World Statesmen.org HOME >

 
 




 



 

Turkmenistan
 
[Khanate of Merv to 1881]
             1855 - 12 Jan 1881 Merv
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
              12 Jan  1881 - Apr  1918 
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR]
 
                  30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991
 
Flag
                                    of Turkmenistan 1991-92
                    27 Oct 1991 - 19 Feb 1992
 
[Flag
                                    of Turkmenistan, 1992-1997]
                    19 Feb 1992 - 1 Feb 1997
 
[Flag
                                    of Turkmenistan, 1997-2001]
                     1 Feb 1997 - 25 Jan 2001
 
[Flag of
                                    Turkmenistan]
                Adopted 25 Jan 2001
 


Map of Turkmenistan Hear National Anthem
"Garassyz, Bitarap Türkmenistanyn"
(Independent, Neutral,
 Turkmenistan State
Anthem)
Adopted 15 Dec 2008 
Hear 1997-2008 Anthem
"Garassyz, Bitarap Türkmenistanyn" (Independent,
Neutral, Turkmenistan State
 Anthem)

--------------------------------------
Hear 1991-1997 Anthem

"National Anthem of the
Republic of Turkmenistan"
Constitution
(26 Sep 2008)
-------------------------------------
Former Constitution

(18 May 1992 - 26 Sep 2008)
Capital: Ashgabat
(Poltoratsk Jul 1919-1927,
Ashkhabad 1882-Jul 1919,
Merv 1855-1882)
Currency: Turkmen Manat
(TMT); 1991-1993 Russian
 Ruble (RUR) 
National Holiday: 27 Oct (1991)
Independence Day
Population: 5,113,040 (2013)
GDP: $55.16 billion (2013)
Exports: $17.13 billion (2013)
Imports: $12.48 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%,
other 6% (2003) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 22,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 11 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 87.2%, Russian Orthodox 1.7%,
non-religious 9%, other 2.1% (2000) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APM, BTWC, CIS (associate), CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, ISA (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO (guest), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Turkmenistan
Index
Chronology

1855                       Tekke Turkmen tribal confederation defeat the
                             Khan of Khiva at Sarahks and proclaim
                             independence (Khanate of Merv).
1869 - 1885                Gradually annexed by Russia (Krasnovodsk 
                             [Turkmenbashi] 1869, Ashkhabad 15 Jan 1881,
                             Merv 31 Jan 1884, and Kushka [Gushgy] 1885).
12 Jan 1881                Russians invaded and defeat the Tekke
                             Confederation.
30 Apr 1918                Bolsheviks proclaim the Turkistan Autonomous 
                             Soviet Socialist Republic (see under Uzbekistan).
14 Jul 1918                Ashkhabad Executive Committee formed by
                             anti-Bolshevik forces; renamed Nov 1918
                             the Transcaspian (Zakaspian) Provisional
                             Government
.
16 Jul 1918 -  5 Apr 1919  British forces stationed in Transcaspia area.
 9 Jul 1919                Bolshevik forces retake Ashgabat and Turkmen  
                             territory is re-incorporated into he 
                             Turkistan A.S.S.R. within Russian S.F.S.R.
                             (see under Uzbekistan).
 6 Feb 1920                Bolshevik forces retake Krasnovodsk.
27 Oct 1924                Turkmen Socialist Soviet Republic proclaimed.
13 May 1925                Accession to the Soviet Union.
 5 Dec 1936                Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
22 Aug 1990                Declaration of state sovereignty.
27 Oct 1991                Independence declared (Turkmenistan).
25 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of the 
                             U.S.S.R.).

Turkmen Soviet
Socialist Republic
(1924-1991)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Khans of Merv
1855 - 1860?               Kouchid Khan
1860 - 12 Jan 1881         Baba Khan 
                           - jointly with the following two -
c.1871 -  5 May 1880       Nurberdi Khan                      (d. 1880)
 5 May 1880 - Apr 1881     Makhdum Kulu Khan
Apr 1881 - Jan 1884        Guljemal Khanim  
Chairman of the Ashkhabad Executive Committee
14 Jul 1918 - Nov 1918     Fyodor Andrianovich Funtikov       (d. 1926)            SR
Chairman of the Transcaspian Provisional Government

