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Canada
 
[Flag of the United
                            Kingdom]
                    10 Feb 1841 - 26 Apr 1922
 
[Canada blue
                            ensign 1870-1924]
            16 Jul 1870 - 26 Apr 1922  Blue Ensign
 
[Canada red
                            ensign 1892-1922]
             25 Jul 1892 - 26 Apr 1922 Red Ensign
 
[Canada
                            unofficial red ensign 1870-1873]
                16 Jul 1870 - 1 Jul 1873 Unofficial
 
[Canada
                            unofficial red ensign 1896-1905]
                16 Sep 1896 - 1 Sep 1905 Unofficial
 
[Canada
                            unofficial red ensign 1905-1907]
              1 Sep 1905 - 30 May 1907 Unofficial 
 
[Canada
                            unofficial red ensign 1907-1922]
             30 May 1907 - 26 Apr 1922 Unofficial 
 
[Canada Reg
                            ensign 1922-1957]
                     26 Apr 1922 - 8 Oct 1957 
 
[Canada red
                            ensign 1957-1965]
                     8 Oct 1957 - 15 Feb 1965 
 
[Maple Leaf Flag of
                            Canada]
                         Adopted 15 Feb 1965
 

Map of Canada Hear National Anthem
 "O' Canada"
Adopted 1 Jul 1980
(unofficial from 1967)
Former National Anthem
"God Save the Queen"
(1867-1980)
(Royal anthem from 1980)
Constitution
(17 Apr 1982)
Capital: Ottawa
(Kingston 1841-1844;
Montreal 1844-1849;
Toronto 1849-52, 1856-58;
Quebec City 1852-56, 1859-66)
Currency: Canadian
Dollar (CAD)
National Holiday: 1 Jul (1867)
Canada Day
Population: 34,300,083 (2012)
GDP: $1.51 trillion (2013)
Exports: $458.7 billion (2013)
Imports: $471 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%,
 Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese
 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 68,250 (2010)
U.S. Forces: 443 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 181 ships (2010)
Religions: Catholic 40.5% (includes Roman Catholic 38.7%,
 Orthodox 1.6%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes
 United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%,
 Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%),
other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%,
Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC, ACS (observer), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, APEC, APM, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BTWC, C, CCM (signatory), CDB (nonregional), CE (observer), CFE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ENMOD, ESA (associate), ESCR, FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MTCR, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Canada Index
Chronology
 
24 Jul 1534                Saint Lawrence River region claimed by France as
                             "New France" (see under Quebec).
29 Sep 1668                Shore of Hudson Bay claimed for England as
                             (Rupert's Land).
 8 Sep 1760                British forces occupy Quebec.
10 Feb 1763                New France ceded to Britain by France is called
                             British North America.
 5 Feb 1841                Province of Canada; union of Quebec (as Canada 
                             East) and Ontario (as Canada West).
11 Mar 1848                Responsible government granted to the Province of
                             Canada.
 
1 Jul 1867                The British colonies of New Brunswick, Nova
                             Scotia, and Canada are united as Dominion of
                             Canada; all other parts of British North America
                             accede at later dates.
23 Jun 1870                Northwest Territories (except the arctic islands)
                             ceded to Canada (effective 15 Jul 1870).
31 Jul 1880                An Imperial Order in Council transferred to Canada
                             all the British territories and possessions left
                             in North America, except Newfoundland, and the
                             islands next to these territories (i.e. the
                             islands in the Arctic Ocean); effective 
                             1 Sep 1880.
11 Dec 1931                Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty to
                             the British dominions.
1967                       Official use of the term "Dominion" abandoned
                             (usage becomes obsolete by 17 Apr 1982).
Provinces
A-O and P-Y
First Nations
Historical Maps
of Canada
 
 
 
 
 
 

