World Statesmen.org HOME >


 



 




Kazakhstan 
     
[Russian
                                    flag]
                  1731 -  5 Dec 1917 
 
[Alash Autonomy 1917-1920
                                    (Kazakhstan)]
  13 Dec 1917 - 26 Aug 1920: Alash Autonomy
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR]
                    30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991
 
Flag of
                                    Kazakh SSR in 1953
                     10 Dec 1991 - 4 Jun 1992 
 
[Flag of
                                    Kazakhstan]
                         Adopted 4 Jun 1992
 

 
 Map of Kazakhstan  Hear National Anthem
"Mening Qazaqstanym"
(My Kazakhstan)
Adopted 6 Jan 2006
 Former National Anthem
"National Anthem of the
Republic of Kazakhstan"
1992 - 6 Jan 2006
 Constitution
(30 Aug 1995)
Capital: Astana
(Aqmola 1997- 6 May 1998;
Almaty 1993-10 Dec 1997;
Alma-Ata 1929-1993;
Kzyl-Orda 1925-1929;
 Semey 1917-1920)
Currency: Tenge (KZT);
1993 Kazakh Ruble (KZR);
1991-93 Russian Ruble (RUR)
National Holiday: 25 Oct (1990)
Republic Day 
Population: 17,736,896 (2013)
GDP: $243.6 billion (2013)
Exports: $87.23 billion (2013)
Imports: $52.03 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%,
 
Uzbek 2.8%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%,
  German 1.1%, other 4.5% (2009) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 49,000 (2010)
Former Nuclear Power: 1,400 weapons (1991-1995)
Merchant marine: 11 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 70.2%, Christian 26.2%
 (Russian Orthodox 23.9%, other Christian 2.3%), Buddhist 0.1%,
other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, BTWC, CES, CFE, CICA, CIS, CSTO, CTBT, CWC, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, ENMOD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISESCO, ISA (observer), ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM (observer), NPT, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC (observer), OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC
Kazakhstan
Index
Chronology

1645                       Russians found Guryev (Atyrau).
1735                       Russians found Ork.
1778                       Russians found Semipalatinsk (Semey).

1822 - 1855                Gradually annexed by Russia (Middle Kazakh Horde 
                             1822; Little Horde, Akmolimsk [Astana/Aqmola]
                             and steppe region in 1824; Great Horde 1848; 
                             Vernyy [Almaty] 1854; and Zaysan 1864). 
13 Dec 1917 - 26 Aug 1920  Alash Autonomous Region (Alashskaya avtonomiya)
                             declared under a Provisional People's Council
,
                             but actual control is exercised first by "White"
                             Russian forces, later by the Bolsheviks.
26 Aug 1920                Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 
                             within the Russian S.F.S.R. (see Russia)
15 Jun 1925                Renamed Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist
                             Republic.
 5 Dec 1936                Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic.
25 Oct 1990                State sovereignty declared.
10 Dec 1991                Republic of Kazakhstan
16 Dec 1991                Independence declared.
25 Dec 1991                Final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.).

Kazakhstan
Administrative
Divisions
Kazakh S.S.R.
(1920-1991)
Kazakh Khanates
(1680-1847)
Historical Maps
of Kazakhstan
 
 
 

Chairman of the Provisional People's Council
13 Dec 1917 - 26 Aug 1920  Alikhan Nurmukhamedovich           (b. 1866 - d. 1937)  AP
                             Bukeikhanov 
President
24 Apr 1990 -              Nursultan ─bishuly Nazarbayev      (b. 1940)          CPK;1991 Ind;
                                                                                   1999 OTAN

Prime ministers
14 Oct 1991 - 12 Oct 1994  Sergey Aleksandrovich Tereshchenko (b. 1951)            Ind
12 Oct 1994 - 10 Oct 1997  Akezhan Magzhanovich Kazhegeldin   (b. 1952)            PPU
10 Oct 1997 -  1 Oct 1999  Nurlan Utebuluyevich Balgimbayev   (b. 1947)            PPU
 1 Oct 1999 - 28 Jan 2002  Kasymzhomart Kemelevich Tokayev    (b. 1953)            OTAN
                             (acting to 12 Oct 1999)
28 Jan 2002 - 13 Jun 2003  Imangali Nurgaliyevich             (b. 1956)            OTAN
                             Tasmagambetov
13 Jun 2003 - 10 Jan 2007  Danial Kenzhetayevich Akhmetov     (b. 1954)            OTAN
10 Jan 2007 - 
24 Sep 2012  Karim Kazhymkanovich Masimov       (b. 1965)            OTAN
                             (1st time)
24 Sep 2012 -  2 Apr 2014  Serik Nyghmetuly Akhmetov
          (b. 1958)            OTAN
 2 Apr 2014 -              Karim
Kazhymkanovich Masimov       (s.a.)               OTAN
                             (2nd time)

