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Vanuatu
 
[New
                                    Hebrides Anglo-French Commission
                                    (1889-1906)]
 1889 - 20 Oct 1906 Anglo-French Administration 
 
[New
                                    Hebrides British Blue Ensign
                                    (1906-1953)]
         20 Oct 1906 - 1953  British Administration
 
[New
                                    Hebrides British Blue Ensign
                                    (1953-1980)]
         1953 - 18 Feb 1980  British Administration
 
[French
                                    flag]
 20 Oct 1906 - 18 Feb 1980 French Administration

[flag of
                                    Provisional Popular Govenment
                                    Vanuatu Party, 1977-78]
 29 Nov 1977 - 11 May 1978 VP People's Prov. Govt. 

[Vanuatu]
                    Adopted 18 Feb 1980

Map of Vanuatu
Hear National Anthem
"Yumi, Yumi, Yumi"
 (We, We, We)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1980
Constitution
(30 Jul 1980)
Capital: Port-Vila 
Currency: Vatu (VUV)
National Holiday: 30 Jul (1980) 
Independence Day
Population: 261,565 (2013)
GDP: $1.27 billion (2013)
Exports: $43.1 million (2013)
Imports: $319.4 million (2013)
Ethnic groups: Ni-Vanuatu (indigenous Melanesian) 97.6%,
part Ni-Vanuatu 1.1%, other 1.3% (2009)
Total Paramilitary Force: 575 (2012)
Merchant marine: 77 ships (2010)
Religions: Protestant 70% (includes Presbyterian 27.9%,
Anglican 15.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.5%, Assemblies of
God 4.7%, Church of Christ 4.5%, Neil Thomas Ministry 3.1%,
and Apostolic 2.2%), Roman Catholic 12.4%, customary
beliefs 3.7% (including Jon Frum cargo cult), other 12.6%,
none 1.1%, unspecified 0.2% (2009)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, C, CTBT, CWC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, IOC, IOM, IRENA, ISA, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, PC, PIF, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Vanuatu Index
Chronology

30 Apr 1606                Discovered by Spanish Capt. Pedro Fernández de
                             Quirós, named Terra Austrialis del Espiritu
                             Santo.
23 May 1768                Sighted by Louis-Antoine de Bougainville,
                             and named Archipel de Grandes Cyclades.
17 Jul 1774                Visited by British Capt. James Cook, named
                             New Hebrides.
1824 - Feb 1878            British protectorate declared (contested
                             by France).
Feb 1878                   Neutral territory, British settlers under 
                             jurisdiction of the governor of Fiji
16 Nov 1887                Rule by joint Anglo-French naval commissions.
1900                       French settlers under the jurisdiction of the 
                             governor of New Caledonia.
20 Oct 1906                Anglo-French condominium
                             (New Hebrides/Nouvelles-Hébrides)
1906 - 1976                Part of the British Western Pacific Territories.
22 Jul 1940 - 1945         French administration loyal to Free French.
 1 Jun 1980 - 31 Aug 1980  Attempted secession by Espiritu Santo (Vemerana).
30 Jul 1980                Independence (Republic of Vanuatu).

Vemerana
(1980)
Tanna
(1973-74, 1980)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