Governors
 5 Feb 1841 - 19 Sep 1841  Charles Edward Poulett Thomson,    (b. 1799 - d. 1841)
                             Baron Sydenham 
19 Sep 1841 - 12 Jan 1842  Sir Richards Downes Jackson        (b. 1777 - d. 1845)
                             (acting)
12 Jan 1842 - 19 May 1843  Sir Charles Bagot                  (b. 1781 - d. 1843)
30 May 1843 - 26 Nov 1845  Charles Theophilus Metcalfe        (b. 1785 - d. 1846)
26 Nov 1845 - 30 Jan 1847  Charles Murray Cathcart, Earl of   (b. 1783 - d. 1859)
                             Cathcart (acting to 24 Apr 1846) 
30 Jan 1847 - 19 Dec 1854  James Bruce, Earl of Elgin and     (b. 1811 - d. 1863)
                             Kincardine 
19 Dec 1854 - 25 Oct 1861  Sir Edmund Walker Head             (b. 1805 - d. 1868)
25 Oct 1861 - 30 Jun 1867  Charles Stanley, Viscount Monck    (b. 1819 - d. 1894)
                             of Ballytrammon (from 12 Jul 1866,
                             Charles Stanley, Baron Monck)      
                             (acting to 28 Nov 1861)
Kings/Queens¹
 
1 Jul 1867 -              the Kings/Queens of the United Kingdom
Governors-general
2 (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 1 Jul 1867 -  2 Feb 1869  Charles Stanley, Baron             (s.a.)
                             Monck of Ballytrammon
14 Nov 1868 - 
2 Feb 1869  Sir Charles Ash Windham            (b. 1810 - d. 1870) 
                             (acting for
Baron Monck)
 2 Feb 1869 - 25 Jun 1872  Sir John Young                     (b. 1807 - d. 1876)
                             (acting for Baron Monck to 2 Feb 1869)
                             (from 2 Nov 1870, John Young, Baron Lisgar) 
22 Jun 1872 - 25 Jun 1872  Sir Charles Hastings Doyle         (b. 1805 - d. 1883) 
                             (acting for Baron Lisgar)
25 Jun 1872 - 25 Nov 1878
  Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood,
                             Earl of Dufferin                 (b. 1826 - d. 1902)
19 Oct 1878 - 25 Nov 1878  Sir Patrick Leonard MacDougall     (b. 1819 - d. 1894)
                            
(acting for 
Earl of Dufferin)
25 Nov 1878 - 23 Oct 1883  John Douglas Sutherland-Campbell,  (b. 1845 - d. 1914)
                             Marquess of Lorne 
23 Oct 1883 - 
11 Jun 1888  Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice,           (b. 1845 - d. 1927)
                             Marquess of Lansdowne   
26 May 1888 - 11 Jun 1888  Sir John Jones Ross                (b. 1831 - d. 1901) 
                             (acting for
Marquess of Lansdowne)
11 Jun 1888 - 18 Sep 1893  Frederick Arthur Stanley,          (b. 1841 - d. 1908)

                             Baron Stanley of Preston 
                             (from 21 Apr 1893, Earl of Derby
                             and Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe)

15 Jul 1893 - 18 Sep 1893  Alexander George Montgomery-Moore  (b. 1833 - d. 1919)
                             (acting for Baron Stanley)
18 Sep 1893 - 12 Nov 1898  John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon,     (b. 1847 - d. 1934)
                             Earl of Aberdeen and Temair
12 Nov 1898 - 
10 Dec 1904  Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-        (b. 1845 - d. 1914)
                             Kynynmound, Earl of Minto 
18 Nov 1904 - 10 Dec 1904  Sir Henri Elzéar Taschereau        (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
                             (acting for
Earl of Minto)
10 Dec 1904 - 13 Oct 1911  Albert Henry George Grey,          (b. 1851 - d. 1917)
                             Earl Grey 
13 Oct 1911 - 11 Nov 1916  Prince Arthur William Albert,      (b. 1850 - d. 1942)
                             Duke of Connaught and of Strathearn
11 Oct 1916 - 11 Nov 1916  Sir Charles Fitzpatrick            (b. 1851 - d. 1942) 
                             (acting for 
Duke of Connaught)
11 Nov 1916 - 11 Aug 1921  Victor Christian William Cavendish,
                             Duke of Devonshire               (b. 1868 - d. 1938)
19 Jul 1921 - 11 Aug 1921  Sir Louis Henry Davies             (b. 1845 - d. 1924) 
                             (acting for Duke of Devonshire)
11 Aug 1921 -  2 Oct 1926  Julian Hedworth George Byng,       (b. 1862 - d. 1935)

                             Baron Byng of Vimy 
29 Sep 1926 -  2 Oct 1926  Francis Alexander Anglin (1st time)(b. 1865 - d. 1933)
                             (acting for Baron Byng)
 2 Oct 1926 -  4 Apr 1931  George Freeman Freeman-Thomas,
     (b. 1866 - d. 1941) 
                             Viscount Willingdon        
                             (from 20 Feb 1931, Earl of Willingdon)
16 Jan 1931 -  4 Apr 1931  Francis Alexander Anglin (2nd time)(s.a.)

