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U.S. Native American Nations
 
Contents:  Absentee Shawnee - Acoma Pueblo - Agua Caliente - Ak-Chin - Alabama-Coushatta of Texas - Apache of Oklahoma - Arapaho of Wind River - Aroostook Band of Micmacs - Augustine Band - Bad River Chippewa - Barona Band - Barrow - Bay Mills - Big Pine - Big Valley - Bishop Paiute - Blackfeet of Montana - Bridgeport - Burns Paiute - Cabazon - Cahuilla - Cahto of Laytonville - Campo Band - Catawba - Cayuga - Chehalis - Chemehuevi - Cheyenne River Sioux - Cherokee of Oklahoma - Cheyenne & Arapaho - Chickasaw - Chinook - Chippewa Cree of Rocky's Boy - Chitimacha - Choctaw of Mississippi - Choctaw of Oklahoma - Citizen Potawatomi - Cocopah - Coeur d'Alene - Cold Springs - Colorado River Indian Tribes - Colville - Comanche Nation - Cochiti Pueblo - Coos, Lower Umpqua & Siuslaw - Coquille - Cow Creek Umpqua - Cowlitz - Crow Creek Sioux - Crow Tribe Montana - Curyung - Death Valley - Delaware of Western Oklahoma - Duck Valley Shoshone-Paiute - Duckwater Shoshone - Duwamish - Eastern Band of Cherokee - Eastern Pequot - Eastern Shawnee of Oklahoma - Ely Shoshone - Ewiiaapaayp - Fallon Paiute-Shoshone - Flandreau Santee Sioux - Forest County Potawatomi - Fort Belknap - Fort Bidwell - Fort Independence - Fort McDermitt Paiute & Shsoshone - Fort McDowell Yavapai - Fort Mojave - Fort Peck Tribes - Fort Sill Apache - Fort Yuma Quechan - Gila River - Goshute Confederated - Grand Ronde - Grindstone - Hannahville - Havasupai - Hoh - Ho-Chunk of Wisconsin - Hoopa Valley - Hopi - Houlton Maliseet - Hualapai - Iipay of Santa Ysabel - Inaja Diegueno - Inupiat - Iowa of Kansas & Nebraska - Iowas of Oklahoma - Isleta Pueblo - Jamestown S'Klallam - Jamul Indian Village - Jemez Pueblo - Jena Choctaw - Jicarilla Apache - Kaibab Band of Paiute - Kalispel - Karuk - Ketchikan - Kewa Pueblo - Kialegee - Kickapoo of Oklahoma - Kiowa of Oklahoma - Klamath - Kootenai of Idaho - Kotzebue - La Jolla Band - La Posta - Lac du Falambeau - Laguna Pueblo - Las Vegas Paiute - Lenni Lenape (Eastern Delaware) - Lone Pine Paiute - Los Coyotes - Lovelock Paiute - Lower Brule Sioux - Lower Elwha - Lower Sioux - Lummi  Makah - Manchester Rancheria - Manzanita - Mashantucket Pequot - Mashpee Wampanoag‏ - Menominee - Mesa Grande - Mescalero Apache - Metlakatla - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma - Miccosukee - Mille Lacs Band - Minnesota Chippewa‏ - Moapa Paiute - Modoc of Oklahoma - MoheganMorongo Band - Muckleshoot - Muskogee (Creek) of Oklahoma - Nambe Pueblo - NarragansettNavajo - Nez Perce - Nisqually - Nooksack - Nome Eskimo - Northern Cheyenne - Northwestern Shoshone - Oglala Sioux - Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo - Omaha - Oneida of New York - Oneida of Wisconsin - Onondaga - Osage - Ottawa of Oklahoma - Orutsararmiut - Otoe-Missouria - Paiute of Utah - Pala Band - Pascua Yaqui - Passamaquoddy - Pauma Band - Pawnee Nation of OklahomaPechanga Band - Penobscot - Peoria of Oklahoma - Picuris Pueblo - Poarch Band - Pojoaque Pubelo - Pokagon Band - Ponca of Nebraska - Port Gamble S'Klallam - Prairie Band - Prairie Island - Puyallup - Pyramid Lake Pauite - Quapaw of Oklahoma - Quileute - Quinault - Ramona Cahuilla - Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa - Reno-Sparks - Rincon Band - Robinson Rancheria - Rosebud Sioux - Round Valley - Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa - Sac & Fox of Oklahoma - Saint Croix Chippewa - Saint Regis Mohawk - Salish & Kootenai - Salt River Pima-Maricopa - Samish - San Carlos Apache - San Felipe Pueblo - San Ildefonso Pueblo - San Juan Southern Paiute - San Manuel Band - San Pasqual - Sandia Pueblo - Santa Ana Pueblo Santa Clara - Santa Rosa Cahullia - Santa Rosa Rancheria - Santa Ynez Band - Santee Sioux - Saulk-Suiattle - Sault Ste. Marie - Seminole of Florida - Seminole of Oklahoma - Seneca Nation - Seneca-Cayuga of Oklahoma - Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux - Shawnee of Oklahoma - Sherwood Valley - Shoalwater Bay - Shinnecock - Shoshone-Bannock - Shoshone of Wind River - Siletz - Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate - Sitka - Skokomish - Skull Valley Goshute - Snoqualmie - Sokaogon Chippewa - Soboba Band - Southern Ute - Spirit Lake - Spokane Tribe - Squaxin Island - Standing Rock Sioux - Stillaguamish - Stockbridge-Munsee - Summit Lake Paiute - Suquamish of Port Madison - Susanville - Swinomish - Sycuan Kumeyaay - Taos Pueblo - Te-Moak Western Shoshone - Tesuque Pueblo - Three Affiliated Tribes of Fort Berthold - Tlingit and Haida - Tohono O'odham - Tonawanda Seneca - Tonkawa - Tonto Apache - Torres-Martinez Desert Cahullia - Tuolumne - Tulalip - Tule River - Tunica-Biloxi - Turtle Mountain Chippewa - Tuscarora - Twenty-Nine Palms Band - Umatilla - United Band of Keetoowah Cherokee - Upper Sioux - Upper Skagit - Ute of Uintah & Ouray - Ute Mountain - Utu Utu Gwaitu - Viejas Band - Walker River Paiute - Wampanoag of Gay Head - Warm Springs - Washoe - White Earth - White Mountain Apache - Wichita & Affiliated Tribes - Winnebago of Nebraska - Winnemucca - Wyandotte of Oklahoma - Yakama - Yankton Sioux - Yavapai-Apache - Yavapai Prescott - Yerington Paiute - Yomba Shoshone - Ysleta del Sur Pueblo - Yurok - Zia - Zuni -

Note: As of 29 Jan 2014, there were 566 Native American tribal nations, bands, confederations, communities, rancheria, pueblo, and villages recognized by the United States federal government, under the Constitution, by treaties, statutes, or by court decisions as "sovereign domestic dependent nations under the U.S. protection" (approximately 229 of these are located in Alaska).  They have formal government-to-government relations with the United States federal government, enjoy internal self-government and administer the territories they reserved for themselves. During 1887-1906, the majority of natives were granted U.S. citizenship, the remaining natives were declared to be the citizens in 1924. Currently this page lists a small number of the total recognized Native American Nations. More data will be added as information becomes available. Nations are listed alphabetically according to the State in which their lands are currently located.

  Due to the vast number of tribal entities on this page any assistance adding or updating information is greatly appreciated.


National Congress of American Indians

16 Nov 1944                National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), an American Indian
                             and Alaska Native indigenous rights organization, founded in
                             in response to U.S. termination and assimilation policies

Presidents

1944 - 1952                Napoleon B. Johnson (Cherokee)(b. 1891 - d. 1974)
1953 - 1959                Joseph R. Garry               (b. 1910 - d. 1975)
                             (Coeur d'Alene)
1960 - 1964                Walter "Blackie" Wetzel       (b. 1915)
                             (Blackfeet)
1965 - 1966                Clarence Wesley
                             (San Carlos Apache)
1967 - 1968                Wendell Chino                 (b. 1923 - d. 1998)
                             (Mescalero Apache)
1969 - 1970                Earl Old Person (Blackfeet)   (b. 1929)
1971 - 1972                Leon F. Cook (Red Lake Chippewa)
1973 - 1976                Mel Tonasket (Colville)
1977 - 1978                Veronica L. Murdock (f)
                             (Mohave)
1979 - 1980                Edward Driving Hawk (Sioux)
1981 - 1984                Joseph DeLaCruz (Quinault)    (b. 1937 - d. 2000)
1985 - 1987                Reuben A. Snake, Jr.          (b. 1937 - d. 1993)
                             (Ho-Chunk)
1988 - 1989                John Gonzales                 (b. 1955)
                             (San Ildefonso Pueblo)
1990 - 1991                Wayne L. Ducheneaux           (b. 1936 - d. 2012)
                             (Cheyenne River Sioux)
1992 - 1995                Gaiashkibos
                             (Lac Courte Oreilles)
1996 - 1999                W. Ron Allen
                             (Jamestown S'Klallam)
2000 - 2001                Susan Masten (f)(Yurok)
2002 - 2005                Tex G. Hall                   (b. 1956)
                             (Mandan/Hidatsa/Arikara)
2006 - 2009                Joe A. Garcia (Ohkay Owingeh)
2010 -                     Jefferson E. Keel (Chickasaw) (b. 1947)



Alabama

Poarch Band of Creek Indians

[Poarch Band of Creek Indians
              (Alabama)]

1836                       Some Creeks avoid removal of the Creek Nation from the east to
                             Oklahoma.
11 Aug 1984                Recognized by the U.S. (Poarch Band of Creek Indians).
12 Apr 1985                Poarch Creek Reservation established.
1999                       Self-governance agreement.

Chiefs of Creeks East of the Mississippi
1951 – 1970                Calvin W. McGhee                 (b. 1903 - d. 1970)
1970 – 1977                Houston L. McGhee                (b. 1937 - d. 2012)
Chairmen
1976 – 2000                Eddie L. Tullis (1st time)       (b. 1938)
2000 – 2001                Fred L. McGhee (1st time)        (b. 1950 – d. 2006)
2001 – 2005                Eddie L. Tullis (2nd time)       (s.a.)
2005 – 2006                Fred L. McGhee (2nd time)        (s.a.)
12 Jun 2006 - 19 Jun 2014  Buford L. Rolin
19 Jun 2014 -              Stephanie A. Bryan (f)



Alaska

Note: Currently listed are 8 largest Native Villages by tribal population and both regional tribes out of total of 222 Alaska tribal entities. In 1972 the state was divided into 12 regions of Alaska Native Regional Corporations holding the title to most of the native lands and conducting most of the native affairs. At the same time the existing 23 Indian Reserves were abolished, except Annette Island (Metlakatla), and for the first time complete, but informal list of Alaska tribal entities was created. The tribal entities were listed on the Federal Register from 1982 in a "preliminary list," but since 1993 they are listed along the tribes of the contiguous 48 states. Except Metlakatla from 1970, all tribal entities from 1959 on are under the jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.


Barrow


23 May 1939                Formal recognition by the U.S. (Native Village of Barrow).
26 Aug 1971                Part of the Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope, a regional
                             Indian tribe.
22 Jun 1972                Within the region of Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
1997                       Renamed Native Village of Barrow Inupiat Traditional Government.
1998                       Covered by the Arctic Slope Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Presidents
1940 – 19..                ....
c.1946                     Fred Ipalook
c.1953                     Eben Hopson                      (b. 1922 – d. 1980)
c.1992                     Rex A. Okaok (1st time)
bf.1993 - 1994             Arnold J. Brower, Jr. (1st time)
1994 – 1995                Rex A. Okaok (2nd time)
1995 – 1997                Kathy Itta (f)
1997 – 1998                Arnold J. Brower, Jr. (2nd time)
1998 – 2000                Elsie Itta (f)
2000 – 2001                Arnold J. Brower, Jr. (3rd time)
2001 – 2003                Patsy Aamodt (f)
2003 – 2005                Percy Nusunginya
2005 -                     Thomas P. Olemaun


Curyung


1972                       Native Village of Dillingham listed for the first time, within
                             the region of Bristol Bay Native Corp.

1995                       Covered by the Bristol Bay Area Self-governance agreement
                             with the U.S.

1997                       Renamed Curyung Tribal Council.

Presidents
bf.1992 - af.1993          Sally H. Smith (f)
bf.1994 - 2001             Ida Roehl (f)
2001 – 2002                DuWayne Johnson
First chiefs
2002 – 2003                Rose Heyano (f)
2003 – 2004                Ida Roehl (f)
2004 -                     Thomas Tilden                    (b. 1953)


Inupiat of Arctic Slope

26 Aug 1971                Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope, recognized by the U.S. as
                             the regional Indian tribe, federating 8 (originally 5) Native
                             Villages recognized by the U.S. as native tribal entities on
                             their own: Anaktuvuk Pass, Atqasuk, Barrow, Kaktovik (Barter
                             Island), Nuiqsut, Point Hope, Point Lay, and Wainwright.
22 Jun 1972                Within the region of Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
1998                       Covered by the Arctic Slope Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Presidents
1971 – 197.                ....
c.1979                     Joseph Upicksoun                 (b. 1932 – d. 2005)
c.1983                     Arnold Brower, Sr.
bf.1992 - 1998             George Edwardson, Jr. (1st time)
1998 – 2000                Arnold J. Brower, Jr. (1st time)
2000 – 2001                Don Long
2001 – 2007                Arnold J. Brower, Jr. (2nd time)
2007 – 2010                George Edwardson, Jr. (2nd time)
2010 – 2011                Doreen Lampe (f)
2011 – 2012                George Edwardson, Jr. (3rd time)
2012 -                     George Olemaun


Ketchikan

[Ketchikan Indian Community
              (Alaksa)]

27 Jan 1940                Formal recognition by the U.S. (Ketchikan Indian Corporation).
19 Aug 1965                Under authority of the Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida,
                             a regional Indian tribe.
22 Jun 1972                Within the region of Sealaska Corp.
1995                       Covered by the South East Alaska Self-governance agreement
                             with the U.S.

Presidents
1940 – 19..                ....
bf.1989 - af.1993          Ronald W. Leighton
c.1995                     Christine Collison (f)
c.1996                     Gerald E. Hope
1998 – 2001                Stephanie D. Rainwater (f)       (b. 1948)
                             (1st time)
2001 – 2002                Marly F. Edenso (f)
2002 – 2003                Charles W. White
2003 – 2005                Stephanie D. Rainwater–Sande (f) (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
2005 – 2006                Samuel E. Bergeron               (b. 1958)
2006 – 2007                Stephanie D. Rainwater–Sande (f) (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
2007 – 2008                Richard Jackson
2008 – 2012                Norman A. Arriola
2012 -                     Irene Dundas (f)


Kotzebue

23 May 1939                Formal recognition by the U.S. (Native Village of Kotzebue).
 7 Jun 1972                Within the region of NANA Regional Corp.
1995                       Covered by the Maniilaq Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Chairmen
1939 – 19..                ....
bf.1992 - af.1996          Peter Schaeffer (1st time)
bf.1999 - 2002             Marie N. Greene (f)
2002 – 2003                Eugene Smith
2003 – 2004                Ian Erlich
2004 – 2007                Peter Schaeffer (2nd time)
2007 – 2008                Guy Adams (1st time)
2008 – 2011                Margaret Hansen (f)
2011 – 2013                Guy Adams (2nd time)
2013 -                     Chester Ballot


Metlakatla

[Metlakatla
                Indian Community (Alaska)]

1887                       Settlement (Metlakatla) by the Tsimshian emigrants from the
                             British Columbia, Canada, governed by Declaration of Residents
                             (1887), Rules and Regulations (1915) and Constitution (1944).
 3 Mar 1891                Annette Island Indian Reserve set aside.
19 Dec 1944                Metlakatla Indian Community of the Annette Island Reserve.
1997                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Mayors
1887 – 1915                Village Council (elected annually)
1915 – 1945                ....
1945 – 1957                John W. Smith                    (b. 1906 – d. 1990)
1957 – 1971                ....
1971 – 1973                John R. Benson                   (b. 1932 – d. 1983)
1973 – 1975                ....
1975 – 1977                Wallace D. Leask                 (b. 1921 – d. 2004)
1977 – 1981                ....
1981 – 1983                Casey Nelson, Sr.
1983 – 1985                Harris L. Atkinson, Jr.          (b. 1928 – d. 1999)
                             (1st time)
1985 – 1987                ....
1987 – 1989                Casey D. Nelson, Jr. (1st time)
1989 – 1991                Harris L. Atkinson, Jr.          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1991 – 1993                Casey D. Nelson, Jr. (2nd time)
1993 – 1995                Jim Scudero
1995 – 1997                Jack Booth, Sr.
1997 – 1999                Timothy E. Gilmartin
1999 – 2001                Solomon D. Atkinson
2001 – 2007                Victor C. Wellington, Sr.
                             (1st time)
2007 – 2008                John A. Scudero, Jr.
2008 – 2009                Karl S. Cook, Jr.
2009 – 2011                Arthur G. Fawcett, Jr.
2011 – 2013                Victor C. Wellington, Sr.
                             (2nd time)
2013 -                     Audrey Hudson (f)



Nome Eskimo


23 Nov 1939                Formal recognition by the U.S. (Nome Eskimo Community).
23 Jun 1972                Within the region of Bering Straits Native Corp.
1995                       Covered by the Kawerak (Norton Sound) Self-governance agreement
                             with the U.S.

Presidents
1939 – 19..                ....
bf.1992 - af.1993          Danny Karmun
bf.1994 - af.1995          Andrew Miller, Jr. (1st time)
c.1996                     Sandra T. Tahbone (f) (1st time)
bf.1999 - 2000             Andrew Miller, Jr. (2nd time)
2000                       Sandra T. Tahbone (f) (2nd time)
2000 – 2003                Andrew Miller, Jr. (3rd time)
2003 – 2005                Laban Iyatunguk, Jr.
2005 – 2006                Dawn Salesky (f) (1st time)
2006 – 2007                Clifford Johnson
2007 – 2008                Alfred Sahlin (1st time)
2008                       Dawn Salesky (f) (2nd time)
2008 – 2009                Karlin Itchoak (f)
2009                       Alfred Sahlin (2nd time)
2009 – 2010                Lester Keller
2010                       Bantu Nichols
2010 – 2013                Cynthia Ahwinona (f)
2013 -                     Janice Doherty (f)



Orutsararmiut

1972                       Native Village of Bethel listed for the first time, within the
                             region of Calista Corp.

bf.1992                    Renamed Orutsararmiut Native Village.
1995                       Covered by Yukon-Kuskokwim Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Presidents
c.1982                     John Angiak
bf.1992 - c.1996           Thaddeus Tikiun, Jr.
Chairmen
c.1996 - 2004              Henry J. Hunter, Sr.
2004 – 2012                Raymond Watson
2012 -                     Gloria Simeon (f)


Sitka

11 Oct 1938                Formal recognition by the U.S. (Sitka Community Association).
1965                       Under authority of the Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida,
                             a regional Indian tribe.

22 Jun 1972                Within the region of Sealaska Corp.
1992                       Renamed Sitka Tribe of Alaska.
1995                       Covered by the South East Alaska Self-governance agreement
                             with the U.S.


Head chiefs of Sitka Tlingits (in Russian: Glavny Koloshensky Toen)
1842 – 1868                Kooxx'aan (Mikhail)              (d. 1868)
1868 – 1874                Vacant
1874 – 1889                Annaxoots (from 1886, Aleksey)   (d. 1889)
1889 – 1908                Laanteech (Ivan)                 (b. c.1843 – d. 1908)
Presidents
1938 – 19..                ....

c.1982                     Andy Hope
1987 – 1990                William M. Brady                 (b. 1922 – d. 1995)
1990 – 1991                Rav Perkins
1991 – 1992                Pete Esquiro       
Chairmen
1992 – 2012                Lawrence A. Widmark, Jr.
2012 -                     Michael Baines


Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes Central Council

[Tlingit and
                Haida Indian Tribes Central Council flag (Alaska)]

 5 Nov 1912                Alaska Native Brotherhood established by the Tlingit and
                             Haida tribes.
11 Nov 1935                Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida first meets (regularly
                             from 1939), this is the origin of tribal government.
19 Aug 1965                Recognized by the U.S. as governing authority of the regional
                             Indian tribe, consisting of a number of Native communities, 17
                             (originally 15) of them recognized by the U.S. as native tribal
                             entities on their own: Angoon, Chilkat (Klukwan), Chilkoot                                    (Haines), Craig, Douglas, Hoonah, Hydaburg, Kake, Kasaan,
                             Ketchikan, Klawock, Petersburg, Saxman, Sitka, Skagway, Wrangell,
                             and Yakutat.
22 Jun 1972                Within the region of Sealaska Corp.
bf.1982                    Renamed Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes.
21 Oct 1993                Interior Department omits council from federal recognition list.
 2 Nov 1994                Congress reconfirms federal recognition.
1995                       Covered by the South East Alaska Self-governance agreement with
                             the U.S.

Presidents
11 Nov 1935 - 1940         David Morgan
1940 - 1966                Andrew Percy Hope, Sr.           (b. 1896 - d. 1968)
1966 - 1967                Ted Denny
1967 - 1972                John Borbridge, Jr.
1972 - 1976                Clarence Jackson, Sr.
1976 - 1980                Raymond E. Paddock, Jr.          (b. 1936 - d. 1987)
1980 - 1984                Andrew John Hope, Jr.            (b. 1923 – d. 1999)
1984 - 2007                Edward K. Thomas (1st time)
2007 - Apr 2010            William E. "Bill" Martin
2010 -                     Edward K. Thomas (2nd time)



Arizona

Ak-Chin Indian Community

[Ak-Chin Indian
              Community (Arizona)]
                        Adopted 1987

May 1912                   Maricopa Indian Reservation established.
20 Dec 1961                Ak-Chin Indian Community of the Maricopa (Ak Chin) Indian
                             Reservation.
1993                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
c.1929                     General Council
1961 - 1963                Ross Lopez
1963 - 1965                Richard Carlyle                     (d. 1965)
c.1971                     Francis Antone
1972? - af.1979            Wilbert "Buddy" J. Carlyle
1979?                      Jonas Paul Miguelbad
1979? - 19..               Leona M. Carlyle-Kakar (f)(1st time)
c.1984                     Leroy Narcia
198. – 1988?               Leona M. Carlyle-Kakar (f)(2nd time)
1989? - 1993?              Delia M. Antone (f)(1st time)
                             (from c.1991, Delia M. Carlyle)
1993? - 1996               Martin J. Antone
1996 – 1997                Terry O. Enos (1st time)
1997 - 1998                William W. Antone
1998 – 2000                Leona M. Kakar (f) (3rd time)
2000 – 2002                Delia M. Carlyle (f)(2nd time)
2002 – 2006                Terry O. Enos (2nd time)
2006 – 2010                Delia M. Carlyle (f)(3rd time)
2010 -                     Louis J. Manuel, Jr
.


Cocopah


[Cocopah Nation (Arizona)]

27 Sep 1917                 Cocopah Indian Reservation established 
16 Nov 1964                 Cocopah Indian Tribe of Arizona
1992                        Gaming compact.

Chiefs
1917 - af.1927              Frank Tehanna
c.1950                      Joe San Diego
Chairmen
c.1950 - Feb 1963           Pedro Jim
Feb 1963 - 1964             Louis S. San Diego
1964 - 1968                 Clara Barley Brown (f)             (b. 1909)
1968 - 1970                 Lena San Diego (f)
1970 - 1976                 Robert Sam Barley
1976 - 1990                 Fred Miller
1990 - Jul 1994             Dale Phillips
15 Jul 1994 - 1995          Peter Soto                         (d. 1995) 
1995 -                      Sherry Cordova (f)
                              (acting to 1996)
 

C
olorado River Indian Tribes

[Colorado River Indian
              Community CIRT (Arizona, California)]
                   Adopted 4 Jan 1979

1864                       Colorado River Indian Agency established.
 3 Mar 1865                Colorado River Reservation, Arizona/California established (no
                             treaty).
1909                       Reservation opened to the non-Indian settlement.
13 Aug 1937                Colorado River Indian Tribes (CRIT)
2003                       Gaming compact with the state.


Chiefs of Mojave
1861 – 1874                Yara-tav (= Iretaba)                (b. c.1808 – d. 1874)
                             (in 1867, came from Fort Mojave)
1874 – c.1898              Hook-a-row                          (d. c.1898)
c.1898 - af.1914           Manataba
Chief of Chemehuevi
bf.1863 - 187.             Pan Coyer (Espanqua)
Chairmen
c.1929                     General Council
18 Sep 1937 - 19..         Jay Gould (1st time)
c.1942                     Henry Welsh
c.1945                     Kearney Miller
bf.1951 - 1953             George Fisher
1953                       Jay Gould (2nd time) 
1953 - 1955                Herman Laffoon, Sr. (1st time)
1955 - 1965                Peter Homer                         (b. 1903 - d. 1988)
1965 - 1967                Herman Laffoon, Sr. (2nd time)
1967 – 1969                Dempsey Scott
1969 - 1971                Adrian Fisher
1971 – 1973                Antone Gonzalez
1973 - Jan 1977            Anthony Drennan (1st time)
Jan 1977 – Jan 1981        Franklin McCabe
Jan 1981 – Jan 1989        Anthony Drennan (2nd time)
Jan 1989 - Jan 2009        Daniel Eddy, Jr.
Jan 2009 - Jan 2014        Eldred Enas
Jan 2014 -                 Dennis Wayne Patch, Sr.



Fort McDowell Yavapai

[ Fort
              McDowell Yavapai Reservation (Arizona)]

15 Sep 1903                Fort McDowell Reservation established.
1903 – 1913                Camp McDowell Indian Agency.
1933                       First constitution adopted.
24 Nov 1936                Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache Indian Community of the Fort
                             McDowell Reservation
1992                       Gaming compact.
12 Nov 1999                Renamed Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation.