British Naval Commissioners
(the Commanders-in-chief of the Australia Station)
 1 Feb 1887 - 10 Sep 1889  Henry Fairfax                      (b. 1837 - d. 1900)
10 Sep 1889 - 12 Sep 1892  Lord Charles Montagu Douglas Scott (b. 1839 - d. 1911)
12 Sep 1892 -  1 Nov 1894  Nathaniel Bowden-Smith             (b. 1838 - d. 1921)
 1 Nov 1894 -  1 Nov 1897  Cyprian Arthur George Bridge       (b. 1839 - d. 1924)
 1 Nov 1898 -  1 Oct 1900  Hugo Lewis Pearson                 (b. 1843 - d. 1912)
 1 Oct 1900 - 10 Nov 1902  Sir Lewis Anthony Beaumont         (b. 1847 - d. 1922)
10 Nov 1902 - 10 Sep 1905  Sir Arthur Dalrymple Fanshawe      (b. 1847 - d. 1936)
10 Sep 1905 - 31 Dec 1907  Sir Wilmot Hawksworth Fawkes       (b. 1846 - d. 1926)
British Resident Commissioners (subordinated to the high commissioners 
for the Western Pacific [at Fiji to 1952, then at the Solomon Islands])
1902 - 1907                Ernest Goldfinch Rason             (b. 1851 - d. 1915)
Dec 1907 - 1924            Merton King                        (b. 18.. - d. 1939)
1924 - 17 Aug 1927         Geoffrey Bingham Whistler          (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
                             Smith-Rewse           
1927 - 1940                George Andrew Joy                  (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
1940 - 1950                Richard Denis Blandy               (b. 1891 - d. 1964)
1950 - 1955                Hubert James Marlowe Flaxman       (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
                             (from 10 Jun 1954, Sir Hubert James Marlowe Flaxman)
1955 - 1962                John Shaw Rennie                   (b. 1917 - d. 1981)
1962 - 1966                Alexander Mair Wilkie              (b. 1917 - d. 1966)
1966 - 1973                Colin Hamilton Allan               (b. 1921 - d. 1993)
1973 - 1975                Roger William Houssemayne du       (b. 1922)
                             Boulay
1975 - Oct 1978            John Stuart Champion               (b. 1921 - d. 1994)
Nov 1978 - 1980            Andrew Christopher Stuart          (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
British High Commissioners (in London)
Dec 1973 - 1976            Edward Noel Larmour                (b. 1916 - d. 1999)
Dec 1976 - 1977            Henry Sydney Herbert Stanley       (b. 1920 - d. 1995)
1977 - 1980                Richard Stratton                   (b. 1924 - d. 1988)
French Naval Commissioners (the Commanders of Naval Division of the Pacific Ocean)
Jan 1886 - Feb 1888        Adolphe-Laurent-Anatole Marc       (b. 1832 - d. 1889)
                             de Blond de Saint-Hilaire        
28 Feb 1888 - 1890         Auguste Alfred Lefèvre             (b. 1828 - d. 1907)
Apr 1891 - 1893            Emile Parrayon                     (b. 1834 - d. 1913)
15 Feb 1893 - 1895         Charles Courrejolles (1st time)    (b. 1842 - d. 1903)
1896? - 1898               Jean Fort                          (b. 1845 - d. 1913)
1898 -  1 Mar 1899         René-Julien Marquis                (b. 1846 - d. 1929)
 1 Mar 1899 - 24 Sep 1900  Charles Courrejolles (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (commander of Naval Division of the Far East)
Sep 1900 - 1901            Paul Louis Germinet                (b. 1846 - d. 1914)
1901 - 1903                Léon Barnaud                       (b. 1845 - d. 1909)
1903 - 1905                Paul Adigard                       (b. 1853 - d. 1907)
1905 - 1907                Marc Gilbert Paul Hautefeuille     (b. 1852 - d. 1923)
French Resident Commissioners
(subordinated to the high commissioners in the
Pacific Ocean [from 22 Mar 1907 the governors of New Caledonia])
28 Aug 1901 - 1904         Gaudence Charles Faraut            (b. 1861 - d. 19..)
1904 - Jan 1908            Charles Bord
28 Jan 1908 - Jun 1908     Jean-Martin Colonna (1st time)     (b. 1864 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
24 Jun 1908 - Dec 1909     Charles Henri Adrien Noufflard     (b. 1872 - d. 1952)
28 Dec 1909 - Jul 1910     Jean-Martin Colonna (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
27 Jul 1910 - 1911         Jules Martin (acting)              (b. 1855 - d. 19..)
10 Jun 1911 - 1913         Jules Vincent Repiquet             (b. 1874 - d. 1960)
1913 - 1916                Louis Jacques Miramende (1st time) (b. 1869 - d. 1968)
1916 - 1918                Edmond Joseph Hilarion Paul        (b. 1875 - d. 1936)                              Lippmann (acting)         
1918                       Lucien Hugues Arthur Nielly        (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
30 Dec 1918 - 1920         Jean Baptiste Dominique Alfred     (b. 1868 - d. 1935)
                             Solari (acting)        
1920 - 1921                Louis Jacques Miramende (2nd time) (s.a.)
18 Jun 1921 -  6 Sep 1921  Albert Boisivon
 6 Sep 1921 - 1923         Henri Marie Joseph d'Arboussier    (b. 1875 - d. 1930)
                             (1st time)
11 Aug 1923 - 15 Mar 1925  Auguste Adolphe Joseph Marie       (b. 1875 - d. 1936)
                             Raoul de la Vaissière (acting)
15 Mar 1925 - 1929         Henri Maire Joseph d'Arboussier    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 2 Aug 1926 - 1927         Paul François Joseph Ballot
                             (acting for d'Arboussier)
 6 Apr 1929 - Mar 1930     Gabriel Henri Joseph Thaly (acting)(b. 1875 - d. 19..)
30 Mar 1930 - 1931         Maurice Georges Tronet (acting)  
26 Jul 1931 - 1933         Antoine Louis Carlotti             (b. 1871 - d. 1956)
15 Mar 1933 - 1935         Henri Camille Sautot (1st time)    (b. 1885 - d. 1963)
                             (acting to 20 Jun 1934)
16 Apr 1935 - 1937         Fernand Gaston Georges Émile       (b. 1896 - d. 19..)
                             Robert Casimir (acting)
1937 - 1940                Henri Camille Sautot (2nd time)    (s.a.)
13 Sep 1940 - 1947         Robert Charles Henri Kuter         (b. 1900 - d. 1987)
30 Nov 1943 - 31 May 1944  Alfred Albert Louis Hubert Georges (b. 1905 - d. ....)
                             Houques dit Fourcade
                            (acting for Kuter)

