians as Middle Kirghiz Horde) accepts
                             Russian suzerainty (effectively only the northern part); latter
                             Kazakh agreements with Dzungaria (1735 – 1755) and China (Jul
                             1757 – 1824) resulted in joint or alternating suzerainty.
Jul 1757 – 1825            Elder Zhuz (effectively only the eastern part) under suzerainty
                             of China, renewed in 1772 (Chinese rule ceased as result of
                             annexation of Elder Zhuz by Kokand).
1798 – 1806                Turkistan, the former Kazakh capital (1598-1798), under rule of
                             Tashkent (afterwards recognized the Bukharan rule, followed in
                             1808 by annexation to Kokand).
11 Mar 1801                Some of the Kazakhs of Younger Zhuz are resettled to the
                             right bank of the Ural river headed by Bokey (Bukey), forming
                             the Inner Kirghiz Horde [see below]).
Jul 1824                   Middle Zhuz and Younger Zhuz annexed by Russia, Khans' authority
                             eliminated, Akmolinsk (Astana/Aqmola) founded (in 1830);
                             Middle Zhuz becomes Siberian Kirghiz Divisions (okruga)(subject
                             to the governor of Omsk), Younger Zhuz becomes Trans-Ural Kirghiz
                             Divisions (otdely)(subject to the governor of Orenburg), both
                             continued to be treated by Russia through the Ministry of
                             Foreign Affairs.
Sep 1841 - Apr 1847        Kazakh rebellion against Russian and Kokand rule, mostly in
                             Middle Zhuz.
1847 - 1864                Elder Zhuz (called by Russians as Great Kirghiz Horde) gradually
                             annexed from Kokand by Russia (to Jun 1854 part of the Siberian
                             Kirghiz Divisions)- in 1854 Vernyy (Almaty), in 1864 Turkistan;
                             the area ceded by Kokand in Jan 1868.
Jun 1854                   Siberian Kirghiz Divisions abolished, the former Middle Zhuz and
                             most of former Elder Zhuz fully incorporated into Russia.
Apr 1859                   Trans-Ural Kirghiz Divisions abolished, the former Younger Zhuz
                             fully incorporated into Russia.

