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First Nations of Canada
 
Contents: Assembly of First Nations - Abegweit - Ahtahkakoop - Akwesasne Mohawks - Alexander - Alexis Nakota Sioux - Athabasca Chipewyan - Beaver - Beaver Lake Cree - Bigstone Cree - Blood - Buffalo Point - Chipewyan Prairie - Chisasibi Cree - Cold Lake - Cree of Wemindji - Cross Lake Cree - Dene Tha' - Driftpile Cree - Duncan's - Enoch Cree - Ermineskin - Eskasoni and Mi'kmaq of Cape Breton - Fort McKay - Fort McMurray - Frog Lake - Garden Hill - Heart Lake - Horse Lake - Kapawe'no - Kehewin Cree - Kitigan Zibi Algonquin - Lac La Ronge - Lennox Island - Little Red River Cree - Loon River Cree - Louis Bull - Lubicon Lake - Miawpukek of Ktaqamkuk - Mikisew Cree - Mohawks of Kahnawake - Montana - Muskeg Lake Cree - Norway House - Peerless-Trout - Peguis - Peter Ballantyne - Piikani - Saddle Lake - Samson Cree - Sawridge - Siksika - Six Nations of Grand River - Smith's Landing - Stoney - Sturgeon Lake Cree - Sucker Creek - Swan River - Tallcree - Tsuut'ina - Whapamgoostui - Whitefish Lake - Woodland Cree -

By Province/Territory: Alberta - British Columbia - Manitoba - New Brunswick - Newfoundland - Northwest Territories - Nova Scotia - Nunavut - Ontario - Prince Edward Island - Quebec - Saskatchewan - Yukon  -

Note: As of 1 Jan. 2015, there were 634 recognized First Nations (Premiθres Nations) governments or bands in Canada. The term "First Nations" refers to one of three distinct groups recognized as "Aboriginal" in the Constitution Act of 1982. The other two distinct groups characterized as "Aboriginal" are the Mιtis and the Inuit. First Nations have a unique and special relationship with the Crown and the people of Canada as set out in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and manifested in the Numbered Treaties, the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982, Canadian common law, and International law and as outlined in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. 

  This page lists only the nations with on-reserve membership over 3,000. More data will be added as information becomes available. Do to the large number of entities this section is currently incomplete. Any assistance adding more information is appreciated.    



Assembly of First Nations 

[Assembly of First Nations
                (Canada)]

1968                       National Indian Brotherhood (NIB) established.
Apr 1982                   Assembly of First Nations (AFN) created as the national
                             aboriginal organization on First Nations issues in Canada. 

National Chiefs
1968 - 1970                Walter Dieter                 (b. 1916 - d. 1988) 
                             (Peepeekisis Cree, Saskatchewan)
1970 - 1976                George Manuel                 (b. 1921 - d. 1989) 
                             (Shuswap Nation, British Colombia)
1976 - 1980                Noel Starblanket              (b. 1946)
                             (Starblanket Cree, Saskatchewan)
1980 - 1982                Delbert Riley 
                             (Chippewas of Thames, Ontario)
1982 - 30 Jul 1985         David Ahenakew                (b. 1933 - d. 2010)
                             (Ahtahkakoop Cree, Saskatchewan)
30 Jul 1985 - 1991         George Erasmus                (b. 1948)
                             (Dene Nation, NWT)
1991 - 1997                Ovide Mercredi                (b. 1946)
                             (Grand Rapids Cree, Manitoba)
30 Jul 1997 - Jul 2000     Phil Fontaine (1st time)      (b. 1944)
                             (Sagkeeng Nation, Manitoba)
Jul 2000 - 16 Jul 2003     Matthew Coon Come             (b. 1956)
                             (Mistissini Cree, Quebec)
16 Jul 2003 - 23 Jul 2009  Phil Fontaine (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (Sagkeeng Nation, Manitoba)
23 Jul 2009 -  2 May 2014  Shawn A-in-chut Atleo         (b. 1967)
                             (Ahousaht Nation, British Columbia)
 7 May 2014 - 10 Dec 2014  Ghislain Picard (interim)     (b. 1955)
                             (Innu/Montagnais, Quebec)
10 Dec 2014 -              Perry Bellegarde              (b. 1962)
                             (Mιtis, Saskatchewan)



Alberta


Alexander

[Alexander First
                Nation (Alberta, Canada)]

1879                       Signed the Treaty No. 6 of 1876 (Alexander).

Chiefs
1879 – af.1905             Alexander (Kipohtakaw)
af.1905 -  bf.1996         ....
bf.1996 - 1999             J. Stanley Arcand
1999 – 2005                Victoria Arcand (f)
2005 – 2008                Raymond Arcand
2008 – 2011                Allan Paul
2011 - 2014                Herbert R. Arcand
2014 -                     Kurt Burnstick



Alexis Nakota Sioux

[Alexis Nakota Sioux
                  (Alberta, Canada)]

1877                       Signed the Treaty No. 6 of 1876 (Alexis).
1891 – 1914                Renamed Joseph.
2008                       Casino opened.

Chiefs
1877 – 1890                Alexis
                             (Stoney name: Aranaji "Stands on the Hill";
                             Cree name: Keeskeecheechi)
1891 – 1910                Joseph (Soosay)
1910 – 1914                Vacant
1914 – 1927                Francois Alexis
1927 – 1930                Vacant
1930 – 1950                Joseph Alexis
1951 – 1959                Joe Alexis
1960 – 1964                Alexander Alexis
1964 – 1965                Anthony Potts
1965 – 1966                Moses Kootenay (1st time)
1966 – 1968                Willie Lefthand
1968 – 1970                Moses Kootenay (2nd time)
1970 – 1971                Johnny Alexis
1971 – 1976                Howard D. Mustus (1st time)
1976 – 1980                Thomas Potts
1980 – 1996                Howard D. Mustus (2nd time)
1996 – 1998                Roderick Alexis (1st time)
1998 – 2002                Francis Alexis
2002 – 2006                Roderick Alexis (2nd time)
2006 – 2013                Cameron Alexis
2013 -                     Clayton T. Alexis



Athabasca Chipewyan

[Athabasca Chipewyan
                  (Alberta, Canada)]

1899                       Signed the Treaty No. 8 (Fort Chipewyan).
1932 – 1967                Athabaska Indian Agency established.
1992/96                    Renamed Athabasca Chipewyan.

Chiefs

1899 – 1921                Alexandre Laviolette          (b. 1867 - d. 1921)
1921 – 1952                Jonas Laviolette              (b. 1879 - d. 1952)
1952 – 1956                Benjamin Marcel
1956 – 1983                A. Fredolin Marcel
1983 – 1987                Archie Cyprien (1st time)
1987 – 1991                Patrice Marcel
1991 – 1995                Joseph T. Mercredi
1995 – 2007                Archie Cyprien (2nd time)
2007 -                     Allan B. Adam



Beaver

[Beaver First Nation
                  (Alberta, Canada)]

1900                       Signed the Treaty No. 8 of 1899 (Beaver of Fort Vermilion).
c.1928                     Renamed Boyer River.
1992/96                    Renamed Beaver.

Chiefs
1900 - af.1910             Ambrose Tete-Noire
198. - 1999                Harvey R. Bulldog
1999 - 2005                Barbara Wendt (f)
2005 - 2008                Henry Kidney (1st time)
2008 - 2011                Lorne Bulldog
2011 - 2013                Henry Kidney (2nd time)
2013 -                     Trevor L. Mercredi


Beaver Lake Cree

[Beaver Lake Cree
                (Alberta, Canada)]

1876                       Signed the Treaty No. 6 (Lac La Biche).
1879                       Beaver Lake separated from Lac La Biche.
1911                       Lac La Biche dissolved, partly merged into Beaver Lake.

Chiefs of Lac La Biche

1876 – 1885                Francois Desjarlais (Peayasis)(b. 1824 - d. 1899)
1885 – 1911                Vacant
Chiefs of Beaver Lake
bf.1883 – 1885             Kaquanum (headman)
1885 – af.1914             Vacant
1965 – 1969                Lillian Pruden (f)
1969 – 1970                Lawrence Mountain
1970 – af.1989             Alphonse Lameman (1st time)
bf.1996 - 1997             Emile Cardinal
1997 – 199.                Alphonse Lameman (2nd time)
c.1999                     Rosaire R. Bugle
bf.2001 - 2011             Alphonse Lameman (3rd time)
2011 - 2015                Henry Gladue
2015 -                     Germaine A. Anderson (f)




Bigstone Cree


[Bigstone Cree (Alberta,
                Canada)]

1899                       Signed the Treaty No. 8 (Wabasca).
1982                       Renamed Bigstone Cree.

Chiefs

1899 - 1946                Joseph Bigstone (Kapusekonew) (d. 1946)
1947 - 1962                Maxime Beauregard             (d. 1962)
1962                       Tommy Auger
1962 - 1964                Samson Beaver
1964 - 1976                Sammy Young
1976 - 1978                Alphonse Auger
1978 - 1980                Leonard Young
1980 - 1984                William Beaver
1984 - 1988                Mike Beaver
1988 - 1990                Charles G. Beaver             (b. 1955)
1990 - 1992                Eric G. Alook
1992 - 1996                Gordon T. Auger (1st time)
1996 - 2000                Russell M. Beaver
2000 - 2004                Gordon T. Auger (2nd time)
2004 - 2008                Francis G. Gladue
2008 - 2012                Gordon T. Auger (3rd time)
2012 - 2014                Romeo R. Cardinal
2014 -                     Gordon T. Auger (4th time)


Blood

[Blood tribe (Alberta,
              Canada) flag]

c.1750                     Part of the Blackfoot confederacy (see under Siksika).
1877                       Signed the Treaty No. 7 (Blood), to 1915 divided into two+        
                             divisions
.
1880 – 1969                Blood (to 1884, Fort McLeod) Indian Agency established.