Chiefs
c.1900 - 1914              Yuma Frank (Kapalwa)                (d. 1914)
1914 – 19..                Thomas Surrama
bf.1929 - 1933             General Council
Presidents
1933 – 193.                ....
c.1938                     Sam Wilson
c.1947                     Harry Austin
c.1968                     Vincent Smith
c.1971                     Harry Jones
c.1973                     Gilbert S. Jones (1st time)      
c.1975                     Robert Russell
bf.1992 - 1997             Clinton M. Pattea (1st time)        (b. 1930 – d. 2013)
1997 – 1999                Gilbert S. Jones (2nd time)      
1999 – 2000                Bernadine Boyd (f)
2000 - 2004                Clinton M. Pattea (2nd time)        (s.a.)
2004 - 2008                Raphael R. Bear
2008 -  5 Jul 2013         Clinton M. Pattea (3rd time)        (s.a.)

Aug 2013 -                 Ruben Balderas


Fort Mojave

[Fort Mojave Indian Tribe
              (Arizona, California, Nevada)]

30 Mar 1870                Fort Mojave Indian Reservation established (formally from
                             2 Feb 1911).
1890 – 1930                Fort Mojave Indian Agency.   
 6 May 1957                Fort Mojave Indian Tribe
1990                       Gaming compact with the state.


Chiefs of Mojave (title: Aha Macav Pina Ta'ahon)
bf.1859 - 1861             Homoseh-quahot (1st time)           (d. 1875)
1861 – 1867                Yara-tav (= Iretaba)                (b. c.1808 – d. 1874)
                             (moved to Colorado River)
1867 – 1875                Homoseh-quahot (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1875 – 1877                Empote-quatachech (= Potachecha)    (d. 1877)
1877 – 1947                Sukulai-homar (Peter Lambert)       (b. 1869 – d. 1947)
1877 – c.1890              John Asukit (guardian)
1947 – 1951                Homer O. Davidson                   (b. 1892 – d. 1959)
                             (head of interim government)
Chairmen

1951 - 1957                Robert Jenkins                      (b. 1897 – d. 1964)
1957 - 1965                Frances Malika Stillmann (f)        (b. 1910 – d. 1994)
1965 - af.1976             Llewellyn Barrackman                (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
c.1984                     Minerva Jenkins (f)
1985 - Jun 1993            Nora Garcia (f)(1st time)
                             (from 19.., Nora
Helton)
Jun 1993 - 1997            Patricia Madueρo (f)
1997 - 2007                Nora Garica Helton (f)(2nd time)
                             (from 2002, Nora McDowell)
2007 -                     Timothy Williams


Fort Yuma Quechan: see under California


Gila River Indian Community


[Gila River Indian
              Community (Arizona)]

17..                       Pima and Maricopa tribes confederate.
1825 - 1856                Treaty of alliance with Mexico.
1856                       Pima (1864 - 1875 occasionally named Gila River) Indian Agency
                             established.
21 Feb 1859                Gila River Indian Reservation established (no treaty)
14 May 1936                Gila River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community,.
20 Jan 1960                Gila River Indian Community (GRIC).
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.
2003                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Head chiefs of Pima (largest tribe of the confederacy; title of chief: Uhgchu)
bf.1825 - 1855             Juan Antonio Llunas "Culo Azul"     (d. 1855)
                             (also titled as governor)
1855 - 1910                Antonio Azul                        (b. c.1825 - d. 1910)
1910 - 1923                Antonito Azul                       (b. 1851 – d. 1923)
Governors
1923 – 1926                General Council
1926 – 1934/36             Advisory Committee
Oct 1936 – 1937            Xavier Cawker
1937 – 1938                Johnson McAfee
1939 - 1942                Alexander Cannon
1942 – 1944                Alfred Jackson, Sr. (1st time)
1944 - 1945                Gee Gage
1945 - 1950                David A. Johnson, Sr.
1951 - 1952                Alfred Jackson, Sr. (2nd time)
1952 - 1954                Loyde A. Allison (1st time)         (b. 1904 - d. 1985)
1954 – 31 Dec 1960         Jay R. Morago, Jr.                  (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
 1 Jan 1961 – 31 Dec 1963  Nelson Josι
 1 Jan 1964 – 31 Dec 1969  Loyde A. Allison (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1970 – 31 Dec 1981  Alexander Lewis, Sr.
 1 Jan 1982 – 31 Dec 1984  Dana R. Norris     
 1 Jan 1985 – 31 Dec 1987  Donald R. Antone, Sr. (1st time)    (b. 1937)
 1 Jan 1988 – 31 Dec 1993  Thomas P. White
 1 Jan 1994 – 31 Dec 1999  Mary Vivian Thomas (f)
 1 Jan 2000 – 31 Dec 2002  Donald R. Antone, Sr. (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Jan 2003 – 31 Dec 2005  Richard P. Narcia                   (b. 1953)
 1 Jan 2006 – 31 Dec 2011  William P. Rhodes                   (b. 1933)
 1 Jan 2012 -              Gregory Mendoza                     (b. 1965)



Havasupai


[Havasupai Tribe of the Havasupai Reservation
                (Arizona)]

 8 Jun 1880                Havasupai Reservation set aside.
1904 – 1933                Havasupai Indian Agency.
27 Mar 1939                Havasupai Tribe of the Havasupai Reservation, Arizona.

Chiefs
bf.1869- 1872              Wa Sgwiivma                         (d. 1872)
1872 – 1898                'Navahu (= Navajo)                  (d. 1898)
1900 – 1942                Hmaan Gjaah (= Manakaja)            (b. c.1848 – d. 1942)
Chairmen
Mar 1939 - 1940            Arthur Kaska
1940 - 194.                Dean Sinyella
c.1943                     Jim Crook
c.1946                     West Sinyella
c.1947                     Lemuel Paya (1st time)
c.1951                     Clark Jack, Sr.
c.1957                     Juan Sinyella
c.1959                     Lemuel Paya (2nd time)
c.1962                     Earl Paya
c.1967                     Lee Marshall (1st time)             (b. 1896 - d. 1973)
c.1968 - c.1969            Daniel Kaska                        (b. 1928)
bf.1971 - 1973             Lee Marshall (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1973 - 1975                Oscar Paya
1975 – 197.                Leon Rogers
1976 - 1978?               Clark C. Jack, Jr. (1st time)
1978 - 1980                Reed Watahomigie
1980 - 1982                Wayne Sinyella (1st time)
1982 - 1984                Clark C. Jack, Jr. (2nd time)
1984 - 1986                James Uqualla
1986 – 198.                Wayne Sinyella (2nd time) 
198. - 1988                Delmer Uqualla
1988? - 1990               Clark C. Jack, Jr. (3rd time)
1990 - 1993                Wayne Sinyella (3rd time)
1993 – 1994                Rex Tilousi (1st time)
1994 - 1996                Wayne Sinyella (4th time)
1996 - c.1997              Lester Crooke
c.1997 - 1998              Lincoln Manakaja
1998 – 1999                Thomas Siyuja (1st time)
1999 – 2001                Augustine Hanna
2001 – 2002                Agnes Chamberlain (f)
2002 – 2004                Donald E. Watahomigie (1st time)
2004 – 2005                Rex Tilousi (2nd time)
2005 – 2007                Thomas Siyuja (2nd time)
2007 – 2009                Donald E. Watahomigie (2nd time)
2009 - 2011                Bernadine Jones (f)
2011 - 2014                Donald E. Watahomigie (3rd time)
2014 -                     Rex Tilousi (3rd time)


Hopi

Hopi Nation (Arizona) U.S.
                       Adopted 2002

c.1100                     Pueblo of Oraibi founded (one of the oldest continuously inhabited
                             settlements in the U.S.)
1629 – 1680                Subject to the Spanish (1699 – 1700 again briefly).
1869                       Moqui Pueblo (from 1923, Hopi) Indian Agency established
                             (1883-1899 closed).
16 Dec 1882                Hopi (to 1907, Moqui) Indian Reservation created.
19 Dec 1936                Hopi Tribe, a "union" of 12 self-governing Villages.
1936 – 1974                Most of the original Hopi Reservation (except the District 6)
                             shared between Hopi and Navajo (in 1962, the shared area
                             formally organized as the Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area; in 22 Dec
                             1974, that Area partitioned between Hopi and Navajo by the
                             Navajo-Hopi Land Settlement Act).

Chiefs of Oraibi Pueblo (oldest pueblo with precedence over others; title: Kikmongwi)
c.1825 - c.1850            Talayawma
c.1850 - c.1865            Nakwaiyamtewa                  (d. c.1865)
c.1865 – 1880              Kuyingwu (acting)
1880 – 1904                Lololoma                       (d. 1904)
1904 – 1906                Wilson Tewaquaptewa (1st time) (b. 1871/73 – d. 1960)
1906 – 1909                Sakwaitiwa (acting)
                             (not recognized by the U.S.)
1909 – 1960                Wilson Tewaquaptewa (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             [not the last chief]

Chairmen
1936 - 1937                Peter Nuvamsa
1937 – 1938                Otto Lomavitu
bf.1942 - 1943             Byron P. Adams
1943 – 1951                Council suspended   
1951                       Logan Koopee (1st time)
1951 – 1955                Council suspended
1955 - af.1957             Karl T. Johnson
c.1958                     Willard Sekiestewa
c.1961                     Dewey Healing                   (b. 1905? - d. 1992)
1961 - 196.                Jean Fredericks (1st time)      (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
c.1963                     Abbott Sekaquaptewa (1st time)  (b. 1929 - d. 1992)
c.1965                     Lee Thomas
bf.1967 - 1968             Logan Koopee (2nd time)
1968 – Dec 1969            Jean Fredericks (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Dec 1969 – Dec 1973        Clarence C. Hamilton
Dec 1973 – Dec 1981        Abbott Sekaquaptewa (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Dec 1981 - Dec 1989        Ivan L. Sidney  (1st time)      (b. 1947)
Dec 1989 - Dec 1993        Vernon Masayesva
Dec 1993 - Dec 1997        Ferrell Secakuku                (b. 1937 - d. 2007)
Dec 1997 - Dec 2005        Wayne Taylor Jr.
Dec 2005 – Sep 2006        Ivan L. Sidney (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Sep 2006 – Mar 2007        Todd Honyaoma (acting)
Mar 2007 - 31 Dec 2008     Benjamin H. Nuvamsa
 1 Jan 2009 – Dec 2009     Mary A. Felter (f) (acting)
Dec 2009 - Dec 2013        LeRoy N. Shingoitewa            (b. 1945?)
Dec 2013 -                 Herman G. Honanie               (b. 1953?) 

Hualapai

[Hualapai Tribe
              (Arizona)]

 4 Jan 1883                Hualapai (to 1929, also spelled Walapai) Indian Reservation
                             established.
1901                       Truxton Canyon Indian Agency established.
17 Dec 1938                Hualapai Indian Tribe of the Hualapai Reservation, Arizona.

Chiefs of Middle Mountain People (largest of 3 tribal divisions; title: Pa-kawha't)
1863 – 1910                Cherum (Tokumhet "Big Chief")     (b. c.1840 – d. 1910)
1910 – 1919                Leve Leve                         (b. 184. - d. 1919)
First chiefs (honorary leaders of the council)
c.1921                     Steve Leve-Leve                   (b. 1875 – d. 19..)
bf.1927 - af.1931          Bob Schrum                        (d. af.1944)
Chairman
1934 – Nov 1938            Charles McGee                     (b. 1903 – d. 1979)
Presidents
Nov 1938 - 1939            Philip Quasula                    (b. 1890 – d. 19..)
1939 - 1940                Charles McGee                     (s.a.)

1940 - 1941                Leo Bill Andrews (1st time)
1941 - 1944                Grant Tapija (1st time)
1944 - 1945                Leo Bill Andrews (2nd time)
1945 - 1946                Grant Tapija (2nd time)
1946 - 1948                Leo Bill Andrews (3rd time)
1948 - 1950                Wilson Honga (1st time)
1950 - Oct 1952            Sterling Mahone                   (b. 1915 - d. 1977)
 4 Oct 1952 - 1953         Wilson Honga (2nd time)
1953 - Dec 1953            Leo Bill Andrews (4th time)
1954 - Oct 1955            Rupert Parker
Chairmen
Oct 1955 - 1958            Rupert Parker
(1st time)
1958 - 1960                Jacob Honga
1960 - 1962                Rupert Parker (2nd time)
1962 - 1963                Willie Walker
1963 - 1964                Sterling Mahone (1st time)        (s.a.)
1964 - 1966                George Rocha
1966 - Oct 1966            Sterling Mahone (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Oct 1966 - Feb 1970        Rupert Parker (3rd time)
Feb 1970 - Jun 1971        Sterling Mahone (3rd time)        (s.a.)
Jun 1971 - 1973            Benedict Beecher
1973 - 1975                Sterling Mahone (4th time)        (s.a.)
1975 - 1976                Wilfred Whatoname (1st time)
1976 - 1979                Earl Havatone (1st time)          (b. 1931 - d. 2000)
1979? - 1983               Delbert Havatone (1st time)
 1 Jul 1983 - 20 Sep 1983  Justin Powskey
Sep 1983 - Jun 1984        Delbert Havatone (2nd time)
Jun 1984 - Jun 1988        Edgar B. Walema
Jun 1988 - 1990            Carrie Bender Imus (f)
1990 - 1992                Earl Havatone (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1992 - 1996                Delbert Havatone (3rd time)
1996 - 2000                Earl Havatone (3rd time)          (s.a.)
2000 - 2004                Louise Benson (f) (1st time)
2004 - 2009                Charlie Vaughn
2009 - 2011                Wilfred Whatoname (2nd time)
2011 - 2012                Louise Benson (f) (2nd time)
2012 -                     Sherry J. Counts (f)


Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians


[Kaibab Band of Paiute
              Indians (Arizona)]

1910 – 1927                Kaibab Indian agency.
11 Jun 1913                Kaibab Reservation set aside.
1951                       Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians


Chairmen
bf.1942 – 195.             ....
c.1959                     Theodore Drye
bf.1963 - 1969             Vernon E. Jake
1969 – af.1974             Bill Tom (1st time)
c.1976                     Vivian C. Jake (f)
bf.1979 - 1982             Bill Tom (2nd time)
1982 – 1983                Dolores Savala (f) (1st time)
1983 – 1984                Gloria Bulletts (f) (1st time)
1984 – 1989                Dolores Savala (f) (2nd time)
1989 – 1990                Alberta Fuller (f)
1990 – 1996                Gloria Bulletts-Benson (f) (2nd time)
1996 – 2006                Carmen M. Bradley (f)
2006 – 2009                Ona M. Segundo (f) (1st time)
2009 – 2010                Timothy L. Rogers
2010 – 2011                Ona M. Segundo (f) (2nd time)
2011 -                     Manuel M. Savala

Navajo

Navajo - Arizona, New
                  Mexico, & Utah (U.S.)
             Adopted 21 May 1968

1786 - 1793                Subject to the Spanish.
1849                       Navajos under protection of the U.S. (Navajo Tribe; official
                             spelling Navaho), the original boundaries of the Navajo country
                             fixed.
1851                       Navaho Indian Agency established (1901-1935 divided into several
                             agencies).
1864 - 1868                Settled at Bosque Redondo Reservation in New Mexico.
 1 Jun 1868                Navajo country formally ceded to the U.S. in exchange for a 
                             reservation (Navaho Indian Reservation).
1922                       Tribal government established, tribe governed by Regulations
                            (24 Apr 1923), Rules (26 Jul 1938) and Resolution (15 Dec 1989).
15 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
15 Apr 1969                Navajo Nation (also spelling "Navajo" is officially specified).
2004                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head Chiefs (title of chief: Naat'aanii)
c.1822 - 1849              Narbona (Hastiin Naat'aa)      (b. 1766 - d. 1849)
1849 - 1853                Mariano Martinez
1853 - 1855                Zarcillos Largos (1st time)    (d. 1858)
1855 - 1858                Manuelito (Hastiin Ch'ilhajini)(b. 1818 - d. 1893)
                             (1st time)
1858                       Zarcillos Largos (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1858 - 1861                Herrero Delgado (A'tsidii Sani)(b. 1830 - d. 1870)
1861 - 1866                Herrero Grande
1866 - 1871                Barboncito (Hastiin Da'ghaaii) (b. 1820 - d. 1871)
1871 - 1885                Ganado Mucho                   (b. 1809 - d. 1890)
                             (To'tso'nii Hastiin)
                             (for Western Navajos)
1871 - 1885                Manuelito (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                             (for Eastern Navajos)
1885 - 1923                Henry Chee Dodge               (b. 1857 - d. 1947)
                             (Hastiin Adiitsa'ii)
Chairmen 
1922 – 1923                Business Council
                           - Henry Chee Dodge             (s.a.)
                           - Dugal Chee Bekiss
                           - Charley Mitchell             (d. 1932)
 7 Jul 1923 - 1928         Henry Chee Dodge (1st time)    (s.a.)
1928 – Jul 1932            Deshna Clah Chischilze
                             (Dashne Cheschillege)
Jul 1932 – Mar 1936        Thomas Dodge
Mar 1936 - Mar 1937        Marcus Kanuho (interim)
Mar 1937 – Nov 1938        Henry Taliman, Sr.
Nov 1938 – Nov 1942        Jacob C. Morgan                (b. 1879 – d. 1950)
Nov 1942 - Nov 1946        Henry Chee Dodge (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Nov 1946 - Apr 1955        Sam Ahkeah                     (b. 1896 - d. 1967)
Apr 1955 – Apr 1963        Paul Jones
Apr 1963 - Apr 1971        Raymond Nakai                  (b. 1918 - d. 2005)
Apr 1971 - Apr 1983        Peter MacDonald (1st time)     (b. 1928)
Apr 1983 – Apr 1987        Peterson Zah                   (b. 1937)
Apr 1987 – 17 Feb 1989     Peter MacDonald (2nd time)     (s.a.)
17 Feb 1989 – 10 Mar 1989  Marshall P. Plummer (interim)  (b. 1948 – d. 2010)
10 Mar 1989 – 15 Jan 1991  Leonard Haskie (interim)
Presidents
15 Jan 1991 – 10 Jan 1995  Peterson Zah                   (s.a.)
10 Jan 1995 – 19 Feb 1998  Albert A. Hale
19 Feb 1998 – 24 Jul 1998  Thomas E. Atcitty              (b. 1933)
24 Jul 1998 – 12 Jan 1999  Milton Bluehouse, Sr. (interim)(b. 1935)
12 Jan 1999 - 20 Jan 2003  Kelsey A. Begaye               (b. 1951)

20 Jan 2003 - 11 Jan 2011  Joe Shirley, Jr.               (b. 1947)
11 Jan 2011 -              Ben Shelly                     (b. 1947)


U.S. Navajo Agents (at Fort Defiance, Arizona)
1851 – 1852                R.H. Weightman
1852 – 1853                S.M. Baird
1853 – 1856                Henry L. Dodge                 (d. 1856)
1856 – 1858                Vacant
1858 – 1858                W.R. Harley
1858 – 1859                R.J. Cowart
1859 – 1861                S.F. Kendrick
1861 – 1865                John Ward
1865 – 1868                Theodore H. Dodd            
1868 – 1869                J.C. French
1869 – 1870                Frank T. Bennett (1st time)
1870 – 1872                James Y. Myer
1872 – 1873                Thomas V. Keams
1873 – 1875                William F.M. Arny
1875 – 1878                Alexander G. Irvine
1878 – 1879                John E. Pyle
1879 – 1880                Galen Eastman (1st time)
1880 – 1881                Frank T. Bennett (2nd time)(acting)
1881 – 1882                Galen Eastman (2nd time)
1883 – 1884                Dennis M. Riordan
1884 – 1886                John H. Bowman
1886 – 1889                S.S. Patterson
1889 – 1890                Charles E. Vandever
1890 – 1893                Dana L. Shipley
1893 – 1894                Edward H. Plummer (acting)
1894 – 1898                Constant Williams
1898 – 1903                George W. Hayzlett
Navajo (from 1927, Southern Navajo) Superintendents
(at Fort Defiance, Arizona)
1903 – 1906                Reuben Perry
1906                       Sam B. Daire (acting)
1906 – 1908                William H. Harrison
1908 – 1919                Peter Paquette (1st time)
1919                       S. Young (acting)
1919 – 1924                Peter Paquette (2nd time)
1924                       Chester L. Walker (acting agent)
1925 – 1928                August F. Duclos
1929 – 1934                John G. Hunter
1934 – 1935                William H. Zeh (acting administrator)
Western Navajo Superintendents (in Tuba City, Arizona)
1901 – 1904                Milton J. Needham
1904 – 1907                Matthew M. Murphy
1907 – 1910                Stephen Janus
1910 – 1912                Clarence R. Jeffries
1912                       Claude C. Early (special agent)
1912 – 1914                William T. Sullivan
1914 – 1920                Walter Runke
1920 – 1921                Robert E. Burns
1921                       Charles E. Coe (special supervisor)
1921 – 1923                Charles L. Ellis (special agent)
1921 – 1923                Byron A. Sharp
1923 – 1926                Harvey K. Meyer
1926 – 1933                Chester L. Walker
1933 – 1934                John E. Balmer
1934 – 1935                Francis J. Scott
San Juan (from 1927, Northern Navajo) Superintendents
(in Shiprock, New Mexico)
1903 – 1913/17             William T. Shelton
1913/17 - 1927             Evan W. Estep
1927 – 1928                Albert H. Kneale
1929 – 1931                Billie P. Six
1931                       Ernest H. Hammond
1931 – 1935                Ernest R. McCray
Leupp Superintendents (in Leupp, Arizona)
1908 – 1911                Joseph E. Maxwell
1911 – 1914                Charles H. Dickson (supervisor to 19..)
1914 – 1915                Thomas K. Adreon (special agent)
1915 – 1924                Stephen Janus
1924 – 1926                Harmond P. Marble
1926 – 1927                William O. Roberts
1927 – 1928                John G. Hunter
1929 – 1933                John E. Balmer
1933                       Ernest H. Hammond
1933 – 1934                Theodore B. Hall
1934                       Francis J. Scott
1934 – 1935                Gordon J. Baber (senior clerk)
Pueblo Bonito (from 1927, Eastern Navajo) Superintendent
(in Crownpoint, New Mexico)
1909 – 1935                Samuel F. Stacher
Navajo Special Commissioner (charged with general Navajo issues)
1923 – 1935                Herbert J. Hagerman            (b. 1871 – d. 1935)
Consolidated Navajo Superintendents
(in Window Rock, Arizona)
1935 – 1936                Chester E. Faris
1936 – 1942                E. Reeseman Fryer
1942 – 1949                James M. Stewart
1949                       Allan G. Harper


Pascua Yaqui


[Pascua Yaqui Tribe of
              Arizona (Arizona)]

Aug 1964                   Pascua Yaqui Village formed (special federal involvement).
18 Sep 1978                Pascua Yaqui Tribe of Arizona federally recognized; until 1985
                             remains under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.

Chairmen
1978 - Dec 1987            David G. Ramirez
1988 - 1992                Arcadio Gastelum (1st time)
1992 - 1994                Albert V. Garcia               (d. 1994)
1994  (2 months)           Octaviana V. Trujillo (f)
1994 - 1996                Arcadio Gastelum (2nd time)
1996 - 2000                Benito F. Valencia
2000 - 2004                Robert Valencia                (b. 1951)
2004 -  1 Aug 2007         Herminia Frias (f)             (b. 1973)
 1 Aug 2007 -              Peter S. Yucupicio
                             (acting to 2008)


Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community

[Salt River
              Pima–Maricopa Indian Community (Arizona)]

14 Jun 1879                Salt River Indian Reservation set aside.
1913 – 1934                Salt River (from 1927, Phoenix) Indian Agency established.
11 Jun 1940                Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, Arizona.
1993                       Self-governance agreement with the US.
1998                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head chiefs of Pima (title of chief: Uhgchu)
bf.1911 - 1933             Juan Andreas Chappo          (b. c.1853 – d. 1933)
1933 - 19..                Jose King
Chairman
19.. – 1940                Vavages Buck

Presidents
1940 - 1946                Joseph Thomas

1946 - 1951                Billman Hayes, Sr. (1st time)
1951 - 1956                Hollis Chough
1956 - 1957                Billman Hayes, Sr. (2nd time)
1957 - 1958                Edmund Manuel (1st time)
1958 - 1959                Charles Chough
1959 - May 1960            Lemuel King
May 1960 - Sep 1960        Raymond Enos, Sr. (acting)
Sep 1960 - 1962            Burgess Burke
1962 - 1964                Vernon Smith
1964 - Jun 1967            Filmore Carlos (1st time)
Jun 1967 - Aug 1967        Johnson Enos (acting)
Aug 1967 - 1969            Filmore Carlos (2nd time)
1969 - 1970                Harold R. Schurz
1970 - 1971                Edmund Manuel (2nd time)
1971 - 1974                Paul J. Smith
1974 - 1979                Gerald Anton (1st time)
1979 - 1982                Herschel Andrews
1982 - Feb  1990           Gerald Anton (2nd time)
Feb 1990 - Jul 1990        Alfretta M. Anton (f)(acting)  (b. 1929 - d. 2012)
Jul 1990 - 2002            Ivan Makil
2002 - 2006                Joni M. Ramos (f)
2006 -                     Diane Enos (f)                 (b. 1950)


San Carlos Apache

[San Carlos Apache
              Tribe (Arizona)]

1871                       Camp Grant (from 1872, San Carlos) Indian Agency established.
14 Dec 1872                San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation established.
17 Jan 1936                San Carlos Apache Tribe
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.

Chiefs of Aravaipa and Pinal Apache (largest band on the reservation; title: Nant'an)
c.186.                     Santos
(chief of Aravaipa)         (d. af.1872)
bf.1871 – 1891             Haske-bahnzin (= Eskiminzin)       (b. c.1828 – d. 1895)
18.. – c.1915              General Council
c.1915 - 1923              Tribal Council
1923 – 1933                General Council
Chairmen
1933 – 193.                ....
bf.1935 - af.1937          Victor Kindelay                    (b. 1882 - d. 19..)
c.1940 - 1942?             Ernest Victor
c.1945                     Clarence Bullis
c.1947 - 1954              Clarence Wesley (1st time)         (b. 1914)
1954 - 1958                Jesse J. Stevens
1958 - 1962                Clarence Wesley (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1962 - 1974                Marvin Mull
1974 - 1978                Buck Kitcheyan, Sr. (1st time)     (b. 1936 - d. 2010)
1978 - 1986                Ned Anderson
1986 - 1991                Buck Kitcheyan, Sr. (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1991                       Raleigh Thompson (acting)
1991 - 1994                Harrison Talgo
1994 - 2002                Raymond Stanley
2002 - 2006                Kathleen "Kathy" Wesley-Kitcheyan (f)
2006 - 2010                Wendsler A. Nosie, Sr.
2010 -                     Terry Rambler



San Juan Southern Paiute


1907 – 1922                Paiute Strip Indian Reservation set aside (from 1933, part of the
                             Navajo reservation).
1990                       Recognition by the U.S. confirmed, no reservation (tribe continues
                             to reside on the Navajo land).

