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New Caledonia
 
[Flag of
                                    France]
                Adopted 22 Sep 1853 
 
[Flag
                                    of Kanaky]
    Adopted 13 Jul 2010 as Co-Local Flag
   (De facto Local Flag 20 Jul 1998 - 2010)
 
Map of New Caledonia Hear National Anthem
"La Marseillaise" 
Hear Local Anthem
"Soyons unis, devenons frères"
(Let us be united,
Let us become brothers)
Adopted 26 Jun 2008

Constitution
 (28 Sep 1958)
----------------------------
Nouméa Accord
(5 May 1998)
Capital: Nouméa
(Port-de-France 1853-1866)
Currency: Comptoirs Francais
du Pacifique Franc (XPF)
National Holiday: 14 Jul (1789)
Bastille Day
------------------------------------
Local Holiday: 24 Sep (1853)
New Caledonia Day
Population: 264,022 (2013)
GDP: $9.8 billion (2012)
Exports: $1.32 million (2012)
Imports: $3.24 billion (2012) 
Ethnic groups: Melanesian 45.3% (of which Kanak 44.1%,
Ni-Vanuatu 1.2%), European 34.1%, Wallisian &
Futunan 9%, Polynesian 2.6%, Indonesian 2.6%,
Vietnamese 1.4%, other 5% (1996)
Total Active French Armed Forces: 1,100 (2011)
Defense is the Responsibility of France
Merchant marine: 3 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 54.2%, Protestant 14% (of which
Presbyterian 12.3%), unaffiliated/other Christian 18.8%,
Muslim 2.7%, non-religious 5.8%, other 4.5% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ITUC, PC, PIF (associate), UPU, WFTU, WMO 
New Caledonia
Chronology

 4 Sep 1774                Discovered by British Capt. James Cook and named
                             New Caledonia.
1793                       Loyalty Islands discovered by British Capt. Raven.
18 Apr 1793                Visited by French Capt. Pierre d'Entrecasteaux.
1845 - 1858                British trader James Paddon settles on Nou Island.
24 Sep 1853                French colony.
24 Sep 1853 - 14 Jan 1860  Subordinated to French Settlements in
                             Oceania (see French Polynesia). 
 1 Jul 1860                Separate colony.
1866                       Iles Loyauté (Loyalty Is.) part of New Caledonia.
27 Nov 1887 - 30 Jul 1961  Wallis and Futuna Islands subordinated to 
                             New Caledonia.
24 Sep 1940 - 1945         Administration loyal to Free French forces.
27 Oct 1946                French overseas territory.
23 Nov 1984                Autonomy granted.
26 Jun 1988                Matignon Accords increase territorial autonomy.
 5 May 1998                Nouméa Accord promises political power to the
                             Kanaks until a 2014/18 independence referendum.
20 Jul 1998                French collectivité sui generis.

Île des Pins (Kunié)
 
 
 