Head chiefs of the Southern Blood
1847/49 – 1869             Piiyinakoyiima "Seen From     (b. c.1809 – d. 1869)
                             Afar"
1869 - 1870                Kyaiyosiksina "Black Bear"    (d. 1870)
1870 - 1900                Mekiaisto "Red Crow"          (b. 1830 - d. 1900)
1900 - 1913                Makoyopistooki "Crop Eared    (b. 1846 - d. 1913)
                             Wolf"
1913 - 1915                "Shot Both Sides"             (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
Head chiefs of the Northern Blood
c.1842 - 1865/68           Stamikosaki "Bull Back Fat"   (d. 1865/68)
1865/68 - 1877             Manistoko "Father of Many     (d. 1884)
                             Children"
1877 - 1878                Sotaiina "Rainy Chief"        (b. c.1809 – d. 1878)
1878 - 1882                Aatsistamahka "Running Rabbit"(d. af.1900)
1883                       "Calf Tail"                   (d. 1883)
1883 - 1889                Onistaipoka "White Calf"      (d. 1897)
                             (not recognized by Canada)
1889 - 1907                "Day Chief" ("Thunder Chief") (b. c.1844 - d. 1907)
1907 - 1915                "Weasel Horse"                (b. c.1843 – d. 1915)
                             ("Blackfoot Old Woman")
Head chiefs
1915 - 1956                "Shot Both Sides"             (s.a.)
1956 - 1964                Jim Shot Both Sides           (d. 1980)
Chiefs
1964 - 1966                Rufus Goodstriker
1966 - 1980                Jim Shot Both Sides           (s.a.)   
1980 - 29 Nov 1992         Roy Fox (1st time) 
29 Nov 1992 - Mar 1993     Harley Frank (1st time)
Mar 1993 - 22 Mar 1993     Randy Bottle (interim)
22 Mar 1993 - 30 Jun 1993  Harley Frank (2nd time)
30 Jun 1993 - 1996         Roy Fox (2nd time)
1996 - 2004                Christopher Shade
2004 - 2016                Charles Weasel Head
2016 -                     Roy Fox (3rd time)



Chipewyan Prairie

[Chipewyan Prairie First
                Nation (Alberta, Canada)]

1923                       Separated from Fort McMurray, under the Treaty No. 8 (Janvier).
1992/96                    Renamed Chipewyan Prairie.

Chiefs
1923 - 19..                ....
19.. - 1987                Archie Janvier
1985 - 2007                Walter B. Janvier
2007 -                     Vern J. Janvier


Cold Lake

[Cold Lake
                First Nation (Alberta, Canada)]

1876                       Signed the Treaty No. 6 (Cold Lake).
2007                       Casino opened.

Chiefs

1876 – 1882                Matthias Janvier              (d. 1882)
                            (Chipewyan name: Uldahi; Cree name: Kenoseyo)
1882 – 1913                Vacant
1913 – 1917                Alexis Janvier
1917 – 1919                Vacant
1919 – 1930                Alphonse Thomas
1930 – 1947                Harry Janvier (1st time)
1948 – 1949                Charles Minoose
1949 – 1953                Charles Blackman (1st time)
1954 – 1956                Abraham Skani
1956 – 1958                Harry Janvier (2nd time)
1958 – 1959                Charles Blackman (2nd time)
1959 – 1960                Simon Martin
1960 – 1962                Pierre Metchewais
1962 – 1964                Louis B. Janvier
1964 – 1966                Elaire Janvier
1966 – 1967                Ovide Jacko
1967 – 1968                Dominic Skani
1968 – 1970                Alfred Nadabelle
1970 – 1975                Ralph Blackman (1st time)
1975 – 1976                Norman Scanie
1976 – 1978                Leo Janvier
1978 – 1979                Maynard Metchewais (1st time)
1979 – 1980                Marcel Piche (1st time)
1980 – 1982                Ralph Blackman (2nd time)
1982 – 1984                Marcel Piche (2nd time)
1984 – 1985                Maynard Metchewais (2nd time)
1985 – 1986                Alex Charland (acting)
1986 – 1988                Francis Scanie (1st time)
1988 – 1990                Harvey Scanie
1990 – 1992                Baptiste Blackman
1992 – 1994                Mary A. Francois (f)
1994 – 1999                Francis Scanie (2nd time)
1999 – 2005                Joyce Metchewais (f)
2005 – 2008                Dwayne Nest
2008 – 2010                Walter S. Janvier
2010 – 2013                Cecil Janvier
2013 -                     Bernice Martial
(f)


Dene Tha'

[Dene Tha' First Nation
                  (Alberta, Canada)]

1900                       Signed the Treaty No.8 of 1899 (Slaveys of the Upper Hay River).
1982                       Renamed Dene Tha'.

Chiefs
1900 – 19..                Alexis Tatatechay
c.1910                     Francois Tchatee (Chateh)
19.. – 19..                Zama (Zamba)
19.. – 1938                Talley
1938 – 1993                Harry G. Chonkolay            (b. 1909 – d. 1998)
1993 – 2001                James Ahnassay (1st time)
2001 – 2005                Stephen Didzena
2005 – 2013                James Ahnassay (2nd time)       
2013 -                     Joe Pastion



Driftpile Cree

[Driftpile Cree (Alberta,
                  Canada)]

1899                       Signed the Treaty No. 8 (Lesser Slave Lake).
1908 – 1974                Lesser Slave Lake Indian Agency established.
1910                       Renamed Driftpile.

Chiefs

1899 - 1918                Andrew Willier (Kinosew)      (d. 1918)
1918 - 1936                Felix Willier                 (d. 1936)
c.1955                     A. Giroux
19.. - 1996                Eugene Laboucan
1996 - 1998                Clifford J. Freeman
1998 - 2000                James Giroux
2000 - 2002                Thomas Bellerose
2002 - 2014                Rose C. Laboucan (f)
2014 - 2016                Dean M. Giroux
2016 -                     Dwayne Laboucan



Duncan's

1899                       Signed the Treaty No. 8 (Peace River Landing).
c.1910                     Renamed Duncan's.

Chiefs

1899 - 1918                Duncan Testawits (headman)    (b. c.1848 - d. 1918)
c.1928                     Joseph Testawits (headman)
bf.1994 - 1995             Irwin Knott
1995 - 1999                Donald J. Testawich (1st time)
1999 - 2001                Patti Nooskey (f)
2001 - 2016                Donald J. Testawich (2nd time)
2016 -                     Virginia M. Gladue (f)


Enoch Cree

[Enoch Cree
                (Alberta, Canada)]

1877                       Signed the Treaty No.6 of 1876 (Papaschase).
1877 – 1967                Edmonton Indian Agency established.
1882                       Lapotac (in 1884 renamed Enoch) separated from Papaschase.
1888                       Papaschase dissolved, partly merged into Enoch.
2006                       Casino opened.

Chiefs of Papaschase

1877 – 1886                John Gladu-Quinn (Papaschase) (b. 1838 – d. 1921)
1886 – 1888                Band Council (3 headmen)
Chiefs of Enoch (to 1884, Lapotac)
1882 – 1883                Tommy Lapotac                 (d. 1883)
1884 – 1891                Enoch Lapotac                 (d. 1891)
1891 – 1896                Band Council (4 headmen)
1896 – 1905                Mistah Jim (headman to 1899)
1905 – 1908                Vacant
1908 – 1913                Joseph L. Ward
1913 – 1916                Alexis C. Morin
1916 – 1920                Vacant
1920 – 1937                Alexis Morin
1937 – 1954                James Peacock
1954 – 1961                William Morin (1st time)
1961 – 1963                Alex Peacock (1st time)
1963 – 1965                William Morin (2nd time)
1965 – 1969                Alex Peacock (2nd time)
1969 – 1977                Raymond Cardinal (1st time)
1977 – 1979                James Brule
1979 – 1981                Raymond Cardinal (2nd time)
1981 – 1985                Jerome A. Morin (1st time)
1985 – 1987                Raymond Cardinal (3rd time)
1987 – 1989                Howard Peacock (1st time)
1989 – 1990                Jerome A. Morin (2nd time)
1990 – 1991                Robert Sharphead (acting)
1991 – 1995                Howard Peacock (2nd time)
1995 – 1999                Ronald V. Morin (1st time)
1999                       Clark Peacock
1999 – 2000                Ronald V. Morin (2nd time)
2000 – 2003                Lorne Morin
2003 – 2009                Ronald V. Morin (3rd time)
2009 – 2011                Harry Sharphead
2011 - 2015                Ronald V. Morin (4th time)
2015 -                     William A. Morin



Ermineskin

[Ermineskin First Nation
                  (Alberta, Canada)]

1879                       Separated from Bobtail (see Samson), under the Treaty
                             No. 6 (Ermineskin).

Chiefs

1879 – 1929                Jean-Baptiste Piche           (b. 1831 – d. 1929)
                             (Sikosew-inew "Ermine Skin")
1929 - c.1971              ....
c.1971                     Morris Wolfe
bf.1989 - 1990             Eddie Littlechild
1990 – 1996                John Ermineskin
1996 – 2002                Gerald R. Ermineskin (1st time)
2002 – 2005                George L. Minde (1st time)
2005 – 2006                Gerald R. Ermineskin (2nd time)
                             (acting)
2006 – 2008                George L. Minde (2nd time)
2008 – 2011                Gerald R. Ermineskin (3rd time)
2011 - 2014                Craig Makinaw
2014 -                     Randy Ermineski
n


Fort McKay

[Fort McKay First Nation
                    (Alberta, Canada)]

1942                       Separated from Fort McMurray, under the Treaty No. 8 (Fort McKay).

Chiefs
1942 - 19..                ....
bf.1994 -  1996            Mel Grandjamb
1996 -                     Jim L. Boucher



Fort McMurray

[Fort McMurray First
                    Nation (Alberta, Canada)]

1900                       Signed the Treaty No. 8 of 1899 (Fort McMurray).
1924 – 1932                Fort McMurray Indian Agency established.

Chiefs
1900 - 19..                Adam Boucher (headman)
c.1914                     Vacant
bf.1996 - 2002             Bernice Cree (f)
2002 – 2005                Michael Cheecham
2005 - 2011                Albert J. Cree
2011 -                     Ronald A. Kreuzter



Frog Lake

[Frog Lake First Nation (Alberta, Canada)]

1876                       Signed the Treaty No. 6 (Unipouheos).
1914                       Renamed Frog Lake.

Chiefs
1876 – 18..                Cascakiswes "Head Held Back"
bf.1882 - 1885             Onipawihew "Makes Him Stand"
1885 – 1914                Vacant
1914 – 1930                Napayo
1931 – 1952                John Horse
1953 – 1955                Thomas Quinney
1955 – 1957                Alex Waskahat (1st time)
1957 – 1959                Phileon Stanley
1959                       Alex Waskahat (2nd time)
1959 – 1961                Fred Horse (1st time)
1961 – 1965                Alex Waskahat (3rd time)
1965 – 1965                John B. Stanley
1967 – 1969                Fred Horse (2nd time)
1969 – 1971                Alex Waskahat (4th time)
1971 – 1972                Sam Waskahat (1st time)
1972 – 1973                Fred Fiddler (1st time)
1973 – 1975                Sam Waskahat (2nd time)
1975 – 1977                Lawrence Quinney
1977 – 1979                Fred Fiddler (2nd time)
1979 – 1983                Sam Waskahat (3rd time)
1983 – 1987                Raymond Quinney (1st time)
1987                       Thomas Abraham
1987 – 1989                Raymond Quinney (2nd time)
1989 – 1995                E. Thomas Abraham (1st time)
1995 – 1997                George L. Fryingpan
1997 – 1999                Raymond Quinney (3rd time)
1999 – 2001                E. Thomas Abraham (2nd time)
2001 – 2005                Raymond Quinney (4th time)
2005 – 2007                Roland Quinney
2007 – 2009                George Stanley
2009 -                     Clifford L. Stanley



Heart Lake

1882                       Separated from Cold Lake, under the Treaty No. 6 (Heart Lake).

Chiefs
1882 – 1886                Antoine (headman)
1886 – af.1899             Fabian (headman)
c.1914                     .... (headman)
1964 – 1986                Eugene Monias (1st time)
1986                       Peter Francis
1986 – 1997                Eugene Monias (2nd time)
1997 -                     Maurice D. Monias



Horse Lake

[Horse Lake First Nation
                                          (Alberta, Canada)]

1899                       Signed the Treaty No. 8 (Beaver of Dunvegan).
c.1964                     Renamed Horse Lake.


Chiefs

1899 - 1900                Natoosis (headman)
1900 - 1924                Nipee                         (d. 1924)
1924 - 1940                Pierre Lowe (Pelee)           (d. 1940)
c.1952                     Ernest Horseman
c.1972                     Alfred Chaterlaine
bf.1996 - 1997             Robert E. Horseman
1997 - 2001                D. Robert Horseman
2001 - 2009                Dion Horseman
2009 - 2013                Richard Horseman
2013 -                     Eugene Horseman



Kapawe'no

[Kapawe'no (Alberta,
                                          Canada)]

1965                       Separated from Sucker Creek, under the Treaty No. 8 (Grouard).
1992/96                    Renamed Kapawe'no.