Chiefs
186. – 1877                Patnish                            (d. 1877)
c.1880 – c.1930            Pakai (from c.1900, David Lehi)    (b. c.1845 – d. c.1930)
c.1930 – 1969              Alfred Lehi                        (b. 1898 – d. 1969)
1970 – 1980                Anna Whiskers (f)
Presidents
1980 – 1999                Evelyn James (f) (1st time)
                             (to 1984, spokesperson)
1999 – 2003                Johnny M. Lehi, Sr.
2003 – 2004                James Lehi (acting)
2004 – 2007                Evelyn James (f) (2nd time)
2007                       Lee Choe (acting)
2007 – 2012                Mary L. Boone (f)
                             (not recognized by the U.S.)
2012 -                     May Preston (f)

Tohono O'odham

[Tohono
                          O'odham flag to 2000]
                          to 2000
[Tohono
                          O'odham - Arizona (U.S.)]
                      Adopted 2000

1699                       Subject to the Spanish (from 1821, Mexico).
 8 Jun 1854                Gadsden Purchase leads to the current U.S.-Mexico border                              traversing Papago Indian lands (by 1860, the Papago in the U.S.
                             were organized in at least 12 villages, each having a chief or
                             governor).
1857 – 1939                Papago (to 1864, Tucson; from 1919, Sells) Indian Agency
                             established (1869-1902 closed).
 1 Jul 1874                San Xavier reservation established.
12 Dec 1882                Gila Bend reservation established.
 1 Feb 1917                Papago Indian Reservation established.
18 Jun 1937                Papago Tribe
10 Sep 1978                Florence Village is established as part of the Nation.
18 Jan 1986                Renamed Tohono O'odham Nation,.
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.

Governors of San Xavier Papago (most important village in the later U.S. territory)
c.1751                     Cristobal
c.1830                     Juan Ignacio Zapata
c.1851                     Jose Golosa
c.1857                     Jose Victoriano Lucas
18.. – 193.                .... 
Chairmen
Jul 1936 - 1940            Josι Ignacio (1st time)
1940 - 1942                Peter Blaine                       (b. 1902 – d. 19..)
1942 - 1945                Henry A. Throssell (1st time)
1945 - 1946                Josι Ignacio (2nd time)
1946 - 1947                Henry A. Throssell (2nd time)
1947 - 1953                Thomas A. Segundo (1st time)      (b. 1922 - d. 1971)
1953 - Jan 1955            Enos J. Francisco, Sr. (1st time)
Jan 1955 - 1959            Mark Manuel
1959 - 1963                Enos J. Francisco, Sr. (2nd time)
1963 - 1965                Eugene J. Johnson
1965 - 1968                Robert C. Mackett                 (b. 1922)
1968 -  6 May 1971         Thomas A. Segundo (2nd time)      (s.a.)
May 1971 - Mar 1974        Augustine B. Lopez, Sr.           (b. 1935 - d. 2013)
Mar 1974 – May 1975        Jacob A. Escalante                (b. 1927 - d. 2013)
May 1975 - 1979            Cecil Williams
1979 - 1983                Max H. Norris
1983 - 1987                Josiah Moore (1st time)           (b. 1934 - d. 1993)
1987 - 31 Mar 1989         Enos J. Francisco, Jr.  
1989 - 1991                Angelo Joaquin, Sr.               (b. 1929 - d. 1995)
1991 - 19 Apr 1993         Josiah Moore (2nd time)           (s.a.)
Apr 1993 - 1995            Sylvester Listo
1995 -  3 Jun 2003         Edward D. Manuel                  (b. 1947)
 3 Jun 2003 -  3 Aug 2007  Vivian Juan-Saunders (f)          (b. 1960)
 3 Aug 2007 -              Ned Norris, Jr.                   (b. 1955)


Tonto Apache

[Tonto Apache Tribe
                of Payson (Arizona)]

 6 Oct 1972                Recognized by the U.S. (Payson Community of Yavapai-Apache).
22 Dec 1979                Renamed Tonto Apache Tribe.
1993                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
1972 – 1986?               Melton Campbell                  (b. 1941 – d. 1993)
1986? - 1989?              Ivan Smith (1st time)
1989? - 1992?              Louise C. Lopez (f) (1st time)
1993                       Howard Burdette, Sr. (acting)
1993 – 1996                Jeri Johnson (f) (1st time)
1996 – 2004                Vivian L. Burdette (f)
2004 – 2008                Ivan Smith (2nd time)
2008                       Jeri DeCola (f) (2nd time)
                             (= Jeri Johnson)
2008 – 2012                Ivan Smith (3rd time)
2012 -                     Louise C. Lopez (f) (2nd time)


White Mountain Apache 

[White
              Mountain Apache flag]

 9 Nov 1871                White Mountain Reservation established.
1872                       Fort Apache (to 1876, Camp Apache) Indian Agency (1876-97 closed)
.
 
7 Jun 1897                Fort Apache Reservation.
26 Aug 1938                White Mountain Apache Tribe of the
Fort Apache Indian Reservation.
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.

Chiefs of White Mountain Apache
(largest band on the reservation; title Nant'an)
bf.1864 – 1872             Esh-kel-dah-silah (= Eskiltesela)(b. c.1830 – d. 1875)
1872 – 1875                Palone                           (b. c.1852 - d. 1880)
1875 – 1885                Pedro (Hacke-yanil-tli-din)      (b. c.1835 – d. 1885)
Chiefs of Cibecue Apache
(other band on the reservation, in the west; title: Nant'an)
bf.1860 - 1874             Miguel (Esh-ke-iba)              (d. 1874)
1874 – 1880                Diablo (Es-ki-in-la)             (b. c.1846 – d. 1880)
1881 – 1885                Sanchez (Becbiyo'an)             (d. af.1888)
Head Chiefs

1885 -  6 Aug 1928         Alchise (
William H. Alchesay)    (b. 1853? - d. 1928)
1928 - 11 Oct 1952         William Baha
Alchesay            (b. 1885? - d. 1952)

Chairmen
c.1938                     Roy Clark
1948 - 1950                Lester Oliver (1st time)         (b. 1910 – d. 1997)
1950 - 1952                Nelson Lupe (1st time)           (b. 1909 – d. 1993)
1952 - 1954                Lester Oliver (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1954 - 1956                Nelson Lupe
(2nd time)           (s.a.)
1956 - 1958                Clinton Kessay
1958 - 1966                Lester Oliver (3rd time)         (s.a.)
1966 - 1970                Ronnie Lupe
(1st time)
1970 - 1974                Fred Benashley
1974 - 1986                Ronnie Lupe
(2nd time)
1986 - 1990                Reno Johnson
1990 - 1998                Ronnie Lupe
(3rd time)
1998 - Apr  2006           Dallas Massey, Sr.
Apr 2006 -                 Ronnie Lupe
(4th time)


Yavapai-Apache Nation

[Yavapai-Apache
              Nation (Arizona)]

1900 – 1930                Camp Verde Indian agency.
1910                       Camp Verde Reservation set aside.
12 Feb 1937                Yavapai-Apache Indian Community of the Camp Verde Reservation.
1992                       Renamed Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Reservation.
1993                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
1937 – 19..                ....
c.1947                     Harrington Turner (1st time)
c.1948                     Callaway Bornah
1966 - 1968?               Vincent Everett Randall (1st time)
1968 - c.1971              Harrington Turner (2nd time)
c.1971                     Vincent Everett Randall (2nd time)
c.1972 - af.1973           Aaron H. Russell (1st time)
1975 - Jul 1978            Vera Brown Starr (f)             (b. 1924)
1978 - 1981?               David Kwail (1st time)
c.1984                     Ned Russell
198. - Jul 1987            Theodore Smith, Sr. (1st time)   (b. 1922 – d. 2008)
1987? - af.1990            David Kwail (2nd time)
199. - 1995                Theodore Smith, Sr. (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1995 - Sep 1998            David Kwail (3rd time)
1998 - Oct 2001            Vincent Everett Randall (3rd time)
Oct 2001 - 2003            Aaron H. Russell (2nd time)
2003 - Oct 2007            Jamie L. Fullmer
 4 Oct 2007 - Oct 2010     Thomas Beauty (1st time)
 7 Oct 2010 - 2013         David Kwail (4th time)
2013 -                     Thomas Beauty (2nd time)


Yavapai Prescott Indian Tribe

[Yavapai of Prescott
              (Arizona)]

 7 Jun 1935                Yavapai-Prescott Indian Reservation established.
 5 Dec 1962                Yavapai-Prescott Community.
1970/74                    Renamed Yavapai-Prescott Tribe of the Yavapai Reservation.
2003                       Gaming compact.

Chief
19.. - 21 May 1940         Sam "Red Ants" Jimulla           (b. 1877 - d. 1940)
Chieftess
1940 -  7 Dec 1966         Viola Jimulla (f)                (b. 1878 - d. 1966)
Aug 1967 - 1976            Grace Mitchell (f)               (d. 1976)
Jul 1976 -                 Lucy Miller (f)

Ch
airmen
1938 - 1946                Don S. Mitchell                  (b. 1906 - d. 2002)
1946 - 1948                ....
Presidents
1948 - 1972                Don S. Mitchell                  (s.a.)
1972 - 1988                Patricia McGee (f) (1st time)    (b. 1926 - d. 1994)
1988 - 1990                Stan Rice, Jr. (1st time)
1990 - 1994                Patricia McGee (f) (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1994 - 13 Nov 2001         Stan Rice, Jr. (2nd time)
13 Nov 2001 -              Ernest Jones, Sr.
                             (acting to Jul 2002)


Arkansas

None Recognized


California

Note: It is intended to cover here all of the 106 native tribal entities in California. Currently all the 32 Mission tribes of Southern California (including Quechan) and the nine Paiute-Shoshone tribes along the Nevada boundary (including Chemehuevi), as well as the four major native nations of northern and central California are recorded. The latter four (Hoopa Valley, Round Valley, Tule River, Yurok) are the original reservations that were intended for all the natives of northern and central part of the state. Remaining tribal entities are so-called "rancherias", tiny tracts set aside in the early 20th century for natives who avoided removal to the four original reservations. Currently only 11 largest rancherias by native population (including Karuk) are recorded. In contrast to other parts of the U.S., there are no ratified treaties between the U.S. and native nations of California. By 1920, all or a majority of rancheria and Paiute-Shoshone Indians had became the U.S. citizens. All the California tribes from 1953 on (Agua Caliente from 1949) are under the jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.


Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla

[Agua Caliente Band of
                Cahuilla (California)]

15 May 1876                Agua Caliente (from c.1905 also called Palm Springs) Indian
                             Reservation established (confirmed 14 May 1896).
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1939                       Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians, first constitution adopted.
1959                       Long-term lease of part of the reservation to the city of Palm
                             Springs; leases lead to Indians becoming a minority on the
                             reservation.
1972                       Renamed Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente
                             Indian Reservation.
1999                       Self-governance agreement.
2000                       Gaming compact.

Captains
c.188.                     Pedro Chino                         (d. 1939)
c.1892                     Jose Rafael
c.1918                     Juan Andreas
c.1923                     Francisco Patencio                  (b. 1857 – d. 1947)
c.1925                     Lee Arenas                          (b. 1870 – d. 1966)
c.1928                     Ramon Manuel                        (b. 1884 – d. 1942)
Spokesmen
bf.1934 - 1935             Marcus Pete
1936 – 22 Jun 1939         Willy Marcus Belardo
Chairmen
22 Jun 1939 - af.1941      Willy Marcus Belardo
1952 – 1954                Lorene McGlamary (f)                (b. 1908 – d. 2002)
1954 -  6 Jan 1959         Vyola J. Olinger (f)
1959 - 1968                Eileen Miguel (f)
1968 - 1970                Joseph Patrick Patencio             (b. 19.. - d. 2008)
1970 - 1972                Larry N. Olinger
1972 - 1981                Ray Leonard Patencio                (b. 1946 - d. 2007)
1981 – 1982                Edmund Peter Siva?                  (b. 1937 - d. 2003)
1982 – 1984                Barbara Gonzalez-Lyons (f)          (b. 1954)
1984 - 11 Mar 2012         Richard M. Milanovich               (b. 1942 - d. 2012)
11 Mar 2012 -              Jeff L. Grubbe
                             (acting to 19 Jun 2012)

Augustine Band of Cahuilla

[Augustine Band
                          of Cahuilla Indians (California) old flag]
                         Former flag
[Augustine Band
                          of Cahuilla Indians (California) ]
                         Current flag

Feb 1893                   Augustine Indian Reservation set aside.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Augustine Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Augustine Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians.   
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.
2007                       Renamed Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians.

Spokeswoman
c.1954                     Margaret Andreas (f)
Chairman
1988 -                     Mary Ann Martin (f)                 (b. 1964)
                             (from 2006, Mary Ann Green)


Barona Band of Mission Indians

[Barona Band of Mission
                Indians (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Capitan Grande Reservation established for the Captain
                             Grande Band of Mission Indians.
1932                       Barona Reservation established, the Capitan Grande Band divided
                             into two groups - Barona Group and the Viejas Group (see Viejas).
1992                       Gaming compact.

Captains of Capitan Grande
c.1853                     Ignacio Curo
bf.1870 - af.1875          Pio Pena
c.1932                     Juan Diego LaChappa
Spokesmen
1932 – af.1934             Ramon C. Ames (1st time)
1946 – 19..                Bob Quitac
c.1950                     Ramon C. Ames (2nd time)
1953 – 19..                Catherine Banegas-Welch (f)
1970 – 197.                Josephine Romero (f) (1st time)
c.1972                     Edward Joseph Welch (1st time)      (b. 1937)
c.1978                     Josephine Romero (f) (2nd time)
bf.1987 – 31 Dec 1988      Edward Joseph Welch (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1989 – 31 Dec 2004  Clifford M. La Chappa
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2008  Rhonda "Lisa" Welch-Scalco (f)
Chairmen
 1 Jan 2009 – 31 Dec 2012  Edwin "Thorpe" Romero
 1 Jan 2013 -              Clifford M. La Chappa

Big Pine Paiute

[Big Pine Paiute (Paiute
                Tribe of the Owens Valley) (California)]

1912                       Big Pine Indian Reservation established.
11 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
10 Apr 1939                Part of the Owens Valley Paiute-Shoshone Bands (see Bishop).
bf.1972                    Big Pine Band of Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone Indians of the
                             Big Pine Reservation, recognized as separate tribe.
2011                       Renamed Big Pine Paiute Tribe of the Owens Valley.

Chairmen
bf.1962 - 19..             Art Richars
19.. - 19..                Anona Harvier (f)                   (b. 1904 - d. 1995)
19.. - 19..                Harvey Stewart
19.. - 19..                Dolores Miller (f)
19.. - 19..                James Duckey                        (b. 1938 - d. 2014)
c.1982                     Cheryl Coleman (f)
bf.1984 - af.1987          Velma Jones (f) (1st time)
c.1989                     Tom Lone Eagle                      (b. 1932 - d. 2008)
bf.1991 - af.1993          Velma Jones (f) (2nd time)
c.1994                     Cheryl Andreas (f)
c.1996                     Donna Duckey (f)
bf.1997 - 2000             Roseanne Moose (f)
2000 - 2002                Cheryl Levine (f)
2002 – 2008                Jessica Bacoch (f)
2008 - 2013                Virgil "Dave" Moose
2013 -                     Genevieve "Gina" Jones (f)



Big Valley Rancheria


19 Jun 1911                Rancheria set aside.
15 Jan 1936                Big Valley Band of Pomo Indians of the Big Valley Rancheria.
11 Nov 1965 – 22 Dec 1983  Terminated by the U.S.
bf.1989 - 1998             Renamed Big Valley Rancheria of Pomo & Pit River Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
1936 – 19..                ....
c.1940                     Roger A. Posh
1965 – 19..                Abolished
bf.1984 - af.1993          Manuel Gomez
bf.1994 - 1999             Valentino Jack (1st time)
1999 – 2007                Anthony Jack (1st time)
2007                       Valentino Jack (2nd time)
2007 – 2009                Anthony Jack (2nd time)
2009 – 2012                Valentino Jack (3rd time)
2012 -                     Anthony Jack (3rd time)

Bishop Paiute

[Bishop Paiute Tribe
                (California)]

1912                       Bishop Indian Colony set aside.
1916 – 1926                Bishop Indian agency.
11 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
10 Apr 1939                Owens Valley Paiute-Shoshone Bands (includes also Big Pine and
                             Lone Pine).
bf.1972                    Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Bishop Community, recognized as
                             separate tribe.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2010                       Renamed Bishop Paiute Tribe.

Chief
bf.1860 - 1863             "Captain George"
Chairman of Bishop
c.1935                     Harrison Diaz                       (b. 1881 – d. 1943)
Chairmen of Owens Valley
1939 – 19..                ....
bf.1967 - af.1969          Gerald Kane

Chairmen of Bishop
bf.1972 – 19..             ....
bf.1980 – af.1981          Paul Chavez
c.1984                     Earl Frank
bf.1986 - af.1987          Joann Poncho (f)
bf.1989 - af.1993          Jess R. Paco
bf.1994 - af.1996          Allen Summers
bf.1997 - 2000             Mervin Hess
2000 – 2002                Monty J. Bengochia (1st time)
2002 – 2004                Douglas T. Vega
2004 – 2005                Michael Rogers
2005 – 2009                Gerald Howard
2009 – 2010                Monty J. Bengochia (2nd time)
2010 – 2011                William Vega
2011 -                     Dale Delgado, Jr.


Bridgeport

17 Oct 1974                Bridgeport Indian Colony set aside.
21 Jul 1976                Bridgeport Paiute Indian Colony
2010                       Renamed Bridgeport Indian Colony.

Chairmen
1976 – 19..                ....
bf.1979 - af.1984          Maurice C. Crawford
bf.1990 - af.1991          Joseph Art Sam (1st time)
bf.1993 - af.1996          Herb Glazier (1st time)
bf.1999 - 2000             Vineca Hess (f)
2000 – 2002                Herb Glazier (2nd time)
2002 – 2003                Gerald Sam (1st time)
2003 – 2004                Herb Glazier (3rd time)
2004 – 2005                Gerald Sam (2nd time)
2005 – 2009                Charlotte Baker (f)
2009 – 2011                Joseph Art Sam (2nd time)
2011 -                     John Glazier


Cabazon Band of Mission Indians

[Cabazon Band of Mission
                Indians (California)]

15 May 1876                Cabazon Indian Reservation established.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1965                       Cabazon Band of Mission Indians
1979 – 2003                Renamed Cabazon Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians.
1997                       Self-governance agreement.
2000                       Gaming compact.

Captains

c.1823                     Chihachia
c.1855                     Cabezon                             (b. c.1783 – d. 1883)
c.1891                     Genazio Cabezon (1st time)          (b. c.1810 – d. 1906)
c.1893                     Indio Jim
c.1896                     Genazio Cabezon (2nd time)          (s.a.)

Spokesmen
19.. – 1963                Remeijo Callaway
1963 – 1965                Joseph R. "Joe" Benitez             (b. 1935)
Chairmen
1965 - 1978                Joseph R. "Joe" Benitez             (s.a.)
1978 - 1989                Arthur J. Welmas                    (b. 1929 - d. 2006)
1989 - 2009                John A. James                       (b. 1930)
2009 - 2013                David Roosevelt
2013 -                     Douglas Welmas



Cahto of Laytonville Rancheria


[Cahto Tribe (California)]
                       Adopted 2013

1908                       Rancheria set aside
.
10 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
21 Jul 1967                Cahto Tribe of the Laytonville Rancheria.
2006                       Covered by the Consolidated Tribal Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1967 – 19..                Christine Smith (f)
bf.1978 - af.1983          Bert Sloan (1st time)
c.1984                     Gertrude Brown (f)
bf.1989 - af.1993          Bert Sloan (2nd time)
bf.1994 - af.1996          Carmen Ochoa (f)
bf.1997 – 2001             Genevieve Campbell (f)
2001 – 2003                Vernon Wilson
2003 – 2005                Brandon Mitchell
2005 – 2012                Cristy Taylor (f)
                             (from 2011, Cristy Nelson)
2012 -                     Richard J. Smith

Cahuilla

27 Dec 1875                Cahuilla Indian Reservation set aside.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1960                       Cahuilla Band of Mission Indians
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Captains (1855 – 1877, also Captains-general of the Cahuilla tribe)
bf.1842 - 1863             Juan Antonio                        (b. 1783 - d. 1863)
1863 – 1877                Manuel Largo                        (b. c.1820 – d. 1889)
1877 – 1887                Fernando Lugo                       (b. 1820 – d. 1905)
1887 – 1890                Pablo Cassaro                       (d. 1890)
1890 – 1907                ....
1907 – 1912                Leonicio Lugo                       (b. c.1860 – d. 1937)
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Gabriel Costo
c.1954                     Billy P. Salgado
c.1962                     Rupert Costo                        (b. 1906 – d. 1989)
c.1984                     Eugene Madrigal
bf.1990 – 1993             Louis Candelaria
1993 – 1994                Rose A. Hamilton (f)
1994 – 1999                Michelle Salgado (f)
1999 – 2001                Antonio Heredia, Jr.
Chairmen
2001 – 2002                Leanne Salgado (f) (1st time)
2002 – 2004                Eugenia Nogalez (f)
2004 – 2006                Jerome Salgado, Sr.
2006                       Leanne Salgado (f) (2nd time)
2006 – 2009                Anthony Madrigal, Jr.
                             (interim to 2007)

2009 -                     Luther Salgado, Sr.


Campo Band of Diegueno Mission Indians

[Campo
                Band of Diegueno Mission Indians (California)]

10 Feb 1893                Campo Indian Reservation established.
1910 – 1920                Campo Indian agency.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Campo Community of Mission Indians
13 Jul 1975                Renamed Campo Band of Diegueno Mission Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.

Captain of Jacum
c.1852                     Santiago
Spokesmen
c.1934                     John Williams
c.1972                     Christobal Pinto
Chairmen
bf.1978 - 1985             Valacia M. Thacker (f)
1985 - 2004                Ralph L. Goff (1st time)
2004 - 2009                Harry Paul Cuero
2009 - 2012                Monique LaChappa (f)
2012 -                     Ralph L. Goff (2nd time)


Chemehuevi

[Chemehuevi Indian Tribe
                (California)]  


 2 Feb 1907                Chemehuevi Valley Reservation established.
1971                       Chemehuevi Indian Tribe of the Chemehuevi Reservation.
2000                       Gaming compact

Chairmen
1951 – af.1964             Dan Eddy, Sr.
19.. - 1972                Ralph Esquerra
1972 - 1978                Herbert Pencille
1978 - 1980                Ronald L. "Ron" Esquerra
1980? - 1982?              Betty McDonald (f)
1982? - 1984               Martha Wetmore (f)
1984 - 1988                Richard Alvarez
1988 - Apr 1992            Christine Walker (f)
Apr 1992 - 1996            Matthew Leivas
                             (acting to Apr 1993)
1996 - Dec 1997            Levi Esquerra
Dec 1997 – 1999            Gjrjle Dunlap (f)
1999 – 2000                David Chavez           
c.2000 - 2005              Edward D. "Tito" Smith (1st time)
2005 - 2012                Charles F. Wood
2012 -                     Edward D. "Tito" Smith (2nd time)


Cold Springs Rancheria


10 Nov 1914                Rancheria set aside
 8 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
Oct 1961                   Sycamore Valley Association of the Cold Springs Rancheria.
29 Nov 1979                Renamed Cold Springs Rancheria of Mono Indians.

Presidents
1961 – 1979                ....
Chairmen
1979 – 19..                ....
c.1984                     Dorothy Bill (f)
198. – 1994                Frank J. Lee
1994 – af.1996             Jennifer Fred (f)
bf.1999 - 2001             Jennifer Philley (f)(1st time)
2001 – 2003                Lonnie Bill (f)
2003 – 2005                Jennifer Philley (f)(2nd time)
2005 – 2009                Travis Coleman
2009 – 2014                Robert Marquez
2014 -                     Jeffery Lee


Death Valley Timbi-Sha Shoshone

1983                       Recognized by the U.S. (Death Valley Timbi-Sha Shoshone Band).
2010                       Renamed Death Valley Timbi-Sha Shoshone Tribe.

Chairmen
1966 - af.1986             Pauline Esteves (f) (1st time)      (b. 1924)

                             (spokesperson to 1978)
c.1987                     Dollie Jones (f) (acting)
c.1989                     Alice Eben (f)       
bf.1991 – 1993             Angela Boland (f) (1st time)
1993 – 1995                Roy Kennedy
1995 – 1996                Pauline Esteves (f) (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1996 – 1997                Angela Boland (f) (2nd time)(acting)
1997 – 2001                Pauline Esteves (f) (3rd time)       (s.a.)
2001 – 2002                Leroy Jackson
2002                       Georgia E. Kennedy (f)(1st time)
                             (acting)
2002 – 2003                Richard Boland
2002 – 2003                Georgia E. Kennedy (f) (2nd time)
                             (in opposition in Bishop; from 2003, recognized by U.S.)
2003 – 2004                Shirley Summers (f)
                             (from 2004, in Bishop)

2004                       Dan Shoshone
                             (in opposition to Summers; not recognized by U.S.)

2004 -                     Joseph Kennedy
                             (not recognized by U.S. from 2010)

2007 -                     George Gholson                      (b. 1963)
                             (in opposition in Bishop; from 2011 recognized by U.S.)


Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians (Cuyapaipe Band)

[Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay
                Indians (Cuyapaipe Band) (California)]

10 Feb 1891                Cuyapaipe Reservation established.
bf.1972                    Cuyapaipe Band of Mission Indians
28 Sep 1973                Renamed Cuyapaipe Community of Diegueno Mission Indians of
                             the Cuyapaipe Reservation.
2002                       Self-governance agreement
20 May 2003                Renamed Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians, California.