Territorial Disputes: Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries commenced with Uzbekistan in 2004 and with Turkmenistan in 2005; ongoing demarcation with Russia began in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea.

Party abbreviations: OTAN = Narodno Demokraticheskaya Partiya "Nur-Otan" (People's Democratic Party, "Light of Fatherland", pro-Nazarbayev, est.1999, named Otan [Fatherland] Mar 1999-22 Dec 2006); Ind = Independent; 
- Former parties: AP = Alash Paty (Kazakh nationalist party of Alash Autonomy, initially anti-Bolshevik, 1917-1920); CPK = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Kazakhstana (Communist Party of Kazakhstan, communist, 1936-1991); PPU = Soyuz Narodnoye Edinstvo Kazakhstana (Party of People's Union of Kazakhstan, pro-Nazarbayev, liberal nationalist, 1993-1 Mar 1999, merged into OTAN)



Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Flag of Kirghiz ASSR c.1920-24]
                         c.1920 - 20 Sep 1924 
 
[Flag of USSR]
                    20 Sep 1924 - 26 Mar 1937
 
[Flag of Kazakh
                          SSR in 1937]
                    26 Mar 1937 - 10 Nov 1940 
 
[Flag of Kazakh
                          SSR in 1940]
                    10 Nov 1940 - 24 Jan 1953 

[Flag of Kazakh
                          SSR in 1953]
                     24 Jan 1953 - 4 Jun 1992

Capital: Alma-Ata
(Orenburg 1919-1924;
Kzyl-Orda 1924-1925)
Hear SSR Anthem
"Qazaq Ke˝es Soc´al´stik
 Respwbl´kasını˝ memlekettik
 ńnuranı"
(State Anthem of Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic)
(1945-1992)
Constitution
(20 Apr 1978; in Russian)
Population: 14,684,000 (1980)

26 Aug 1920                Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 
                             within the Russian S.F.S.R.
15 Jun 1925                Renamed Kazakh A.S.S.R.
 5 Dec 1936                Kazakh A.S.S.R within Russian S.F.S.R. becomes Kazakh S.S.R.

Secretaries of the Kirghiz Regional Committee of the Communist Party
30 Apr 1919 - Aug 1920     Stanislav Stanislavovich Pestkovsky     (b. 1882 - d. 1937)
Aug 1920 - Jan 1921        Ivan Alekseyevich Akulov                (b. 1888 - d. 1937)
Jan 1921 - Ju1 1921        Mukhamedkhafiy Murzagaliyev             (b. 1887 - d. 1941)
Jul 1921 - 1921            Mariya Mikhaylovna Kostelovskaya (f)    (b. 1878 - d. 1964)
1921 - Sep 1924            Georgy Alekseyevich Korostelyev         (b. 1885 - d. 1932)
1924 - 19 Feb 1925         Viktor Ivanovich Naneyshvili            (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
Secretaries of the Kazakh Regional Committee ("Kazkraykom") of the Communist Party
19 Feb 1925 - Jun 1925     Viktor Ivanovich Naneyshvili            (s.a.)
12 Sep 1925 - Feb 1933     Filipp Isayevich Goloshchekin           (b. 1886 - d. 1941)
Feb 1933 -  5 Dec 1936     Levon Isayevich Mirzoyan                (b. 1887 - d. 1939)
First Secretaries of the Kazakh Communist Party (CPK)
 5 Dec 1936 -  3 May 1938  Levon Isayevich Mirzoyan                (s.a.)
 3 May 1938 - 14 Sep 1945  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Skvortsov        (b. 1899 - d. 1974)
14 Sep 1946 -  6 Mar 1954  Zhumabay Shayakhmetovich Shayakhmetov   (b. 1902 - d. 1966)
 6 Mar 1954 -  7 May 1955  Panteleimon Kondratyevich Ponomarenko   (b. 1902 - d. 1984)
 7 May 1955 -  6 Mar 1956  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev                  (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
 6 Mar 1956 - 26 Dec 1957  Ivan Dmitriyevich Yakovlev              (b. 1910 - d. 1999)
26 Dec 1957 - 19 Jan 1960  Nikolay Ilyich Belyayev                 (b. 1903 - d. 1966)
19 Jan 1960 - 26 Dec 1962  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunayev         (b. 1912 - d. 1993)
                             (1st time) 
26 Dec 1962 -  7 Dec 1964  Ismail Yusupovich Yusupov               (b. 1914 - d. 2005)
 7 Dec 1964 - 16 Dec 1986  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunayev         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
16 Dec 1986 - 22 Jun 1989  Gennady Vasilyevich Kolbin              (b. 1927 - d. 1998)
22 Jun 1989 - 28 Aug 1991  Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev         (b. 1940)

Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee 
10 Jul 1919 - 1920         Stanislav Stanislavovich Pestkovsky     (s.a.) 
1920 - Aug 1920            Sakhiygirey Argancheyev 
Aug 1920 - Oct 1920        Viktor Alekseyevich Radus-Zenkovich     (b. 1877 - d. 1967) 
Oct 1920                   Abdrakhman Aytiyevich Aytiyev           (b. 1886 - d. 1936) 
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
12 Oct 1920 - 19 Apr 1925  Seytgali Mendeshevich Mendeshev         (b. 1882 - d. 1937)  CPSU
19 Apr 1925 - 1927         Zhalau Mynbayev                                              CPSU
1927 - 1933                Eltay Ernazarov                         (b. 1887 - d. 1945)  CPSU
11 Oct 1933 - 22 Jun 1937  Uzakbay Dzhelderbayevich Kulumbetov     (b. 1891 - d. 1938)  CPSU
Jun 1937 - Jul 1937        Ismail Salvafeka (acting)                                    CPK
Jul 1937 - 28 Oct 1937     Alibey Togzhanovich Dzhangildin (acting)(b. 1884 - d. 1953)  CPK
28 Oct 1937 - 15 Jul 1938  Nurbapa Umirzakov                       (b. 1907 - d. 1947)  CPK
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
15 Jul 1938 - 17 Jul 1938  Satken Daulenovich Daulenov             (b. 1907 - d. 1984)  CPK
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
17 Jul 1938 - Jan 1947     Abdisamet Kazakpayev                    (b. 1898 - d. 1959)  CPK
Jan 1947 - 20 Mar 1947     I.K. Lukyanets (acting)                                      CPK
20 Mar 1947 - 23 Jan 1954  Daniyal Kerimbayevich Kerimbayev        (b. 1909 - d. 1982)  CPK
23 Jan 1954 - 19 Apr 1955  Nurtas Dandibayevich Undasynov          (b. 1904 - d. 1989)  CPK
19 Apr 1955 - 20 Jan 1960  Zhumabek Akhmetovich Tashenev           (b. 1915 - d. 1986)  CPK
20 Jan 1960 - 25 Aug 1960  Fazyl Karibzhanovich Karibzhanov        (b. 1912 - d. 1960)  CPK
25 Aug 1960 -  3 Jan 1961  Kapitalina Nikolayevna Krykova (f)                           CPK
                             (acting)
 3 Jan 1961 -  5 Apr 1965  Isagali Sharipovich Sharipov            (b. 1905 - d. 1976)  CPK
 5 Apr 1965 - 20 Dec 1978  Sabir Bilyalovich Niyazbekov            (b. 1912 - d. 1989)  CPK
20 Dec 1978 - 14 Dec 1979  Isatay A. Abdukarimov                   (b. 1923)            CPK
14 Dec 1979 - 22 Feb 1984  Sattar Nurmashevich Imashov             (b. 1925 - d. 1984)  CPK
22 Feb 1984 - 22 Mar 1984  Andrey P. Plotnikov (acting)                                 CPK
22 Mar 1984 - 27 Sep 1985  Bayken Ashimovich Ashimov               (b. 1917 - d. 2010)  CPK
27 Sep 1985 -  9 Feb 1988  Salamat Mukashevich Mukashev            (b. 1927 - d. 2004)  CPK
 9 Feb 1988 - Dec 1988     Zakash Kamalidenovich Kamalidenov       (b. 1936)            CPK
Dec 1988 - 10 Mar 1989     Vera Vasilyevna Sidorova (f) (acting)   (b. 1934)            CPK 
10 Mar 1989 - 22 Feb 1990  Makhtay Ramazanovich Sagdiyev           (b. 1929 - d. 2012)  CPK
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
22 Feb 1990 - 24 Apr 1990  Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev         (s.a.)               CPK