Chiefs
1965 – 1972                Halcrow
1972 -                     Thomas F. Halcrow


Kehewin Cree

[Kehewin Cree Nation (Alberta,
              Canada)]

1876                       Signed the Treaty No. 6 (Kehewin).

Chiefs

1876 – 1885                John (Kehewin "The Eagle")    (d. 1887)
1885 – 1913                Vacant
1913 – 1921                J.B. John
1921 – 1973                ....
1973 – 1975                Theresa Gadwa (f)
1975 – 1979                Joseph F. Dion                (b. 1948)
1979 – 1997                Gordon Gadwa                  (b. 1945)
1997 – 2001                J. Eric Gadwa (1st time)
2001 – 2005                Gordon John
2005 – 2008                J. Eric Gadwa (2nd time)
2008 – 2011                Ernest Gadwa
2011 - 2015                J. Eric Gadwa (3rd time)
2015 -                     Brenda Joly (f)



Little Red River Cree

[Little Red River Cree
                                          (Alberta, Canada)]

1930                       Separated from Tallcree, under the Treaty No. 8 (Little Red River).

Chiefs
1930 - af.1961             Jean-Baptiste Sewepagaham
1983 - 2003                Alec J. Sewepagaham
2003 - 2007                Floyd Noskiye
2007 - 2011                Gus Loonskin (1st time)
2011 - 2015                Leslie J. Laboucan
2015 -                     Gus Loonskin (2nd time)



Loon River Cree

[Loon
                                                          River Cree
                                                          (Alberta,
                                                          Canada)]

1992                       Separated from Lubicon Lake, under the Treaty No. 8
                             (Loon River Cree).

Chiefs
bf.1996 - 2001             Paddy Noskey
2001 - 2004                Jerry Noskey
2004 - 2016                Arthur Noskey
2016 -                     Bernadette Noskey (f)
                             (from 2017, Bernadette Sharpe)



Louis Bull

[Louis Bull First Nation
                                          (Alberta, Canada)]

1879                       Separated from Bobtail (see Samson), under the
                             Treaty No. 6 (Muddy Bull).
1886                       Renamed Louis Bull.

Chiefs

1879 – 1886                Noah Muddy Bull (headman)     (d. 1886)
1886 - af.1910             Louis Bull (headman to 1909)
c.1914                     Tom Bull (headman)
c.1950                     Francis Bull
c.1989                     Simon Threefingers (1st time)
bf.1996 - 1998             Jonathan Bull
1998 – 2001                Helen Bull (f)
2001 – 2007                Simon Threefingers (2nd time)
2007 – 2010                Wayne Moonias
2010 - 2016                Russel Threefingers
2016 -                     Irvin Bull



Lubicon Lake

[Lubicon Lake Nation
                                          (Alberta, Canada)]

1939                       Separated from Whitefish Lake, under the Treaty No. 8
                             (Lubicon Lake); no reserve established as of 2017.

Chiefs

1940 – 19..                Joseph Laboucan
1970/73 - 1978             Walter Whitehead
1978 - 2013                Bernard A. Ominayak           (b. 1950)
                             (from 2013, continues in opposition)
2013 -                     Billy J. Laboucan



Mikisew Cree

[ Mikisew Cree (Alberta,
                                          Canada)]

1899                       Signed the Treaty No. 8 (Fort Chipewyan Cree).
1992                       Renamed Mikisew Cree.

Chiefs

1899 - 1909                Justin Martin (Mikisew)       (b. c.1833 - d. 1909)
1909 - 1930                Justin Martin, Jr.            (b. 1860 – d. 1930)
1930 - 1941                Felix P. Whitehead            (d. 1941)
1942 - 1968                John Cowie
1968 - 1970                Ernest Courtoreille
1970 - 1974                Albert Gladue (1st time)
1974 - 1976                John J. Courtoreille
1976                       Archie Waquan (1st time)
1976 - 1977                Sammy Tuccaro
1977                       Cecilia Simpson (f) (interim)
1977 - 1978                Albert Gladue (2nd time)
1978 - 1979                Lawrence Courtoreille (1st time)
1979 - 1980                Lloyd J. Antoine
1980 - 1984                Lawrence Courtoreille (2nd time)
1984 - 1986                Archie Waquan (2nd time)
1986 - 1989                Rita Marten (f)
1989 - 1990                Matthew Lepine
1990 - 1993                Archie Waquan (3rd time)
1993 - 1996                Lawrence Vermillion
1996 - 1999                Archie Waquan (4th time)
1999                       Mary Simpson (f) (acting)
1999 - 2002                George Poitras
2002 - 2005                Archie Waquan (5th time)
2005 - 2011                Roxanne D. Marcel (f)
2011 - 2017                Steve G. Courtoreille
2017 -                     Archie Waquan (6th time)


Montana

1898                       A band organized under the Treaty No.6 of 1876 (Montana)
                             from the Cree Indians, who had returned to Canada
                             after fleeing to the U.S. in 1885.

Chiefs

1898 – af.1914             Vacant
af.1914 - c.1975           ....
c.1975                     Lillian Potts (f)
c.1978                     Leo Cattleman (1st time)
bf.1986 - 1989             Melvin Potts
1989 – 1999                Leo Cattleman (2nd time)
1999 – 2002                Darrell Strongman (1st time)
2002 – 2005                Leo Cattleman (3rd time)
2005 – 2008                Carl Rabbit
2008 – 2011                Carolyn Buffalo (f)
2011 - 2014                Bradley Rabbit
2014 -                     Darrell Strongman (2nd time)



O'Chiese

1950                       Adhesion to the Treaty No. 6 of 1876 (O'Chiese).

Chiefs
1950 – 19..                George Daychief
bf.1995 - 1998             Alice Strawberry (f)
1998 – 2002                Danny Bradshaw
2002 -                     Darren Whitford



Paul

1877                       Signed the Treaty No. 6 of 1876 (Sharphead).
1897                       Renamed Paul.

Chiefs
1877 – 1888                Cheepostequan "Sharphead" (1st time)
1888 – 1890                George Bear
1890 – 1897                Cheepostequan
"Sharphead" (2nd time)
1897 – 1902                Paul
1902 – 1906                Band Council (3 headmen)
1906 – 19..                David Bird
1978 – 1982                Myles A. House
1982 – 1984                Edwin Burnstick
1984 – 1986                Enoch Bird
1986 – 1988                Willie Rain
19.. – 1996                Rema Rain (1st time)
1996 – 2000                Wilson S. Bearhead
2000 – 2002                Rema Rain (2nd time)
2002 – 2004                Francis Bull
2004 – 2010                Daniel Paul
2010 - 2016                Casey G. Bird
2016 -                     Arthur Rain



Peerless Trout

[Peerless
                                                          Trout First
                                                          Nation
                                                          (Alberta,
                                                          Canada)]

2010                       Separated from Bigstone Cree, under the Treaty No. 8
                             (Peerless Trout); no reserve established as of 2017.

Chief
2010 –                     James Alook



Piikani


Piikani
                                                          Nation
                                                          (Alberta,
                                                          Canada)]

c.1750                     Part of the Blackfoot confederacy (see under Siksika).
1877                       Northern Peigan (in Canada) signed the Treaty No. 7 (as Peigan),
                             Southern Peigan (in the U.S.) became Blackfeet.
1888 – 1966                Peigan Indian Agency established.
2002                       Renamed Piikani Nation.
 
Head chiefs

bf.1847 - 1876             Stamiksotokani "Bull Head"    (d. 1876)
                             (head chief of Northern Peigan)
1876 – 1886                Soatsitapitaupi "Eagle Tail   (d. 1886)
                             Feathers"
1886 – 1890                "North Axe"                   (b. c.1849 - d. 1890)
1890 – 1901                Maistopita "Crow Eagle"       (b. c.1833 – d. 1901)
1901 - af.1911             Siksapo "Black Plume"         (b. 1858 – d. 19..)
1949 – 1963                John Yellow Horn              (b. 1900 – d. 1983)
Chiefs
1964 – 1976                Maurice McDougall             (b. 1906 – d. 1976)
1976 – 1982                Nelson Small Legs
1982 – 1989                Peter Yellowhorn
1989 – 1995                Leonard Bastien
1995 – 1997                Philip Big Swan
1997 – 2007                Peter Strikes With A Gun
2007 – 2011                Reg Crowshoe
2011 - 2015                Gayle M. Strikes With A Gun (f)
2015 -                     Stanley Grier


Saddle Lake

[Saddle Lake Cree
                  (Alberta, Canada)]
1876                       Signed the Treaty No.6 (Little Hunter and James Seenum).
1884 – 1967                Saddle Lake (to 1887, Victoria) Indian Agency established.
1902                       James Seenum (in c.1934 renamed Whitefish Lake) merged
                             into Little Hunter (in 1902 renamed Saddle Lake), but
                             retains separate administration.