Chairmen
1967 - 2001                Anthony "Tony" J. Pinto             (b. 1914 - d. 2003)

                             (spokesman to 1973)
2001 - 2007                Harlan Pinto
2007 -                     Robert Pinto, Sr.                   (b. 1973)

Fort Bidwell

30 Jan 1897                Fort Bidwell Reservation set aside.
1898 – 1930                Fort Bidwell Indian agency.
1936                       Fort Bidwell Indian Community

Chiefs
bf.1878 - 19..             Ocheho
c.1929                     General Council
bf.1932 - af.1936          Charlie Washo
Chairmen
1936 – 19..                ....
c.1940                     Connan Dick
bf.1941 - af.1967          Herman Townsend
bf.1979 - af.1984          Lucinda Lame Bull (f)
bf.1990 - af.1996          Ralph DeGarmo
bf.1999 - 2002             Denise Pollard (f)
2002 – 2005                Frances Benally (f)
2005                       Jana Townsend (f)
2005 – 2007                Lawrence Harlan
2007 – 2009                Todd DeGarmo
2009 – 2010                Aaron R. Townsend
2010 -                     Bernold Pollard


Fort Independence Paiute

28 Oct 1915                Fort Independence Reservation set aside.
24 May 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1965                       Fort Independence Indian Community of Paiute

Chairmen
1965 – 1993                Vernon J. Miller (1st time)         (b. 1927 – d. 2002)
1994 - af.1997             Richard Wilder, Sr. (1st time)
bf.1999 - 2000             Wendy Stine (f)
2000 – 2002                Vernon J. Miller (2nd time)         (s.a.)
2002 – 2004                Richard Wilder, Sr. (2nd time)
2004 – 2010                Carl A. Dahlberg (1st time)
2010 – 2011                Israel Naylor (1st time)
2011 – 2012                Carl A. Dahlberg (2nd time)
2012 – 2013                Richard Wilder, Sr. (3rd time)
2013 -                     Israel Naylor (2nd time)


Fort Yuma Quechan

[Fort Yuma Quechan
                Indians (Arizona and California)]

1777 – 1781                Subject to the Spanish.
1825 – 1849                Treaty of alliance with Mexico.
22 Jul 1884                Fort Yuma (to 1910, Yuma) Indian Reservation established.
1900 – 1935                Fort Yuma Indian Agency established.
11 Dec 1936                Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation, Arizona
                             and California.
1994                       Gaming compact with the state.
  
Head chiefs (title: Kwaxot)
bf.1774 - af.1796          Salvador Palma
bf.1848 – 1849             Pablo Coclum (Mexican captain)      (b. c.1800 – d. 18..)
1849 – 1852                Santiago
1852 – 1886                Pasqual                             (b. c.1800 - d. 1886)
Chiefs
1886 – 1893                Miguel de Xuksil
1893 – 1894                Joe Palma
1894 – 1897                Vacant
1897 – 19..                Pancho LaCherro
19.. – 1924                Chappo Jackson                      (d. 1924)
1924 - af.1929             General Council
Chairman

193. – 1936                Edward Roosevelt
Presidents
1936 - 193.                Edward Roosevelt
1939 - c.1947              Edmond Jackson, Sr.
1953 – 1955                George Cachora
1955 – 1957                Henry F. DeCorse
1957 – 1959                Henry Chaipos
c.1959 - Jan 1961          Lee Emerson (1st time)
Jan 1961 – 196.            Leroy Ward
196. - Jan 1963            Lee Emerson (2nd time)
Jan 1963 - Jan 1965        Edmond Jackson, Jr.                 (b. 1915 – d. 1965) 
Jan 1965 - 1967            Fritz E. Brown (1st time)           (b. 1925 - d. 1995)
1967 - 1971                Henry A. Montague                   (b. 1919 - d. 1982)
1971 - 1973                Fritz E. Brown (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1973 – 1976                Elmer M. Savilla
1976 - 1980?               Fritz E. Brown (3rd time)           (s.a.)
1980 - Jan 1986            Vincent B. Harvier                  (b. 1935 - d. 2009)
1986? - Dec 1990           Lorraine E. White (f)
Jan 1991 - Jan 1995        Fritz E. Brown (4th time)           (s.a.)
Jan 1995 - Jan 2011        Michael "Mike" Jackson, Sr.
Jan 2011 -                 Kenny Escalanti, Sr.


Grindstone Rancheria

 7 Jan 1909                Rancheria set aside.
1971                       Grindstone Rancheria of Wintun-Wailaki Indians.
2004                       Covered by the North Valley Indian Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1971 – 19..                ....
bf.1977 - af.1984          James Burrows
bf.1990 - af.1993          Frank Burrows
bf.1994 - af.1996          Daryl E. Burrows
bf.1999 - 2000             Eliza Swearinger (f)
2000 – 2003                Dudley H. Burrows
2003 – 2006                Kenneth Swearinger
2006 -                     Ronald Kirk


Hoopa Valley

[Hoopa Valley
                          Tribe (California) first flag 1994]
                        1994 - ... .
[Hoopa Valley
                          Tribe (California) ]
                         Current flag

 8 Apr 1864                Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation established (no treaty).
1865 – 1948                Hoopa Valley Indian Agency established.
1891 - 1988                Klamath River reservation (see Yurok) made a part of the Hoopa
                             Valley reservation, known as the Hoopa Extension.
20 Nov 1933                Hoopa Tribe, the first constitution adopted.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
 4 Sep 1952                Renamed Hoopa Valley Tribe.
1993                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.
2000                       Gaming compact with the state.


Head chief of Hoopa
(title of chief: Ningxa’t’e:n)
c.1851                     Ahrookoos
Chairmen

Jun 1933 - 1935            Edward Marshall, Sr. (1st time)
1935 - 1937                Gilbert R. Marshall
1937                       Anderson Mesket
1937? – 1938?              Julius Marshall
1938? – 1939?              David Masten (1st time)

1939 - 1943                Mahlon Marshall                     (d. 1943)
Sep 1943 - 1948?           David Masten (2nd time)
1948? - 1951?              Peter Masten, Sr.
1951? - 1954               Ernest Marshall, Jr. (1st time)
1954 - 1955                Elsie Ricklefs (f)
1956 - 1957                Edward Marshall, Sr.
1957 - 1958                Jack Norton
1958 – 1960?               Vernon Davis, Sr.
1960? – 1961?              Ernest Marshall, Jr. (2nd time)
1961 – 1963?               Edward Marshall, Jr.

1963? – 1964?              Lawrence Hostler  
1964? – 1965?              Gifford Logan
1965? – 1969?              Charles J. Moon
1969? – 1971?              Peter Jackson
1971? - 1979               Peter Masten, Jr.

1979 - 1981                Dale Risling, Sr. (1st time)
1981 - 1985                Elsie G. Ricklefs  (f)
1985 - 1989                Wilfred K. Colegrove
1989 - 1997                Dale Risling, Sr. (2nd time)
1997 -  12 Dec 1997        Duane J. Sherman, Sr. (1st time)
1997 - 1999                Merv George, Jr.
                             (acting to 1998)

1999 - 2001                Duane J. Sherman, Sr. (2nd time)
2001 - 2009                Clifford L. Marshall
2009 - 28 Jun 2013         Leonard E. Masten, Jr.
28 Jun 2013 -              Danielle Vigil-Masten (f)


Iipay of Santa Ysabel 

[Iipay Nation of Santa
                Ysabel (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Santa Ysabel (c.1905 – c.1925 also called Volcan) Reservation
                             set aside.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.

bf.1972                    Santa Ysabel Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Santa Ysabel Band of Diegueno Mission Indians.
2003                       Gaming compact.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.
2007                       Renamed Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel.

Captains (years given when names identified)
1852                       Lazaro
1853 - 1854                Tomas                               (d. af.1860)
                            (also captain-general of Diegueno tribe)
1860                       A. Manuel
1865                       Ambrosio
1875                       Anodeh
1880                       Gasparo
1883 - 1886                Jose Pablo (1st time)
1890                       Manuel
1903 - 1904                Jose Pablo (2nd time)
1910 – 1912                John Linton
1914                       Baptisto LaChappa
1917                       Jose Pablo Guachene
1918                       Joe Pablo
1932                       Incencio LaChappa
Spokesmen
1933 – 1936                Winslow J. Couro (1st time)
1937                       Abraham Paipa (1st time)
1938 – 1939                Winslow J. Couro (2nd time)
1940 – 1941                Abraham Paipa (2nd time)
1942                       Winslow J. Couro (3rd time)          
1943 – 1945                Julia Osuna (f) (1st time)
1946 – 1948                Nazario J. Guachena
1949                       Stephen LaChappa
1950 – 1951                Stephen Ponchetti (1st time)
1952                       Incencio LaChappa
1953 – 1960                Stephen Ponchetti (2nd time)
1961 – 1963                Erwin Osuna
1964 – 1965                Julia Osuna (f) (2nd time)
1966                       John LaChappa
1967 – 1970                Stephen Ponchetti (3rd time)
1971                       Anthony Taylor
c.1974                     James Ponchetti (1st time)
bf.1978 - af.1980          Ignacio Scerato
c.1984                     Joan King (f)
bf.1990 - af.1991          James Ponchetti (2nd time)
c.1993                     Virgil Osuna
bf.1994 - Dec 2002         Ben Scerato
Dec 2002 – 2007            Johnny Hernandez, Jr.
Chairmen
2007 – Dec 2010            Johnny Hernandez, Jr.
Dec 2010 -                 Virgil Perez                        (b. 1971)


Inaja Diegueno

27 Dec 1875                Inaja and Cosmit Indian Reservation set aside.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1989/93                    Inaja Band of Diegueno Mission Indians
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Spokesmen
c.1934                     Clayton Sloan (representative)
c.1978                     Josephine Leo (f)
c.1984                     Rebecca Contreras (f)   

Chairmen
c.1991                     Rebecca Maxcy (f) (1st time)

bf.1993 – 1994             Josephine Leo (f)
1994 -                     Rebecca Maxcy (f) (2nd time)
                             (from 2002, Rebecca Osuna)


Jamul Indian Village

[Jamul Indian Village
                Kumeyaay Nation (California)]

 7 Jul 1981                Recognized by the U.S. (Jamul Indian Village).

Chairmen
c.1984                     Kenneth A. Meza (1st time)          (b. 1945)
bf.1990 - 1997             Raymond R. Hunter (1st time)
1997 - 2003                Kenneth A. Meza (2nd time)          (s.a.)
2003 - 2007                Leon Acevedo
2007 - Jul 2008            William "Bill" C. Mesa              (b. 1951 - d. 2008)
2008 - 2011                Kenneth A. Meza (3rd time)          (s.a.)
2011 -                     Raymond R. Hunter (2nd time)


Karuk

[Karuk Tribe (California)]

1971                       Orleans Karok Council formed.
15 Jan 1979                Recognized by the U.S. (Karok Tribe).
1990/93                    Renamed Karuk Tribe.
1998                       Self-governance agreement.

Presidents
1971 – 197.                ....
c.1977                     Lottie Beck (f)
Chairmen
1979 – 1982                ....
1982 – af.1986             Paul Gary Beck                      (b. 1947 – d. 2006)
bf.1988 - 2003             Alvis "Bud" Johnson  
2003 - 2011                Arch Super
2011 -                     Russell "Buster" Attebery


La Jolla Band of Luiseρo Indians

[La Jolla Band of
                  Luiseno Indians (California)]


 3 May 1877                La Jolla Indian Reservation established.

1909 – 1911                La Jolla Indian agency.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1962                       La Jolla Band of Mission Indians                   
bf.1979                    Renamed La Jolla Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.
2010                       Renamed La Jolla Band of Luiseρo Indians.

Captains
c.1852                     Santiago
c.1882                     Jose Albanez
Chairmen
1962 – 19..                ...
bf.1972 - af.1978          Lester Leonard Nelson
19.. - 19..                Henry Rodriguez                     (b. 1919 - d. 2002)
bf.1984 - 1994             Doris J. Magante (f)
1994 – 199.                Geneva FitzSimmons (f)
c.1996                     Janet Weeks (f)                     (b. 1941 – d. 2010)
bf.1999 - 2002             Jack Musick                         (b. 1961)
2002 – 2004                Wendy Schlater (f)
2004 - 2008                Tracy Lee Nelson
2008 – 2010                Lariann Musick (f)
2010 -                     LaVonne Peck (f)

La Posta Diegueno

10 Feb 1893                La Posta Reservation set aside.
bf.1972                    La Posta Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed La Posta Band of Diegueno Mission Indians.

Chairmen
1973 – 1983                Marie LaChappa (f)                  (b. 1920 – d. 2005)
1983 -                     Gwendolyn Parada (f)                (b. 1959)


Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone

1912                       Lone Pine Reservation set aside.
10 Apr 1939                Part of the Owens Valley Paiute-Shoshone Bands (see Bishop).
bf.1972                    Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Lone Pine Community, recognized as
                             separate tribe.
2010                       Renamed Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Tribe.

Chairmen
bf.1962 – 19..             ....
bf.1984 - af.1989          Naddeen Naylor (f)
bf.1990 - 1999             Sandra Jefferson-Yonge (f)
1999 – 2000                Dale Newell
2000 – 2005                Rachel A. Joseph (f)
2005 – 2009                Marjianne Yonge (f)
2009 – 2010                Richard Button
2010 – 2012                Melvin R. Joseph
2012 -                     Mary Wuester (f)


Los Coyotes Cahuilla and Cupeno

[Los Coyotes Band of
                Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians (California)]

 5 May 1889                Los Coyotes Reservation set aside.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Los Coyotes Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians.
2003                       Renamed Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captains
bf.1847 - af.1852          Juan Bautista (captain of Pauki)
c.1883                     Pablo Pena
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Robert Chutnicut
c.1945 – 1996              Banning Taylor, Sr.                 (b. 1906 – d. 1998)
1996 – 1998                Frank Taylor                        (b. 1938)
1998 – 2007                Catherine S. Saubel (f)             (b. 1919)
2007 – 2010                Francine Kupsch (f)
2010 -                     Shane Chapparosa


Manchester Rancheria

23 Jun 1909                Rancheria set aside.
27 Feb 1937                Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria.
bf.1974 - 2012             Renamed Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point
                             Arena Rancheria.
2000                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
1937 – af.1940             Steve Parrish
c.1984                     Kenneth Laiwa
bf.1990 - af.1993          Harry Nelson Pinola (1st time)
c.1994                     Darnell White
c.1996                     Arthur Lopez
bf.1999 - 2003             Jose Oropeza
2003 – 2005                Rick D. Poe
2005 - 2014                Harry Nelson Pinola (2nd time)
2014 -                     Eloise Oropeza (f)


Manzanita Diegueno 

[Manzanita Band of
                Diegueno Mission Indians (California)]

10 Feb 1893                Manzanita Reservation set aside.
bf.1972                    Manzanita Band of Mission Indians
1976                       Renamed Manzanita Band of Diegueno Mission Indians.
1999                       Self-governance agreement.

Spokesman
c.1934                     Jinks Elliott
Chairmen
1976 - 197.                ....
c.1978                     David Z. Elliott
1980 – 1998                Frances Shaw (f)                    (b. 1928 - d. 2002)
1998 -                     Leroy J. Elliott                    (b. 1943)


Mesa Grande Diegueno

[Mesa Grande Band of
                Diegueno Mission Indians (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Mesa Grande Indian Reservation set aside.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1971                       Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Mesa Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captains (years given when names identified)

1852                       Jose Apan
1860                       Jose Pedro Panto                    (b. c.1804 – d. 1874)
                             (also captain of San Pasqual)
1875 – 1880                Senon Duro                          (b. 18.. - d. 1906)
1887                       Narcisso LaChappa (1st time)
1889 – 1890                Jose Cleto Duro
1890 - 1892                Jose Antonio LaChappa (1st time)
1897                       Francisco Nejo
1903 - 1904                Narcisso LaChappa (2nd time)
1904                       Rafael Charley
1908                       Adolph Beresford
1908 - 1909                Jose Antonio LaChappa (2nd time)
1911                       Arturo Charley
1912                       Richard Nejo
1914 – 1915                Jose Antonio LaChappa (3rd time)
1923 – 1924                Roscindo Curo (1st time)
1925                       Ramone Charlie
1926                       Roscindo Curo (2nd time)
1931                       Roscindo Curo (3rd time)
1932                       Valentine LaChusa
Spokesmen
1933 - 1950                Valentine LaChusa
1950                       Gilbert Clelland
1951 – 1957                Delmar Nejo
1957 – 1967                Charles Ponchetti
1968 – 1969                Virgil Oyos
1970 – 1971                Claude Devers
Chairmen
1971 – af.1972             Jessie Beresford (f)
c.1978                     Jack Hamilton
c.1984                     Brian Beresford
bf.1990 - af.1991          Delmar Nejo
bf.1992 - af.1996          Carlos Guassac
bf.1997 - 2002             Howard K. Maxcy
2002 – 2005                Charlene G. Siford (f)
2005 – 2006                Michael Linton (acting)
2006 -                     Mark Romero


Morongo Band

Morongo Band of Mission
                Indians

15 May 1876                Morongo Reservation established.
1908 – 1920                Malki Indian agency.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1962                       Morongo Band of Mission Indians                     
bf.1979 - 2009             Renamed Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians of the Morongo
                             Reservation.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Captains
c.1852                     Emeterio
c.1876                     Gabriel Ygindio
18.. – 1891                William G. Pablo (1st time)          (b. c.1850 – d. 1935)
1891                       John Morongo                         (b. c.1850 – d. 1898)
1892                       William G. Pablo (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1893 - af.1896             Joseph Demate
.... - 1910                Mauricio Laws
Spokesmen
c.1934                     John Morongo, Jr.
bf.1965 - af.1977          Emmett St. Marie
c.1978                     Tom Lyons

Chairmen

c.1983                     Tom Lyons
bf.1984 - 1987             Robert Martin (1st time)            (b. 1951)

1987 - 1991                Dennis Miller (1st time)
1991 - 1992                Adelaide L. Presley (f)             (b. 1940 - d. 2013)
Dec 1992 - Jul 1993        Mary Ann Martin-Andreas (f)
                             (1st time)
1993 - 1995                Dennis Miller (2nd time)
1995 - 2001                Mary Ann Martin-Andreas (f)         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
2001 - 2006                Maurice B. Lyons                    (b. 1950 - d. 2013)
2006 -                     Robert Martin (2nd time)            (s.a.)



Pala Band

[Pala Band of Cupeρo Indians
              (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Pala Indian Reservation established.
1903                       Agua Caliente band of Cupeno moved to Pala, eventually becoming
                             a majority of the reservation population.
1903 – 1920                Pala Indian agency.
18 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1961                       Pala Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Pala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Pala Reservation.
1998                       Gaming compact.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captains of Pala Luiseno (1853 – 1878, also captains-general of the Luiseno tribe)
1835 – 18..                ....
bf.1851 - 1853             Pablo Apis, Jr.                     (b. 1810 – d. 1853)
1853 – 1862                Manuel Cota (1st time)
1862 – 1865                Francisco
1865 – 1871                Manuel Cota (2nd time)
1871                       Manuel Olegario                     (b. c.1830 - d. 1877)
1871 - af.1885             Jose Antonio Sal
Captains of Agua Caliente Cupeno
bf.1847 - 1852             Antonio Garra                       (b. c.1815 - d. 1852)
1852 – 185.                Jose Noca
185. – 1885                Jose Maria Moro                     (b. 1820 - d. 1885)
1885 – 188.                Adolfo Moro
c.1892                     Jose Cecilio Blacktooth (1st time)  (b. c.1840 – d. 1918)
c.1896                     Alejandro Barker                    (b. c.1854 – d. 1900)
c.1900                     Salvador Nolasquez                  (b. 1861 – d. 1933)
c.1902                     Jose Cecilio Blacktooth (2nd time)  (s.a.)
c.1903                     Juan Maria Cibimoat
Captains of Pala
c.1906                     Ambrosio Ortega                     (b. 1869 – d. 1922)
c.1921                     Domingo Moro                        (b. 1866 – d. 1931)
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Remeijo Robles
bf.1954 - af.1956          Robert Lavato (1st time)
c.1957                     Catherine Trujillo (f)
bf.1960 - 1961             Robert Lavato (2nd time)
Chairmen
1961 – 196.                Robert Lavato
196. - 196.                Gerard Boisclair
196. - 196.                Robert Mel Lavato
c.1968                     Josephine "Josie" Jackson (f)
c.1972                     King Freeman (1st time)
c.1973                     Donald Magee
1977 – 1978                Lawrence "Larry" Blacktooth
1978 - 1987                King Freeman (2nd time)
1987 - 1988                Robert H. Smith (1st time)
1988 - 1989                Richard D. Stephens                 (b. 1952)
1989 – 1990                Patricia R. Nelson (f)
1990 -                     Robert H. Smith (2nd time)

Pauma Band of Luiseρo Indians

[Luiseρo Band of Pauma /
                Yuima Mission Indians (California)]

18 Aug 1892                Pauma and Yuima Reservation established.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1966                       Pauma Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Pauma Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians of the Pauma
                             and Yuima Reservation.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captains
c.1852                     Francisco
c.1885                     Pedro Pablo
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Roscencio Ardilla
c.1958                     Maurice Magante
Chairmen
1966 – 19..                ....
c.1972                     Edward Calac
1970's                     Lorena Dixon (f)                   (b. 1922 - d. 2012)
c.1975                     Samuel J. Powvall (1st time)
c.1978                     Florence Lofton (f) (1st time)
c.1979                     Samuel J. Powvall (2nd time)
bf.1984 - c.1988           Patricia A. Dixon (f)
bf.1990 - af.1991          Benjamin Magante (1st time)
bf.1992 – af.1993          Florence Lofton (f) (2nd time)
c.1993                     Lee E. Dixon ??
c.1994                     Maurice J. Magante
c.1994                     Christobal C. Devers (1st time)
bf.1996 – 199.             Samuel J. Powvall (3rd time)
bf.1998 - Jan 2001         Benjamin Magante (2nd time)
Jan 2001- Jan 2011         Christobal C. Devers (2nd time)
Jan 2011 -                 Randall G. Majel



Pechanga Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians

[Pechanga Band of Luiseno Mission Indians,
              Pechanga Reservation (California)]

27 Jun 1882                Pechanga (to c.1890 also called Temecula) Reservation established.
1909 – 1913                Pechanga Indian agency.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Pechanga Band of Mission Indians
1978                       Renamed Pechanga Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians,
                             Pechanga Reservation.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.
 
Captains of Temecula (later Pechanga)
1835 – 1851                Pablo Apis                          (b. 1792 - d. 1851)
                             (alcalde)
1851 - af.1869             Lauriano
1900? - 1910?              Juan Macarro                        (b. 1851 – d. 1920)
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Louis Flores
bf.1978 - af.1980          Vincent Ibanez
c.1984                     Gabriel H. Pico
bf.1990 - 1995             Jennie Miranda (f)
1995 – 2003                Marc A. Macarro                     (b. 1965)
Chairman
2003 -                     Marc A. Macarro                     (s.a.)

Ramona Cahuilla

[Ramona Band of Cahuilla
                (California)]

10 Feb 1893                Ramona Indian Reservation set aside.
1989/93                    Ramona Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.
2010                       Renamed Ramona Band of Cahuilla

Representatives
bf.1984 - 1993/94          Anne Hamilton (f)
1993/94 - 2002             Manuel W. Hamilton
Chairmen
2002 – 2007                Manuel W. Hamilton
2007 -                     Joseph D. Hamilton



Rincon Band of L
uiseρo Indians


[Rincon Band of
                          Luiseρo Indians (California) old flag]
                      Former flag
[Rincon Band
                          of Luiseρo Indians (California)]
                       Current flag

27 Dec 1875                Rincon Indian Reservation established.
1909 – 1911                Rincon Indian agency.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1960                       Rincon Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Rincon Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captain of Potrero
c.1852                     Jose Calac
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Tomas Arviso
1940's                     Marcus Golsh                        (b. 1890 - d. 1987)
1947 – 1955                Max C. Mazzetti (1st time)          (b. 1921 - d. 2010)
1955 – af.1957             Therman E. McCormick                (b. 1912 – d. 1958)
195. - 1960                Max C. Mazzetti (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1960 - bf.1967             Leo D. Calac                        (b. 1920 - d. 2013)
Chairmen
1960 – 196.                ....
c.1965                     DeLisle Calac
c.1966/88                  Patricia A. Duro (f)
c.1970                     Frank Mazzetti
c.1972                     Donald Calac
c.1975                     Max C. Mazzetti                     (s.a.)
c.1976/78                  Matthew Calac
bf.1978 - c.1979/81        Edward T. Arviso (1st time)
c.1979/81 - bf.1990        ....
bf.1990 - 1994             Edward T. Arviso (2nd time)
1994 - 1996                Robert G. Calac
1996 – 1998                Edward T. Arviso (3rd time)
1998 - Feb 2006            John D. Currier
Feb 2006 - 10 Apr 2008     Vernon H. Wright                    (b. 1955 - d. 2008)
Apr 2008 -                 Frederick "Bo" Mazzetti



Robinson Rancheria

[Robinson
              Rancheria of Pomo Indians (California)]

 8 Sep 1909                Rancheria set aside.
 3 Sep 1965 – 29 Jun 1977  Terminated by the U.S.
1978                       Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2012                       Renamed Robinson Rancheria Band of Pomo Indians.

Chairmen
1978 - c.1986              Bernadine Tripp (f)
c.1990                     Curtis F. Anderson, Jr. (1st time) (b. 1946)
c.1990 – af.1993           Marcus N. Anderson                 (b. 1939 - d. 2000)
bf.1994 - af.1996          Douglas Duncan
1997 - 1999                Curtis F. Anderson, Jr. (2nd time) (s.a.)
1999 - 2006                Clara Wilson (f)
Oct 2006 -  4 Dec 2013     Tracey Avila (f)                   (b. 1961 - d. 2013)
Dec 2013 - 2014            Curtis F. Anderson, Jr. (3rd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
2014 -                     Nicholas Medina


Round Valley

14 Jun 1856                Round Valley Reservation set aside (no treaty).
1860 – 1950                Round Valley (to 1865, Northern District; 1923 - 1948 Sacramento;
                             from 1948, California) agency.
 8 Apr 1864                Round Valley R
eservation confirmed by Congress.
1894                       Entitled to acquire the U.S. citizenship (by 1920, all were
                             citizens).
 