Commandants
24 Sep 1853 -  1 Jan 1854  Auguste Febvrier-Despointes        (b. 1796 - d. 1855)
 1 Jan 1854 - 31 Oct 1854  Louis Tardy de Montravel           (b. 1811 - d. 1864)
18 Jan 1855 - 28 Oct 1856  Joseph Fidèle Eugène du Bouzet     (b. 1805 - d. 1867)
18 Jan 1855 - 21 Dec 1856  Jules Marcelin Albert Testard      (b. 1814 - d. 1861)
                             (acting [for Bouzet to 28 Oct 1856])
25 May 1856 -  5 May 1857  Le Bris
                             (acting [for Testard to 21 Dec 1856])
21 Dec 1858 - 20 Mar 1859  Roussel (interim)
20 Mar 1859 -  1 Jul 1860  Jean Pierre Thomas Durand          (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
22 May 1859 -  2 Apr 1860  Jean-Marie Saisset                 (b. 1810 - d. 1879)
                             (acting for Durand)
Governors (from 22 Mar 1907 also High Commissioners in the Pacific Ocean¹)
 2 Jun 1862 - 13 Mar 1870  Charles Guillain                   (b. 1808 - d. 1875)
13 Mar 1870 - 26 Aug 1870  Jacques Eugène Barnabé Ruillier    (b. 1819 - d. 1882)
26 Aug 1870 - 25 Sep 1874  Eugène Gaultier de la Richerie     (b. 1820 - d. 1886)
25 Sep 1874 - 27 Feb 1875  Louis Eugène Alleyron              (b. 1825 - d. 1891)
27 Feb 1875 - 11 Apr 1878  Léopold Eberhard Ludovic de        (b. 1824 - d. 1889)
                             Pritzbuer
11 Apr 1878 -  8 Aug 1880  Jean Baptiste Léon Olry            (b. 1832 - d. 1890)
 8 Aug 1880 - 29 Sep 1882  Amédée Anatole Prosper Courbet     (b. 1827 - d. 1885)
29 Sep 1882 - 22 Jul 1884  Léopold Augustin Charles Pallu de  (b. 1828 - d. 1891) 
                             la Barrière
22 Jul 1884 - 13 May 1886  Adolphe Le Boucher                 (b. 1837 - d. 1896)
13 May 1886 -  5 Jun 1886  Ortus (interim)
 5 Jun 1886 - 30 Jul 1888  Louis Hippolyte Marie Nouet        (b. 1844 - d. 1933)
30 Jul 1888 - 20 Dec 1888  Delphino Moracchini                (b. 1846 - d. 1903)
20 Dec 1888 - 12 Jan 1889  Pons (interim)
12 Jan 1889 - 14 Apr 1891  Marie Jacques Noël Pardon          (b. 1854 - d. 1910)
14 Apr 1891 - 16 Dec 1892  Émile Gustave Laffon               (b. 1866 - d. 1931)
16 Dec 1892 - 21 Feb 1894  Albert Jean Georges Marie Louis    (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
                             Picquié
21 Feb 1894 - 10 Jun 1894  Gauharou (interim)
10 Jun 1894 - 18 Oct 1902  Paul Théodore Ernest Marie Feillet (b. 1857 - d. 1903)
 5 Jun 1896 -  2 Jun 1897  Aristide Le Fol                    (b. 1838 - d. 1923)
                             (acting for Feillet) 
10 Feb 1900 - 12 Dec 1900  Colardeau (acting for Feillet) 
13 Dec 1900 -  2 May 1901  Édouard Émile Léon Telle (1st time)(b. 1859 - d. 1949)
                             (acting for Feillet) 
22 Oct 1902 - 14 Nov 1902  Édouard Émile Léon Telle (2nd time)(s.a.)
14 Nov 1902 - 17 May 1905  Édouard Picanon                    (b. 1854 - d. 1939)
                             (acting [for Feillet to 2 Sep 1903]) 
17 May 1905 - 17 Sep 1905  Charles Amédée Rognon              (b. 1861 - d. 1911)
17 Sep 1905 - 18 Mar 1908  Victor Théophile Liotard           (b. 1858 - d. 1916)
18 Mar 1908 - 24 May 1908  Pierre Brun (acting)               (b. 1866 - d. 19..)
24 May 1908 -  6 Jun 1913  Jules Richard                      (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
16 Sep 1909 -  6 Jul 1910  Adrien Jules Jean Bonhoure         (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
                             (acting for Richard)
 6 Jun 1913 - 27 Jul 1914  Auguste Charles Désiré Emmanuel    (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
                             Brunet 
27 Jul 1914 - 15 Aug 1923  Jules Vincent Repiquet             (b. 1874 - d. 1960)
23 May 1919 -  6 Jan 1921  Joseph Marie Eugène Joulia         (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Repiquet)
12 Sep 1923 - 14 Mar 1925  Henri Joseph Marie d'Arboussier    (b. 1875 - d. 1930)