Head chief of the Beaver Hills People
(Plains Cree and their Stoney allies in central and eastern part of Alberta)

bf.1870 - 1876             Onochi Minahowasis            (b. c.1820 - d. 1882)

                             "Little Hunter"  
Chiefs of Saddle Lake (to 1902, Little Hunter)
1876 – 1882                Onochi Minahowasis            (s.a.)
                             "Little Hunter"  
1882 – 1886                Vacant
1886 – 1896                Thomas Hunter (headman)
1896 – 1913                Vacant
bf.1924 - af.1929          Thomas Makokis                (b. 1870 – d. 19..)
c.1960                     Joseph P. Cardinal (1st time) (b. 1921 – d. 2003)
1966 – 1969                Ralph Garvin Steinhauer       (b. 1905 – d. 1987)
1969 – 1972                Horace Jackson
1972 – 1975                Joseph P. Cardinal (2nd time) (s.a.)
1975 – 1981                Eugene Steinhauer (1st time)  (b. 1928 - d. 1995)
1981 – 1984                Henry B. Quinney
1984 – 1985                Eugene Steinhauer (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1985 – 1987                Eugene Houle                  (b. 1949 - d. 2012)
1987 – 1989                Eugene Steinhauer (3rd time)  (s.a.)
1989 – 1992                Carl Quinn
1992 – 1995                Eric J. Large                 (b. 1945)
1995 – 1998                Shirley M. Steinhauer (f)
1998 – 2001                John Shirt
2001 – 2013                Eddy Makokis (1st time)
2013 - 2016                Leonard Jackson
2016 -                     Eddy Makokis (2nd time)

Chiefs of Whitefish Lake (to c.1934, James Seenum)

1876 – 1917                James Seenum                  (b. 1842 - d. 1917)

                             (Pakan "Hard Nut")
c.1985                     Sam Bull                      (d. 1996)
1987 – af.1990             Ernest Houle
1996 – 1999                Allen Houle
1999 – 2002                Alan J. Makokis
2002 – 2008                Leonard Thomas Houle
2008 – 2014                James Jackson
2014 -                     Brian Favel



Samson

[Samson
                                                          Cree (Alberta,
                                                          Canada)]

1877                       Signed the Treaty No. 6 of 1876 (Bobtail).
1879                       Samson separated from Bobtail.
1884 – 1967                Hobbema (to 1892, Peace Hills) Indian Agency established.
1886                       Bobtail dissolved, partly merged into Samson.

Chief of Bobtail

1877 – 1886                Alexis Piche                  (b. 1829 – d. 1900)
                             (Kiskiyew "Bobtail") 
Chiefs of Samson

1879 – 1898                Samson (Kanatakasew)          (d. 1898)
1899 – 1942                Joseph Samson
1942 – 1952                James Crane
1953 – 1955                Baptiste Saddleback
1955 – 1957                John S. Samson (1st time)
1957 – 1959                Felix Buffalo (1st time)
1959 – 1961                John S. Samson (2nd time)
1961 – 1963                Felix Buffalo (2nd time)
1963 – 1965                Harry Rain
1965 – 1969                Jacob L. Samson
1969 – 1973                Norman Yellowbird
1973 – 1975                Arthur Potts
1975 – 1979                Frank Buffalo
1979 – 1981                Jim Omeasoo (1st time)
1981 – 1983                Victor S. Buffalo (1st time)
1983 – 1989                Jim Omeasoo (2nd time)
1989 – 1993                Victor S. Buffalo (2nd time)
1993 – 1996                Terry Buffalo
1996 – 1999                Florence Buffalo (f)
1999 – 2002                Lena Cutknife (f)
2002 – 2008                Victor S. Buffalo (3rd time)
2008 - 2014                Marvin Yellowbird
2014 - 2017                Kurt Buffalo
2017 -                     Vernon J. Saddleback



Sawridge

[Sawridge
                                                          First Nation
                                                          (Alberta,
                                                          Canada)]

1910                       Separated from Driftpile, under the Treaty No. 8 (Sawridge).

Chiefs (to 1936, headmen)
1910 - 1966                ....
1966 - 1997                Walter P. Twinn               (b. 1934 – d. 1997)
1997 - 2002                Bertha L'Hirondelle-Twin (f)
2002 -                     Roland Twinn



Siksika

[Siksika Nation (Alberta,
                Canada)]

17..                       Member of the Blackfoot Confederacy
1877                       Signs the Treaty No. 7 (Blackfoot Band)
19..                       Renamed Siksika Nation.
c.1750                     Part of the Blackfoot confederacy (in the Blackfoot: Niitsitapi),
                             which included Blood, Blackfoot, Peigan (now Piikani [in Canada]
                             and Blackfeet [in the U.S.]), Sarcee (now Tsuut'ina) and Gros
                             Ventre (withdrew in 1866; now Fort Belknap [in the U.S.]) tribes.
1855 - 1872                The confederacy (referred to as the Blackfoot Nation) under the
                             U.S. protection (actually not involving Blackfoot and Sarcee
                             tribes).
1877                       Signed the Treaty No. 7 (Blackfoot), to 1911 divided into two
                             (occasionally three) divisions.
1884 - 1969                Blackfoot Indian Agency established.
1990                       Renamed Siksika Nation.

Head chiefs of the Southern Blackfoot
bf.1850 – c.1860           Akawmahkaii "Old Swan"        (d. c.1860)
c.1860 – 1872              Akamahkaii "Big Swan"         (d. 1872)
1872 - 1890                Isapoomahksika "Crowfoot"     (b. 1830 - d. 1890)
                             (considered by Canada as the supreme chief of the confederacy)
1890 – 1892                Niuokskastami "Three Bulls"   (d. 1892)
1892 – 1911                Aatsistamahka "Running Rabbit"(b. c.1833 – d. 1911)
bf.1854 - 1860             Natosapi "Old Sun I"          (d. 1860)
1860 – 1897                Natosapi "Old Sun II"         (b. c.1819 – d. 1897)
1897 – 1903                "White Pup"                   (d. 1903)
1903 – 1911                Otahkomiota "Yellow Horse"    (d. 1920)
Head Chiefs
1911 – 1920                Otahkomiota "Yellow Horse"    (s.a.)
1920                       "Water Chief"                 (d. af.1939)
1920 – 1948                "Duck Chief"                  (b. 1864 – d. 1948)
1948 – 1953                ....
Chiefs
1953 – 1957                Joseph Crowfoot               (b. 1892 – d. 1976)
1957 – 1967                Clarence McHugh (1st time)    (b. 1910 – d. 19..)
1967 – Oct 1968            Percy Yellow Fly              (b. 1928 – d. 2005)
Oct 1968 – Mar 1971        Adam Solway                   (d. 1986)
Mar 1971 – Nov 1971        Clarence McHugh (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Nov 1971 – 1981            Leo Pretty Young Man (1st time)
1981 – 1983                Roy Little Chief
1983 – 1987                Leo Pretty Young Man (2nd time)
1987 - 1995                Strater J. Crowfoot (1st time)
1995 - 1997                Robert Ryan Breaker, Jr.
1997 – 2001                Darlene Yellow Old Woman-     (b. 1953)
                             Munro (f)
2001 – Nov 2003            Adrian Stimson, Sr. (1st time)
Nov 2003 – Nov 2005        Strater J. Crowfoot (2nd time)
Nov 2005 – Nov 2007        Adrian Stimson, Sr. (2nd time)
Nov 2007 – Nov 2010        Leroy Good Eagle
                             (from 2009, Leroy Wolf Collar)
Nov 2010 – Nov 2013        Fred Rabbit Carrier
Nov 2013 – Nov 2016        Vincent Yellow Old Woman
Nov 2016 -                 Joseph M. Weasel Child


Smith's Landing

[Smith's Landing
                First Nation (Alberta, Canada)]

1998                       Separated from Salt River, under the Treaty No. 8
                             (Smith's Landing).

Chiefs
1998 - 2000                Jerry Paulette (1st time)
2000 - 2002                Fred Daniels (1st time)
2002 - 2007                Jerry Paulette (2nd time)
2007 - 2010                Fred Daniels (2nd time)
2010 - 2013                Cheyeanne Paulette            (b. 1980)
2013 - 2016                Andrew Wandering Spirit
2016 - 2017                Lorraine MacDonald (f)
2017 -                     John Tourangeau



Stoney

[Stoney Nation
                (Alberta, Canada)]

1877                       Signed the Treaty No. 7 (Stoney), three constituent bands
                             administered separately.
1894 – 1969                Stony (from 1945, Stoney) Indian Agency established.
1968                       Joint Band Council established.
1974 (2 months)            Frank Kaquitts becomes overall Stoney chief.
2008                       Casino opened.

Chiefs of Bearspaw Band
1877 - 1903                Jacob Bearspaw                (b. c.1837 - d. 1903)
                             (Stoney name: Ozija Thiha, Cree name: Maskwaahsid)
1903 – 1912                Moses Bearspaw                (b. c.1855 - d. 1912)
1912 - 1916                George MacLean                (b. 1877 - d. 1963)
1917 - 1956                David Bearspaw                (b. 1865 – d. 1956)
1956 – af.1957             John Bearspaw                 (b. c.1885 – d. 19..)
1961 - 1963                Frank Kaquitts                (b. 1925 - d. 2002)
1963 - 1966                Tom Two Young Men (1st time)   
1966 - 1968                William "Bill" MacLean        (b. 1920 - d. 2016)
                             (1st time)
1968 - 1971                Tom Two Young Men (2nd time)   
1971 - 1973                William "Bill" MacLean        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
1973 - 1975                ....
1975 - 1978                William "Bill" MacLean        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1978 - 1984                Bill Ear
1984 - 1986                Una Wesley (f) (1st time)
1986 - 1988                Dandy Amos
1988 – af.1990             Una Wesley (f) (2nd time)
bf.1993 - 1994             John Ear
1994 - 1996                Harvey Baptiste
1996 - 1998                Philomene Stephens (f)
1998 – Dec 2008            Darcy Lee Dixon (1st time)
Dec 2008 – Sep 2011        David Bearspaw, Jr.
Sep 2011 -                 Darcy Lee Dixon (2nd time)

Chiefs of Chiniki Band
1877 - 1906                John Chiniki                  (b. c.1834 - d. 1906)
1906 - 1911                Jonas Two Young Men
1912 - 1922                Tom Chiniki
1922 - 1933                Hector Crawler                (b. c.1852 - d. 1933)
1933 - 1960                Jacob Two Young Men
1960 - 1962                Daniel Wildman
1962 - af.1966             George Labelle (1st time)
bf.1970 - af.1972          Frank Powderface (1st time)
1973 - 1975                Frank Kaquitts (1st time)     (b. 1925 - d. 2002)
197. – 1976                Frank Powderface (2nd time)
1976 - 1978                Alvin Two Young Men (1st time)
1978 - 1984                Frank Powderface (3rd time)
1984 - 1986                Frank Kaquitts (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1986 - 1988                Alvin Two Young Men (2nd time)
1988 – af.1990             George Labelle (2nd time)
bf.1991 - 1996             Ken Soldier
1996 - 1998                Henry Holloway
1998 – Dec 2000            Paul Chiniquay
Dec 2000 – Dec 2005        Aaron Young (1st time)
Dec 2005 – Dec 2014        Bruce Labelle
Dec 2014 -                 Aaron Young (2nd time)