7 Nov 1936                Covelo Indian Community of the Round Valley Reservation.
14 Sep 1994                Renamed Round Valley Indian Tribes.

Presidents
1936 – af.1937             Arthur Anderson
c.1969                     Warren Lincoln
c.1979                     Douglas Whipple
c.1984                     Daran Lincoln
bf.1991 - af.1993          Gaylan Azbill
bf.1994 - af.1996          Joseph A. Russ, Sr.
c.1999                     Norman W. Whipple
bf.2000 - 2004             John Azbill, Sr.
2004 – 2005                Deborah Oliver (f)
2005 – 2006                Shannon M. Barney (f)
2006 – 2010                Eugene Jamison, Jr.
2010 – 2011                Carlino Bettega
2011 -                     Kenneth Wright


San Manuel Band of Mission Indians


[San Manuel Band of Mission
              Indians (California)]

1865 – 1948                Mission Indian agency.
1891                       San Manuel Indian Reservation established.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1966                       San Manuel Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979 - 2009             Renamed San Manuel Band of Serrano Mission Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Captains
c.1866                     Antonio Sever
c.1870                     Manuel Santos                       (b. 1814 – d. 1919)
c.1893                     Crispin
c.1903                     Manuel
Spokesman
c.1934                     Alfred Marcus
Chairmen
1966 – 19..                ...
bf.1984 - c.1991           Henry Duro (1st time)               (b. 1949)
c.1993                     Harvey Duro
1994 - 1996                Lynn R. LeRoy (f) (1st time)
1996 - 1999                Henry Duro (2nd time)               (s.a.)
1999 - 2006                Deron Marquez                       (b. 1970)
2006 - 2008                Henry Duro (3rd time)               (s.a.)
2008 - 2012                James C. Ramos                      (b. 1967)
2012 - 2014                Carla Rodriguez (f)                 (b. 1953)
2014 -                     Lynn R. Valbuena (f) (2nd time)
                             (= Lynn R. LeRoy)

San Pasqual Diegueno


[San Pasqual Diegueno
              Tribe (California)]

 1 Jul 1910                San Pasqual Reservation set aside.
1971                       San Pasqual Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed San Pasqual Band of Diegueno Mission Indians
2000                       Gaming compact.
2006                       Covered by the Indian Health Self-governance agreement.

Captains
1835 – 183.                Juan Cuerpo (alcalde)
bf.1837 - 1874             Jose Pedro Panto                     (b. c.1804 – d. 1874)
                            (from 1854, also captain-general of the Diegueno tribe)
Spokesmen
c.1954                     Florence Trask-Wolf (f)
bf.1978 - af.1984          Ronald Peralta                      (b. 1931 – d. 2010)
bf.1991 - af.1993          Diane Martinez (f)
c.1994                     Ray Natividad                       (b. 1940 – d. 2007)
bf.1996 - 1997             Dorothy Tavui (f)
1997 -                     Allen E. Lawson, Jr.



Santa Rosa Cahuilla


[Santa Rosa
              Band of Cahuilla Indians (California)]

 2 Feb 1907                Santa Rosa Reservation set aside.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Santa Rosa Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Santa Rosa Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.
2007                       Renamed Santa Rosa Band of Cahuilla Indians.

Captain
c.1911                     Manuel Tortes
Spokesmen
c.1934                     Jack Meyers
1976 – 2000                Anthony Largo
2000 – 2001                Vivian Scribner (f)
2001 – 2003                Christina Arzate (f)
2003 – 2004                Erlinda A. Jones (f)
Chairmen
2004 – 2008                John Marcus (acting to 2006) (1st time)
2008 – 2009                Mayme Estrada (f) (1st time)
2009 – 2010                John Marcus (2nd time)
2010 – 2012                Mayme Estrada (f) (2nd time)
2012 -                     John Marcus (3rd time)



Santa Rosa Rancheria

[Santa Rosa
                Rancheria (California)]

Feb 1921                   Rancheria set aside.
 8 May 1963                Santa Rosa Indian Community of the Santa Rosa Rancheria.
2000                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
1963 – 197.                ....
197. – 2001                Clarence Atwell (1st time)          (b. 1945 – d. 2013)
2001 – 2003                Michael Sisco
2003 – 2009                Clarence Atwell (2nd time)          (s.a.)
2009 -                     Ruben Barrios



Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians

[Santa Ynez Band
              of Chumash Indians (California)]


27 Dec 1901                Santa Ynez Indian Reservation established.
1964                       Santa Ynez Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Mission Indians
2000                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
bf.1967 - c.1983           Edward Olivas
c.1984                     James P. Pace
c.1985                     Edward A. Valencia
198. - 199.                Richard Gomez
bf.1990 - 1999             David Dominguez
1999 -                     Vincent Armenta



Sherwood Valley Rancheria

10 May 1909                Rancheria set aside.
10 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
25 Jul 1974                Sherwood Valley Rancheria of Pomo Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2006                       Covered by the Consolidated Tribal Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1974 – 197.                ....
197. – 1979                Thomas E. Campbell                  (d. 1979)
bf.1982 - af.1984          Patricia Augustine (f)
bf.1985 - af.1997          Mike Knight
bf.1999 - 2001             Robin Phillips
2001 – 2005                Allen Wright
2005 -                     Michael Fitzgerral



Soboba Band of Luiseρo Indians

[Soboba Band of
              Luiseno Indians (California)]

19 Jun 1883                Soboba (to c.1890 also called San Jacinto) Reservation established.
1910 – 1920                Soboba Indian agency
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Soboba Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Soboba Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2002                       Renamed Soboba Band of Luise
ρo Indians.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Captains
bf.1852 - af.1860          Victoriano                          (d. 1888)
c.1882                     Jose Jesus Castillo
Spokesmen
bf.1934 - af.1948          Anthony Mojado
19.. - 1953                Adam Castillo                       (b. 1885 - d. 1953)
c.1962                     Elor Soza
c.1964 - c.1969            William P. Soza
19.. - 1972                Eleanor Gomez (f)
1972 – 197.                Benny Helms (1st time)
1976 – 19..                Robert J. Salgado (1st time)        (b. 1942)
c.1984                     Benny Helms (2nd time)
198. – 1986                Robert J. Salgado (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1986 - 1988                Scott Cozart (1st time)
1988 – 1994                Robert J. Salgado (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1994 – 1996                Ernest Salgado, Jr.
1996 – 1998                Charles Lopez
1998 – 2007                Robert J. Salgado (4th time)        (s.a.)
2007 – Apr 2008            Rosemary Morillo (f) (1st time)     (b. 1953)
                             (acting)
Apr 2008 - Nov 2009        Robert J. Salgado (5th time)        (s.a.)
Nov 2009 – Apr 2010        Rosemary Morillo (f) (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)   
Apr 2010 – Apr 2012        Scott Cozart (2nd time)
Chairman
Apr 2012 -                 Rosemary Morillo (f)                (s.a.)



Susanville Rancheria

[Susanville Rancheria
                (California)]

15 Aug 1923                Rancheria set aside.
1972/74 - 1997             Renamed Susanville Rancheria of Paiute, Maidu, Pit River &
                             Washoe Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact
2007                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1969 – 19..                Freda C. Owens (f)
c.1976                     Harold Dixon
bf.1984 - af.1993          Aaron Dixon
bf.1994 - af.1996          Nicholas J. Padilla (1st time)

bf.1998 - 1999             Victor Preston
1999 – 2000                Nicholas J. Padilla (2nd time)
2000 – 2002                Dwight "Ike" Lowry
2002 – 2003                Valerie Edwards (f)
2003 -                     Stacy Dixon



Sycuan Kumeyaay


[Sycuan Band of Kumeyaay
              Nation (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Sycuan Reservation set aside.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Sycuan Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Sycuan Band of Diegueno Mission Indians.
1998                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Renamed Sycuan Band of Kumeyaay Nation.

Captains
c.1852                     Surdo
c.1870                     Manuel
Spokesmen
c.1934                     John Helmiup
1972 – 1992                Anna Prieto-Sandoval (f)            (b. 1934 – d. 2010)
1992 – 1994                Daniel J. Tucker (1st time)
1994 – 2002                Georgia Tucker (f)
2002 -                     Daniel J. Tucker (2nd time
)


Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla


[Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla (California)]

15 May 1876                Torres-Martinez Indian Reservation established.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
bf.1972                    Torres-Martinez Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979                    Renamed Torres-Martinez Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians.
2004                       Renamed Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Captains of Torres
c.1862                     Jose Ignacio
c.1894                     Joaquin Torres
c.1902                     Francisco Torres (1st time)
c.1903                     Louis Torres
c.1910                     Francisco Torres (2nd time)

Spokesmen

c.1934                     Basquet Chihuahua
bf.1950 - af.1957          Virgil R. Lawson                    (b. 1918 – d. 1997)

Chairmen
1974 - 19..                ....
bf.1984 - af.1987          Harvey J. Duro
198. – 1990                Helen Jose (f) (1st time)
1990 – 199.                Mary E. Belardo (f) (1st time)      (b. 1949)
bf.1991 - 1994             Helen Jose (f) (2nd time)
1994 - 1997                Mary E. Belardo (f) (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1997 - 1998                Arthur R. "Art" Lopez
1998 - Nov 2002            Mary E. Belardo (f) (3rd time)      (s.a.)
2002 - 2009                Raymond Torres
2009 -                     Mary L. Resvaloso (f)


T
uolumne Rancheria

25 Oct 1910               Rancheria set aside
15 Jan 1936               Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria.
2000                      Gaming compact.

Chairmen
1936 – af.1937            John Kibby
c.1940                    William Fuller                       (b. 1873 – d. 1958)
bf.1969 - 1970            George Wessell
1970 – 1974               Luna Wessell (f)
1974 – 19..               Vernon Bailey
c.1984                    Stanley Robert Cox
bf.1990 - af.1996         Sonny Hendricks
bf.1999 -                 Kevin A. Day


Tule River

[Tule River
              Indian Tribe (California)]

1860 – 1923                Tule River (to 1865, Southern District) agency.
 9 Jan 1873                Tule River Reservation set aside.
 7 Jan 1936                Tule River Indian Tribe
2000                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
bf.1936 - 19..             ....
c.1940                     Ross Ellis
c.1969                     Robert Santos
c.1979                     Alec Garfield
c.1984                     Crispina Sierra (f)
bf.1990 - af.1993          Nicola Larsen (f)
c.1994                     Irma Hunter (f)
c.1996                     Duane M. Garfield, Sr. (1st time)
bf.1999 - 2001             Phillip D. Hunter
2001 – 2004                Duane M. Garfield, Sr. (2nd time)
2004 – 2010                Neil Peyron (1st time)
2010 – 2012                Ryan Garfield
2012 -                     Neil Peyron (2nd time)



Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians


[Twenty-Nine Palms Band of
              Mission Indians (California)]

11 Nov 1895                Twenty-Nine Palms Reservation established.
1972                       Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians
bf.1979 - 2002             Renamed Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Luiseρo Mission Indians.
2000                       Gaming compact.
2005                       Covered by the Riverside-San Bernardino Self-governance agreement.

Captains
187. – af.1895             William Mike (Mike Boniface)        (b. 18.. - d. 1909)
bf.1908 - 1911             Jim Pine                            (b. c.1840 – d. 19..)
Spokesmen
1972 – 19..                ....
c.1984                     Jennifer Andrade (f)
bf.1990 - 1996             June Mike (f)
1996 - 2006                Dean Mike
 1 Jan 2007 -              Darrell Mike


Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute of Benton

22 Jul 1915                Benton Reservation set aside.
20 Jan 1976                Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation

Chairmen
bf.1970 - af.1979          Joseph C. Saulque (1st time)
c.1984                     Gladys Beauregard (f)
c.1989                     Joseph C. Saulgue (2nd time)
bf.1990 - 2003             Rose M. Saulque-Bahe (f)
2003 – 2007                Joseph C. Saulque (3rd time)
2007 – 2010                Mike Keller
2010 -                     Billie G. Saulque


Viejas Band


[Viejas Band of Kumeyaay Indians
              (California)]

27 Dec 1875                Capitan Grande Reservation established for the Capitan Grande Band
 
                            of Mission Indians.
1932                       Capitan Grande Band divided into two groups - the Barona Group
                             (see Barona) and the Viejas (to 1934, Los Conejos) Group.

1934                       Viejas Reservation established.
1990                       Gaming compact.

Spokesmen
1932 – af.1936             Ventura Paipa                       (b. 1879 – d. 19..)
c.1954                     Sam Brown
1973 – 1983                Carmen "Daisy" Welch (f)            (b. 1940 – d. 2004)
1983 – 1989/93             Anthony R. Pico                     (b. 1945)
Chairmen 
1989/93 – 2001             Anthony R. Pico (1st time)          (s.a.)

2001 - 2002                Steven TeSam                        (b. 1960)
2002 - 2006                Anthony R. Pico (2nd time)          (s.a.)
2007 - 2010                Bobby L. Barrett                    (b. 1964)
2011 -                     Anthony R. Pico (3rd time)          (s.a.)


Yurok


[Yurok Tribe (California)]

16 Nov 1855                Klamath River Reservation set aside (no treaty).
1856 – 1860                Klamath River Indian agency.
1891 - 1988                Reservation a part of the Hoopa Valley reservation, known as the
                             Hoopa Extension (in 1892 the Extension is opened to non-Indian
                             settlement).

15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1940                       Yurok Tribe.
1996                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1988 – 1991                Transition Team (5 members)
1991 – 1997                Susie L. Long (f)
1997 – 2003                Susan M. Masten (f)
2003 – 2006                Howard McConnell
2006 – 2009                Maria Tripp (f)
2009 -                     Thomas P. O'Rourke, Sr.



Colorado

Southern Ute

[Southern Ute Tribe
                (Colorado) Flag]
                     Adopted 1970/71

30 Dec 1849                Under the U.S. protection (Confederated Bands of the Ute), divided
                             into 6 bands. 
1860                       Conejos (1869 – 1877 Los Pinos; 1877 – 1922 Southern Ute; from
                             1922, Consolidated Ute) Indian Agency established (1869 – 1881
                             there was additional White River Indian Agency for the northern
                             bands).
 2 Mar 1868                Confederated Ute Reservation established.
15 Jun 1880                Reservation diminished to the Southern Ute (from 1918, Consolidated
                             Ute) Reservation.
1881                       Northern bands of Ute removed to the Uintah Reservation in Utah.
1896                       Entitled to acquire the U.S. citizenship (by 1920, all were
                             citizens); non-citizens separated to become the latter Ute
                             Mountain Ute and retained the western sector of the reservation.
 4 May 1899                Eastern sector of the reservation (from 1938, alone formally known
                             as the Southern Ute Reservation) opened to the non-Indian
                             settlement.
 7 Nov 1936                Southern Ute Tribe
1984                       Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
1992                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head chiefs for the Capote, Muache, Weminuche bands (in the south)
c.1849                     Quixiachigiate
bf.1855 - 1868             Coneache (Kaniache)               (d. 1881)
Head chief for the Tabeguache, Grand River, Yampa bands
(in the north)
bf.1849 - 1868             Nevava                            (d. 1868)
Head chief of the Confederated Ute (title of chief: Ta'wa-vi)
1868 - 24 Aug 1880         Ouray                             (b. 1833 - d. 1880)
Chiefs of Southern Ute
1880 – 1896                Ignacio (head chief)              (b. 1844 – d. 1913)
1896 -   8 May 1936        Charles Buck "Buckskin Charlie"   (b. 1840 - d. 1936)
1936                       Antonio Buck, Sr.                 (b. 1879 - d. 1961)
Chairmen 

1935 – Dec 1936            John Burch
Dec 1936 - 1939            Antonio Buck, Sr.                 (s.a.) 
1940 - 1944                Julius N. Cloud (1st time) 
1945 - 1948                Samuel Burch (1st time)
1949                       Julius N. Cloud (2nd time)
1950                       Samuel Burch (2nd time)
1951 - 1952                Julius N. Cloud (3rd time)
1953 - 1956                Samuel Burch (3rd time)
1957 - 1960                John E. Baker, Sr. (1st time)
1961                       Anthony C. Burch 
1962 - 1963                John E. Baker, Sr. (2nd time)
1963 - 1965                John S. Williams 
1966                       John E. Baker, Sr. (3rd time)
1967 - Dec 1984            Leonard C. Burch (1st time)        (b. 1933 - d. 2003)
Dec 1984 – Dec 1987        Christopher A. Baker, Sr.
Dec 1987 – Dec 1996        Leonard C. Burch (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Dec 1996 – Dec 1999        Clement J. Frost (1st time)
Dec 1999 – Dec 2000        John E. Baker, Jr.                 (b. 1947)
Dec 2000 – Feb 2001        Vida B. Peabody (f) (acting)
Feb 2001 – Dec 2002        Leonard C. Burch (3rd time)        (s.a.)
Dec 2002 – Nov 2004        Howard D. Richards, Sr.
Nov 2004 – Jan 2005        Anthony C. Burch (acting)
Jan 2005 - 21 Dec 2008     Clement J. Frost (2nd time)
21 Dec 2008 – Feb 2011     Matthew J. Box                     (b. 1970)
Feb 2011 – 13 Apr 2011     Jimmy R. Newton, Jr. (1st time)    (b. 1976 - d. 2014)
                             (acting) 
13 Apr 2011 - 15 Dec 2011  Pearl E. Casias (f)
15 Dec 2011 - 31 Mar 2014  Jimmy R. Newton, Jr. (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Apr 2014 - 29 May 2014  James M. "Mike" Olguin (acting)
29 May 2014 -              Clement J. Frost (3rd time)

Ute Mountain Tribe


[Ute Mountain Tribe
              (Colorado)]

1896                       Non-citizens (from 1915, known as the Ute Mountain Ute) separated
                             from the rest of Southern Ute and retained the western sector of
                             the reservation (from 1938 the Ute Mountain Reservation).
1900 – 1922                Navajo Springs (from 1915, Ute Mountain) Indian Agency established.
1938                       Ute Mountain Reservation established.
 6 Jun 1940                Ute Mountain Tribe
1992                       Gaming compact with the state.
  
Chiefs
1896 – 1913                Ignacio (head chief)               (b. 1844 – d. 1913)
1913 – 1936                John Miller                        (d. 1936)
1936 - 1971                Jack House                         (b. 188. - d. 1971)
                             [last traditional leader]
Chairmen

1938 – May 1940            Jack House                         (s.a.)
May 1940 - 1955            George Mills
1955 - 1958?               Scott Jacket (1st time)
1958? – af.1962            Albert Wing (1st time)             (b. 1923)
c.1965 - c.1967            Scott Jacket (2nd time)
c.1970 - c.1973            Albert Wing (2nd time)             (s.a.)
c.1975 - c.1976            Marshall Whyte
c.1977 - 1979              Scott Jacket (3rd time)
1979 - 1981                Judy Pinnecoose (f) (1st time)     (b. 1943)
1981 - 1982                Terry Knight
1982 - 1985?               Ernest House (1st time)            (b. 1945 - d. 2011)
1985? - 1986               ....
1986 - 1989                Ernest House (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1989 - 1998                Judy Knight-Frank (f) (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (= Judy Pinnecoose)
1998 - Oct 2001            Ernest House (3rd time)            (s.a.)
Oct 2001 – Jul 2002        Judy Knight-Frank (f) (3rd time)   (s.a.)
Jul 2002 – Oct 2004        Harold D. Cuthair
Oct 2004 – Aug 2005        Selwyn Whiteskunk
Aug 2005 – Oct 2007        Manuel Heart (1st time)
Oct 2007 – Oct 2010        Ernest House (4th time)            (s.a.)
Oct 2010 – Oct 2013        Gary Hayes
Oct 2013 -                 Manuel Heart (2nd time)


Connecticut

Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation

[Eastern Pequot Tribal
              Nation (Connecticut)]


1683                       Reservation set aside for the Eastern Pequots.
1976 – Aug 2002            Tribe divided into two groups.
Jun 2002                   Federal recognition is granted as "Historical" Eastern Pequot
                             Tribe.
Jan 2003                   Formal merger of the two groups (Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation).
Oct 2005                   Federal recognition withdrawn.

Chiefs (first two also titled as governors)

1655 – 1677                Harmon Garrett (Cashawasset)     (b. c.1610 – d. 1677)
1677 – 1695                Momoho                           (d. 1695)
c.1678                     Catapesset (in opposition)       (b. c.1650 – d. af.1680)
bf.1713                    Cushamequin                      (d. bf.1713)
bf.1713 - af.1723          "Sunk Squaw" (f)
                             [recorded only by titular designation]
bf.1749 - 1752             Mary Momoho (f)                  (b. c.1665 – d. 1752)
Chairmen of Eastern Pequot
1976 - 1997                Roy Sebastian (Chief Hockeo)
1997 - 2001                Mary E. Sebastian (f)
2001 - Jan 2003            Marcia Jones Flowers (f)
Chairmen of Authentic (from Aug 1979, Paucatuck) Eastern Pequot
1976 – 1977                Linda Strange (f)
1977 – 1981                Richard E. Williams
1981 - Feb 1987            Raymond A. Geer
1987 - 2002                Agnes E. Cunha (f)
                             (acting to 1988)
2002 – Jan 2003            James A. "Jim" Cunha
Chairmen
Jan 2003 - Jul 2006        Marcia Jones Flowers (f)
2006 - 2009                Lewis Randall
25 Jul 2009 - Jul 2012     James A. "Jim" Cunha
Jul 2012 - Jun 2013        Brian Geer
2013 -                     Denis Jenkins
                             (acting to Nov 2013)



Mashantucket Pequot 

[Mashantucket Pequot flag (Connecticut)]

1622 – 1631                Pequots allied with the Dutch.
1637                       Subject to the English.
1651                       Reservation set aside for the Western Pequots.
18 Oct 1983                Mashantucket Pequot Tribe gains federal recognition, remains
                             under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
1991                       Gaming compact.

Grand Chiefs of Pequot
c.1500                     Tamaquashed (Pekoath)
c.15..                     Muckquntdowas
c.15..                     Woipequand
bf.1590 - 1631             Wopigwooit (Tatobem)             (d. 1631)
1631 – 1637                Sassacus                         (b. c.1560 – d. 1637)
1637 – 1651                Abolished
Chiefs (first three also titled as governors)
1651 – 1692                Robin Cassacinamon I             (d. 1692)
1692 – 1694                David Cassacinamon               (d. 1694)
1694 – 1740                Scattup (Scadoab)                (d. 1740)
bf.1712 – 1722             Robin Cassacinamon II            (d. 1722)
                             (in opposition)
c.1741 – c.1760            Charles Scordaub
bf.1747 – c.1760           Joseph Wyoke (Wyock)
                             (in opposition)
1760 – af.1785             Joseph Charles Scordaub
c.1760 - af.1773           Daniel Quocheets (Quotcheath)
                             (in opposition)
c.18..                     .... (two councilors jointly)
c.1935                     John George
19.. - 1973                Elisabeth George Plouffe (f)     (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
1973 - 1975                Amos George                      (b. 1882 – d. 19..)
Chairmen
1975 - Jan 1999            Richard A. "Skip" Hayward        (b. 1947)  
Jan 1999 - Jan 2003        Kenneth M. Reels                 (b. 1960)
Jan 2003 -  1 Jan 2010     Michael J. Thomas                (b. 1968)
 1 Jan 2010 -              Rodney A. Butler                 (b. 1977)



Mohegan 

[Mohegan Tribe flag
                  (Connecticut)]

1635                       Separated from the Pequot, an ally (later subject) of the English.
1671                       Reservation established.
1872 – 1973                Dissolved and not recognized by the state.
 7 Mar 1994                Federal recognition granted to the Mohegan Tribe of Indians of the
                             State of Connecticut, remains under jurisdiction of state courts
                             and law enforcement.
1994                       Gaming compact.
2001                       Self-governance agreement.

Chiefs
1635 – 1683                Uncas                              (b. c.1588 – d. 1683)
1683 – 1715                Oweneco                            (b. c.1620 – d. 1715)
1715 – 1723                Caesar Uncas                       (b. c.1640 – d. 1723)
1723 – 1725                Ben Uncas I                        (d. 1725)
1726 – 1746                Ben Uncas II                       (b. c.1695 – d. 1746)
1735 – 1736                Mahomet                            (b. c.1705 – d. 1736)
                             (did not take office; in opposition)
1736                       Anne Uncas (f) (interim)
                             (in opposition)
1736 – 1769                John Uncas I (in opposition)
1746 – 1769                Benjamin Uncas III                 (d. 1769)
1769 – 1770                Isaiah Uncas                       (d. 1770)
                             (did not take office)
1769 – 1787                Zachary Johnson –Regent            (d. 1787)
1769 – af.1783             John Uncas II (in opposition)
Headmen (after 1823 title not specified)
bf.1789 - c.1806           Henry Quaquaquid
                           + Robert Ashpo (Ashbow)
c.1807                     John Cooper
                           + Andrew Ashpo (Ashbow)
c.1823                     Benoni Occom (chief headman)       (b. 1763 – d. 1829)
c.1838                     Jacob Cooper
c.1853                     Martha Uncas (f)                   (b. 1769 – d. 1859)
c.1860                     Henry Matthews                     (b. 1819 – d. 1903)
1872 – 1902                Abolished
Chiefs (not recognized by the state to 1973; traditional leaders from 1992)
1902 - 1903                Henry Matthews (Wegun)             (s.a.)
1903 - 1928                Lemuel M. Fielding (Occum)         (b. 1859 - d. 1928)
                             (acting to 1920)
1929 - 1935                Everett M. Fielding                (b. 1887 - d. 1935) 
1935 - 1937                Julian L. Harris (Peegee Uncas)    (b. 1872 - d. 194.) 
1937 - 1952                Burrill H. Fielding (Matahga)      (b. 1862 - d. 1952)
1952 - 1970                Harold A. Tantaquidgeon            (b. 1904 - d. 1989) 
1970 - 1991                Courtland E. Fowler                (b. 1905 - d. 1991)
                             ("Little Hatchet")
1992 -  1 Oct 2007         Ralph W. Sturges (G'tinemong)      (b. 1918 - d. 2007)
15 Aug 2010 -              Lynn Malerba (Mutawi Mutahash)(f)  (b. 1955)
Chairmen
1980 – 1991                Courtland E. Fowler                (s.a.)
1991 – 1995                Ralph W. Sturges                   (s.a.)
1995 – 2000                Roland J. Harris
2000 – 2005                Mark F. Brown                      (b. 1957)
2005 – 2009                Bruce S. Bozsum (1st time)
2009 – 2010                Lynn Malerba (f)                   (s.a.)
2010 –  7 Oct 2013         Bruce S. Bozsum (2nd time)
 7 Oct 2013 -              Kevin P. Brown

Schaghticoke

1736                       Reservation set aside.
1985                       Tribe divided into two groups (in Oct 1991, the group under Velky
                             changed name to Schaghticoke Tribal Nation, while the group
                             under Russell remains Schaghticoke Indian Tribe).
24 Jan 2004                Schaghticoke Tribal Nation federally recognized.
11 Oct 2005                Federal recognition withdrawn.