                             (acting)
16 Mar 1925 -  2 Jul 1932  Marie Casimir Joseph Guyon         (b. 1870 - d. 1942)
29 May 1929 - 22 May 1930  Henri Joseph Marie d'Arboussier    (s.a.)
                             (acting for Guyon)
23 May 1930 - 20 Dec 1930  Gabriel Henri Joseph Thaly         (b. 1875 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Guyon)
20 Jul 1932 -  6 Apr 1933  Léonce Alphonse Noël Henri Jore    (b. 1882 - d. 1975)
                             (1st time) 
 3 May 1933 -  3 Dec 1936  Bernard Jacques Victorin Siadous   (b. 1879 - d. 1967)
 6 Dec 1936 - Jul 1938     Marcel Alix Jean Marchessou        (b. 1879 - d. 1964)
Jul 1938 -  7 Aug 1939     Léonce Alphonse Noël Henri Jore    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
 7 Aug 1939 - 20 Sep 1939  René Victor Marie Barthès          (b. 1894 - d. 196.)
20 Oct 1939 -  4 Sep 1940  Marc Georges Marie Pelicier        (b. 1893 - d. 1970)
 4 Sep 1940 - 19 Sep 1940  Denis
19 Sep 1940 -  6 May 1942  Henri Camille Sautot               (b. 1885 - d. 1963)
29 Jul 1942 - 23 Jun 1943  Marie Henri Ferdinand Auguste      (b. 1888 - d. 1963)
                             Montchamp                 
15 Sep 1943 - 13 Feb 1944  Christian Robert Roger Laigret     (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
14 Feb 1944 - 28 Jan 1947  Jacques Victor François Tallec     (b. 1902 - d. ....)
29 Jan 1947 - 10 May 1948  Georges Hubert Parisot             (b. 1887 - d. 1969)
10 May 1948 -  5 Jul 1951  Pierre Charles Cournarie           (b. 1895 - d. 1968)
 5 Jul 1951 - 21 Oct 1951  Paul Louis Bordarier               (b. 1904 - d. 1990)
21 Oct 1951 - 24 Jul 1954  Raoul Eugène Angammarre            (b. 1898 - d. 1991)
30 Sep 1954 -  3 Feb 1956  René Hoffherr                      (b. 1893 - d. 1982)
 2 Mar 1956 -  1 Dec 1958  Aimé Grimald                       (b. 1903 - d. 2000)
 1 Dec 1958 -  9 Jan 1963  Laurent Elisée Péchoux             (b. 1904 - d. 2000)
18 Mar 1961 - 20 Jul 1961  Georges Poulet                     (b. 1914 - d. 2008)
                             (acting for Péchoux)
 9 Jan 1963 - 14 Feb 1965  Marc Casimir Biros                 (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
14 Feb 1965 - 16 Oct 1969  Jean Risterucci                    (b. 1911 - d. 1982)
20 Oct 1969 -  1 Dec 1973  Louis Verger                       (b. 1921)
 9 Jan 1974 - 16 Dec 1978  Jean Gabriel Ériau                 (b. 1914 - d. 2008)
16 Dec 1978 - 11 Dec 1981  Claude Charbonniaud                (b. 1925)
High commissioners
19 Dec 1981 - 22 Oct 1982  Christian Léon Colombo Nucci       (b. 1939)
24 Oct 1982 -  4 Dec 1984  Jacques Roynette                   (b. 1936)
 4 Dec 1985 - 22 May 1985  Edgard Pisani                      (b. 1918)
31 May 1985 -  1 Aug 1986  Fernand Wibaux                     (b. 1921)
 1 Aug 1986 - 12 Aug 1986  Bernard Lemaire (acting)           (b. 1946)
12 Aug 1986 - 28 Nov 1987  Jean Montpezat                     (b. 1937)
 1 Dec 1987 - 15 Jul 1988  Clément Bouhin                     (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
15 Jul 1988 - 11 Jan 1991  Bernard Grasset                    (b. 1933)
15 Jan 1991 - 29 Jul 1994  Alain Christnacht                  (b. 1946)
29 Jul 1994 - 12 Aug 1994  Thierry Lataste (1st time)         (b. 1954)
                             (acting)
12 Aug 1994 - 16 Aug 1995  Didier Cultiaux                    (b. 1943)
16 Aug 1995 - 18 Aug 1995  Laurent Cayrel (acting)            (b. 1950)
18 Aug 1995 - 15 Jul 1999  Dominique Bur                      (b. 1947)
15 Jul 1999 - 19 Jul 1999  Bernard Bouloc (acting)            (b. 1948)
19 Jul 1999 - 29 Jul 2002  Thierry Lataste (2nd time)         (s.a.)
29 Jul 2002 - 31 Jul 2002  Alain Triolle (acting)             (b. 1961)
31 Jul 2002 -  6 Sep 2005  Daniel Constantin                  (b. 1940)
 6 Sep 2005 -  9 Sep 2005  Louis Le Franc (acting)            (b. 1960)
 