Chiefs of Wesley (to 1903, Goodstoney) Band
1877 - 1885                Jacob Goodstoney             (b. 182. – d. 1885)
                             (Stoney name: Toghapa, Cree name: Kichipwot)
1885 – 1903                Jonas Goodstoney             (d. 1903)
1903 - 1935                Peter Wesley                 (d. 1935)
1935 - 1938                Amos Bigstoney
1938 – 19..                Moses Jimmy John
bf.1940 - 1949             Enos Hunter                  (b. 1883 - d. 1949)
1949 - 1955                Tom Snow
bf.1960 - af.1962          Isaac Two Young Men          (b. 1900 – d. 1965)
1967 - 1968                Tom Kaquitts
1968 - 1992                John Snow (1st time)         (b. 1933 – d. 2006)
1992 - 1996                Ernest Wesley (1st time)
1996 – Dec 2000            John Snow (2nd time)         (s.a.)
Dec 2000 – Dec 2006        Ernest Wesley (2nd time)
Dec 2006 – Dec 2010        Clifford Poucette
Dec 2010 -                 Ernest Wesley (3rd time)


Sturgeon Lake Cree

[Sturgeon Lake Cree
                (Alberta, Canada)]

1900                       Signed the Treaty No. 8 of 1899 (Sturgeon Lake).

Chiefs
1900 - 190.                "The Captain" (headman)
190. - 1987                ....
1987 - 1992                Ronald Sunshine
1992 - 1993                Darlene Desjarlais (f)
1993 - 1995                Alfred Goodswimmer        
1995 - 1998                Melvin J. Goodswimmer
1998 - 2001                Jerry Goodswimmer
2001 - 2004                Clyde Goodswimmer
2004 - 2010                David R. Kappo
2010 -                     Richard D. Kappo


Sucker Creek

[Sucker Creek Brand
                (Alberta, Canada)]

1910                       Separated from Driftpile, under the Treaty No. 8 (Sucker Creek).

Chiefs (to 1936, headmen)

1910 – 1914                Louis Willier (Mostos)       (b. c.1850 – d. 1914)
19.. – 1987                James G. Badger (1st time)
1987 – 1989                Donald Calliou
1989 – 1997                James G. Badger (2nd time)
1997 – 1998                Alvin Cardinal (1st time)
1998 – 1999                Raymond Willier
1999 – 2003                Alvin Cardinal (2nd time)
2003 – 2006                Fred Badger
2006 – 2009                Jaret Cardinal
2009 -                     James G. Badger (3rd time)



Sunchild


[Sunchild
                                                          First Nation
                                                          (Alberta,
                                                          Canada)]

1944                       Adhesion to the Treaty No. 6 of 1876 (Sunchild).

Chiefs
1944 – 19..                Louis Sunchild
bf.1995 - 1997             Harry Goodrunning (1st time)
1997 – 1999                Melvin Goodrunning (1st time)
1999 – 2001                Harry Goodrunning (2nd time)
2001 – 2003                Melvin Goodrunning (2nd time)
2003 – 2009                Stanley Lagrelle (1st time)   
2009 – 2011                James Frencheater
2011 – 2013                Stanley Lagrelle (2nd time)
2013 -                     Jonathan Frencheater



Swan River

[Swan
                                                          River First
                                                          Nation
                                                          (Alberta,Canada)]

1910                       Separated from Driftpile, under the Treaty No. 8 (Swan River).

Chiefs (to 1936, headmen)

1910 – 1927                Felix Giroux
1927 – 1928                Edward Twin
1928 – 1935                August Chalifoux (1st time)
1935 – af.1936             August Sowan
19.. – 19..                Gene Giroux
19.. – 19..                August Chalifoux (2nd time)
19.. – 19..                Victor Twin
19.. – 19..                Paul Sound
c.1987                     Gordon Courtoreille
19.. - 1996                Henry C. Chalifoux
1996 – 1999                Dustin V. Twin
1999 – 2002                Richard Davis
2002 – 2013                Leon Chalifoux (acting to 2003)
2013 - 2016                Ryan Davis
2016 -                     Gerald Giroux



Tallcree

1899                       Signed the Treaty No. 8 (Fort Vermilion).
1930                       Renamed Tallcree.
1948 - 1970                Fort Vermilion Indian Agency established.

Chiefs
1899 - af.1916             "Tall Cree" (originally headman)
bf.1996 - 1998             Bernard J. Meneen (1st time)
1998 - 2003                Frank Meneen
2003 - 2008                Bernard J. Meneen (2nd time)
2008 -                     Rupert L. Meneen


Tsuut'ina (Tsuu T'ina)

[Tsuut'ina
                      First Nation (Alberta, Canada)

c.1750                     Part of the Blackfoot confederacy (see under Siksika).
1877                       Signed the Treaty No. 7 (Sarcee).
1884 - 1948                Sarcee Indian Agency established.
1992                       Renamed Tsuu T'ina Nation.
2007                       Casino opened.
2015                       Spelling changed to Tsuut'ina.

Head chiefs
18.. – 1865                Xakidji-tsitl'a "Little      (d. 1865)
                             Chief"
1865 - 1911                Iik'ootsii "Bull Head"       (b. 1833 - d. 1911)
1912 – 1922                Jim Big Plume                (d. 1922)
1922 - 1946                Joseph "Joe" Big Plume       (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
Chiefs
1946 - 1953                David Crowchild              (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
1953 – 1962                James "Jim" Starlight        (b. 1904 – d. 1966)
                             (1st time)
1962 – 1964                Richard Big Plume (1st time) (b. 1902 – d. 2002)
1964 – 1966                James "Jim" Starlight        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1966 – 1970                Richard Big Plume (2nd time) (s.a.)
1970 - 1976                Gordon Crowchild             (b. 1929 - d. 2015)
1976 - 1984                Clifford Big Plume (1st time)
1984 - 1986                Roy Whitney (1st time)
1986 – 1987                Clifford Big Plume (2nd time)
1987 - 2001                Roy Whitney (2nd time)
2001 - 2012                Sandford Big Plume
2012 - 2016                Roy Whitney (3rd time)
2016 -                     Sydney "Lee" Crowchild


Whitefish Lake

[Whitefish Lake First
                  Nation (Alberta, Canada)]

1901                       Signed the Treaty No. 8 of 1899 (Whitefish Lake).

Chiefs
1901 – 19..                Vacant
c.1910                     Nahakis
bf.1988 - 1999             Eddie L. Tallman (1st time)
1999 – 2001                Robert Gray (1st time)
2001 – 2010                Clifford Laboucan
2010 - 2014                Eddie L. Tallman (2nd time)
2014 -                     Robert Gray (2nd time)


Woodland Cree

[Woodland Cree
                    (Alberta, Canada)]

1990                       Separated from Lubicon Lake, under the Treaty No. 8
                             (Woodland Cree).

Chiefs
bf.1997 - 1998             John W. Cardinal
1998 – 2001                Joseph P. Whitehead. (1st time)
2001 – 2002                Melvin Laboucan
2002 – 2003                Tom Cardinal (acting)
2003 – 2010                Joseph P. Whitehead (2nd time)
2010 – 2013                William Whitehead
2013 -                     Isaac Laboucan-Avirom



British Columbia



Manitoba


Buffalo Point

1873                       Buffalo Point Reserve established for the Buffalo Point Band 
                             by Treaty No. 3 in Manitoba.
1970's                     Buffalo Point First Nation.

Chiefs
1873 - 1900                Ayashawath                     (d. 1900)
1900 - 1906                Little Thunder                 (d. 1906)
1906 - 1941                Jim "Old" Thunder              (d. 1941)
1941 - 1969                Warren "Shorty" Thunder        (d. 1972)
1969 - 1997                James "Jim" Thunder
1997 -                     John Thunder



Cross Lake Cree

[Pimicikamak Cree
                Nation - Cross Lake Cree (Manitoba, Canada)]

1875                       Sign the Treaty No.5 (Cross Lake), confirmed in 1908 (from 1996,
                             identify
itself as the Pimicikamak Cree Nation).


Chiefs (title: Okimahkan)
1875 – 1881                Donald William Sinclair Ross   (b. c.1805 – d. 1881)
                            (Tepastenam)
1882 – 1885                David Ross

1886                       George Garrioch
1887 – 1891                Sandy Garrioch
1892 – 1895                Jacob Ross
1896 – 1899                Thomas Ross
1899 – 1922                Peter Ross
1922 – 1924                Vacant
1924 – 1928                Felix Scott
1929 – 1935                John Ross
1936 – 1939                Albert Sinclair                (b. 1881 – d. 1949)
1940 – 1941                Spence Ross
1941 – 1943                Vacant
1943 – 1953                Henry Beardy (1st time)
1953 – 1955                Bello Ross (1st time)
1955 – 1959                Henry Beardy (2nd time)
1959 – 1961                Samuel McKay (1st time)
1961 – 1963                Sandy Beardy                   (b. 1920 – d. 2001)
1963 – 1965                Bello Ross (2nd time)
1965 – 1967                Charles Sinclair
1967 – 1969                Samuel McKay (2nd time)
1969 – 1972                Walter F. Monias (1st time)
1972 – 1973                Jonah McKay
1973 – 1975                Walter F. Monias (2nd time)
1975 – 1977                Catherine Frances Ross (f)     (b. 1923)
1977 – 1978                Walter F. Monias (3rd time)
1978 – Sep 1981            George M. Ross
Sep 1981 – 1985            Walter F. Monias (4th time)
1985 – 1987                Etienne Robinson               (b. 1945 - d. 2008)
1987 – 1989                Walter F. Monias (5th time)
1989 – 1998                Sydney B. Garrioch
1998 – 1999                Roland Robinson
1999 – 2008                John M. Miswagon               (b. 1964)
Aug 2008 – Dec 2008        Alex J. Robinson
Dec 2008 – 2013            Garrison W. Settee
                             (acting to Sep 2009)
2013 -                     Catherine "Cathy" Merrick (f)


Garden Hill 

1909                       Adherence to the Treaty No. 5 (Island Lake Band).
1969                       Split into four bands, the largest 
                             is the Garden Hill Band.