                             (acting for Earl of Willingdon
)
 4 Apr 1931 -  2 Nov 1935  Vere Brabazon Ponsonby,            (b. 1880 - d. 1956)
                             Earl of Bessborough 
29 Sep 1935 -  2 Nov 1935  Sir Lyman Poore Duff               (b. 1865 - d. 1955)
                             (acting for 
Earl of Bessborough)
 2 Nov 1935 - 11 Feb 1940  John Buchan, Baron Tweedsmuir      (b. 1875 - d. 1940)
                             of Elsfield 
11 Feb 1940 - 21 Jun 1940  Sir Lyman Poore Duff    
          (s.a.)
                             (administrator)
21 Jun 1940 - 12 Apr 1946  Prince Augustus Alexander George   (b. 1874 - d. 1957)
                             Cambridge of Teck, Earl of Athlone 
16 Mar 1946 - 12 Apr 1946  Thibaudeau Rinfret             
    (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
                            
(acting for Earl of Athlone)  
12 Apr 1946 - 28 Jan 1952  Harold Rupert Leofric George       (b. 1891 - d. 1969)
                             Alexander, Viscount Alexander
                             of Tunis 
28 Jan 1952 - 28 Feb 1952  Thibaudeau Rinfret (administrator) (s.a.)
28 Feb 1952 - 15 Sep 1959  Vincent Massey                     (b. 1887 - d. 1967)
15 Sep 1959 -  5 Mar 1967  George Philéas Vanier              (b. 1888 - d. 1967)
 5 Mar 1967 - 17 Apr 1967  Robert Taschereau (
administrator)  (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
17 Apr 1967 - 14 Jan 1974  Roland Michener                    (b. 1900 - d. 1991)
14 Jan 1974 - 22 Jan 1979  Jules Léger                        (b. 1913 - d. 1980)
22 Jan 1979 - 14 May 1984  Edward R. Schreyer                 (b. 1935)
14 May 1984 - 29 Jan 1990  Jeanne Mathilde Sauvé (f)          (b. 1922 - d. 1993)
29 Jan 1990 -  8 Feb 1995  Ramon John Hnatyshyn               (b. 1934 - d. 2002)
 8 Feb 1995 -  7 Oct 1999  Roméo Adrien LeBlanc               (b. 1927 - d. 2009)
 7 Oct 1999 - 27 Sep 2005  Adrienne Bing Chee Clarkson (f)    (b. 1939)
27 Sep 2005 -  1 Oct 2010  Michaëlle Jean (f)                 (b. 1957)
 1 Oct 2010 -              David Lloyd Johnston
               (b. 1941)