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
12 Oct 1920 - 1921         Viktor Alekseyevich Radus-Zenkovich     (s.a.) 
1921 - Sep 1922            Mukhamedkhafiy Murzagaliyev             (b. 1887 - d. 1941)  CPSU
Sep 1922 - Oct 1924        Saken Seyfullin                         (b. 1894 - d. 1939)  CPSU
Oct 1924 - May 1928        Nygmet Nurmakovich Nurmakov             (b. 1895 - d. 1937)  CPSU
May 1928 - Sep 1937        Uraz Dzaizakovich Isayev                (b. 1899 - d. 1938)  CPSU
Sep 1937 - 17 Jul 1938     Ibragim Tausiyevich Tazhiyev            (b. 1904 - d. 1960)  CPK
17 Jul 1938 - 15 Mar 1946  Nurtas Dandybayevich Undasynov          (s.a.)               CPK
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
15 Mar 1946 - 24 Mar 1954  Nurtas Dandybayevich Undasynov          (s.a.)               CPK
24 Mar 1954 - 31 Mar 1955  Elubay Bazimovich Taibekov              (b. 1901 - d. 1991)  CPK
31 Mar 1955 - 20 Jan 1960  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunayev         (s.a.)               CPK
                             (1st time)
20 Jan 1960 -  6 Jan 1961  Zhumabek Akhmetovich Tashenev           (s.a.)               CPK
 6 Jan 1961 - 13 Sep 1962  Salken Daulenovich Daulenov             (b. 1907 - d. 1984)  CPK
13 Sep 1962 - 26 Dec 1962  Masymkhan Beysembayevich Beysembayev    (b. 1908 - d. 1987)  CPK
                             (1st time) 
26 Dec 1962 -  7 Dec 1964  Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunayev         (s.a.)               CPK
                             (2nd time)
 7 Dec 1964 - 31 Mar 1970  Masymkhan Beysembayevich Beysembayev    (s.a.)               CPK
                             (2nd time)
31 Mar 1970 - 22 Mar 1984  Bayken Ashimovich Ashimov               (s.a.)               CPK
22 Mar 1984 - 27 Jul 1989  Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev         (s.a.)               CPK
27 Jul 1989 - 20 Nov 1990  Uzakbay Karamanovich Karamanov          (b. 1937)            CPK
Prime minister
20 Nov 1990 - 14 Oct 1991  Uzakbay Karamanovich Karamanov          (s.a.)               CPK

Party abbreviations: CPK = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Kazakhstana (Communist Party of Kazakhstan, communist, 1936-Oct 1991); CPSU = Communist Party of Soviet Union



Kazakh Khanates

Note: Kazakhs, the largest of the nomadic cattle breeders, were divided into three major groups - Hordes (Zhuzes)- often at loggerheads with one another. The Small Horde was based between the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea, the Middle Horde in the central Hungry Steppe, and the Great Horde in the Semirechie region stretching towards the Chinese border. The Hordes sought, and secured, agreements with the Russian Empire- the Small Horde signing a treaty in 1731, followed by the Middle Horde (1732) and the Great Horde (1742). Gradually tightening their grip over Kazakh land, Russians deposed the Kazakh khans, starting with that of the Middle Horde (1822) and ending with the Great Horde (1848).