Chiefs
bf.1742 - 1760             Gideon Mauwee                      (b. c.1687 – d. 1760)
1760 – af.1775             Joshua Job Mauwee
bf.1786 - af.1792          Joseph Mauwee
Chairmen
1973 – 1979                Irving A. Harris (1st time)        (b. 1932)
1979 – 1982                Maurice Lydem
1982 – 1983                Trudie Ray Lamb (f)
1983 – 1985                Alan Russell
                             (from 1985, continues in opposition)
1985 – 1987                Irving A. Harris (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1987 -                     Richard L. Velky

Delaware

None Recognized



Florida

Miccosukee
[Miccosukee Tribe
                  (Florida)]
                  Adopted 1962
11 Jan 1962                Miccosukee Tribe of Indians recognized as separate from 
                             the Seminole Tribe of Florida.
 6 Mar 1971                Miccosukee constitution established.

Chairmen
1962 - 1985                Buffalo Tiger                  (b. 1920)
1986 - 2010                Billy Cypress                  (b. 1952)
 5 Jan 2010 -              Colley Billie


Seminole Nation of Florida

[Flag of the
                        Florida Seminole Tribe]
                        Adopted 1966

18 Sep 1823                Seminole country ceded to the U.S. in return for the Seminole
                             Indian Reservation by Treaty of Moultrie Creek.
 9 May 1832                Seminole Indian Reservation ceded to the U.S. in return for a new
                             reservation in the Indian Territory by Treaty of Payne's Landing.
23 Dec 1835 - 14 Aug 1842  Second Seminole War.
1839                       Majority of the Seminoles moved to the Indian Territory.
1856 - 1858                Third Seminole War.
1913                       Seminoles of Florida recognized as separate from the Seminole 
                             Nation of Oklahoma.
1917                       Big Cypress Indian Reservation established.
1926                       Dania (1966, renamed Hollywood) Indian Reservation added.
13 Jun 1935                Brighton Indian Reservation added.
1953                       U.S. House proposes termination of Seminole Tribe.
21 Aug 1957                Seminole Tribe of Florida, federal recognition.

Principal Chiefs
1750 - 1785                Cowkeeper (Abaya)              (d. 1785)
1785 - 1812                King Payne                     (d. 1812)
1812 - 1819                King Bowlegs                   (d. 1819/21) 
1819 -  2 Jan 1849         Mikanopi (Sint Chakkee)        (d. 1849)
1849 - 1953                
Interregnum
War Chiefs
1835 - 1837                Osceola (William Powell)       (b. 1804 - d. 1838)
1837 - 1842                Abiaka (Sam Jones)             (b. 1774 - d. 1866)
1856 - 1858                Holata Micco (Billy Bowlegs)   (b. 1810 - d. 1864)
Chairmen

1953 - 1967                Bill "Billy" Osceola           (b. 1919 - d. 1995)
1967 - 1971                Betty Mae Jumper (f)           (b. 1923)
1971 - 1979                Howard E. Tommie
1979 - 2001                James E. "Jim" Billie          (b. 1944)
2001 -                     Mitchell Cypress               (b. 1947)

Georgia

None Recognized

Hawaii

None Recognized

Idaho

Coeur d'Alene

[Coeur d'Alene Tribe
                  (Schitsu'Umsh) - Idaho]

14 Jun 1867                Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation set aside (no treaty).
 8 Nov 1873                Reservation enlarged.
 3 Mar 1891                Reservation reduced.
1905                       Coeur d'Alene (from 1937, Northern Idaho) Indian Agency
                             established.
1910                       Reservation opened to the non-Indian settlement.
17 Nov 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
 2 Sep 1947                Coeur d'Alene Tribe of Idaho
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.
1995                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Head chiefs (title of chief: Yelmixwum)
c.1660 - c.1760            "Circling Raven"
c.1760 – 1844              Stelam "Thunder"                    (d. 1844)
1844 – 1865                Vincent Bassah (Selepsto)           (d. af.1889)
1865 – 1902                Andrew Seltice                      (b. 182. - d. 1902)
1902 – 1907                Peter Louis Wildshoe                (d. 1907)
1907 – 1932                Peter Bartholomew Moctelme          (d. 1934)
1932 – 1949                Joseph Seltice                      (d. 1949)
1949 - 1965                Ignace Garry                        (d. 1965)

Chairmen
1934 – af.1936             Basil Peone
19.. – 1947                Pascal J. George (1st time)
1947 – 1949                Joseph Seltice                      (s.a.)
1949 – 1950                Ignace Garry                        (s.a.)
1950 – 1954                Pascal J. George (2nd time)
1954 – 1955                Felix Aripa
1955 – 1956                Lawrence Nicodemus
1956 – 1968                Joseph R. Garry                     (b. 1910 - d. 1975)
1968 – 1970                Oswald George
1970 – 1972                Bernard LaSarte (1st time)
1972 – 1974                Hillary Skanen
1974 – 1982                Bernard LaSarte (2nd time)
1982 – 1985                Dave Matheson
1985 – May 1986            Bernard LaSarte (3rd time)
May 1986 – May 2005        Ernest L. Stensgar
May 2005 -                 James Allan                         (b. 1972)



Kootenai Tribe of Idaho


[Kootenai tribe (Idaho)]

1896                       Kootenai Reservation established, but gradually lost.
1947                       Kootenai Tribe of Idaho
18 Oct 1974               
Kootenai Reservation re-established.
1993                       Gaming compact.

2001                       Self-governance agreement.

Chiefs
c.1775 – 1840              "Three Moons"                       (b. c.1740 – d. 1840)
1840 – 1864                "Big Hunter"(from 1844 Thomas Blind)(d. 1864)
1864 – 1887                Abraham Blind                       (d. 1887)
1887 – 1900                Morisse Chiqui                      (d. 1900)
1900 – 1916                Isadore Chiqui                      (d. 1916)
1916 – 1935                Narcisse Isadore                    (d. 1935)
1935 – 1950                Pierre Andrew                       (d. 1950)
                             [not the last chief]

Chairmen

1947 – 19..                ....
bf.1974 - af.1984          Amelia "Amy"  C. Trice (f)          (b. 1936 - d. 2011)
                             (1st time)
c.1990                     Velma A. Bahe (f)(1st time)
c.1992                     Amelia "Amy"  C. Trice (f)          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

199. - 1993                Larry Aitken

1993 – 2001                Velma A. Bahe (f)(2nd time)
2001 – 2005                Gary Aitken, Sr.
2005 - 2013                Jennifer Porter (f)
2013 -                     Gary Aitken, Jr.


Nez Perce


[Nez Perce - Idaho (U.S.)]
                      Adopted 1991

12 Jun 1855                Under the U.S. protection (Nez Perce Tribe).
1857 – 1933                Washington East of the Cascades (1861 – 1902 Nez Perce; from 1902,
                             Fort Lapwai) Indian Agency established.

 9 Jun 1863                Nez Perce (1873-1929 Lapwai) Indian Reservation established.
Jul 1878 – May 1885        Joseph band of Nez Perce displaced to the Nez Perce Indian
                             Reservation in Oklahoma; in 1885 moved to the Colville Indian
                             Reservation (see Colville).

1893                       Entitled to acquire the U.S. citizenship (by 1920, the majority
                             were citizens).

18 Nov 1895                Reservation opened to the non-Indian settlement.
1927                       Nez Perce advisory committee established under a constitution.
17 Nov 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
13 Apr 1948                New constitution adopted
1995                       Gaming compact with the state.

2001                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Head chiefs (title: Wiya-taqis Miyo-xat ["Older Chief"])
1842 – 1848                Twvish Sisimnen "Sparkling Horn"    (b. c.1810 – d. 1848)
                            
(Ellis)
1848 – 1849                Richard Tackensuatis                (d. af.1858)
1849 – 1876                Hallalhot-soot (‘Alu-ya "Lawyer")   (b. 1796 – d. 1876)
1876 – 1877                Reuben                              (d. 1877)
1877 – 1879                James Lawyer                        (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
1879 – 1880                ....
1880 – 1927                General Council
Presidents
1927 – 1929                James Stuart                        (b. 1862 – d. 1929)
c.1932                     Harry Wheeler                       (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
1936 - 19..                James M. Parsons

Chairmen
1948 – 19..                Sam Slickpoo                        (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
c.1952                     Harrison Lott                       (b. 1891 - d. 1971)
1955 - 1961                Richard A. Halfmoon (1st time)      (b. 1910 - d. 1999)
1961 - May/Aug 1965        Angus A. Wilson (1st time)          (b. 1913)
May/Aug 1965 – 1966        Richard A. Halfmoon (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1966 – Feb/May 1967        Angus A. Wilson (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Feb/May 1967 – 1976        Richard A. Halfmooon (3rd time)     (s.a.)
1976 – 1977                ....
1977 - 1983                Wilfred A. Scott
1983 - c.1985              Allen V. Pinkham, Sr. (1st time)    (b. 1938)
c.1985 - 1987              Herman J. Reuben
1987 – May 1990            Allen V. Pinkham, Sr. (2nd time)    (s.a.)
May 1990 – 1992            Charles H. Hayes (1st time)         (d. 1996)
1992 – 1994                Samuel N. Penney (1st time)
1994 – 1995                Charles H. Hayes (2nd time)         (s.a.)                
1995 – 2003                Samuel N. Penney (2nd time)

2003 – 2005                Anthony D. Johnson
2005 – 2007                Rebecca A. Miles (f)                (b. 1978)
2007 – 2010                Samuel N. Penney (3rd time)
2010 – 2011                McCoy Oatman                        (b. 1978)
2011 – 2012                Brooklyn D. Baptiste
2012 -                     Silas C. Whitman                    (b. 1942)

Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

Shoshone-Bannock
                Tribes of Fort Hall Reservation (Idaho)

17..                       Bannock and Northern Shoshone confederate.
14 Jun 1867                Fort Hall Indian Agency set aside.
 3 Jul 1868                Fort Hall Indian Reservation established by Treaty.
30 Apr 1936                Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation.
2000                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head chiefs (all Bannock; title of chief: Kapitaa)
bf.1814 - 1832             Po'have "The Horse" ("Horn Chief")  (d. 1832)
bf.1843 - 1863             Toso-Kwauberaht "Le Grand Coquin"
1863 – 1871                Tagi (= Taghee)                     (b. c.1825 - d. 1871)
1871 – 1878                Council (5 band headmen)
1878 – 1891                Tyghee                              (d. 1891)
1892 - af.1901             James Ballard (Sheme)               (b. 1843 – d. 1918)
bf.1909 - af.1917          Pat L. Tyhee                        (b. 1853 – d. 1924)
c.1929                     Council (6 band headmen)
Chairmen
1930 – 1936/37             Charles Peterson                    (b. 1867 – d. 194.)
c.1937                     Peter Jim
c.1938                     Willie George
c.1947                     LaSalle Pocatello
c.1955                     Wilford Broncho
c.1957                     Frank W. Parker
c.1962                     Edward Boyer
c.1964                     Layton L. Littlejohn
1966 – 1967                Kesley Edmo, Sr. (1st time)         (b. 1919 – d. 1998)
c.1967                     Herbert LeClair

c.1968                     Joseph Thorpe, Jr.
c.1969                     Arthur Hayball
bf.1971 - 1972             Kesley Edmo, Sr. (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1972 – 1973                Zelma Edmo (f)
1973 – 1974                Kesley Edmo, Sr. (3rd time)         (s.a.)
1974 – 197.                Jimmie Dann
c.1982                     R. Willis Dixey
c.1983                     Lionel Q. Boyer (1st time)
c.1984                     Kesley Edmo, Sr. (4th time)         (s.a.)
bf.1992 - 1993             Kesley Edmo, Sr. (5th time)         (s.a.)

1993 – 1994                Keith Tinno (1st time)
1994 - 1995                Marvin Osborne
1995 - 1997                Delbert Farmer
1997 - 1998                Arnold Appenay
1998 - 1999                Keith Tinno (2nd time)
1999 - 2000                Duane Thompson
2000 - 2001                Lionel Q. Boyer (2nd time)
2001 - 2003                Blaine J. Edmo (1st time)
2003 - 2004                Nancy Eschief-Murillo (f)
2004 - 2005                Frederick Auck
2005 - 2006                Blaine J. Edmo (2nd time)
2006 –  8 Jun 2010         Alonzo A. Coby                      (b. 1969)
 8 Jun 2010 -              Nathan Small


Illinois

None Recognized


Indiana

Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians, Michigan and Indiana

[Pokagon Band of
              Potawatomi Indians, Michigan and Indiana ]

1994                       Pokagon Band regained U.S. recognition.
2000                       Pokagon Reservation established.

Chairmen

18.. - 1899                Simon Pokagon
1899/1901                  Isaac Quigno                       (d. 1926)
Oct 1929 - 1938            Andrew Rapp                        (b. 1865 - d. 1938)
1945/53                    Michael Williams                   (b. 1881 - d. 1969)
19.. - 19..                Cecelia Williams (f)
bf.1989                    Phillip Alexis
1992? - 1994               Daniel Rapp                        (b. 1939 - d. 2011)
1994 - 1996                Joseph Rufus Winchester            (b. 1927 - d. 2005)
1996 - 1997                Matthew Wesaw (1st time) (acting)
1997 - Nov 1998            Robert "Bob" Moody (1st time) 
1998 - Nov 2001            John Miller (1st time)
                             (acting to ....)
Nov 2001 - Sep 2002        Mike Zimmerman, Jr. (acting)
Sep 2002 - 2008            John Miller (2nd time)
2008 - 26 Oct 2013         Matthew Wesaw (2nd time)
Oct 2013 - Feb 2014        Robert "Bob" Moody (2nd time)(acting)
 8 Feb 2014 -              John P. Warner  

Iowa

Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa

[Sac & Fox Tribe of the
              Mississippi in Iowa]

Chairmen
c.1992                     Keith C. Davenport
199. - 2002?               Talbert Davenport
2002? - 2004               Alexander Walker
 3 Mar 2003 - 2005?        Homer Bear (in opposition)
2005/06                    Talbert Davenport
c.2012/13                  Frank Black Cloud
c.2014 -                   Judith Youngbear-Bender (f)

Kansas

Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska

[Iowa Tribe of
              Kansas and Nebraska]

 6 Mar 1861                Iowa Reservation established by treaty.
26 Feb 1937                Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska


Chairmen

c.1954                     Leonard Fee
1962 - 1965                Marvin L. Franklin
1965 - 19..                Cecil R. Green
c.1979/82                  Howard Simmonds
1984 - ....                Leon Campbell (1st time)           (b. 1945 - d. 2014)
1998 - 200.                Louis Deroin
200. - 2009                Leon Campbell (2nd time)           (s.a.)

2011 -                     Timothy Rhodd


Prairie Band of Potawatomi Nation


[Prairie Band of
              Potawatomi Nation, Kansas]

1832                       Potawatomi Tribe of Indians of the Prairie.
1846                       Tribe relocated to Kansas.
....                       Prairie Band of Potawatomi Indians.
....                       Renamed Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation.

Chairmen

c.1939 - c.1940            James Wahb-no-sah
1946? - 196.
?              Minnie Evans (f)
196.? - 196.               Mage Puckkee (f)
c.1963                     Philip D. Burns                    (b. 1925 - d. 2001)
196. - c.1974              Lester L. Jessepe                  (b. 1929 - d. 2007)
c.1985                     Delores A. Miller (f)
c.1986 - 1993?             George Wahquahboshkuk
Jul 1994 - Oct 2000        Mamie Rupnicki (f)
Oct 2000 -  5 Dec 2000     Gary Mitchell (acting)
 5 Dec 2000 - 2002         Badger Wahwassuck
2002 - 2006                Zach Pahmahmie
2006 - 2007                Tracy Stanhoff (f) (interim)
2007 -                     Steve Ortiz

Wyandot Nation of Kansas

[Wyandot Nation of Kansas]



Kentucky

None Recognized

Louisiana

Apalachee (Talimali Band of Apalachee Indians‏)

[Apalachee
              Nation (Louisiana)]

Chairmen
.... - ....                Gilmer "Boy" Vallery              (b. 1866 - d. 1952)
.... - ....                ....
c.1997 -                   Gilmer Bennett



Chitimacha 

[Chitimacha tribe
                  (Louisiana)]

1917                       Chitimacha Tribe of Louisiana granted federal recognition.

Chiefs 
1903 - 1934                Benjamin Paul 
1934 - 1947                Ernest "Papa Jack" Darden 
1947                       Alexander Darden 
1948 - 1950                Leroy Burgess (chairman)
1950 - 1969                Emile "Bizz" Stouff 
1969 - 1971                Leonard "Nick" Stouff 
Chairmen 
1971 - 1981                Leroy Burgess
1981 - 1983                Daniel Darden (1st time)
1983 - 1987                Larry Burgess 
1987 - 1989                Daniel Darden (2nd time)
1989 - 1998                Ralph Darden 
1998 - 2007                Alton D. LeBlanc, Jr.
2007 - 2009                Lonnie L. Martin
2009 -                     John Paul Darden



Jena Band of Choctaw Indians


[Jena Band of
                Choctaw Indians (Louisiana)]

31 May 1995                Jena Band of Choctaw Indians federally recognized.


Chiefs

1850 - 1910                John Allen
1910 - 1916                Sam Gibson
1917 - 1933                Bill Lewis
1933 - Dec 1950            Will Jackson                      (d. 1950)
1950 - 1958                Chris Jackson
1958 - 1968                William Lewis                     (d. 1968)
Chairmen
1974 - 1975                Jerry D. Jackson (1st time)
1975 - 1985                Clyde Jackson
1985 - 1986                George Allen
1986 - 1998                Jerry D. Jackson (2nd time)
1998 - 2002                Beverly Cheryl Jackson Smith (f)
                             (1st time)
2002 - 2010                Christine M. Norri (f)
2010 -                     Beverly Cheryl Jackson Smith (f)
                             (2nd time)


Tunica-Biloxi Indians

[Tunica Biloxi Indians
              of Louisiana]
                      Adopted 1992

1975                       Recognized by the state of Louisiana.
23 Jul 1981                Tunica-Biloxi Indians of Louisiana federally recognized.
 1 Jan 1999                Renamed Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe.

Chiefs

18.. - 1841                Melancon
1841 - 187.                Zenon La Joie
187. - 1911                Valsin (Volsin) Chiqui
Jun 1911 - 1921            Sesostris Youchican
                             (Sesostrie Youchicant)
1921 - 1936                Ernest Pierite
1936 - 1948                Eli Barbry                        (b. 1877 - d. 1956)
1948 - 1955                Horace Pierite, Jr.               (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
1955 - 16 Mar 1976         Joseph A. Pierite, Sr.            (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
Chairmen
1976 - 1978                Joseph "Joe" Pierite, Jr.
1978 - 31 Jul 2013         Earl J. Barbry                    (b. 1950 - d. 2013)
24 Aug 2013 -              Marshall Pierite


Maine

Aroostook Band of Micmacs

[Aroostook Band of
                  Micmacs (Maine)]

1984                       Aroostook Micmac Council
26 Nov 1991                Federal Recognition granted (Aroostook Band of Micmacs), remains
                             under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.

Presidents    
1984 - 1985                Donald Sanipass (1st time)
1985 - 1986                Paul Phillips
1986 - 1987                Donald Sanipass (2nd time)
1987 - 1988                David Sanipass
1988 - 1989                Wesley Miller
1989 - 1991                Mary Philbrook (f)
Chiefs
1992 - 1994                Mary Philbrook (f)(1st time)
1994 - 1995                Roger Pictou
1995 - 1997                Mary Philbrook (f)(2nd time)
1997 - 1999                Richard Getchell (1st time)
1999 - 2007                William W. Phillips
2007 - 2011                Victoria Higgins (f)
2011 - 2013                Richard Getchell (2nd time)
2013 -                     Edward Peter-Paul



Houlton Maliseet

[Houlton Band of
                Maliseet Indians (Maine)]

1980                       Recognized by the U.S. (Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians), remains
                             under
jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.

Chairmen    
c.1973 – 19..              ....
bf.1993 - 1997             Clair Sabattis (f)
1997 – 2002                Brenda Commander (f)
Chief
2002 -                     Brenda Commander (f)


Passamaquoddy

[Passamaquoddy Indian Township flag
                          (Maine)]
                  Indian Township Flag
[Passamaquoddy Pleasant Point flag
                          (Maine)]
          Pleasant Point Flag Adopted 1995
1650 – 1713                In alliance with the French.
1713 – 1775                Ally (later subject) of the British.

1794                       Reservations established by the state.
1852                       Divided into two governments (Indian Township and Pleasant Point),
                             but remains single tribe.
1972                       Recognized by the U.S. (Passamaquoddy Tribe).

Chiefs (title: Sakom)  
c.1604                     Esauqueet
c.16..                     Agoumett
c.1689                     Michel Neptune I
bf.1725 - af.1749          Pierre-Paul Neptune
c.1760                     Michel Neptune II
17.. – 1778                Jean-Baptiste Neptune             (b. c.1718 – d. 1778)
Governors
1778 – 1834                Francis Joseph Neptune            (b. c.1735 – d. 1834)
1834 – 1852                John Francis Neptune              (d. 1875)
                             (from 183., governor of the Old Party)
183. – 1852                ....
                             (in opposition; governors of the New Party)
Governors of Indian Township

1852 – 1875                John Francis Neptune              (s.a.)
1875 – 19..                ....
c.1957                     Joseph Stevens
c.1986                     John Stevens (1st time)
19.. – 1992                Robert L. Newell (1st time)       (b. 1943)
1992 – 1998                John Stevens (2nd time)
 1 Oct 1998 - 2002         Richard Stevens
2002 -  1 Oct 2006         Robert L. Newell (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Oct 2006 - 2010         William J. Nicholas
 3 Dec 2010 - 2013         Joseph Socobasin
Chiefs of Indian Township
2013 –  1 Oct 2014         Joseph Socobasin
 1 Oct 2014 -              William J. Nicholas (2nd time)



Governors of Pleasant Point
1852 – 19..                ....
c.1920                     William Neptune
1980 – 1984                Melvin J. Francis (1st time)      (b. 1945 – d. 2006)
1984 - af.1986             Cliv Dore (1st time)
198. – 1990                Melvin J. Francis (2nd time)      (s.a.)
bf.1992 – 1997             Cliv Dore (2nd time)
1997 – 2002                Richard M. Doyle (1st time)
2002 – 2006                Melvin J. Francis (3rd time)      (s.a.)
2006                       Mark Altwater (acting)
2006 – 2010                Richard M. Doyle (2nd time)
2010 - 2013                Reuben Clayton Cleaves
Chiefs of Pleasant Point
2013 –  1 Oct 2014         Reuben Clayton Cleaves
 1 Oct 2014 -              Frederick Moore


Penobscot Nation


[Penobscot Nation
              (Maine)]

1650 – 1713                In alliance with the French.
1713 – 1775                Ally (later subject) of the British.
1796                       Reservation established by the state.
1972                       Recognized by the U.S. (Penobscot Tribe).
1995                       Self-governance agreement.
2012                       Renamed Penobscot Nation.