Joint premiers

 5 Feb 1841 - 14 Jun 1841  Robert Baldwin (1st time)          (b. 1804 - d. 1858)  Ref
                             (Canada West)
                           + William Henry Draper (1st time)  (b. 1801 - d. 1877)  Con
                             (Canada West)
14 Jun 1841 - 14 Sep 1842  Charles Richard Ogden (Canada East)(b. 1791 - d. 1866)  Con
                           + William Henry Draper (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Con
                             (Canada West)
26 Sep 1842 - 26 Nov 1843  Robert Baldwin (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Ref
                             (Canada West)
                           + Louis Hippolyte Lafontaine       (b. 1807 - d. 1864)  Ref
                             (1st time)(Canada East) 
26 Nov 1843 - 12 Dec 1843  Dominick Daly (acting)             (b. 1798 - d. 1868)
12 Dec 1843 - 17 Jun 1846  William Henry Draper (3rd time)    (s.a.)               Con
                             (Canada West)
                           + Denis Benjamin Viger             (b. 1774 - d. 1861)  Con
                             (Canada East)
17 Jun 1846 - 28 May 1847  William Henry Draper (4th time)    (s.a.)               Con
                             (Canada West)
                           + Louis-Joseph Papineau            (b. 1786 - d. 1871)  Ref
                             (1st time)(Canada East) 
28 May 1847 - 11 Mar 1848  Henry Sherwood (Canada West)       (b. 1807 - d. 1855)  Con
                           + Louis-Joseph Papineau            (s.a.)               Ref
                             (2nd time)(Canada East)
11 Mar 1848 - 28 Oct 1851  Robert Baldwin (3rd time)          (s.a.)               Ref
                             (Canada West)
                           + Louis Hippolyte Lafontaine       (s.a.)               Ref 
                             (2nd time)(Canada East)
28 Oct 1851 - 11 Sep 1854  Francis Hincks (Canada West)       (b. 1807 - d. 1885)  Ref
                           + Augustin Norbert Morin           (b. 1803 - d. 1865)  Ref
                             (1st time)(Canada East)
11 Sep 1854 - 27 Jan 1855  Sir Allan Napier MacNab            (b. 1798 - d. 1862)  Lib
                             (1st time)(Canada West)
                           + Augustin Norbert Morin           (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)(Canada East)
27 Jan 1855 - 24 May 1856  Sir Allan Napier MacNab            (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)(Canada West) 
                           + Étienne Paschal Taché            (b. 1795 - d. 1865)  LC
                             (1st time)(Canada East)
24 May 1856 - 26 Nov 1857  Étienne Paschal Taché              (s.a.)               LC
                             (2nd time)(Canada East)
                           + John Alexander Macdonald         (b. 1815 - d. 1891)  LC
                             (1st time)(Canada West) 
26 Nov 1857 -  2 Aug 1858  John Alexander Macdonald           (s.a.)               LC
                             (2nd time)(Canada West) 
                           + Sir Georges Étienne Cartier      (b. 1814 - d. 1873)  LC
                             (1st time)(Canada East)
 2 Aug 1858 -  6 Aug 1858  George Brown (Canada West)         (b. 1818 - d. 1880)  Lib
                           + Antoine Aimé Dorion              (b. 1818 - d. 1891)  Lib
                             (1st time)(Canada East)
 6 Aug 1858 - 24 May 1862  Sir Georges Étienne Cartier        (s.a.)               LC
                             (2nd time)(Canada East)
                           + John Alexander Macdonald         (s.a.)               LC
                             (3rd time)(Canada West) 
24 May 1862 - 15 May 1863  John Sandfield Macdonald           (b. 1812 - d. 1872)  Lib
                             (1st time)(Canada West) 
                           + Louis Sicotte (Canada East)      (b. 1812 - d. 1889)  Lib
15 May 1863 - 30 May 1864  John Sandfield Macdonald           (s.a.)               Lib 
                             (2nd time)(Canada West) 
                           + Antoine Aimé Dorion              (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)(Canada East) 
30 May 1864 - 30 Jul 1865  Sir Étienne Paschal Taché          (s.a.)               LC
                             (3rd time)(Canada East) 
                           + John Alexander Macdonald         (s.a.)               LC
                             (4th time)(Canada West) 
30 Jul 1865 - 30 Jun 1867  John Alexander Macdonald           (s.a.)               LC
                             (5th time)(Canada West)
                           + Sir Narcisse Fortunat Belleau    (b. 1808 - d. 1894)  LC 
                             (Canada East) 
Prime ministers
 1 Jul 1867 -  7 Nov 1873  Sir John Alexander Macdonald       (s.a.)               LC
                             (1st time) 
 7 Nov 1873 - 17 Oct 1878  Alexander Mackenzie                (b. 1822 - d. 1892)  Lib
17 Oct 1878 -  6 Jun 1891  Sir John Alexander Macdonald       (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time) 
16 Jun 1891 -  5 Dec 1892  John Abbott                        (b. 1821 - d. 1893)  Con
                             (from 25 May 1892, Sir John Abbott)
 5 Dec 1892 - 12 Dec 1894  Sir John Sparrow David Thompson    (b. 1844 - d. 1894)  Con
21 Dec 1894 -  1 May 1896  Mackenzie Bowell                   (b. 1823 - d. 1917)  Con
                             (from 1 Jan 1895, Sir Mackenzie Bowell)
 1 May 1896 - 11 Jul 1896  Sir Charles Tupper                 (b. 1821 - d. 1915)  Con
11 Jul 1896 - 10 Oct 1911  Wilfrid Laurier                    (b. 1841 - d. 1919)  Lib 
                             (from 22 Jun 1897, Sir Wilfrid Laurier) 
10 Oct 1911 - 10 Jul 1920  Robert Laird Borden                (b. 1854 - d. 1937)  Con 
                             (from 22 Jun 1914, Sir Robert Laird Borden) 
10 Jul 1920 - 29 Dec 1921  Arthur Meighen (1st time)          (b. 1874 - d. 1960)  Con
29 Dec 1921 - 28 Jun 1926  William Lyon Mackenzie King        (b. 1874 - d. 1950)  Lib
                             (1st time)
28 Jun 1926 - 25 Sep 1926  Arthur Meighen (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Con
25 Sep 1926 -  7 Aug 1930  William Lyon Mackenzie King        (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time) 
 7 Aug 1930 - 23 Oct 1935  Richard Bedford Bennett            (b. 1870 - d. 1947)  Con
23 Oct 1935 - 15 Nov 1948  William Lyon Mackenzie King        (s.a.)               Lib
                             (3rd time) 
15 Nov 1948 - 21 Jun 1957  Louis Saint Laurent                (b. 1882 - d. 1973)  Lib
21 Jun 1957 - 22 Apr 1963  John George Diefenbaker            (b. 1895 - d. 1979)  PC
22 Apr 1963 - 20 Apr 1968  Lester Bowles Pearson              (b. 1897 - d. 1972)  Lib
20 Apr 1968 -  4 Jun 1979  Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves        (b. 1919 - d. 2000)  Lib
                             Elliott Trudeau (1st time) 
 4 Jun 1979 -  3 Mar 1980  Joseph "Joe" Clark                 (b. 1939)            PC
 3 Mar 1980 - 30 Jun 1984  Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves        (s.a.)               Lib
                             Elliott Trudeau (2nd time) 
30 Jun 1984 - 17 Sep 1984  John Turner                        (b. 1929)            Lib
17 Sep 1984 - 25 Jun 1993  Martin Brian Mulroney              (b. 1939)            PC
25 Jun 1993 -  4 Nov 1993  Avril "Kim" Phaedra Campbell (f)   (b. 1947)            PC
 4 Nov 1993 - 12 Dec 2003  Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien       (b. 1934)            Lib
12 Dec 2003 -  6 Feb 2006  Paul Martin, Jr.                   (b. 1938)            Lib
 6 Feb 2006 -              Stephen Harper                     (b. 1959)            CPC