Chiefs
1909                       George Knott
1931 - 1953                Henry Fiddler
c.1970 - c.1976            Charlie Knott
19.. - 1994                Geordie Little
1994 - 1996                Jack Fiddler
1996 - 1998                Harvey Fiddler
1998 - 2000                David Harper (1st time)
2000 - 2002                Darcy Wood
2002 - 2004                Russell Harper
2004 - 2006                David Harper (2nd time)
2006 - 2008?              
Dino Flett (1st time)     
2008 -  Aug 2009           David Harper (3rd time)
2009 - 2013                Dino Flett (2nd time)
 8 Feb 2013 - Mar 2014     Buddy Beardy



Norway House Cree

[Norway House Cree
                (Manitoba, Canada)]

1875                       Local Cree Sign the Treaty No. 5 (Norway House Band).

Chiefs
18.. - 1877                David Rundle
1908                       Sandy Sanders
Nov 1971 - c.1975          Jean Folster (f)               (b. 1922 - d. 1994)
c.1981 - c.1983            Maggie Balfour
1986 - 1996                Alan James Ross
1996 - Aug 2005            Ronald Evans (1s time)         (b. 1958)
Aug 2005 - 16 Mar 2006     Fred Muskego (acting)
16 Mar 2006 - 2008         Marcel Balfour
Aug 2008 - 2010            Ronald Evans (2nd time)        (s.a.)
30 Mar 2010 - 17 Mar 2011  Eric Apetagon
2011 -                     Ronald Evans (3rd time)        (s.a.)



Peguis
[Peguis Band (Manitoba,
                  Canada)]
                   Adopted 1990's

1817                       Treaty with the British
1871                       St. Peter's Reserve established for the St. Peter's Band 
                             by Treaty No. 1 in Manitoba.
1909                       Renamed Peguis Band.

Chiefs
1791 - 1864                William King (Peehquaais)      (b. 1774 - d. 1864)
1864 - 1882                Henry Prince (Miskookeenew) 
                             (1st time)
1882 - 1888                William Prince (1st time)
1888 - 1891                Henry Prince (2nd time)
1891 - 1897                William Asham
1897 - 1902                Henry Prince (3rd time)
1902 - 1911                William Prince (2nd time)
1911 - 1917                Albert Rose
1917 - 1923                William Pahkoo
1923 - 1926                Thomas John Stevenson
1926 - 1929                Fred Thomas
1929 - 1932                Alex Greyeyes
1932 - 1935                Robert Sinclair
1935 - 1941                Nathaniel Asham (1st time)
1941 - 1944                Albert Edward Prince
1944 - 1947                Alex Williams                  (d. 1947)
1947 - 1953                Nathaniel Asham (2nd time)
1953 - 1955                Alex Sinclair
1955 - 1961                Campbell Sutherland
1961 - 1973                Albert Edward Thompson         (d. 1973)
1973 - 1981                Jack Sinclair
1981 - 2007                Louis John Stevenson           (b. 1950 - d. 2014)
2007 - 2015                Glenn Hudson
2015 -                     Cindy Spence(f)



New Brunswick



Newfoundland and Labrador


Miawpukek of Ktaqamkuk

[Miawpukek of
                Ktaqamkuk (Newfoundland, Canada)]

Chiefs (Saqamaw)
.... - c.12 Dec 1842       Michel Agathe                  (d. c.1842)
21 Jul 1860 - 1880         Maurice Louis                  (d. 1880)
1880 - 1900                Joe Bernard                    (b. 1812 - d. 1900)
1900 -  1 Dec 1918         Lupe'n                         (b. 1852 - d. 1918)
 26 Jul 1919 - 1945        Newell Jeddore Gietol          (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
1945 - 1980                Vacant
1945                       Antel (refused office)         (b. 1889 - d. 1960)
1945 - 1954                Joe Jeddore (acting)           (b. 1883 - d. 1956) 
1954 - 1971                Piel (Peter Jeddore)           (b. 1892 - d. 1971)
                             (acting)
1973 - 1974                John N. Jeddore                (b. 1922)
1974 - 1975                Walter John                    (b. 1926)
1975 - Dec 1982            William Joe                    (b. 1925 - d. 1982)
 7 Jan 1983 -              Mise’l Joe                     (b. 1947)
                             (from 1987 also, Administrative Saqamaw)

Northwest Territories



Nova Scotia

Eskasoni and Mi’kmaq of Cape Breton

[Mi'kmaq
                          national flag (Canada)]
        Mi'kmaq National Flag Adopted 4 Oct 1900
[Mi'kmaq Grand
                          Council flag]
                     Mi'kmaq Grand Council Flag

1610                       Micmacs (or Mi'kmaq) in alliance with the French.
1725                       Ally (from 1761, subject) of the British (except 1744-52,
                             and 1755-61).
1749                       Grand chief of the Micmac, residing at the Chapel Island
                            (from 1869, at Eskasoni), recorded for the first time (1752-
                             1895 the position also is claimed by chiefs of Shubenacadie).
1783                       British begun to establish reserves for the Micmac (Eskasoni
                             Reserve in 1834).
1872 – 1971                Cape Breton (from 1902, Eskasoni) Indian Agency established.
1958                       Dissolution of the Micmacs of Cape Breton Island band into 5 bands,
                             including Eskasoni (the office of the Grand Chief continues as
                             traditional leadership).

Chiefs of Cape Breton Island (originally Isle Royale) (title: Saqmaw)
c.1716                     Isidorus
17.. – 1750                Michel Denny                   (d. 1750)
1750 – 1778                Jeannot Pequidalouet           (b. c.1705 – d. 17..)
c.1783                     Lemable Janot
1792 – 1958                the Grand Chiefs of Micmac
Grand Chiefs of Micmac (title: Kji’saqmaw wjit Mi’kmaq)
c.1749                     Tomah Denys
c.1752                     Jean Baptiste Cope             (b. 1698 – d. 1760)
                             (in opposition, recognized by British; chief of Shubenacadie)
1792 – 1818                Francis Basque
1818 – 1842                Michael Tomah                  (d. 1842)
1842 – 1869                Francis Gregory Tomah
1869 – 1881                John Denny                     (d. 1881)
1881 – 12 Apr 1918         John B. Denny, Jr.             (b. 1841 – d. 1918)
1918 – May 1963            Gabriel J. Sylliboy            (b. 1874 – d. 1963)
                             (acting to 1 Aug 1919)
Jun 1964 - 25 Aug 1991     Donald Marshall                (b. 1925 – d. 1991)
Sep 1991 -                 Benjamin "Ben" Sylliboy
                             (acting to 1992
Chiefs of Eskasoni (title: Saqmaw)
1958 – 19..                ....
bf.1963 - c.1965           Charlie Francis
1966 – af.1969             Lawrence Paul
1970 - c.1976              Dan K. Stevens
1978 – 1980                Allison M. Bernard (1st time)  (b. 1941 – d. 2007)
1980 – 1982                ....
1982 – 2000                Allison M. Bernard (2nd time)  (s.a.)
2000 - 2006                Blair Stephen Francis
2006 – Feb 2010            Charles Joe Dennis
Nov 2010 -                 Leroy D.C. Denny               (b. 1976)


Nunavt



Ontario



Six Nations of the Grand River 

[Six Nations flag
                (Ontario, Canada)]

1784                       Settlement (Grand River) by the pro-British emigrants (majority
                             Mohawk and Cayuga) of the Six Nations confederacy (in Mohawk:
                             Rotinonshonni "Longhouse People") from the New York State, U.S.
                            (see also Cayuga, Oneida of New York, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscarora;
                             in the U.S.), governed by the Great Council of the confederacy
                            (50 lineages of titled/named life chiefs of five original nations,
                             added by non-voting chiefs of Tuscarora and of three allied
                             nations: Delaware, Nanticoke, Tutelo [latter two extinct
                             respectively by c.1900 and c.1850]).
1792 – 1969                Six Nations (1832 - 1891, Grand River) Indian Superintendency
                             established.
1793                       Formal British patent to the land grant issued to the Six Nations.
1847                       Six Nations Reserve (from 1988, referred also to as the Six Nations
                             of the Grand River Territory) organized; the Councils of Chiefs
                             of the individual nations abolished.
1900                       Official publication of the oral constitution of the Six Nations 
                             confederacy (in Mohawk: Kaianere’ko:wa "Great Peace"), the
                             first time written down in 1880.
Mar 1924                   Six Nations unsuccessfully apply for the membership in the League
                             of Nations (under the name of the Hodenosaunee Confederation of
                             the Grand River).
22 Oct 1924                Six Nations of the Grand River Band Council imposed by Canada
                             (the Council is single government of 13 separate bands: Bay
                             of Quinte Mohawk, Bearfoot Onondaga, Delaware, Konadaha Seneca,
                             Lower Cayuga, Lower Mohawk, Ninarondasa Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga
                             Clear Sky, Tuscarora, Upper Cayuga, Upper Mohawk, Walker Mohawk);
                             the Confederacy Council continues (to the late 20th century in
                             opposition) with no recognition by Canada.
 5 Mar 1959 - 13 Mar 1959  Confederacy chiefs take over the reserve, declare the elected
                             Band Council dissolved.
24 Jun 1970 - 10 Jul 1970  Supporters of the Confederacy chiefs seize the Council House,
                             following the Iroquois Declaration of Independence of Nov 1969.


First chiefs of Onondaga
(by precedence; title/name: Thadoda:ho;
ceremonial chair of the Great Council)
bf.1812 - af.1858          Rawenerse "The Echo"
1870 – 1904                Nicholas Gibson                (d. 1904)
1904 – 1961                Joseph Logan, Sr.              (b. 1878 - d. 1961)
                            (from 1924, not recognized by Canada; last Thadoda:ho in Canada)

Chief Councillors

22 Oct 1924 -  5 Nov 1925  Hilton M. Hill
 5 Nov 1925 -  3 Nov 1927  Archie Russell
 3 Nov 1927 –  2 Nov 1933  Frank Miller (1st time)
 2 Nov 1933 –  1 Nov 1934  William Smith (1st time)
 1 Nov 1934 –  7 Nov 1935  Frank Miller (2nd time)
 7 Nov 1935 –  5 Nov 1936  William Smith (2nd time)
 5 Nov 1936 -  1 Nov 1945  Frank Miller (3rd time)
 1 Nov 1945 -  7 Nov 1946  Fred J. Hill
 7 Nov 1946 -  6 Nov 1947  Enos Maracle
 6 Nov 1947 - Nov 1949     Leonard Staats                 (b. 1903 – d. 1967)
Nov 1949 - Nov 1950        Arnold Moses
Nov 1950 - Jan 1952        Edward P. Garlow
Chiefs (often referred to as the Chief councillors until c.1994)
Jan 1952 - Jan 1956        James S. Powless
Jan 1956 - Jan 1958        Clifford E. Styres
Jan 1958 - Jan 1962        Edward P. Garlow (2nd time)
Jan 1962 -  2 Mar 1967     George D. Van Every
 2 Mar 1967 - Dec 1978     Richard Isaac
Dec 1978 - Jan 1980        Renson Jamieson
Jan 1980 - 17 Dec 1985     Wellington C. Staats (1st time)(b. 1932 - d. 2014)
 7 Jan 1986 - 17 Dec 1991  William "Bill" K. Montour      (b. 1941)
                             (1st time)
 7 Jan 1992 -  5 Dec 1995  Steve Williams
19 Dec 1995 - 20 Nov 2001  Wellington C. Staats (2nd time)(s.a.)
 4 Dec 2001 -  6 Dec 2004  Roberta L. Jamieson (f)        (b. 1953)
 7 Dec 2004 -  3 Dec 2007  David M. General
 4 Dec 2007 -  3 Dec 2013  William "Bill" K. Montour      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 3 Dec 2013 -              Gail Ava Hill (f)              (b. 1950)