Chiefs
bf.1568 – 1616             Bashaba                           (d. 1616)

1616 – 16..                Asticou
16.. – 16..                Assaminasqua
bf.1667 – 1698             Madockawando                      (b. c.1630 - d. 1698)
1698 – 1724                Wenonganet                        (d. 1724)
1725 – 1730                Wenemouet                         (d. 1730)
bf.1751 - 1757             Lolon Saguarrab                   (d. 1757)
c.1759                     Tomer (Tomasus)
bf.1771 – c.1774           Osson                             (d. c.1774)
Governors
1775 – 1801                Joseph Orono                      (d. 1801)
1801 – 1806                Vacant
1806 – 1809                Michael Attean                    (d. 1809)
1810 – 1815                Joseph Lorain                     (d. 1815)
1816 – 1858                John Attean                       (b. 1778 – d. 1858)
                             (from 1838, governor of the Old Party)

1838 – 1866                Tomer Sockalexis (1st time)       (b. 1802 – d. 1870)
                             (in opposition; governor of the New Party)
1858 – 1867                Joseph Attean (1st time)          (b. 1829 - d. 1870)
1868                       Tomer Sockalexis (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1869                       Joseph Attean (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1870                       Tomer Sockalexis (3rd time)       (s.a.)
1870                       Attean Orson (acting)             (d. 1874)
1871                       Saul Neptune (1st time)
1872                       Joseph Sockalexis (1st time)
1873                       Saul Neptune (2nd time)
1874                       .... [name not recorded]
1875                       Sabattis J. Mitchell
1876                       Joseph Sockalexis (2nd time)
1877                       Saul Neptune (acting) (3rd time)
1877                       Stephen Stanislaus (1st time)
1878                       Joseph Sockalexis (3rd time)
1879                       Stephen Stanislaus (2nd time)
1880                       Sockabesin Swassian (1st time)
1881 – 1882                Stephen Stanislaus (3rd time)
1883 – 1884                Sockabesin Swassian (2nd time)
1885 – 1886                Stephen Stanislaus (4th time)
1887 – 1888                Joseph Francis (1st time)
1889 – 1890                Saul Neptune (4th time)
1891 – 1892                Joseph Francis (2nd time)
1893 – 1894                Sabattis M. Francis (1st time)
1895 – 1896                Francis P. Sockalexis
1897 – 1898                Sabattis M. Francis (2nd time)
1899 – 1900                Joseph Francis (3rd time)
1901 – 1902                Mitchell Attean
1903                       Sabattis Glossian                 (d. 1903)
1903 – 1904                Lola Coley (acting)

1904                       Newell Lyon (1st time)
1905 – 1906                Newell Francis (1st time)
1907 – 1908                Joseph Francis (4th time)
1909 – 1910                Sabattis M. Francis (3rd time)
1911 – 1912                Peter M. Nicola (1st time)
1913 – 1914                Horace Nicola
1915 – 1916                Newell Lyon (2nd time)
1917 – 1918                Newell Francis (2nd time)
1919 – 1920                Peter M. Nicola (2nd time)
1921 – 1922                Nicholas Solomon
1923 – 1924                .... (name not recorded)
1925 – 1926                John Nelson
1927 – 1928                Newell Tomer                      (d. 1928)

1928                       Lester Bassett (acting)
1928                       Louis Nicholas (1st time)
1929 – 1930                George C. Dana
1931 – 1932                Louis Nicholas (2nd time)
1933                       John T. Ranco
1933 – 1936                Howard M. Ranco
1937 – 1938                James Lewis (1st time)
1939 – 1940                Horace Nelson
1941 – 1942                James Lewis (2nd time)
1943 – 1944                Theodore B. Mitchell
1945 – 1946                James Lewis (3rd time)
1947 – 1956                Albert J. Nicola (1st time)
1957 – 1960                Francis J. Ranco (1st time)
1961 – 1962                Albert J. Nicola (2nd time)
1963 – 1964                Ernest Goslin
1965 – 1966                Francis J. Ranco (2nd time)
1967 – 1970                John M. Mitchell, Sr.
1970 – 1972                Francis J. Ranco (3rd time)
1972 – 1974                Matthew P. Sappier
1974 – 1978                Nicholas Sapiel
1978 – 1980                Wilfred Pehrson
1980 – 1986                Timothy R. Love
1986 – 1988                James G. Sappier (1st time)
1988 – 1989                Francis D. Mitchell
1989                       Phillip Guimond, Jr. (acting)
1989 – 1992                James G. Sappier (2nd time)
1992 – 1994                Geraldo R. Pardilla               (b. 1958)
1994 – 1996                Richard H. Hamilton (1st time)
1996 – 1998                Francis D. Mitchell               (b. 1941 – d. 2005)
1998 – 2000                Richard H. Hamilton (2nd time)
2000 – 2003                Barry L. Dana
Chiefs
2003 - 2004                Barry L. Dana
2004 - 2006                James G. Sappier
2006 -                     Kirk E. Francis                   (b. c.1969)


Maryland

None Recognized

Massachusetts

Mashpee Wampanoag

[ Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe
                (Massachusetts)]

1665                       Reservation (to 1834 Indian Plantation, from 1834 Indian District)
                             set aside.
1870                       Dissolved by the state.
1974                       Mashpee Wampanoag Tribal Council established.
23 May 2007                Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, Massachusetts federally recognized, no
                             reservation as of 2014.

Chiefs
1665 – 1720                Council of Chiefs
1720 – 1763                General Council of Proprietors
Presidents (not recognized by the state 1833-1834)
1763 – 1788                Board of Overseers
                           (elected annually; composition as of 1786 below)
                           - Simon Ketour
                           - Moses Pocknett
                           - ...(name unknown)
1788 – 1833                General Council of Proprietors
1833                       Ebenezer Attaquin, Sr.            (b. 1786 - d. 1850)
1833 – 1834                Daniel B. Amos                    (b. 1804 – d. 1858)
1834 – 1870                Board of Selectmen
                           (elected annually; composition as of 1834 below)
                           - Isaac Coombs                    (b. 1773 – d. 18..)
                           - Israel Amos                     (b. 1786 – d. 18..)
                           - Ezra Attaquin                   (b. 1794 – d. 18..)
1870 – 1974                Abolished
1974 – Mar 1980            Russell M. Peters (1st time)      (b. 1928 – d. 2002)
Mar 1980 – 1984            Hannah M. Averette (f)            (b. 1917)
1984 – 1986                Vernon Pocknett, Sr.              (b. 1933 – d. 1999)
1986 – 1992                Joan Tavares-Avant (f)            (b. 1940)
1992 – Oct 1992            Earl Guy Cash
Oct 1992 - 2000            Russell M. Peters (2nd time)      (s.a.)
2000 - 27 Aug 2007         Glenn A. Marshall                 (b. 1949)
Chairmen
Aug 2007 - 2009            Shawn W. Hendricks
2009 -                     Cedric Cromwell                   (b. 1965)

Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah)

[Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head
                (Aquinnah) (Massachusetts)]

1621                       Wampanoags an ally (later subject) of the English.
1711                       Reservation (to 1862 Indian Plantation, from 1862 Indian District)
                             set aside.

1870                       Dissolved by the state.
Nov 1972                   Wampanoag Tribal Council of Gay Head, Inc. formed.
10 Apr 1987                Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) federally recognized,
                             remains under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.

2001                       Self-governance agreement.

Grand Chiefs of Wampanoag
bf.1620 – 1661             Massasoit                        (b. c.1580 – d. 1661)
1661 – 1662                Alexander (Wamsutta)             (b. c.1621 – d. 1662)
1662 – 1676                Philip (Metacomet)               (b. c.1638 – d. 1676)
Chiefs of Gay Head
1675 – 1683                Mittark                          (d. 1683)
1683 – 1687                Joseph Mittark                   (d. bf.1705)
1687 – 1727                None
1727 – 1855                General Council of Proprietors
Presidents
1855 – 1862                Board of Overseers
                           (elected annually; composition as of 1855 below)

                           - Zacheus Howwaswee              (b. 1792 – d. 1873)
                           - Samuel Peters                  (b. 1809 – d. 1880)
                           - Aaron Cooper                   (b. 1822 – d. 1900)
1862 – 1870                Board of Selectmen
                           (elected annually; composition as of 1869 below)

                           - Isaac D. Rose                  (b. 1812 – d. 1880)
                           - Aaron Cooper                   (s.a.)
                           - Thomas Jeffers                 (b. 1829 – d. 1916)
1870 – 1972                Abolished
1972 – 1976                Beatrice Vanderhoop-Gentry (f)   (b. 1910)
1976 – 1979                Wenonah Silva (f)
1979 – 1987                Gladys A. Widdiss (f)            (b. 1914)
Chairmen
1987 - 1991                Donald A. Widdiss (1st time)
1992 - 2005                Beverly M. Wright (f)
2005 - 2008                Donald A. Widdiss (2nd time)
2008 - 2014                Cheryl Andrews-Maltais (f)
2014 -                     Tobias Vanderhoop

Michigan

Bay Mills Indian Community

[Bay Mills Ojibwe (or
                Chippewa) - Michigan (U.S.)]

27 Nov 1937                Bay Mills Indian Community

Chairmen
1937 - 1 Jun 1937          Herman E. Cameron
1937 - 1939                Lucy M. Leblanc (f)
1939 - 1941                John H. Cameron
1941                       D. Henry Teeple
30 Jun 1941 - 1945         George W. Teeple
1945 - 1953                William L. LeBlanc
1953 - 1961                Arthur L. LeBlanc (1st time)
1961 - 1963                Irma G. Parrish (f)
1963 - 1967                Herman E. Cameron
1967 - 1971                Maurice Le Blanc
1971 - 1973                Albert B. LeBlanc
1971 - 1973                Donald W. Parish
1973 - 1975                Michael C. Parish
1975 - 1979                Arthur L. LeBlanc (2nd time)
1979 - 1987                Wade I. Teeple
1987 - 1989                Clinton J. Parish
1989 - 2001                Jeffrey D. Parker (1st time)
2001 - 2003                L. John Lufkins
2003 - 2012                Jeffrey D. Parker (2nd time)
2012 -                     Kurt Perron 


Hannahville Potawatomi Indian Community

[Hannahville Potowatomie Indian Community]

1870                       Reservation established.
21 Aug 1937                Hannahville Potawatomi Indian Community federally recognized.

Chairmen
c.1937                     Frank Elie
c.1967 - c.1971            Joe Sagataw
1972 - c.1974              James McCulloch
c.1975 - c.1978            Sally Halfaday (f)
197. - 198.                Henry Philemon (1st time)
c.1985                     Theodore Wandahsega
198. - 1990                Henry Philemon (2nd time)
1990 -                     Kenneth Meshigaud


Sault Ste. Marie Ojibwe

Sault Ste. Marie Tribe
                  of Chippewa (Michigan)
                    Adopted 1970's
24 Dec 1953                Sugar Islands Chippewa begin attempt to separation from Bay Mills
                             Tribe.
 7 Sep 1972                Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa (Ojibew) Indians of Michigan
                             recognized as separate from the Bay Mills Tribe.
 7 Mar 1974                Sault Ste. Marie Indian Reservation established.

Chairmen

1973 - 1987                Joseph "Joe" K. Lumsden          (d. 1987)
1987 - 2004                Bernard Bouschor
                             (acting to 1988)
2004 - 2008                Aaron A. Payment (1st time)      (b. 1966?)
2008 - 10 May 2011         Darwin "Joe" McCoy
May 2011 - 23 Aug 2011     Lana Causley (f)(interim)
23 Aug 2011 - Jul 2012     Joe Eitrem
Jul 2012 -                 Aaron A. Payment (2nd time)      (s.a.)

Minnesota

Bois Forte Chippewa

[Bois Forte Chippewa
                (Minnesota)]

Fond du Lac Chippewa

[Fond du Lac Chippewa
                (Minnesota)]

Grand Portage Chippewa

[Grand Portage
                Chippewa (Minnesota)]

Leech Lake Ojibwe

[Leech Lake Ojibwe
                (Minnesota)]


Lower Sioux

[Lower Sioux
                (Minnesota)]

1889                       Reservation set aside (to 1934, all Sioux lands in Minnesota were
                             considered single reservation and all Sioux were considered one
                             tribe, the Minnesota Mdewakanton Sioux).
1891 – 1953                Pipestone (to 1898, Birch Cooley) Indian agency (1898-1914 closed).
1953                       Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
1936                       Upper Sioux Indian Community.
1991                       Gaming compact.

Presidents
c.1935 – af.1937           Samuel Bluestone
                             (chairman to 1936)
c.1955                     Thomas Bluestone
bf.1967 - af.1970          Albert Prescott
bf.1981 - 1983             Ann Larsen (f) (1st time)
1983 – af.1986             Michael Prescott
bf.1988 - 1991             David E. Larsen
1991 – 1995                Joseph Goodthunder                    (b. 1946 – d. 2014)

1995 – 2002                Roger Prescott
2002 – 2005                Ann Larsen (f) (2nd time)
2005 – 2006                Sheldon Wolfchild
2006 – 2009                Shannon Blue (f)
2009                       Jean Stacy
2009 – 2012                Gabe Prescott
2012 -                     Denny Prescott


Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe

[Mille Lacs Band
                of Ojibwe (Minnesota)]

1855                       Mille Lacs Indian Reservation established.

Chairmen
1930s                      Fred Sam
1940s                      Sam Yankee
1950s                      Fred Jones
1950s                      Jerry Martin
1959 – 1964                James Shaugobay
1964 – 1965                Raining Boyd (interim)
1965 – 1972                Sam Yankee                      (d. 1975)
1972 – 1991                Arthur Gahbow
1991 – 1992                Marge Anderson (f) (interim)
Chief Executives
1992 – 2000                Marge Anderson (f)(1st time)
2000 – 2008                Melanie Benjamin (f)(1st time)
2008 – 2009                Herbert Weyaus (interim)
2009 – 2012                Marge Anderson (f)(2nd time)
2012 –                     Melanie Benjamin (f)(2nd time)
1959 - 19..                Peter B. Buckanaga


Minnesota Chippewa Tribe

[Minnesota Chippewa Tribe
                flag]

18 Jun 1934                Minnesota Chippewa Tribe established
24 Jul 1936                Federally recognized.

Chairmen
c.1937                     John L. Pemberton
1959 - 19..                Peter B. Buckanaga
1961 - 1964                Allen Wilson
c.1965 - 1970              Peter Dufault (Du Fault)
1970 - c.1973              Simon Howard
1978? - c.1993             Darrell "Chip" Wadena
199. -                     Norman W. Deschampe


Prairie Island

[Prairie
                    Island Indian Community (Minnesota)]

 2 Mar 1889                Reservation set aside (to 1934, part of the Minnesota Mdewakanton
                             Sioux; details under Lower Sioux).
20 Jun 1936                Prairie Island Indian Community.
1953                       Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
1991                       Gaming compact.

Presidents
c.1935 – af.1955           Walter J. Leith
                             (chairman to 1936)
c.1967                     Charlotte Wells (f)
bf.1981 - af.1983          Albert White
c.1984                     Vine Wells
bf.1990 – 1991             Dale R. Childs
1991 – 1993                Freeman Johnson
1993 – 1997                Curtis Campbell
1997 – 2003                Audrey Kohnen (f) (1st time)
                             (from 2002, Audrey Bennett)
2003 – 2005                Doreen Hagen (f)
2005 – 2009                Audrey Bennett (f) (2nd time)
2009                       Ronald Johnson
2009 – 2011                Victoria Winfrey (f)
2011 -                     Johnny Johnson


Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians

[Red Lake Band of
                Chippewa Indians (Minnesota)]

 2 Oct 1863                Under U.S. protection (Red Lake Band of Chippewa); the Red Lake
                             Indian Reservation established.
1873                       Red Lake Indian Agency established (1879–1906 closed).
13 Apr 1918                First constitution adopted.
1991                       Gaming compact with the state.
1997                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Head chiefs (title of chief: Okimakan)

1864 – 1898                May-dway-gwa-no-nind "He Who Is       (b. c.1808 – d. 1898)
                             Spoken To"
1898 – 1933                Kay-bay-no-din "Perpetual Wind"       (b. 1854 – d. 1933)
                             [not the last chief]

Chairmen
1918 - 19..                Joseph B. Jourdain
1959 - 1990                Roger A. Jourdain                     (b. 1912 - d. 2002)
1990 - 1994                Gerald F. "Butch" Brun (1st time)     (b. 1939? - d. 2003)
1994 - 2002                Bobby Whitefeather
2002 - 26 Apr 2003         Gerald F. "Butch" Brun (2nd time)     (s.a.)
11 May 2003 - May 2004     William "Billy" King (interim)
May 2004 - Jun 2014        Floyd "Buck" Jourdain (b. 1964)
Jun 2014 -                 Darrel G. Seki, Jr.


Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux

[Shakopee Mdewakanton
                  Sioux Community (Minnesota)]

1889                       Reservation set aside (originally a part of the Minnesota
                             Mdewakanton Sioux, details under Lower Sioux).
1953                       Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
28 Nov 1969                Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community.
1991                       Gaming compact.
2004                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1969 - 1984                Norman Melvin Crooks             (b. 1917 - d. 1989)
1984 – 1986                Susan Totenhagen (f)
1986 - 1992                Leonard Prescott
1992 - 25 Aug 2012         Stanley R. Crooks                (b. 1941 - d. 2012)
2012 -                     Charlie Vig                      (b. 1960)


Upper Sioux

[Upper Sioux Community
                (Minnesota])

1934                       Separated from the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux.
 6 Oct 1938                Upper Sioux Indian Community, the reservation set aside.
1953                       Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
1991                       Gaming compact.

Chairmen
1938 – 19..                ....
c.1967                     Dean F. Blue (1st time)
c.1970                     Herbert Ironheart
bf.1981 - 1983             Lillian Smith (f)
1983 – 1985                Irene Howell (f)
1985 – af.1991             Dean F. Blue (2nd time)
bf.1993 - 1995             Lorraine Cavender-Gouge (f)
1995 – 2001                Dallas Ross
2001 – 2005                Helen M. Blue (f)
2005 -                     Kevin Jensvold


White Earth Ojibwe

[flag of White Earth
                Ojibwe Reservation (Minnesota)]

19 Mar 1867                White Earth Indian Reservation created.

Chairmen

1976 - 1996                Darrell Wadena                   (b. 1939 - d. 2014)
1996 - 1998                Eugene McArthur, Jr.
1998 - 2000                Peter B. Buckanaga
2000 - 2004                Doyle Turner
2004 -                     Erma J. Vizenor (f)


Mississippi

Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians

[Mississippi Band of
                  Choctaw Indians flag]
                  Adopted Dec 1994

1786                       Choctaws under protection of the U.S., the original boundaries of
                             the Choctaw country fixed.
1805 & 1820                Main Choctaw land cessions to the U.S.
1826                       Choctaw tribal government (Choctaw Nation) established, governed by
                             the chiefs of the Okla Tannip District, the Okla Falaya District,
                             and the Okla Hannali District.
1830                       Choctaw Indian Reservation ceded to the U.S. in return for a new
                             reservation in the Indian Territory.
1834                       Majority of the Choctaws moved to the Indian Territory.
1918                       Choctaws of Mississippi recognized as separate from the Choctaw 
                             Nation of Oklahoma.
23 Dec 1944                Mississippi Choctaw Indian Reservation established.
20 Apr 1945                Choctaw tribal government (Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians).

Chiefs of Oklatannip District
.... - 1809                Homastubbee                    (d. 1809)
1809 - 1826                Moshulatubbee (1st time)       (b. c.1778 - d. 1838)
1826 - 1830                David Folsom                   (b. 1791 - d. 1847)
1830 - 1834                Moshulatubbee (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1834 - 1945                Vacant
Chiefs of Oklafalaya District

1802 - 18 Oct 1824         Apukshunnubbee                 (b. c.1740 - d. 1824)
1824 - 1826                Robert Cole
1826 - 1834                Greenwood LeFlore              (b. 1800 - d. 1865)
1834 - 1945                Vacant
Chiefs of Oklahannali District

1803 - 24 Dec 1824         Pushmataha                     (b. c.1764 - d. 1824)
Dec 1824                   Oklahoma
Dec 1824 - 28 Sep 1828     Humming Bird                   (d. 1828)
1828 - 1830                John "Sam" Garland
1830 - 1834                Nitakechi                      (b. 1792 - d. 1846)
1834 - 1945                Vacant
Chairmen
1945 - 1949                Joe Chitto
1949 - 1959                Emmett York (1st time)
1959 - 1967                Phillip Martin                 (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
1967 - 1975                Emmett York (2nd time)
Chiefs (title Miko)
1975 - 1979                Calvin Issac
1979 - Jul 2007            Phillip Martin                 (s.a.)
Jul 2007 -                 Beasley Denson



Missouri

None Recognized

Montana

Blackfeet of Montana

[Blackfeet of Montana]
                       Adopted 1980

c.1750                     Peigan tribe a part of the Blackfoot confederacy (details under
                             Siksika, Canada).
17 Oct 1855                Under the U.S. protection by the treaty with the confederacy
                             (referred to as the Blackfoot Nation); the Blackfeet Indian
                             Agency established.
16 Aug 1873                Great Blackfeet Reservation established.
19 Aug 1874                Formal division of Peigan into Northern Peigan (now Piikani in
                             Canada) and Southern Peigan (increasingly named as Blackfeet,
                             in the U.S.); separate tribal roll of the U.S. tribe created
                             by 1882.
 1 May 1888                Reservation divided into 3 reservations: Blackfeet, Fort Belknap
                             and Fort Peck.
1922                       First constitution adopted
13 Nov 1935                Blackfeet Tribe of Montana
1996                       Gaming compact with the state.


Head chiefs of Southern Peigan (title: Akokskina)
c.1846                     "Big Lake"
bf.1855 – 1856             "Lame Bull"                     (b. c.1796 – d. 1856)
1856 – 1867                "Little Dog"                    (d. 1867)
1867                       "Many Horses"                   (d. 1867)
                             ("Sitting in the Middle")
c.1868                     "Calf Shirt"
bf.1870 – 1873             "Big Lake"                      (d. 1873)
c.1874                     "Cut Hand" (acting)
Head chiefs of Blackfeet (title: Akokskina)
1874 - 1877                Inak-sapope "Little Plume"      (b. c.1837 - d. 1877)
1877 - 1903                "White Calf"                    (b. c.1835 - d. 1903)
                            [not the last chief]
Presidents
bf.1911 - 1915             "Wolf Tail"                     (b. c.1853 – d. 19..)
1915 – af.1921             Robert J. Hamilton              (b. c.1870 – d. 1932)
192. – 1922                Joseph W. Brown                 (b. 1873 – d. 19..)
Chairmen
1922 – 1923                Joseph W. Brown (1st time)      (s.a.)
1923 – 1924                Robert J. Hamilton (1st time)   (s.a.)
1924 – 1926                ....
1926 – 1927                Robert J. Hamilton (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1927 - 1938                Joseph W. Brown (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1938 – 1940                Stuart Hazlett
1940 – 1941                Levi J. Burd
bf.1942 - 1944             Richard Grant
1944 – af.1946             Joseph W. Brown (3rd time)      (s.a.)
1948 – 1950                Henry Magee
1950 – 1952                George Pambrun
1952 – 1964                Walter S. Wetzel                (b. 1915 – d. 2003)
1964 – 1978                Earl Old Person (1st time)      (b. 1929)
1978 – 1980                Daniel Boggs
1980 – 1998                Earl Old Person (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1998 - 2000                William Old Chief               (b. 1957)
2000 - 2002                Earl Old Person (3rd time)      (s.a.)
2002 - 2003                William A. Talks About (1st time)
2003 - 2004                Jesse St. Goddard
2004 - 2005                William A. Talks About (2nd time)
2005 - 2006                Patrick Thomas
2006 – 2008                Earl Old Person  (4th time)     (s.a.)    
12 Jul 2008 - 12 Aug 2011  Willie A. Sharp, Jr. (1st time)
15 Aug 2011 - Jul 2012     Terry "T.J." Show
Jul 2012 - 10 Jul 2014     Willie A. Sharp, Jr. (2nd time)
10 Jul 2014 -              Harry R. Barnes



Chippewa Cree of Rocky's Boy


[Chippewa Cree of Rocky's Boy (Montana)
                          old flag]
                             to c.2013
[Chippewa Cree of Rocky's Boy
                          (Montana)]
                     Adopted c.2013

c.1885                     Group of Chippewa (later known as the Rocky Boy's Band of Chippewa)
                             arrived from Turtle Mountain, North Dakota; joined by the Cree
                             refugees from Canada.
 7 Sep 1916                Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation established.
1917                       Rocky Boy Indian Agency established.
23 Nov 1935                Chippewa Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Reservation, Montana
                             (heading of the constitution, but not the text, uses word
                             "Indians" instead of "Tribe"; in 1989/93 "Tribe" replaced
                             by "Indians" in the list of tribal names published by the U.S.).

1993                       Gaming compact with the state.
1994                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.



Chief

c.1895 - 1916              Asiniiwin "Stone Child"         (b. 1851 - d. 1916)
1917 – 1925                Tribal Council (originally 13 headmen)
1925 – 1934                General Council
Chairmen
1935 - 1936                Malcolm Mitchell
1936 - 1937                Louis St. Marks
1937 - 1938                Dan Sangrey
1938 - 1939                Dan Belcourt
1939 – 1941                William "Bill" Morsette, Sr.
                             (1st time)
1941 - 1942                Paul Mitchell
1942 – 1946                John Parker, Sr.
1946 – 1948                William "Bill" Morsette, Sr.
                             (2nd time)   
1948 – 1950 1949           Jim Monteau

1950 - 1951                Joe Corcoran
1951 – 1954                Francis Four Souls              (b. 1907 – d. 1984)
1954 – 1956                Joe Demontiney, Sr. (1st time)
1956 – 1958                Fred Nault
1958 - 1960                William "Bill" Morsette, Sr.
                             (3rd time)
1960 – 1961                William Denny
1961 - 1962                Paul Eagleman  
1962 – 1964                Ted Lamere, Sr.
1964 – 1966                Pete Sutherland
1966 – 1969                Joe Demontiney, Sr. (2nd time) 
1969 – 1971                Joe Rosette, Sr.
1971 – 1985                John Windy Boy
1985 - 1992                Rocky Stump, Sr.