23 Sep 1946 - Jan 1947     Alfred Albert Louis Hubert Georges (s.a.)
                             Houques dit Fourcade
                            (acting for Kuter)

Feb 1947 - 1949            André Ménard                       (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
10 Dec 1949 - 1958         Pierre Amédée Joseph Émile Jean    (b. 1913 - d. 1996)
                             Anthonioz (acting to 24 Jan 1950) 
11 Jun 1954 - 1955         Marcel Paul Joseph Agostini        (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
                             (acting for Anthonioz)
15 Nov 1958 - 1959         Benjamin Marcel Favreau            (b. 1915 - d. 1994)
Dec 1959 -  5 Nov 1960     André Marie Théodore Bijon         (b. 1917 - d. 1991)
 5 Nov 1960 - 1965         Maurice Charles Jules Delannay     (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
Apr 1965 - 1969            Jacques Mouradian                  (b. 1910 - d. 1992)
 6 Nov 1969 - 1974         Robert Jules Amédée Langlois       (b. 1922 - d. 2004)
10 Dec 1974 - 1978         Robert Gauger                      (b. 1925 - d. 1995)
1978                       Bernard Pottier                    (b. 1942)
1978 - 1980                Jean-Jacques Robert                (b. 1920)
Presidents
30 Jul 1980 - 17 Feb 1984  Ati George Sokomanu (1st time)     (b. 1937)            VP
17 Feb 1984 -  8 Mar 1984  Frederick Karlomuana Timakata      (b. 1937 - d. 1995)  VP
                             (1st time)(acting) 
 8 Mar 1984 - 12 Jan 1989  Ati George Sokomanu (2nd time)     (s.a.)               VP
12 Jan 1989 - 30 Jan 1989  Onneyn Tahi (acting)               (b. 1918 - d. 1998)  VP
30 Jan 1989 - 30 Jan 1994  Frederick Karlomuana Timakata      (s.a.)               VP
                             (2nd time) 
30 Jan 1994 -  2 Mar 1994  Alfred Maseng Nalo (1st time)      (b. 19.. - d. 2004)  UPM
                             (acting)
 2 Mar 1994 -  2 Mar 1999  Jean-Marie Léyé Lenalcau           (b. 1932)            UPM
                             Manatawai 
 2 Mar 1999 - 24 Mar 1999  Edward Nipake Natapei Tua          (b. 1954)            VP
                             Fanua`ariki (acting)
24 Mar 1999 - 24 Mar 2004  John Bennett Bani                  (b. 1941)            UPM
24 Mar 2004 - 12 Apr 2004  Roger Tom Abiut (1st time)(acting) (b. 1972?)           Ind
12 Apr 2004 - 11 May 2004  Alfred Maseng Nalo (2nd time)      (s.a.)               UPM
11 May 2004 - 29 Jul 2004  Roger Tom Abiut (2nd time)(acting) (s.a.)               Ind
29 Jul 2004 - 16 Aug 2004  Josias Moli (acting)               (b. 1954)            UPM
16 Aug 2004 - 16 Aug 2009  Kalkot Matas Kelekele Mauliliu     (b. 1949)            NUP
16 Aug 2009 -  2 Sep 2009  Maxime Carlot Korman (acting)      (b. 1942)            UPM
 2 Sep 2009 -  2 Sep 2014  Iolu Johnson Abil                  (b. 1942)            VP
 2 Sep 2014 - 22 Sep 2014  Philip M. Boedoro (acting)         (b. 1958)            VP
22 Sep 2014 -              Baldwin Lonsdale                                        Non-party