Speakers of Six Nations (chief executives; nation affiliation in parentheses)
1858 – 1871                John Smoke Johnson (Mohawk)    (b. 1792 – d. 1886)
1871 – 1892                Nicholas H. Burning (Mohawk)
1892 – 1898                Chief David Hill (Seneca)
1898                       Alexander G. Smith (1st time)
                             (Mohawk)
1898 – 1903                Chief Elias Lewis (Mohawk)
1903 – 1916                John Charles Martin (Mohawk)
1916 – 1917                Chief Alexander G. Smith (2nd time)
                             (Mohawk)
1917 – 1918                Chief William D. Loft (Mohawk)  (b. 1858 – d. 1943)
1918 – 1922                Chief Andrew Staats (Mohawk)
1922 – 1924                Chief Levi General (Cayuga)     (b. 1873 – d. 1925)
                             (in 1923 left for Europe)
1923 – 1945                Chauncey Garlow (Mohawk)        (b. 1878 – d. 1945)
                            (to 1924, acting for General; from 1924, not recognized by Canada)

British (from 1867, Canadian) Superintendents (to 1792, Deputy Superintendents)
1775 – 1778                John Butler (1st time)          (b. 1728 – d. 1796)
                             (acting to 1776)
1778 – 1787                Christian Daniel Claus          (b. 1727 – d. 1787)
1787 – 1796                John Butler (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1796 – 1826                William Claus                   (b. 1765 – d. 1826)
1826 – 1828                James Givins                    (b. 1759 – d. 1846)
1828 – 1832                Chief John Brant                (b. 1794 – d. 1832)
1832 – 1845                James Winniett                  (b. 1777 – d. 1849)
1845 – 1862                David Thorburn                  (b. 1790 – d. 1862)
1862 – 1891                Jasper Tough Gilkison
1891 – 1906                Edwin D. Cameron
1906 – 1924                Gordon J. Smith
1924 – 1935                Cecil E. Morgan
1935 – 1953                E.P. Randle



Prince Edward Island



Abegweit 

[Abegweit First Nation
                (Prince Edward Island, Canada)]

1972                       Abegweit Band, covering Morell, Rocky Point and Scotchfort Reserves
                             on Prince Edward Island, secedes from the Lennox Island Band.
1970's                     Abegweit First Nation.

Chiefs
1973 - 1999                George James "Jim" Sark
1999 - 2003                Francis Jadis
 8 Aug 2003 - Aug 2008     Roderick "Roddy" Gould
Aug 2008 -                 Brian Francis


Lennox Island

[ Lennox
                  Island First Nation (Prince Edward Island, Canada)]

1846                       Morell Reserve established for the Prince Edward Island Band 
                             (later renamed the Lennox Island Band).
1870                       Lennox Island Reserve added.
1879                       Scotchfort Reserve added.
1913                       Rocky Point Reserve added.
1972                       Abegweit Band, covering Morell, Rocky Point and Scotchfort
                             Reserves secedes.
1970's                     Lennox Island First Nation.

Chiefs
1910 - 1930                John Thomas Sark
1930 - 1960                Jacob Sark
1960 - 1962                Mary Bernard (f)
1962 - 1964                Frank Jadis
1964 - 1966                Raymond Lewis
1966 - 1970                James Sark
1970 - 1972                George James "Jim" Sark
1972 - 1998                Jack J.T. Sark
1998 - 2001                Charles "Charlie" Sark
2001 -  1 Jun 2013         Darlene Bernard (f)            (b. 1962)
 1 Jun 2013 -              Matilda Ramjatton

Quebec



Chisasibi Cree

[Chisasibi Cree flag
              (Quebec, Canada)]

1962                       Fort George Reserve
1975                       Signs the James Bay and Northern Quebec 
                             Agreement (Fort George Band).
19..                       Renamed Chisasibi.

Chiefs
c.1920 - 1931              Peter Waskigan
1931 - 1935?               John (Joe) Naposh (1st time)
1935? - 1938               John Chishkamush
1938 - 19..                John (Joe) Naposh (2nd time)
1967 - 1977                Robert Kanatewat
1977 - 1979                Josie Sam Atkinson              (b. 1928 - d. 1995)
1979 - 1982                Samuel Tapiatic
1982 - 1985                James Bobbish (1st time)
1985 - 1986                Robbie Matthew
1986 - 1989                James Bobbish (2nd time)
1989 - 1995                Violet Pachano(s)(1st time)
1995 - 1999                Charles Bobbish
1999 - 2001                Violet Pachano(s)(2nd time)
2001 - 2007                Abraham Rupert (1st time)
2007 - 2010                Roderick Pachano
2010 - 12 Feb 2012         Abraham Rupert (2nd time)
23 Mar 2012 -              Davey Bobbish


Cree Wemindji (Quebec)

[Cree Nation of
                    Wemindji (Quebec, Canada)]

Chiefs

1978 - 1999                Walter Hughboy
1999 - 2005                Reggie Mark
2005 -                     Rodney Mark


Kitigan Zibi Algonquin Band(Quebec)

[Kitigan Zibi
                Algonquin Band (Quebec, Canada)]


Chiefs

1854 - 1874                Antoine Pakinawatik
1874 - 1884                Peter Tenasco (1st time)
1884 - 1890                Simon Odjick
1890 - 1896                Peter Tenasco (2nd time)
1896 - 1899                Louizon Commanda
1899 - 1911                John Tenasco
1911 - 1917                Michael Commanda
1917 - 1920                John Cayer
1920 - 1924                John B. Chabot (1st time)
1927 - 1933                Vincent Odjick
1933 - 1936                Patrick Brascoupe
1936 - 1939                Abraham McDougall
1939 - 1951                John B. Chabot (2nd time)
1951 - 1970                William Commanda
1970 - 1976                Ernest McGregor
1976 - 2006                Jean Guy Whiteduck
2006 - 2008                Stephen McGregor
2008 -                     Gilbert Whiteduck


Mohawks of Akwesasne
 
[Mohawks of Akwesasne
                flag (Quebec, Canada)]

1749                       Settlement (La Presentation; in 1760, renamed Oswegatchie) at
                             present-day Ogdensburg (in the New York State, the U.S.) by
                             the Iroquois (majority Onondaga) emigrants from the Six Nations
                             Confederacy (details under Onondaga, in the U.S.); a member of
                             the Seven Nations of Canada (details under Mohawks of
                             Kahnawa:ke).

1755                       Another settlement (St.-Regis), originally a sub-community of
                             Sault St.-Louis (present Mohawks of Kahnawa:ke).
1760                       St. Regis formally separated from Sault St. Louis and succeeded
                             declining Oswegatchie as the member of the Seven Nations
                             (by 1806, the last of the Oswegatchies had joined St. Regis).
1783                       Split by the U.S.-British (Quebec) border; the formal British
                             land grant ("concession") is issued for the British side of the
                             settlement.
31 May 1796                Treaty with the U.S. (St. Regis Tribe), under joint protection of
                             the U.K. and U.S. (details of gradual separation of so-called
                             American tribe under Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe, in the U.S.)
1847                       St. Regis Reserve (from 1984, referred to as the Akwesasne
                             Mohawk Territory) organized.
1874 – 1970                St. Regis Indian Agency established.
Jul 1888                   Iroquois of St. Regis Band Council imposed by Canada; the Council
                             of life Chiefs continues in opposition to 1968 with no
                             recognition by Canada.
1984                       Renamed Mohawks of Akwesasne.


Chiefs of La Presentation (from 1760, Oswegatchie)
c.1750 - af.1797           Council of Chiefs
                           (12 lineages of life chiefs)
Chiefs of St. Regis (title of life chief: Rotinonhkwiseres)
c.1760 – 1867              Council of Chiefs
                           (12 lineages [to 1806, 9 lineages] of life chiefs)
1867 – 1888                Council of Chiefs
                           (3 life and 2 elected positions)
                           - John Isaac (life chief)
                           - George Thomas (life chief)   (d. 1893)
                           - Alexander Thompson           (d. 1895)
                              (life chief)
                           - Peter Skin (to 1879)
                           - Loran Solomon (to 1877)      (d. 1889)
                           - Mitchell Solomon (1877 – 1883)
                           - John Sawatis (1879 – 1885)
                           - Loran Jacobs (1883 – 1886)   (d. 1886)
                           - Thomas Lazore (1885 – 1888)
1888 – 1891                John Square
1891 – 1895                Mitchell Jacobs (1st time)     (d. 1915)
1895 – 1897                Joseph Thompson
1897 – 1898                John Skin                      (d. 1899)
1898 – 1899                No elections
1899 – 1902                John Angus Louis ?
                            (heads list of councillors in 1899 and 1901)
1902 – 1906                No elections
1906 – 1909                Mitchell Friday
1909 – 1915                Mitchell Jacobs (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1915 – 1918                John Jacobs (1st time)
1918 – 1928                No elections
1928 – 1931                John Jacobs (2nd time)
1931 – 1934                Thomas Oakes
1934 – 1937                John Jacobs (3rd time)
1937 – 1940                Louis Sunday
1940 – 1943                Frank K. Leaf (1st time)       (d. 1963)
1943 – 1946                Mitchell Oakes
1946 – 1948                Clifford White (1st time)
1948 – 1952                John J. Peters
1952 – 1954                David Benedict                 (d. 1958)
1954 – 1956                Clifford White (2nd time)
1956 – 1958                Frank K. Leaf (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1958 – 1962                Ralph Whitebean
1960 – 1963                Alex H. Oakes
1963 – 1964                Florence Thomas (f)
1964 – 1970                Angus Mitchell                 (b. 1903 – d. 1988)
1970 – 1972                William Sunday (1st time)
1972 – 1974                Lawrence Francis (1st time)    (b. 1943 – d. 2005)
1974 – 1976                William Sunday (2nd time)
1976 – 1978                Lawrence Francis (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1978                       Mary David (f)
1978 – 1980                Angus Bonaparte                (b. 1920 – d. 2000)
1980 – 1984                Lawrence Francis (3rd time)    (s.a.)
1984 – 1988                Michael K. Mitchell            (b. 1948)
Grand Chiefs
1988 – 1994                Michael K. Mitchell (1st time) (s.a.)
1994 – 1997                Russell B. Roundpoint
1997 – 2000                Michael K. Mitchell (2nd time) (s.a.)
2000 – Jul 2000            Raymond Mitchell (1st time)
                             (acting)
Jul 2000 – Apr 2002        Michael K. Mitchell (3rd time) (s.a.)
Apr 2002 – 21 Jun 2003     Raymond Mitchell (2nd time)
21 Jun 2003 – 2006         Angela "Angie" Barnes (f)
2006 – Jul 2009            Timothy D. Thompson
Jul 2009 -                 Michael K. Mitchell (4th time) (s.a.)