Kazakh Senior Khans (title Ulugh Khan) (formal long names in parentheses)
1680 - 1715                Tawke Khan                         (b. c.1635 - d. 1715)
                             (Tawakkul Muhammad Bahadur Khan)
1715 - 1718                Qayyp Khan                         (b. c.1655 - d. 1718)
                             (Gha´ip Muhammad Khan)
1718 - 1729                Bolat Khan                         (d. 1729)
                             (khan in most of Middle Zhuz;
                             did not reside in capital)
1718 - Aug 1748            Abilqayyr Khan                     (b. 1693 - d. 1748)
                             (Abu al-Gha´ir Muhammad Ghazi Bahadur Khan)
                             (khan in most of Younger Zhuz and part of Middle Zhuz;
                             resided in capital 1719 - 1725, formally not styled
                             as Senior Khan; in 1740 also khan of Khorazm)
1729 - 1737                Sameke Khan                        (b. c.1660 - d. 1737)
                             (Shah Muhammad Khan)
                             (khan in most of Middle Zhuz; resided
                             in capital; not recognized and not
                             styled as Senior Khan)
1739 - 1771                Abilmambet Khan                    (b. c.1690 - d. 1771)
                             (Abu al-Muhammad Khan)
                             (khan in most of Middle and Elder Zhuzes;
                             resided in capital 1743 - 1758 and from 1762)
1771 - May 1781            Abylay Khan                        (b. 1711 - d. 1781)
                             (Abu al-Mansur Muhammad Bahadur Khan)
                             (khan in most of Middle and Elder Zhuzes;
                             formally not styled as Senior Khan)
Khans in Elder Zhuz (post-1781, in Turkistan)
1781/84 - 1798             Tawke Khan                         (d. 1798?)
1781/85 - 1815             Adil Khan (in Taraz)               (d. 1815)
                             (the Chinese tributary)
1810? - 1816               Toghay Khan                        (d. 1826)
                             (in rebellion against Kokand)
Aug 1858 - 1859            Aliken Khan
                             (in rebellion against Kokand)
Khans in Middle Zhuz (post-1781)
- in the northern part of Zhuz (the Russian-recognized) -
Aug 1781 - Dec 1819        Wali Khan                          (b. 1741 - d. 1819)
1816 - 1819                Bokey Khan                         (b. c.1737 - d. 1819)
                             (jointly with above)
1819 - 1821                Diwan (the council) (acting)
1821 - Jul 1824            Ghubaydolla Khan                   (b. 1770 - d. 1861)
1824 – 1854                Senior Sultans of 2 (finally 8)
                           Siberian Kirghiz Divisions
                             (title: Agha Sultan)
- in the southern part of Zhuz (in Turkistan, to 1781 shared the city with senior khans) -
1758 - 1798                Yesym (Ishim) Khan                 (d. 1798?)
1771 - 1798                Bolat Khan                         (d. 1798?)
                             (jointly with above)
- in the eastern part of Zhuz (the Chinese tributaries) -
1771 - 1783                Abilpeyyz Khan                     (d. 1783)
1783 - 1799                Qanqozha Khan                      (b. c.1746 - d. 1799)
1799 - 1824                Toghym Khan                        (d. 1824)
Khans in Younger Zhuz (post-1781)
- in the northern part of Zhuz (the Russian-recognized) -
Oct 1748 - Jun 1786        Nuraly Khan                        (b. 1714 - d. 1790)
                             (Nur Muhammad `Ali Bahadur Khan)
                             (also khan of Khorazm 1741-1742)
1786 - 1790                Diwan (the council) (acting)
1790 - 1791                Yesym (Ishim) Khan (1st time)      (b. 1739 - d. 1797)
                             (not confirmed by Russia)
Aug 1791 - Aug 1794        Yeraly Khan                        (b. c.1720 - d. 1794)
Oct 1795 - Apr 1797        Yesym (Ishim) Khan (2nd time)      (s.a.) 
Nov 1797 - Oct 1805        Ayshwaq Khan                       (b. 1720 - d. 1810)
Oct 1805 - 15 Nov 1809     Zhantore Khan                      (b. 1759 - d. 1809)
1809 - 1812                Diwan (the council) (acting)
May 1812 - May 1824        Sherghazy Khan I                   (b. 1767 - d. 1845)  
1824 – 1859                Senior Sultans of 3 Trans-Ural
                           Kirghiz Divisions
                             (title: Agha Sultan)
- in the southern part of Zhuz (not recognized by Russia) -
Nov 1748 - 1771            Batyr Khan                         (d. 1771)
                             (also khan of Khorazm in 1728)
1786 - 1791                Qayyp Khan                         (b. c.1730 - d. 1791)
                             (also khan of Khorazm 1747-1757)
1794 - 1806                Abilghazy Khan                     (d. 1815)
                             (also khan of Khorazm 1768-1769)
1806 - 1816                Qaratay Khan                       (b. c.1746 - d. 1826)
Apr 1816 - Aug 1821        Arynghazy Khan                     (b. 1783 - d. 1833)
- on the Lower Syr-darya River (the Khivan tributaries) -
1818 - 1819                Sherghazy Khan II                  (d. 1819)
Jan 1820 - 1827            Zhanghazy Khan                     (b. 1802 - d. 1852)
Aug 1827 - 1830            Sherghazy Khan I                   (s.a.)
1830 - 1836                Ardu Khan                          (d. 1836)
1837 - 1844                Sauqym Khan                        (d. 1844)
1845 - 1849                Yelekey (Irmuhammad) Khan          (b. 1819 - d. 1868)

Khan 
Sep 1841 - Apr 1847        Kenesary Khan (in rebellion)       (b. 1802 - d. 1847)