Chief ministers

29 Nov 1977 - 22 Dec 1978  George Kaltoi Kalsakau             (b. 1930 - d. 2001)  NUP
29 Nov 1977 - 11 May 1978  Walter Hadye Lini (in opposition)  (b. 1942 - d. 1999)  VP
                             (chairman of People's Provisional Government)    
22 Dec 1978 - 29 Nov 1979  Gérard Leymang                     (b. 1937 - d. 2002)  TU
29 Nov 1979 - 30 Jul 1980  Walter Hadye Lini                  (s.a.)               VP
Prime ministers
30 Jul 1980 -  6 Sep 1991  Walter Hadye Lini                  (s.a.)               VP
18 Dec 1988 - 19 Dec 1988  Barak Tame Sopé Maautamata         (b. 1951)            MPP
                             (in opposition)
 6 Sep 1991 - 16 Dec 1991  Donald Kalpokas Masikevanua        (b. 1943)            VP
                             (1st time) 
16 Dec 1991 - 21 Dec 1995  Maxime Carlot (1st time)           (s.a.)               UPM
                             (from Feb 1992, Maxime Carlot Korman)
21 Dec 1995 - 23 Feb 1996  Serge Rialuth Vohor (1st time)     (b. 1955)            UPM
23 Feb 1996 - 30 Sep 1996  Maxime Carlot Korman (2nd time)    (s.a.)               UPM
30 Sep 1996 - 30 Mar 1998  Serge Rialuth Vohor (2nd time)     (s.a.)               UPM
30 Mar 1998 - 25 Nov 1999  Donald Kalpokas Masikevanua        (s.a.)               VP
                             (2nd time)
25 Nov 1999 - 13 Apr 2001  Barak Tame Sopé Maautamata         (s.a.)               MPP
13 Apr 2001 - 29 Jul 2004  Edward Nipake Natapei Tua          (s.a.)               VP
                             Fanua`ariki (1st time) 
29 Jul 2004 - 11 Dec 2004  Serge Rialuth Vohor (3rd time)     (s.a.)               UPM
11 Dec 2004 - 22 Sep 2008  Ham Lini (1st time)                (b. 1951)            NUP
22 Sep 2008 -  2 Dec 2010  Edward Nipake Natapei Tua          (s.a.)               VP
                             Fanua`ariki (2nd time) 
 2 Dec 2010 - 24 Apr 2011  Sato Kilman (1st time)             (b. 1957)            PPP
24 Apr 2011 - 13 May 2011  Serge Rialuth Vohor (4th time)     (s.a.)               UPM
13 May 2011 - 16 Jun 2011  Sato Kilman (2nd time)             (s.a.)               PPP
16 Jun 2011 - 26 Jun 2011  Edward Nipake Natapei Tua          (s.a.)               VP
                             Fanua`ariki (3rd time)
26 Jun 2011 - 21 Mar 2013  Sato Kilman (3rd time)             (s.a.)               PPP
21 Mar 2013 - 23 Mar 2013  Ham Lini (2nd time) (acting)       (s.a.)               VP
23 Mar 2013 - 15 May 2014  Moana Carcasses Kalosil            (b. 1959)            GC
15 May 2014 -              Joe Natuman                        (b. 1952)            VP
March 2013