9 Sep 2005 -  9 Nov 2007  Michel Mathieu                     (b. 1944 - d. 2010)
 9 Nov 2007 - 25 Oct 2007  Jean-Bernard Bobin (acting)        (b. 1958)
25 Oct 2007 - 21 Oct 2010  Yves Dassonville                   (b. 1948)
21 Oct 2010 -  2 Nov 2010  Thierry Suquet (1st time) (acting) (b. 1960)
 2 Nov 2010 -  2 Feb 2013  Albert Dupuy                       (b. 1947)
 2 Feb 2013 - 27 Feb 2013  Thierry Suquet (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
27 Feb 2013 -              Jean-Jacques Brot                  (b. 1956)

Vice Presidents of the Government Council
22 Oct 1957 - 18 Jun 1959  Maurice Lenormand (1st time)       (b. 1913 - d. 2006)  UC
18 Jun 1959 - 29 Apr 1962  Michel Kauma                       (b. 1913 - d. 1998)  UICALO+UC
29 Apr 1962 - 21 Dec 1963  Roch Pidjot                        (b. 1907 - d. 1990)  UICALO+UC
21 Dec 1963 -  5 Oct 1977  Post abolished
 5 Oct 1977 - 13 Oct 1978  André Caillard                     (b. 1923)          RPC;1978 RPCR
21 Nov 1978 - 24 May 1979  Maurice Lenormand (2nd time)       (s.a.)               UC
                             (suspended from 20 Mar 1979)
 6 Jul 1979 - 16 Jun 1982  Dick Ukeiwé                        (b. 1928 - d. 2013)  RPCR
18 Jun 1982 - 18 Nov 1984  Jean-Marie Tjibaou                 (b. 1936 - d. 1989)UC;1984 FLNKS
                             (president of 'provisional government of
                             Kanaky'
1 Dec 1984 - 4 May 1989, in dissidence)
President of the Government

23 Nov 1984 - 29 Aug 1985  Dick Ukeiwé                        (s.a.)               RPCR
President of the Executive Council
 7 Oct 1985 -  9 Nov 1988  Dick Ukeiwé                        (s.a.)               RPCR
 9 Nov 1988 - 28 May 1999  Post abolished
Presidents of the Government
28 May 1999 -  5 Apr 2001  Jean Lèques                        (b. 1931)            RPCR
 5 Apr 2001 - 10 Jun 2004  Pierre Frogier                     (b. 1950)            RPCR
10 Jun 2004 -  7 Aug 2007  Marie-Noëlle Thémereau (f)         (b. 1950)            AE
 7 Aug 2007 -  5 Jun 2009  Harold Martin (1st time)           (b. 1954)            AE
 5 Jun 2009 -  3 Mar 2011  Philippe Gomès                     (b. 1958)            CE
 3 Mar 2011 -  5 Jun 2014  Harold Martin (2nd time)           (s.a.)               AE
 5 Jun 2014 -              Cynthia Ligeard (f)                (b. 1962)            RPCR