Inner Kirghiz Horde

11 Mar 1801                Inner Kirghiz Horde (also called Bukey Horde), split from the
                             Younger Zhuz, under Russian protections, is assigned territory
                             within Russian Astrakhan governorate east of Astrakhan.
20 Jun 1812                Khanate of Inner Kirghiz Horde.
1838                       Ceased to be treated by Russia through the Ministry of Foreign                                  Affairs.
Jul 1847                   Post of Khan is abolished and Inner Horde is ruled by a
                             provisional council.
Jan 1858                   Autonomy effectively ended, the Horde exists as subdivision of
                             Astrakhan governorate until 14 Jul 1917.


Khans
11 Mar 1801 - 21 May 1815  Bokey (Bukey) Khan                   (b. c.1742 - d. 1815)
                            
(senior sultan [title: Agha Sultan] to 20 Jun 1812)
21 May 1815 - 22 Jun 1823  Shyghay -Regent                      (b. c.1751 - d. 1825)        
                             (provisional governor)
22 Jun 1823 - 11 Aug 1845  Zhangir Kerey Khan                   (b. 1801 - d. 1845)
11 Aug 1845 - Jul 1847     Sakhib Kerey Khan                    (b. 1830 - d. 1847)
                             (did not take the office)
1845 – Jan 1858            Adil –Regent                         (d. 1858)
                             (provisional governor)


Ural Cossack Host

[Russian flag]

1584                       Yaik Cossack Host formed at Yaitskiy (formally in 1591), ruled by
 
                            an elected Ataman.
1717 - 1723                Autonomy effectively ended by Russia (1717 the Host included in
                             the
Astrakhan governorate, 1721 ceased to be treated by Russia
                             through the
Collegiate of Foreign Affairs, 1723 Ataman becomes
                             appointed position).

1772                       Cossack rebellion.
1773 – 1774                Cossacks participate in the Pugachev's rebellion.
1775                       Renamed Ural Cossack Host, Yaitskiy renamed Uralsk (modern Oral).
16 Nov 1917                Ataman of the Ural Cossack Host does not recognize the Soviet
                             government and
assumes supreme authority in the Ural oblast.
16 Jan 1918                Bolshevik forces take Uralsk, the Cossacks submit.
29 Mar 1918                Ural Cossacks re-take Uralsk and proclaim oblast autonomy within
                             federal
Russian republic; recognized authority of "Komuch" (from
                             Jul 1918) and Provisional All-Russian Government (from Sep 1918)
                             (see under Russian Civil War Polities).

Dec 1918                   Ural Cossacks recognize the authority of Kolchak, the Supreme
                             Ruler of
Russia; autonomy continues de facto.
24 Jan 1919                Red Army retakes Uralsk, the Cossack capital is moved to Guryev
                             (modern Atyrau).

 5 Jan 1920                Ural Cossack Host evacuate Guryev and reached first (in Feb
                             1920) Fort
Aleksandrovskiy (modern Fort Shevchenko),
                             and then (in Apr 1920) Persia.


Atamans of the Yaik (from 1775, Ural) Cossack Host
1699 – 1700                Osip Vasilyevich Belousov            (b. 1623 - d. af.1723)
                             (1st time)

1700 – 1702                Fyodor Petrovich Semennikov          (d. 1717)
                             (1st time)

1702 – 1704                Osip Vasilyevich Belousov            (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1704 – 1705                Vakhromey Sergeyev
1705 – 1706                Fyodor Petrovich Semennikov          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1706 – 1707                Matvey Mironovich Mironov            (b. 1650 - d. af.1723)
                             (1st time)
 
1707 – 1713                Fyodor Petrovich Semennikov          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)

1713 – 1715                Matvey Mironovich Mironov            (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1715 – 1716                Fyodor Petrovich Semennikov          (s.a.)
                             (4th time)

1716 – 1718                Grigoriy Merkuryevich Merkuryev      (b. 1666 - d. 1741)
                             (1st time)