[N'Makiaute
                            (Malekula island, Vanuatu)]
   1980 N'Makiaute separatists

Territorial Dispute: Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by Vanuatu
and France.

Party abbreviations: GC = Green Confederation/Confédération Verte (ecological, social welfare, est.2000); Ind = Independent; MPP = Melanesian Progressive Party (Anglophone, social-democratic, split from VP, est.1988); NUP = National United Party (social-democratic, Anglophone, split from VP, est.1991); PPP = People's Progress Party/Parti Progressiste Populaire (reformist, est.2001, split from MPP); UPM = Union des Partis Moderés (Union of Moderate Parties, conservative, Francophone, est.1981); VLP = Vanuatu Labour Party (est.1987); VP = Vanua'aku Pati (Our Land Party, socialist, Anglophone, 1971-77 named New Hebrides National Party [NHNP], est.1977); 
- Former parties: TU = Tan Union (Francophone, moderate, pro-independence, 1977-2001)



Vemerana

[Na-Griamel League
                        (Vanuatu) 1975-1977]
            27 Dec 1975 - 1977

[State of Vemerana
                        flag 1980]
        1 Jun 1980 - 31 Aug 1980

Map of Vemerana
Capital: Luganville
(Santo Town)
Population: N/A

27 Dec 1975 - 1977         Federation of Self-governing Settlements of Nagriamel declared.
                             Nagriamel deferred its declaration of independence twice before
                             this goal was suspended until the events of 1980.
 1 Jun 1980                Independent State of Vemarana declared on Espiriu Santo
                             Island (not recognized).
24 Jul 1980                Condominium authorities occupy the capital Luganville.
31 Aug 1980                State suppressed.

Chief Minister of the Provisional Government
 1 Jun 1980 - 31 Aug 1980  Jimmy Tubou Patuntun Stevens       (b. 1927 - d. 1994)  NG

Party abbreviation: NG = Nagriamel Custom Movement (Ni-Vanuatu traditionalist, Espiriu Santo separatist, 1962-1980)



Tanna and Tafea

[Nation of Tanna,
                        1974]
    Tanna Flag 24 Mar 1974 - 1974

[TAFEA Nation
                        (Vanuatu) possible flag 1980]
                Possible Tafea Flag 1980

24 Mar 1974                Independence of Tanna Nation proclaimed on Tanna Island 
                             at Imafin (not recognized).
18 Jun 1974                French forces occupy the island.
29 Jun 1974                Suppressed by Condominium authorities.
 1 Jan 1980                Independence of Tafea proclaimed by the Kapiel Alliance
                             on Tanna, Anatom, Futuna, Erromango and Aniwa
                             islands (Provisional Government of Tafea).
26 May 1980                British forces take capital Lamlu, ending the rebellion.

King
24 Mar 1974 - 29 Jun 1974  Antoine Fornelli (Fournalli)       (b. 1919 - d. 1999)
Leader

 1 Jan 1980 - 26 May 1980  Alexis Yolou                       (d. 1980)







© Ben Cahoon