Presidents of the General Council (Conseil général)
26 Nov 1945 - 15 Nov 1947  Pierre Bergès (1st time)
15 Nov 1947 - 1952         Henri Bonneaud
1952 - 27 Oct 1955         Pierre Bergès (2nd time)                                UC
27 Oct 1955 - 15 Oct 1956  Fernand Legras                     (b. 1888 - d. 1963) 
15 Oct 1956 - 21 Oct 1957  Louis Eschembrenner                (b. c.1925)          UC
Presidents of the Territorial Assembly (Assemblée territoriale)
21 Oct 1957 -  8 Nov 1960  Armand Ohlen (1st time)            (b. 1913 - d. 1993)  UC
 8 Nov 1960 -  5 Sep 1961  René Hénin                                              UNR
 5 Sep 1961 -  6 Oct 1966  Antoine Griscelli                  (b. 1901 - d. 1966)  UC
 6 Oct 1966 - 29 Sep 1970  Armand Ohlen (2nd time)            (s.a.)               UC
29 Sep 1970 - 26 Sep 1972  Jean Lèques (1st time)             (s.a.)               UC 
26 Sep 1972 - 30 Oct 1973  Michel Kauma                       (s.a.)               EDS
30 Oct 1973 - 30 Sep 1975  Yann Céléné Uregei                 (b. 1932 - d. 2000)  FULK
30 Sep 1975 -  5 Oct 1976  Dick Ukeiwé (1st time)             (s.a.)               UD
 5 Oct 1976 - 27 Sep 1977  Roch Pidjot                        (s.a.)               UC
27 Sep 1977 - 23 Nov 1978  Dick Ukeiwé (2nd time)             (s.a.)             RPC;1978 RPCR
23 Nov 1978 - 23 Apr 1980  Jean-Pierre Aïfa (1st time)        (b. 1938)          UNC;1979 FNSC
23 Apr 1980 - 26 May 1981  Jean Lèques (2nd time)             (s.a.)               RPCR
26 May 1981 - 21 Apr 1982  Jean-Pierre Aïfa (2nd time)        (s.a.)               FNSC
21 Apr 1982 - 26 Apr 1983  Jean Lèques (3rd time)             (s.a.)               RPCR 
26 Apr 1983 -  7 Oct 1985  Jean-Pierre Aïfa (3rd time)        (s.a.)               FNSC
Presidents of the (until 21 May 1999, Territorial) Congress 
 7 Oct 1985 - 26 Jun 1989  Dick Ukeiwé                        (s.a.)               RPCR
 2 May 1988 - 26 Jun 1989  Albert Etuvé                       (b. 1925 - d. 2007)  RPCR
26 Jun 1989 - 31 Jul 1995  Simon Loueckhote (1st time)        (b. 1957)            RPCR
31 Jul 1995 - 16 Jul 1997  Pierre Frogier (1st time)          (s.a.)               RPCR
16 Jul 1997 -  3 Jun 1998  Harold Martin (1st time)           (s.a.)               RPCR
 3 Jun 1998 - 21 May 2004  Simon Loueckhote (2nd time)        (s.a.)              RPR;2002 UMP
21 May 2004 - 31 Jul 2007  Harold Martin (2nd time)           (s.a.)               AE
31 Jul 2007 - 22 May 2009  Pierre Frogier (2nd time)          (s.a.)               RPCR
22 May 2009 -
 1 Apr 2011  Harold Martin (3rd time)           (s.a.)               AE
 3 Mar 2011 -  1 Apr 2011  Léonard Sam      
                 (b. 1953)            CE
                             (acting for Martin)                      
 
1 Apr 2011 - 29 Aug 2012  Rock Wamytan (1st time)            (b. 1950)            FLNKS
29 Aug 2012 -  8 Aug 2013  G
érard Poadja                      (b. 1963)            CE
 8 Aug 2013 - 23 May 2014 
Rock Wamytan (2nd time)            (s.a.)               FLNKS
23 May 2014 -              Gaël Yanno                         (b. 1961)            MPC


Minister for New Caledonia
(in Paris)

21 May 1985 - 15 Nov 1985  Edgard Pisani                      (s.a.)               PS
 
 ¹Except 9 Jul 1941 - Jul 1943 when Charles de Gaulle named Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu 
(b. 1889 - d. 1964) as High Commissioner, while in Dec 1941 the Vichy government named Jean Decoux (b. 1884 - d. 1963) to the post (who in fact was only responsible for Wallis and Futuna which was the only Pacific territory not to have rallied to the Free French at that time). The function of high commissioner in the Pacific Ocean was used to coordinate the governors of New Caledonia and of the French Settlements in Oceania and the governors-general of French Indochina. Moreover the resident commissioners of the New Hebrides and the residents of Wallis and Futuna were subordinated to him.