 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) 1 Jul 1867 - 22 Jan 1901: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith
"; in 28 Apr 1876 the title "Empress of India" was added; 
(b) from 22 Jan 1901: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India";
(c) 12 Apr 1927 - 6 Feb 1952: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India"; the title "Emperor of India" was dropped as of 15 Aug 1947 by retroactive proclamation dated 22 Jun 1948;
(d) 6 Feb 1952 - 29 May 1953: "By the Grace of God of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas Queen, Defender of the Faith
";
(e) from 29 May 1953: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom, Canada and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith"; 

in French: "Par la Grâce de Dieu, Reine du Royaume-Uni, du Canada et de ses autres Royaumes
et Territoires, Chef du Commonwealth, Défenseur de la Foi."

 2Full title:
(a) 2 Feb 1869 - 2 Feb 1869: Governor-general in and over Canada (in French: Gouverneur Général dans et sur la Canada);
(b) 2 Feb 1869 - 16 Jun 1905: Governor-general in and over the Dominion of Canada (Gouverneur Général dans et sur la Puissance du Canada);
(c) 16 Jun 1905 - 28 Feb 1952: Governor-general and Commander-in-Chief of the Dominion of Canada (Gouverneur Général dans et Commandant en chef du Dominion du Canada);
(d) from 28 Feb 1952: Governor-general and Commander-in-Chief of Canada (Gouverneure général/générale et Commandant/Commandante en chef du Canada).

Territorial Disputes: managed maritime boundary disputes with the U.S. at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; U.S. works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

Party abbreviations: CPC = Conservative Party of Canada/Parti Conservateur du Canada (conservative, center-right, former PC, re-est.7 Dec 2003); Lib = Liberal Party/Parti Libéral (liberal, center-left, est.1854/67);
- Former parties: Con = Conservative Party (conservative, center-right, former LC, called Unionist Party 1917-20, National Liberal and Conservative 1920-22, and Liberal-Conservative 1922-38, merged into PC, 1841-1854 and 1867/73-1942); LC = Liberal Conservative Party (Liberal Conservative, 1854-1873, becomes Con); PC = Progressive Conservative Party/Parti Progressiste-Conservateur (conservative, former CP, merged with Canadian Alliance to form CPC, 1942-Dec 2003); Ref = Reform Party (pro-responsible government for Canada East and West, 1841-1861, moderates join LC, liberals join Lib)






© Ben Cahoon