1718 – 1719                Stepan Ivanovich Filimonov           (d. bf.1723)
1719 – 1720                Nikita Trifonovich Borodin           (b. 1648 - d. af.1732)
1720                       Fyodor Ivanovich Arapov              (b. 1637 - d. af.1723)
1720 – 1722                Ivan Ivanovich Shcherbakov           (b. 1648 - d. af.1723)
1722                       Gerasim Vasilyevich Pogodayev        (d. af.1723)
1722 – 1723                Grigoriy Merkuryevich Merkuryev      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1723                       Vasiliy Yakovlevich Urakchintsev     (d. af.1725)
1723 – 1917                Russian appointed Atamans
1772                       Vasiliy Semyonovich Trifonov         (d. af.1783)
                             (in rebellion)
1774                       Nikita Afanasyevich Kargin           (b. 1719 - d. 1774)
                             (in rebellion)
Atamans of the Ural Cossack Host and (to 24 Mar 1919) Chairmen of the Host Government
16 Nov 1917 – Jan 1918     Vasiliy Patrikeyevich Martynov       (b. 1863 – d. 1920)
31 Jan 1918 – 24 Mar 1919  Guryan Makarovich Fomichev           (b. 1881 – d. 1920)
                             (chairman of the Host Government)
24 Mar 1919 –  4 Apr 1920  Vladmir Sergeyevich Tolstov          (b. 1884 – d. 1956)


Semirechye Cossack Host

[Russian flag]

1867                       Semirechye Cossack Host formed at Vernyy (modern Almaty).
14 Nov 1917                Ataman of the Semirechye Cossack Host does not recognize the Soviet
                             government
and assumes supreme authority in the Semirechye
                             oblast (the
Cossack Assembly proclaims autonomy within a federal
                             Russian republic
in Mar 1918).
 3 Mar 1918                Bolshevik forces take Vernyy, the Cossacks retreat to the Chinese
                             border.

15 Jun 1918                Semirechye Cossacks recognize the authority of the Provisional
                             Siberian
Government and then (from Sep 1918) of the Provisional
                             All-Russian
Government (see under Russian Civil War Polities).
21 Jul 1918                Siberian troops and Cossacks take Sergiopol (modern Ayagoz);
                             Semirechye
divided between a "White" north and a "Red" south
                             (from 30 Apr 1918, part of
the Turkestan A.S.S.R.) for almost
                             two years.

Nov 1918                   Semirechye Cossacks under the direct authority of Kolchak, the
                             Supreme Ruler of
Russia (autonomy is abolished).
12 Jan 1920                Red Army retakes Sergiopol. The Cossacks (from 6 Jan 1920
                             nominally under
Semyonov, Supreme Authority of the East of
                             Russia) move to Lepsinsk
(modern Lepsi) and on 7 Apr 1920 is
                             evacuated to China.


Atamans of the Semirechye Cossack Host and (to Nov 1918) Chairmen of the Host Government
14 Nov 1917 – Dec 1917     Andrey Ivanovich Kiyashko            (b. 1857 – d. 1917)
Dec 1917 – 26 Feb 1918     Nikolay Sergeyevich Shcherbakov
                             (acting)
(chairman of the Host Government)
26 Feb 1918 – Oct 1919     Aleksandr Mikhailovich Ionov         (b. 1880 – d. 1950)
                             (arrested by Bolsheviks Mar 1918 – Apr 1918;
                            
in China exile Jun – Jul 1918)
19 Nov 1919 – Apr 1920     Nikolay Petrovich Shcherbakov        (b. 1879 – d. 1922)
                             (acting)(did not claim autonomy)
                             (
in exile in China to 15 Sep 1922)
Chief Head of Semirechye Kray (with rights of governor-general)
 6 Jan 1920 –  2 Apr 1920  Aleksandr Ilyich Dutov               (b. 1879 - d. 1921)
                             (ataman of Orenburg Cossack Host)





© Ben Cahoon