Territorial Dispute: Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by France 
and Vanuatu.

Party abbreviations: AE = L'Avenir Ensemble (Future Together, centrist, autonomist, anti-independence, split from RPCR, est.2004); CE = Calédonie Ensemble (Caledonia Together, centrist, anti-independence, split from AE, est.2008); FLNKS = Front de Libération Nationale Kanak et Socialiste (Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front, socialist, Kanak, pro-independence, est.1984); MPC = Mouvement Populaire Calédonien (Caledonian Popular Movement, liberal-conservative, anti-independence, split from UMP, est.2013); PS = Parti Socialiste (Socialist Party, social-democratic, est.1969); RPCR = Rassemblement pour la Calédonie dans la République (Rally for Caledonia in the Republic, anti-independence, local wing of RPR then UMP, 1977-Jul 1978 as Rassemblement pour la Calédonie-RPC, European dominated; now called Le Rassemblement-UMP, est.2006); UC = Union Calédionienne (Caledonian Union, center-left, from 1977 pro-independence, est.1953); UMP = Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (Union for a Popular Movement [to 17 Nov 2002: Union for the Presidential Majority], conservative, est.23 Apr 2002 from RPR, DL and the main part of UDF); 
- Former parties: EDS = Entente Démocratique et Sociale (Democratic and Social Agreement, conservative, anti-autonomist, 1972-1977); FNSC = Fédération pour une Nouvelle Société Calédonienne (Federation for a New Caldedonian Society, centrist, autonomist, 1979-1988); FULK = Front Uni de Libération Kanak (United Kanak Liberation Front, 1975-1992, then Congrès Populaire); RPR = Rassemblement Pour la République (Rally for the Republic, Gaullist, conservative, former UDR, 1976-2002, merged into UMP); UICALO = Union des Indigènes Calédoniens Amis de la Liberté dans l'Ordre (Union of Indigenous Caledonians Friends of Freedom in Order, christian democratic, autonomist, 1946-1975); UD = Union Démocratique Nouvelle-Calédonie (Democratic Union New Caledonia, Gaullist conservative, anti-autonomist, 1968-1979); UNC = Union de Nouvelle-Calédonie (New Caledonian Union, centrist, autonomist, split from UC, 1977-1979); UNR = Union pour la Nouvelle République (Union for the New Republic, 1958-1968, then UDR)


Île des Pins (Kunié)

16 Jun 1792                Discovered by French Capt. Pierre d'Entrecasteaux 
                             and named Île des Pins (Isle of Pines).
29 Sep 1853                France takes possession of the island as part 
                             of New Caledonia.

Grand chefs (High Chiefs
17.. - 17..                Waweya Vend
égou I [1st ruler]
17.. - 17..                Konyii Vendégou II
17.. - 17..                Keewa Vendégou III  
17.. - 1775                Toorou Vendégou IV                 (d. 1850)
                             (Kwattè Micüwaét)
1775 - 1850                Ouatchium (Wacumé
)                 (d. 1850)
1850 - 30 May 1855         Kadua Vendégou V (Këëwa Vâdëku)    (b. c.1821 - d. 1855)
                             ("Louis-Philippe")

30 May 1855 - 23 Apr 1883
 Kanejö (f)("Hortense") Vendégou VI (b. 1848 - d. 1900)
30 May 1855 - 1870         Jerome Vend
égou -Regent 
30 May 1855 - 1870         Philippo Vend
égou -Regent 
11 Mar 1870 - Jul 1882     Samuel Kwaneye Vendégou VII        (d. 1882)
23 Apr 1883 - 1926         Abel                               (b. 1840 - d. 1926)
1926 - 1927                Samuel Trouro
1927 - 20 Jun 1974         Barthélémy 
Vendégou VIII           (b. 1903 - d. 1974)
26 Sep 1974 -              Hilarion 
Vendégou IX               (b. 1941)
                             (enthroned 7 Jul 1979)
Sep 1974 - 26 Sep 1976     Jean-Marie Vend
égou (in rebellion) (d. 1976)





 © Ben Cahoon




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