1459                       Zhanibek (Jani-beg) and Kerei (Ghirai), sultans of Abulhair
                             (khan of Ak Ordu and Tyumen) moved with their adherents
                             (called "Kazakh Horde") to Zhetysu (territory to the south of
                             Lake Balkash).
1465                       Kazakh Khanate founded. 
1469                       Capture of most of the territory of modern day Kazakhstan, except
                             its western (to Greater Nogai Horde), northern (to Tyumen, then
                             Siberian khanate) and south-eastern (to Chagataid Horde
                             in Mongolian) parts.
1601                       Great Nogai Horde under Russian suzerainty and soon after
                             the Kazakh Khanate is divided into three parts called Zhuz -
                             Elder Zhuz (Uly Zhuz) in eastern and southern parts
                             of khanate; Middle Zhuz (Orta Zhuz) in central and northern 
                             parts of khanate; and Younger (Minor) Zhuz (Kishi Zhuz). 
                             western part of khanate); each of them ruled by a Khan.
1652 - 1680                Under Dzungarian suzerainty.
1718                       The Oyrats defeat the Kazakh Middle Horde. 
1718                       After death of Kayp Khan, several khans are elected in different
                             parts of the Khanate.
1731 - 1840                Area of modern-day Kazakhstan is slowly annexed by Russia.
1731                       Younger Zhuz accepts Russian protectorate; only its
                             northern part were effectively under protectorate of Russia.
1740                       Middle and Elder Zhuz accepts Russian suzerainty
                             (effective Russian control only established in the late
                             18th and early 19th century).
1799                       Tashkent incorporated into the Khokand Khanate.
11 Mar 1801                Some of the Kazakhs of Younger Zhuz are resettled to the
                             right bank of Yaik/Ural river headed by Bokei Khan, forming
                              the Bokei Horde (called Inner Horde by the Russians) 
                             (see under Russia).
1822                       Russian eliminate the khan's authority in Middle Zhuz.
1824                       Russian eliminate the khan's authority in Younger Zhuz.
1841 - 1837                Rebellion against Russian rule.

Khans  
1680 - 1715                Az Tauke Khan                      (d. 1715)
1715 - 1718                Kayp                               (d. 1718)
- Elder Zhuz -
1718 - 1729                Bolat
1718 -  5 Apr 1740         Zholbarys                          (b. 1690 - d. 1740)
1729 - 1771                Abylmambet 
                            (also in Middle Zhuz)
1771 - 1781                Abylai Abylmansur                  (b. 1711 - d. 1781) 
                            (also in Middle and most of Younger Zhuz)
1781 - 1819                Wali (Uali) Khan                   (b. 1741 - d. 1819)
                            (also in Middle Zhuzes)
1784 - 1799                Yunus (in Tashkent)
- Middle Zhuz -
1718 - 1734                Semeke Shakhmuhambet Khan          (d. 1737) 
                            (in part of Middle Zhuz)
1723 - 1748                Abulhair Khan                      (b. 1693 - d. 1748)
                            (also in Younger Zhuz)
1729 - 1771                Abylmambet Khan
                            (also in Elder and Middle Zhuz)
1771 - 1781                Abylai Abylmansur                  (s.a.) 
                            (also in Elder and most of Younger Zhuz)
1781 - 1819                Wali (Uali) Khan                   (s.a.)
                            (also in Elder Zhuz)
1784 - 17..                Daira Khan
                            (in part of Middle Zhuz: 
                             clans of Gortul and Karakesek)
1819 - 18..                Shergazy Khan II                                
                            (under suzerainty of Khiva)
1821 - 1822                Gubaydulla Khan
Sep 1841 - Apr 1847        Kenesary Khan                      (b. 1801/02 - d. 1847)
                            (also in Younger Zhuz; in rebellion)
- Younger Zhuz -
1718 - 1748                Abulhair Khan                      (s.a.)
                            (also in Middle Zhuz) 
1748 - 1786                Nuraly Khan (in north)             (d. 1790)
1748 - 1785                Batyr Khan (in south)
1790 - 1791                Yesim Khan
1791 - 1794                Yeraly Khan                        (b. c.1720 - d. 1740) 
1796 - 1797                Yesim Khan                         (b. 1739 - d. 1797) 
1797 - 1803                Ayshuak Khan                       (b. 1720 - d. 1810)
1803 - Nov 1809            Zhantore Khan (in north)           (b. 1759 - d. 1809)
1806 - 1816                Karatai Khan (in south)            (d. 1826)
1812 - 1824                Shergazy Khan I                    (d. 1833)  
1816 - 1821                Aryngazy Khan (in south)           (b. 1783 - d. 1833) 






ę Ben Cahoon