Mohawks of Kahnawake
 
[Mohawk Nation Flag]

1668                       Settlement (La Prairie) by the Iroquois (majority Mohawk)
                             emigrants from the Five Nations confederacy (details under
                             Onondaga, in the U.S.).

1680                       French land grant ("reduction") at Sault St.-Louis to the Jesuit
                             Fathers for the use by the Iroquois.

c.1720 – c.1830            Seven Nations of Canada, a confederacy of Indian settlements in
                             Quebec; the final Seven Nations were: Mohawks of Sault St. Louis
                             (location of the Grand Council of the confederacy), Hurons of
                             Lorette (present Huronne-Wendat, the ceremonial chair of the
                             confederacy), Abenakis of St. Francis and Becancour (present
                             Odanak, Abenakis de Wolinak), Mohawks of St. Regis (present
                             Mohawks of Akwesasne), Mohawks of Lake of Two Mountains (present
                             Mohawks of Kanesatake), Algonquins and Nipissings of Lake of
                             Two Mountains (2 separate nations; present Kitigan Zibi
                             Anishinabeg).

1760                       Alliance with the British by the treaty with the Seven Nations
                            (in 1762, the Jesuit title to the land grant vested with the
                             Crown).

1854                       Sault Saint Louis Reserve (from 1981, referred to as the
                             Kahnawake Mohawk Territory) organized.

1874 – 1968                Caughnawaga Indian Agency established.
1889                       Iroquois of Caughnawaga Band Council imposed by Canada; the
                             Council of Chiefs continues in opposition to at least 1923
                             with no recognition by Canada.

22 May 1981                Renamed Mohawks of Kahnawake.
2012                       Renamed Mohawks of Kahnawa:ke.

Chiefs
c.1694 – 1889              Council of Chiefs
                           (7 lineages [to c.1840, 9 lineages] of life chiefs,
                            title: Rotinonhkwiseres; composition as of 1878 below)

                           - Louis Beauvais               (b. 1833 – d. af.1889)
                           - Thomas Deer                  (d. 1887)
                           - Thomas B. Jocks              (b. 1859 – d. 1893)
                           - Peter Murray                 (b. 1837 – d. af.1881)
                           - Thomas Rice                  (b. 1852 – d. af.1886)
                           - Louis Tehorakaron            (d. 1886)
                           - Joseph Williams              (b. 1846 - d. 1885)
Chief Councillors (also referred to as the mayors)
1889 – 1890                Thomas B. Jocks                (s.a.)
1890 – af.1891             Louis F. Jackson               (b. 1843 – d. 19..)
bf.1897 - 1898             Michel Daillebout
1898 – 1899                No elections
1899 – 190.                Pierre Beauvais                (b. 1860 – d. 19..)
c.19..                     Angus Patton
c.1914                     Frank McDonald Jacobs
c.1917                     John T. Daillebout
c.1919                     Peter J. Delisle (1st time)
c.1924                     Joseph Canadian
c.1927                     Louis K. Beauvais              (d. 1927)
c.1930                     Peter Williams
c.1932                     Peter J. Delisle (2nd time)
c.1933                     Joseph M. Lefebvre
c.1938                     Joseph Delisle (1st time)
c.1939                     Peter K. Delisle
c.1941                     Andrew Delisle
c.1943                     Peter Lazare
c.1944                     Joseph Delisle (2nd time)
Chiefs
1952 – 1956                Joseph A. Beauvais             (b. 1899 – d. 1958)
1956 – 1958                Michael T. Montour
1958 – 195.                Mike Lefebvre
c.1959                     Matthew Lazare
c.1961                     John Lazare
1962 – 1970                Andrew T. Delisle (1st time)   (b. 1933)
1970 – 1976                Ronald Kirby                   (b. 1936 – d. 2011)
1976 – 1980                Andrew T. Delisle (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1980 – 1982                Joseph Tokwiro Norton          (b. 1950)
Grand Chiefs
1982 –  3 Jul 2004         Joseph Tokwiro Norton          (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
 3 Jul 2004 - 22 Jun 2015  Michael Ahrirhon Delisle       (b. 1965)
22 Jun 2015 -              Joseph Tokwiro Norton          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)


Whapmagoostui
 
[Whapmagoostui
                    First Nation (Quebec, Canada)]

Chiefs

1975 - 1977                Joseph Petagumskum
1977 - 1985                Robbie Dick (1st time)
1985 - 1987                Isaac Masty
1987 - 1992                Robbie Dick (2nd time)  
1994 - 2000                Matthew Mukash
2000 - 2006                David Masty (1st time)
2006 - 2009                Losty Mamianskum
2009 -
                    David Masty (2nd time)



Saskatchewan



Ahtahkakoop

[Ahtahkakoop First Nation flag
              (Saskatchewan, Canada)]
                          Adopted 1995

1876                       Sign the Treaty No.6 (1906 – 1986 renamed Sandy Lake).

Chiefs
1876 – 1896                John Starblanket (Atahkakohp)  (b. 1816 – d. 1896)
                            (bf.1870–1876, co-head chief of the House People,
                             a division of the Plains Cree)
1896 – 1898                Band council (4 headmen)
1898 – 1926                Basil Starblanket              (b. 18.. - d. 1926)
                             (Kaynayoostatin)
1927 – 1957                Allan Ahenakew (1st time)      (b. 1892 – d. 19..)
1957 – 1960                Lance Ahenakew (1st time)      (b. 1916)
1960 – 1968                Allan Ahenakew (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1968 – 1972                Paul Ahenakew (1st time)
1972 – 1974                Lance Ahenakew (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1974 – 1980                Paul Ahenakew (2nd time)
1980 – 1985                Fred Sasakamoose               (b. 1933)
1985 – 1990                Barry Leslie Ahenakew (1st time)
1990 – 1992                Clifford S. Ahenakew
1992 – 2005                Barry Leslie Ahenakew (2nd time)
 1 Jul 2005 -              Larry Davis Ahenakew


Lac La Ronge
 
[ Lac La Ronge Band
              (Saskatchewan, Canada)]

11 Feb 1889                Adherence to the Treaty No. 6 (James Roberts Band).
1910                       James Roberts Band split into two Bands.
1950                       Bands amalgamated and became as the Lac La Ronge Indian Band.

Chiefs of James Roberts Band (La Ronge, Sask.)
1888 - 1901                James Roberts
1901 - 1910                Amos Charles
1910 - 1946                Joseph Charles
1946 - 1950                Moses Ratt 
Chiefs of the Amos Charles Band (Stanley Mission, Sask.)
1910 - 1930                Amos Charles
1930 - 1945                Walter McKenzie
1945 - 1950                Nehemiah Charles
Chiefs of the Lac La Ronge Indian Band 
1950 - 1955                Moses Ratt 
                           - jointly with -
1950 - 1955                Nehemiah Charles
1955 - 1967                Vacant
1967 - 1969                Isaiah Charles
1969 - 1971                John Cook
1971 - 1983                James Myles Venne (1st time)
1983 - 1985                Thomas "Tom" McKenzie
1985 - 1987                James Myles Venne (2nd time)
1987 - 31 May 2005         Harry D. Cook
31 May 2005 -              Tammy Cook-Searson (f)



Muskeg Lake Cree 

[Muskeg Lake Cree
                (Saskatchewan, Canada)]

1876                       Kitowehow Reserve established for the Kitowehow Band by the
                             Treaty No. 6 in present-day Saskatchewan.
1880                       Petequakey Band and Reserve.
1920                       Muskeg Lake Band and Reserve.
1970's                     Muskeg Lake Cree Nation.

Chiefs
1876 - 1880                Alexandre Cayen (Kitowehow)    (b. 1834 - d. 1886)
1880 - 1889                Isidore Cayen (Petequakey)     (b. 1845 - d. 1889)
1889 - 1900                Vacant
1900 - 1914                Jean Baptiste Lafond           (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
1915 - 1917                George H. Greyeyes             (b. 1875 - d. 1917)
1917 - 1920                Vacant
1920 - 1932                Andrew Lafond                  (b. 1880 - d. 1952)
1933 - 1956                Joseph Ledoux                  (b. 1877 - d. 1956)
1956 - 1958                Emile Venne                    (b. 1918 - d. 1999)
1958 - 1959                David Georges Greyeyes         (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
1959 - 1960                Louis O. "Meskanas" Arcand     (b. 1898 - d. 1992)
                             (acting)
1960 - 1962                Alphonsine "Alpha" Lafond (f)  (b. 1926)
1962 - 1964                Joseph Greyeyes                (b. 1905 - d. 1990)
1964 - 1972                Frederick "Sonny" Lafond       (b. 1931 - d. 1989)
                             (1st time) 
1972 - 1974                Richard "Dickie" Greyeyes      (b. 1930)
1974 - 1978                Frederick "Sonny" Lafond       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1978 - 1982                Leonard Ledoux                 (b. 1943)
1982 - 1989                Wallace Tawpisim               (b. 1951)
1989 - 1990                David Lafond (acting)
1990 - 2000                Harry James Lafond             (b. 1949)
2000 - 2009                Gilbert Ledoux
2009 -                     Clifford Tawpisin, Jr.



Peter Ballantyne

[Peter Ballantyne
                Cree (Saskatchewan, Canada)]

1895                       Peter Ballantyne and 7 other families of Ballantyne were 
                             paid annuities under James Roberts Band.
1900                       Split from Lac La Ronge Band (Peter Ballantyne Cree).

Chiefs
1911 - 1922                Peter Ballantyne
1922 - 1930                Cornelius Ballantyne (Bear)
1930 - 1939                Joe Highway
1939 - 1948                Solomon Merasty
1948 - 1954                Simon Linklater (1st time)
1954 - 1956                Vacant
1956 - 1957                Simon Linklater (2nd time)
1958 - 1969                Peter Linklater
1969 - 1971                Simon Linklater (3rd time)
1971 - 1973                Arthur Morin
1973 - 1975                Albert Ratt
1975 - 1979                Phillip Morin
1979 - 1985                Joseph Custer
1985 - 1999                Ronald Michel (1st time)
1999 - 2001                Susan (Linklater) Custer (f)
2001 - 2005                Ronald Michel (2nd time)
2005 - 2007                Harold Linklater
2007 - 2013                Darrell McCallum
2013 –                     Peter A. Beatty



Yukon








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