Nov 1918 - Jul 1919        Fyodor Andrianovich Funtikov       (s.a.)               SR
Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee
Oct 1924 - Dec 1924        Kaikhaziz Sardarovich Atabayev     (b. 1887 - d. 1937)  TCP
Dec 1924 - Feb 1925        Nedirbay Aytakov                   (b. 1894 - d. 1938)  TCP
Chairman of the Central Executive Council
20 Feb 1925 - Aug 1937     Nedirbay Aytakov                   (s.a.)               TCP
Presidents
 2 Nov 1990 - 21 Dec 2006  Saparmurat Atajevich Niyazov       (b. 1940 - d. 2006) TCP;1992 TDP
                             (from 1 Oct 1993) "Turkmenbashi"
21 Dec 2006 -              Gurbanguly Mjalikulyyevich         (b. 1957)            TDP;2007 
                             Berdymukhammedov                                      Non-party
                             (acting to 14 Feb 2007)
 

Chairman of Provisional Executive Committee of the Transcaspian Region

1918 -  1 Jan 1919         Fyodor Andrianovich Funtikov       (s.a.)               SR
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
20 Feb 1925 -  8 Jul 1937  Kaikhaziz Sardarovich Atabayev     (s.a.)               TCP
Prime minister
30 Oct 1990 - 18 May 1992  Khan Akhmedovich Akhmedov          (b. 1936 - d. 2006) TCP;1991 TDP


Commander of British Military Mission to Turkestan
(at Mashad)
16 Jul 1918 -  5 Apr 1919  Wilfred Malleson                   (b. 1866 - d. 1946)
British Political Officer in Ashkhabad
1918 - 1919                Reginald Teague-Jones              (b. 1889 - d. 1988)
 
Territorial Disputes: Cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2005, but Caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled with Azerbaijan, Iran, and Kazakhstan due to Turkmenistan's indecision over how to allocate the sea's waters and seabed; bilateral talks continue with Azerbaijan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian.

Party abbreviations: TDP = Türkmenistanyn Demokratik Partiyasy (Democratic Party of Turkmenistan, nationalist, authoritarian, former TCP, 1992 - 26 Sep 2008 only legal party, est.Dec 1991);
- Former parties: SRP = Partita Sotsialistov-Revoliutsionerov (Socialist Revolutionary Party, "SRs", socialist, split 1917 with Left Socialist Revolutionary Party, 1902-1940); TCP = Türkmenistanyn Kommunistik Partiyasy (Communist Party of Turkmen SSR, 1924-1991, renamed TDP)



Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
 
Flag of
                                  Turkmen SSR in c.1924
                       c.1924 - 20 May 1927
 
Flag of
                                  Turkmen SSR in 1927
                   20 May 1927 - 2 Mar 1937 
 
Flag of
                                  Turkmen SSR in 1937
                        2 Mar 1937 - 1940
 
Flag of
                                  Turkmen SSR in 1940
                         1940 - 1 Aug 1953
 
[Flag of
                                  Turkmen SSR in 1953]
                    1 Aug 1953 - 23 Sep 1974
[Flag of
                                  Turkmen SSR in 1974]
                   23 Sep 1974 - 19 Feb 1992
Capital: Ashkhbad
(Poltoratsk 1924-1927)
Hear SSR Anthem
"Türkmenistan Sovet
 Sotsialistik Respublikasy
 Döwlet Gimni"
(State Anthem of
the Turkmen SSR)
(1946-1997)
Constitution
(13 Apr 1978)
Population: 2,949,966 (1989)

 7 Aug 1921                Turkmen Autonomous Oblast (within the Turkestan A.S.S.R.)
2
7 Oct 1924                Turkmen Socialist Soviet Republic proclaimed.
 5 Dec 1936                Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
13 May 1925                Accession to the Soviet Union.

First Secretaries of the Turkmen Communist Party (TCP)
Oct 1924 - 1924            Khalmurad Sakhatmuradov (acting)   (b. 1898 - d. 1938)
19 Nov 1924 - 1926         Ivan Ivanovich Mezhlauk            (b. 1891 - d. 1938)
                             (acting to 20 Feb 1925)
Jun 1926 - Apr 1928        Shaymardan Nurimanovich Ibragimov  (b. 1899 - d. 1957)
11 May 1928 - Aug 1930     Grigory Naumovich Aronshtam        (b. 1893 - d. 1938)
Aug 1930 - 15 Apr 1937     Yakov Abramovich Popok             (b. 1894 - d. 1938)
Apr 1937 - Oct 1937        Anna-Mukhamedov (acting)           (b. 1900 - d. 19..)
Oct 1937 - Nov 1939        Yakov Abramovich Chubin            (b. 1893 - d. 1956)
Nov 1939 - Mar 1947        Mikhail Makarovich Fonin           (b. 1905 - d. 1974)
Mar 1947 - Jul 1951        Shadzha Batyrovich Batyrov         (b. 1908 - d. 1965)
Jul 1951 - 14 Dec 1958     Sukhan Babayevich Babayev          (b. 1910 - d. 1995)
14 Dec 1958 -  4 May 1960  Dzhuma Durdy Karayev               (b. 1910 - d. 1960)
13 Jun 1960 - 24 Dec 1969  Balysh Ovezovich Ovezov            (b. 1915 - d. 1975)
24 Dec 1969 - 21 Dec 1985  Muhammadnazar Gapurovich Gapurov   (b. 1922 - d. 1999)
21 Dec 1985 - 16 Dec 1991  Saparmurad Atayevich Niyazov       (b. 1940 - d. 2006)

Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee
Oct 1924 - Dec 1924        Kaikhaziz Sardarovich Atabayev     (b. 1887 - d. 1937)
Dec 1924 - Feb 1925        Nedirbay Aytakov                   (b. 1894 - d. 1938) 
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
20 Feb 1925 - 21 Jul 1937  Nedyrbay Aytakov                   (s.a.)               TCP
Aug 1937 - Oct 1937        Batyr Atayev (acting)              (b. 1901 - d. 1938)  TCP
Oct 1937 -  2 Mar 1938     ....
 2 Mar 1938 - 24 Jul 1938  Khivali Babayev                    (b. 1902 - d. 1941)  TCP
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
24 Jul 1938 - 27 Jul 1938  Alla Berdy Berdiyev                (b. 1904 - d. 19..)  TCP
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
27 Jul 1938 - 30 Aug 1941  Khivali Babayev                    (s.a.)               TCP
30 Aug 1941 - Oct 1941     ....
Oct 1941 -  6 Mar 1948     Alla Berdy Berdiyev                (s.a.)               TCP
 6 Mar 1948 - 30 Mar 1959  Akmamed Sariyev                    (b. 1907 - d. ....)  TCP
30 Mar 1959 - 26 Mar 1963  Nurberdy Bairamov                  (b. 1912 - d. 1986)  TCP
26 Mar 1963 - 15 Dec 1978  Annamukhamed Klychev               (b. 1912)            TCP
15 Dec 1978 - 13 Aug 1988  Bally Yazkuliyevich Yazkuliyev     (b. 1930)            TCP
13 Aug 1988 - 19 Jan 1990  Roza Atamuradovna Bazarova (f)     (b. 1933)            TCP
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
19 Jan 1990 -  2 Nov 1990  Saparmurad Atayevich Niyazov       (s.a.)               TCP

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
20 Feb 1925 -  8 Jul 1937  Kaikhaziz Sardarovich Atabayev     (b. 1887 - d. 1937)  TCP
Oct 1937 - 17 Oct 1945     Aitbay Khudaybergenov              (b. 1909 - d. 19..)  TCP
17 Oct 1945 - 15 Mar 1946  Sukhan Babayevich Babayev          (s.a.)               TCP
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
15 Mar 1946 - 14 Jul 1951  Sukhan Babayevich Babayev          (s.a.)               TCP
14 Jul 1951 - 14 Jan 1958  Balysh Ovezovich Ovezov (1st time) (s.a.)               TCP
14 Jan 1958 - 20 Jan 1959  Dzhuma Durdy Karayev               (s.a.)               TCP
20 Jan 1959 - 13 Jun 1960  Balysh Ovezovich Ovezov (2nd time) (s.a.)               TCP
13 Jun 1960 - 26 Mar 1963  Abdy Annaliyevich Annaliyev        (b. 1920)            TCP
26 Mar 1963 - 25 Dec 1969  Muhammadnazar Gapurovich Gapurov   (s.a.)               TCP
25 Dec 1969 - 17 Dec 1975  Oraz Nazarovich Orazmukhamedov     (b. 1930)            TCP
17 Dec 1975 - 15 Dec 1978  Bally Yazkuliyevich Yazkuliyev     (s.a.)               TCP
15 Dec 1978 - 26 Mar 1985  Chary Soyunovich Karriyev          (b. 1932)            TCP
26 Mar 1985 -  4 Jan 1986  Saparmurad Atayevich Niyazov       (s.a.)               TCP
 4 Jan 1986 - 17 Nov 1989  Anamurad Khodzhamuradovich         (b. 1935)            TCP
                             Khodzhamuradov 
 5 Dec 1989 - 30 Oct 1990  Khan Ahmedovich Akhmedov           (b. 1936 - d. 2006)  TCP

Party abbreviation: TCP = Türkmenistanyn Kommunistik Partiyasy (Communist Party of Turkmen SSR, renamed TDP, 1924-Dec 1991) 







© Ben Cahoon