1992 - 1996                John "Roddy" Sun Child, Sr.     (b. 1930 – d. 2004)
1996 - 2000                Bert Corcoran
2000 - 2004                Alvin Windy Boy
2004 - 2009                John "Chance" Houle
Feb 2009 - 2011            Raymond "Jake" Parker
2011 - 2012                Bruce Sun Child
2012 - Mar 2013            Ken Blatt St. Marks (1st time)
Mar 2013 - Jul 2013        Richard "Ricky" Morsette (interim)
Jul 2013 -                 Ken Blatt St. Marks (2nd time)

Fort Belknap Indian Community

[Assiniboine & Gros
                Ventre of Fort Belknap Reservation (Montana)]

c.1750                     Gros Ventre (or A'aninin) tribe a part of the Blackfoot
                             confederacy (details under Siksika, Canada).
17 Oct 1855                Under the U.S. protection by the treaty with the confederacy.
27 Jul 1866                Gros Ventre withdrew from the Blackfoot confederacy; joined by
                             group of the Assiniboine.
16 Aug 1873                Part of the Great Blackfeet Reservation; the Fort Belknap Indian
                             Agency established.
 1 May 1888                Reservation divided into 3 reservations: Blackfeet, Fort Belknap
                             and Fort Peck.
1933                       First constitution adopted.
13 Dec 1935                Fort Belknap Indian Community


Head chiefs of Gros Ventre
c.1855                     Council (8 chiefs)
bf.1865 – 1869             "Sitting Woman"                 (d. 1869)
1869 – 1881                "White Eagle"                   (b. c.1820 – d. 1881)
1881 – 1883                Jerry Running Fisher (acting)   (b. 1847 – d. 1909)
1883 – 1908                "Lame Bull"                     (b. 1831 - d. 1908)
Chiefs of Upper Assiniboine (title: Hunga)
1866 – af.1873             "Long Hair"
c.1894                     Hunga Jusina "Little Chief"
Presidents
1908 – 1912                ....
1912 – 1921                General Council
Chairmen
1921 – 1922                "Bear" John Buckman (1st time)  (b. 1873 – d. 19..)
1922 – 192.                Russell Young
c.1926                     August Moccasin   
bf.1933 – 1934             "Bear" John Buckman (2nd time)  (s.a.)              
1934 - 1935                William John Bigby
Presidents    
c.1937                     Richard King (1st time)
1938 – 1948?               Clarence Brockie                (d. 1949)
1948 - 1949                Rufus Warrior (1st time)        (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
1950 - 1951                Carl Grant? 
1952 - 1953                John Capture? (1st time)
1954 - 1955                Rufus Warrior (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1956 - 1957                John Capture? (2nd time)
1958 - 1960                John Matthew Bell               (b. 1924 - d. 1975)
1960 - 1963                Richard King (2nd time)      
1964 - 1965                Thomas Bell
1966 - 1967                Dorance Horseman
c.1968 - c.1972            John Capture (3rd time?)
c.1972 - c.1973            John Crasco
1974 - 1975                John W. Allen
c.1975 - 1981              Charles D. "Jack" Plumage
c.1982 - Dec 1985?         Henry Brockie
c.1986                     William T. "Snuffy" Main
                             (1st time)
1988 - 1989                Gilbert Horn                    (b. 1925)
c.1990 - c.1991            Donovan Archambault
1992 - 1993                William T. "Snuffy" Main
                             (2nd time)
1994 – 1995                Harlan K. Mount
1995 – 1997                Tracy "Ching" King (1st time)
Nov 1997 – 2001            Joseph R. McConnell
2001 - May 2004            Benjamin "Ben" Speakthunder
2004 - Feb 2005            Darell Martin 
2005 - 2009                Julia Doney (f)
2009 - 2013                Tracy "Ching" King (2nd time)
Nov 2013 -                 Mark L. Azure


Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of Fort Peck

[Fort Peck Assiniboine
                and Sioux Tribes (Montana)]
                       Adopted 1975

1826                       Assiniboine (or Nakoda) under the U.S. protection.
1866                       Majority of the Upper Yanktonai Nakota Sioux arrived from South
                             Dakota (details under Crow Creek Sioux); a group of the
                             Assiniboine joined Gros Ventre.
1870                       Milk River (from 1874, Fort Peck) Indian Agency established.
16 Aug 1873                Part of the Great Blackfeet Reservation.
 1 May 1888                Reservation divided into 3 reservations: Blackfeet, Fort Belknap
                             and Fort Peck.
1924                       First constitution adopted.
Apr 1927                   Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation.
15 Dec 1934                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
1992                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head chiefs of (from 1866, Lower) Assiniboine (title of chief: Hunga)
1851 – 1855                Mato Witko "Crazy Bear"         (b. c.1785 – d. 1855)
1855 – 1866                ....
1866 – 1896                Iya Sha "Red Stone"             (b. 1833 – d. 1896)
Head chiefs of Upper Yanktonai Nakota Sioux
1866 – 1872                Howa Sapa "Black Catfish"       (d. af.1885)
1872 – af.1886             Mato Wakan "Medicine Bear"
Chairmen
18.. – 1909                General Council
1909 – 19..                ....
c.1921                     Samuel Conger
c.1924                     Rufus Ricker
1927 – 1929                Joshua Wetsit (1st time)        (b. 1887 – d. 1971)
1929                       Charles Hall (president)
1929 – 1931                General Council
1931 – 1932                Joshua Wetsit (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1932 – 1934                Gus M. Headrick
1934 – 1935                George Washington (1st time)
1935 – 1941                Charles Eder
1941 - 1945                George Washington (2nd time)
1945 - 1947                Carl Walking Eagle
1947 - 1949                Peter Eagle
1949 - 1951                David Buckles
1951 - 1953                William C. Knorr
1953 - 1957                Austin Buckles (1st time)
1957 -  6 Sep 1958         Dolly Akers (f)
 6 Sep 1958 - 1959         George Thompson, Jr. (acting)
31 Jan 1959 - 15 Apr 1959  Roy L. Sansaver (acting)
1959 - 1961                Austin Buckles (2nd time)
1961 - 1971                William Youpee
1971 - 1973                Joseph Red Thunder
1973 - 1985                Norman Hollow
1985 – 1987                Kenneth Ryan
1987 - 1989                Raymond White Tail Feather
1989 - 1991                Lawrence "Larry" Wetsit
1991 - 1997                Caleb Shields
1997 -  1 Aug 1999         Spike Bighorn
1999                       Ray K. Eder (acting) (1st time)
1999 - 2003                Arlyn Headdress
2003 - May 2004            John Morales (1st time)
2004 - 2005                Ray K. Eder (acting) (2nd time)
2005 - 2007                John Morales (2nd time)
2007 - 2011                A.T. "Rusty" Stafne (1st time)  (b. 1936)
2011 - 2013                Floyd G. Azure
2013 -                     A.T. "Rusty" Stafne (2nd time)  (s.a.)

 
Crow Tribe of Montana

[Crow Tribe of Montana]
                       Adopted 1967

1825                       Mountain Crows under the U.S. protection.
17 Sep 1851                River Crows under the U.S. protection.
 7 May 1868                Crow Indian Reservation established.
1869                       Crow Indian Agency established.
May 1922                   Crow Tribe of Montana, the by-laws adopted.
18 May 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
2009                       Gaming compact with the state.


Head chiefs of Mountain Crow (in the south)
bf.1805 - 1836             Itchuuwaaooshbishish            (b. c.1750 – d. 1836)
                             "Red Plume" ("Long Hair")
1836 – 1862                Daxpitcheehisshish "Red Bear"   (b. c.1807 - d. 1862)
1851 – 1858                "Big Shadow"                    (b. c.1800 – d. 1858)
                             (jointly with the previous, in the east)
1862 – 1868                Awe Kualawaachish
("Blackfoot") (b. c.1795 – d. 1877)
                            
"Sits in the Middle of the Land"
Head chiefs of River Crow
(in the north)
bf.1825 - 1834             Eelapuash "Sore Belly"          (b. c.1795 – d. 1834)
1834 – 1867                Chiischipaaliash
("Rotten Tail")(b. c.1800 – d. 1867)
                            "Twines His Tail"
Head chiefs of Crow (title: Batse’tse-kyashe)

1868 – 1877                Awe Kualawaachish               (s.a.)
                             "Sits in the Middle of the Land"
1877 – 1886                Uuwatchiilapish "Iron Bull"     (b. c.1820 – d. 1886)
1886 – 1904                Deaxitchish "Pretty Eagle"      (b. c.1846 – d. 1904)
1904 – 1932                Alaxchiiaahush "Plenty Coups"   (b. 1848 – d. 1932)
                             ("Buffalo Bull")
Chairmen

1911 – 191.                Frank Shane
c.1913                     George W. Hogan
bf.1918 - 1920             James H. Carpenter (1st time)   (b. 1881 – d. 19..)
1920 - 1921                Ralph Saco   
1921 - 1927                James H. Carpenter (2nd time)   (s.a.) 
1927 - 1934                William Bends    
1934 - 1938                Hartford Bear Claw 
1938 - 1941                Charles Yarlott 
1941 - 1946                Henry Pretty On Top 
1946 - 1954                Robert "Robbie" Yellowtail      (b. 1889 - d. 1988)
1954 - 1956                William Wall    
1956 - 1960                Edward "Posie" Whiteman  
1960 - 1964                John B. Cummings 
1964 - 1966                John E. Wilson  
1966 - 1972                Edison Real Bird
1972 - 1974                David Stewart 
1974 - 1977                Patrick Stands Over Bull  
1977 - 1982                Forrest Horn   
1982 - 1986                Donald Stewart
1986 - 1990                Richard Real Bird
1990 - 2000                Clara Nomee (f)                 (b. 1938 - d. 2012)
2000 - 2002                Clifford Birdinground 
2002                       Vincent Goes Ahead (acting)
11 Nov 2002 - Feb 2009     Carl E. Venne                   (b. 1946 - d. 2009)
2009 -  3 Dec 2012         Cedric Black Eagle 
 2 Dec 2012 -              Darrin Old Coyote


Northern Cheyenne

[Northern Cheyenne Tribe
              (Montana)]
                       Adopted 1964

1825                       Cheyenne under the U.S. protection (details under Cheyenne and
                             Arapaho).
10 May 1868                Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho ceded their land to the U.S. and
                             are moved to the Great Sioux Reservation in South Dakota.
1874                       Northern Cheyenne establish the Council of 44 Chiefs (title of
                             chief: Veho), separate from the Southern Cheyenne.
May 1877 – Apr 1879        Briefly displaced to the Cheyenne and Arapaho Reservation in
                            
Oklahoma (in 1879, returned to Montana).
16 Nov 1884                Tongue River Indian Reservation established.
1886                       Tongue River Indian Agency established.
19 Mar 1900                Renamed Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation (former name remains
                             in use until 1939).
1933                       First constitution adopted.
23 Nov 1935                Northern Cheyenne Tribe.
1993                       Gaming compact with the state.


Sweet Medicine Chiefs (ceremonial leaders)
bf.1868 – 1881             O’kohomoxhaahketa "Little Wolf" (b. c.1820 – d. 1904)
1881 – 1892                Vacant
1892 – 1900                Hahkota "Grasshopper"
1900 – 1911                Ve’ho’evo’ha "American Horse"   (b. c.1842 – d. 1911)
                             [not the last Chief]
1911 – 1940                Vacant
Chairmen   
1915 – 19..                ....

bf.1928 – 1935             Clay T. Rowland
1935                       Rufus Wallowing                 (b. 1887 – d. 1965)
Presidents
Dec 1935 - Sep 1936        Rufus Wallowing "Big Egg"       (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
Sep 1936 - Jun 1938        Joseph White Bear "Black Ree"
Sep 1938 - 31 May 1940     Eugene Fisher, Sr. (1st time)   (b. 1878 - d. 1956)
                             "Tall Buffalo"
 4 Jun 1940 - Sep 1940     William Red Cherries "Oyster"
                             (1st time) (interim)
Sep 1940 - 19 Jan 1943     Eugene Little Coyote
                             "One that Kills in the Morning"
19 Jan 1943 - 21 Mar 1943  William Red Cherries "Oyster"
                             (2nd time) (interim)

22 Mar 1943 - 22 Jul 1943  John Stands in Timber (interim) (b. 1882 – d. 1967)
                             "One that Stands in the Timber"
Jul 1943 - Oct 1943        William Red Cherries "Oyster"
                             (3rd time)
30 Nov 1943 - Sep 1944     William Red Cherries "Oyster"
                             (4th time)
Sep 1944 -  9 Jul 1947     Eugene Fisher, Sr. (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             "Tall Buffalo"
Jul 1947 - Sep 1948        John Russell "Bear"
Sep 1948 - Sep 1952        Rufus Wallowing "Big Egg"       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Sep 1952 -  4 Mar 1955     Eugene Fisher, Sr. (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                             "Tall Buffalo"

Mar 1955 - Sep 1968        John Wooden Legs                (b. 1910 – d. 1981)
Sep 1968 - Sep 1984        Allan Rowland "Ghost Bull"
Sep 1984 -  2 Dec 1985     Windy Shoulder Blade
                             "Beaver Heart"
Dec 1985 - 30 Jan 1986     Mark Elk Shoulder (1st time)
                             "Wondering Medicine"
(interim)
30 Jan 1986 - 18 Aug 1986  John Buffalo Horn
18 Aug 1986 – 30 Aug 1986  Mark Elk Shoulder (2nd time)

                             (interim)
30 Aug 1986 - 22 Sep 1986  Charles Yellowfox "Bird"(interim)
22 Sep 1986 - Sep 1988     Robert Bailey "He's Blue"
Sep 1988 - Dec 1989        Edwin Dahle (1st time)
16 Dec 1989 - 18 Jan 1990  John Wooden Legs, Jr. (interim)
                             "Mighty Eagle"

18 Jan 1990 – 1 Sep 1992   Edwin Dahle (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1992 - Dec 1996     Llevando "Cowboy" Fisher        (b. 1944)

                             (1st time)
Dec 1996 - Jan 1998        William Walks Along
                             "Wolf Chief"
Jan 1998 - Mar 1998        Norma Gourneau (f) (interim)
                             "Sacrifices Woman"
Mar 1998 - Nov 2000        Joe Walks Along, Sr.
                             "Little Bear"
Nov 2000 - Nov 2004        Geri Small (f) (1st time)
                             "Lighting Woman"
Nov 2004 - 28 Dec 2007     Eugene Little Coyote, Jr.
28 Dec 2007 - Mar 2008     Rick Wolfname (interim)
Mar 2008 – Nov 2008        Geri Small (f) (2nd time)
Nov 2008 - 16 Nov 2012     Leroy A. Spang
16 Nov 2012 – Jul 2013     John J. Robinson
Jul 2013 – Oct 2013        Winfield S. Russell (interim)
Oct 2013 -                 Llevando "Cowboy" Fisher        (s.a.)

                             (2nd time)

Salish and Kootenai Confederated Tribes of the Flathead

[Confederated Salish and
              Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation]
                      Adopted 1979

1854                       Flathead Indian Agency established (
briefly closed 1857-1861).
16 Jul 1855                Under the U.S. protection (Confederated Tribes of the Flathead
                             Nation); the Jocko (from 1910, Flathead) Indian Reservation
                             established.
1910                       Reservation opened to the non-Indian settlement.
28 Oct 1935                Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation.
 
9 Apr 1954                Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes successfully resisted the
                             U.S. government attempt to terminate their tribes & reservation.
1963 – 1995                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.

1993                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.
2001                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head chiefs of the Flathead (largest tribe of the confederacy; title of chief: Ilmixwm)
bf.1831 - 1841             "Big Face" (from 1840, Paul)    (b. c.1750 – d. 1841)
1841 – 1870                Victor (Xwelxlcin "Many Horses")(b. c.1790 – d. 1870)
1870 – 1910                Charlo                          (b. c1830 - d. 1910)
                             (Slmxe Qwoxwqeys "Little Grizzly Claw")
                            
(refused to settle on the reservation until 1891)
1872 – 1889                Henry Arlee (acting)            (d. 1889)

1910 – 1941                Martin Charlo                   (b. 1856 - d. 1941)
Chiefs of Upper Kalispel (Pend d'Oreille) (second largest tribe of the confederacy)
1848 – 1868                Alexander (Tmlxicin 'No Horses")(b. c.1808 – d. 1868)
1868 – 1897                Michell                         (b. 1805 – d. 1897)
1897 – 1929                Charley Michell                 (b. 1863 – d. 1929)
1929 – 1944                Moses Michell                   (b. 1886 – d. 1944)

Chairman

1910 – 1921                Duncan McDonald                 (b. 1849 – d. 1934)
Presidents
c.1921                     Thomas J. Burland
1923 – 193.                Caville Dupuis                  (b. 1873 – d. 19..)
bf.1933 - 1936             Joseph R. Blodgett, Jr.         (b. 1877 - d. 1950)
Chairmen
1936 – 1940                Edwin Dupuis                    (b. 1896 – d. 1976)
1940 – 1942                Eneas Granjo (1st time)         (b. 1882 – d. 1957)
1942                       Richard McLeod
1942 – 1944                Eli Gingras
1944 – 1945                Stephen DeMers
1945 – 1946                Lester Dupuis
1946 – 1948                Eneas Granjo (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1948 – 1950                Walter W. McDonald (1st time)
1950 – 1952                Walter Morigeau
1952 – 1960                Walter W. McDonald (2nd time)
1960 – 1964                William E. Morigeau
1964 – 1966                Walter W. McDonald (3rd time)
1966 – 1968                Lyman L. Trahan
1968 – 1970                Harold W. Mitchell, Jr.
                             (1st time)
1970 – 1972                Fred Whitworth
1972 – 1978                Harold W. Mitchell, Jr.
                             (2nd time)
1978 – 1979                Thomas Swaney
1979 – 1984                Thomas Pablo
1984 – 1986                Joseph J. Felsman               (b. 1932 – d. 2006)
1986 – 1987                Ron Therriault
1987 – 1996                Michael T. Pablo (1st time)     (b. 1948 – d. 1999)
1996 – 1998                Rhonda C. Swaney (f)
1998 – 1999                Michael T. Pablo (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1999 – 2006                D. Frederick Matt
2006 – 2010                James H. Steele, Jr.
2010 – 2012                Ernest T. Moran
2012 – 2014                Joe Durglo
2014 -                     Ronald Trahan


Nebraska

Omaha Tribe

[Omaha Tribe of Nebraska
              and Iowa]

Chairmen
c.1944 - c.1953            Amos Lamson 

c.1954                     Alfred W. Gilpin (1st time)
c.1955 - c.1957            Gustavus White
c.1958 - Nov 1962          Alfred W. Gilpin (2nd time)
Nov 1962 - 196.            Louis Saunsoci
c.1965                     Valentine Parker                 (b. 1931 - d. 2004)
c.1967 - c.1968            Alfred W. Gilpin (3rd time)
c.1969 - c.1970            Edward L. Cline (1st time)
c.1970 - c.1975            Elmer LaFlesche Blackbird        (b.1921 - d. 2007)
c.1975 - c.1977            Edward L. Cline (2nd time)
1980 - 1981?               Oliver Saunsoci                  (b. 1931 - d. 2008)
1981 - 1983                Doran L. Morris (1st time)       (b. c.1940 - d. 2003)
1983 - 1986                Wade Miller
1986 - 1992                Doran L. Morris (2nd time)       (s.a.)

c.1993 - c.1995            Rudi Mitchell
c.1997 - c.2000            Gary Lasley
c.2001 - c.2004            Donald Grant
2005 - 2006                Orville Cayou
2006 - 2007                Eleanor Baxter (f)
2007 - 2008                Mitchell Parker (1st time)
2008 - 2009                Ansley Griffin
2009 - 2010                Amen Sheridan (1st time)
2010 - 2011                Mitchell Parker (2nd time)
2011 - 2012                Amen Sheridan (2nd time)
2012 - 2013                Rodney Morris
2013 -                     Clifford Wolfe


Ponca Tribe

[Ponca Tribe (Nebraska)]

27 Oct 1966                Federal recognition revoked.
31 Oct 1990                Ponca Tribe of Nebraska (federal recognition restored).

Chairmen

 5 Nov 1994 - 2002         Fred LeRoy                      (b. 1947 - d. 2012)
2002 - Nov 2006            Mark Peniska
Nov 2006 - Jan 2011        Larry Wright, Jr.
Jan 2011 -                 Rebecca White (f)



Santee Sioux

[Santee Sioux Nation
              (formerly the Santee Sioux Tribe of the Santee Reservation
              of Nebraska)]

c.1750                     Seven Fires (Oceti Shakowin), a confederacy of 7 Sioux tribes
                             (4 Dakota tribes, present Santee Sioux, Sisseton-Wahpeton and
                             Spirit Lake; 2 Nakota tribes, present Crow Creek Sioux and
                             Yankton Sioux; 1 Lakota (Teton) tribe, present Cheyenne River
                             Sioux, Lower Brule Sioux, Oglala Sioux, Rosebud Sioux and
                             Standing Rock Sioux), the Mdewakanton tribe of Dakota having
                             precedence as the eldest ("parent") tribe; the last annual
                             confederacy council was held in 1850.
1805                       Mdewakanton and Wahpekute tribes (referred to as the Lower Dakota
                             or Santee) of Dakota Sioux under the U.S. protection (then in
                             central Minnesota).
1812 – 1815                Allied with the British during the U.S.-British war.
1819 – 1865                St. Peters Indian Agency established.
1851                       Minnesota River Reservation established for the Dakota tribes
                             (revoked 3 Mar 1863).
 1 Jul 1863 - 1865         Displaced from Minnesota to the Crow Creek Reservation, South
                             Dakota.
27 Feb 1866                Santee Sioux (also named Niobrara to c.1930) Reservation set aside.
1866 – 1917                Santee Sioux Indian agency established.
1889                       Entitled to acquire the U.S. citizenship (by 1920, all were
                             citizens).
 3 Apr 1936                Santee Sioux Tribe
1953 – 2006                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.

Speakers of Mdewakanton and Wahpekute Dakota Sioux (title: Eyapaha)

c.1815                     Aampahaa 
                             [known only by the recorded spelling]        
c.1834                     Shakpe "The Six"                      (b. 1794 – d. 1857)
183. – 1836                Wahpe Sha "Red War Banner"            (b. c.1773 – d. 1836)
1836 – 1845                Cetan Waku’mani "Little Crow I"       (d. 1845)
                             (personal name Wakinyan Tanka "Big Thunder")
1846 – 1851                Wasu Cashtashni "Bad Hail"            (d. af.1852)
1851 – 1858                Cetan Waku’mani "Little Crow II"      (b. c.1810 – d. 1863)
                             (personal name Taoyate Duta "His Red Nation")
1859 – 1861                Hihan Duta "Scarlet Owl"              (b. 1813 – d. 1861)
1862                       Wasu Hiyaya "Passing Hail"            (d. 1867)
Head chiefs (title of chief: Wicashta Yatapi)
1866 – 1876                Joseph Wabasha                        (b. c.1812 – d. 1876)
1878 – af.1885             Robert Hakewaste                      (b. 1828 – d. 1903)

Chairmen
c.1934                     William Whipple
1936 - 1972                David Frazier                         (d. 1972)
c.1976                     Enid Goodteacher
c.1982 - 1985              Richard L. Kitto  (1st time)          (b. 1950 - d. 1995)
1985 – 1990                Donald LaPointe
1990 – af.1991             Daniel Denny
bf.1993– Aug 1995          Richard L. Kitto (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1995                       Richard Thomas (acting)
1995 - 2000                Arthur "Butch" Denny
2000 -                     Roger Trudell                         (b. 1948)


Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska


[Ho-Chunk (or Winnebago) -
              Wisconsin (U.S.)]

1863                       Winnebago Reservation established.
....                       Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska

Chairmen
1972? - Nov 1977           Louis LaRose
1977 - 1987                Reuben A. Snake                 (b. 1937 - d. 1993)
1987 - 1990?               Gordon Thunder
1990 - 1991                Gerban Earth
1991 - 1998                John Blackhawk (1st time)
1998                       Kenny Mallory
Oct 1998 - May 1999        Daryl L. LaPointe, Sr.          (b. 1950 - d. 1999)
May 1998 - 2007?           John Blackhawk (2nd time)
c.2007 - c.2008            Matthew Pilcher                 (b. 1930)
2009 -                     John Blackhawk (3rd time)



Nevada

Duckwater Shoshone

 1 Oct 1863                Treaty with the U.S. by the Western Shoshone.
13 Nov 1940                Duckwater Shoshone Tribe, the Duckwater Reservation established.
1955 – 1975                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
1994                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1937 – 19..                Wagon Johnnie
c.1944                     Andy Thompson
bf.1976 - af.1978          Boyd Graham (1st time)
bf.1979 - af.1989          Jerry Millett (1st time)
bf.1992 - 1994             Boyd Graham (2nd time)
1994 – af.1996             Keith Honaker
c.1997                     Rodney Mike (1st time)
bf.1999 – 2000             Timothy Thompson
2000 – 2002                Henry M. Blackeye
2002 – 2003                Rodney Mike (2nd time)
2003 – 2004                Perline Thompson (f)
2004 – 2005                Jerry Millett (2nd time)
2005 – 2006                Ruby Sam (f)
2006 – 2009                Jerry Millett (3rd time)
2009 -                     Virginia Sanchez (f)


Ely Shoshone

 1 Oct 1863                Treaty with the U.S. by the Western Shoshone.
27 Jun 1930                Ely Indian Colony established.
1955 – 1988                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
21 Apr 1990                Ely Shoshone Tribe.
1994                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1966 – 19..                ....
bf.1976 - af.1979          Alfred Stanton (1st time)
c.1984                     Wesley Allison
bf.1987 - af.1990          Ben Reilley
bf.1992 - 1996             Jerry Charles
1996 – 1997                Sally Marques (f)
1997 – 1999                Christine Stones (f)
1999 – 2000                Ron Apodaca
2000 – 2001                Arthur G. Kaamasee
2001 – 2002                Alfred Stanton (2nd time)
2002 – 2003                Victor McQueen
2003 – 2009                Diana Buckner (f)
2009 -                     Alvin S. Marques



Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone

1906 – 1923                Fort McDermitt Indian agency.
16 Sep 1912                Fort McDermitt Reservation set aside.
 2 Jul 1936                Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes.

Chairmen
1923 – 19..                ....
c.1936                     Harry Lossing
c.1940                     Ross E. Hardin (1st time)
c.1945                     Willie Hardin
c.1961                     Ross E. Hardin (2nd time)
c.1976                     Stanley Smart
bf.1977 - af.1978          Glenn E. Hardin                  (b. 1946 – d. 2008)
c.1984                     Glen Abel
bf.1987 - af.1989          Daniel Snapp
c.1990                     Arnold Sam
bf.1993 - 1994             Helen Snapp (f) (1st time)
1994 – 1997                Wilson Crutcher
1997 – 2000                Helen Snapp (f) (2nd time)
2000 – 2002                Dennis Smartt
2002 – 2003                Robert A. Garfield
2003 – 2004                Ernestine Coble (f)
2004 – 2007                Karen Crutcher (f)
2007 – 2009                Arlo Crutcher
2009                       Dale Barr
2009 – 2013                Billy A. Bell
2013 - 2014                Maxine Smart (f)
2014 -                     Tildon Smart


Las Vegas Paiute 

[Las Vegas Paiute
                  Tribe (Nevada)]

30 Dec 1911                Las Vegas Indian Colony set aside.
22 Jul 1970                Las Vegas Tribe of Paiute Indians.
1994                       Gaming compact.
2001                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1960 - af.1964             Raymond Anderson                (b. 1920 – d. 1985)
bf.1970 - 1978             Kenneth Anderson
1978 - c.1982              Gloria Yazzie (f)
c.1982 – af.1984           Billy J. Frye
bf.1986 - 1987             Lawana Ramos (f)
1987 – 198.                Linda Rae Anderson (f)
1988 - 1990                Margaret Henry (f)
Jul 1990 - 1993            Alfreda L. Mitre (f) (1st time) (b. 1954)
1993 - Jul 1994            Kenny A. Anderson (1st time)   
1994 - 1998                Alfreda L. Mitre (f) (2nd time) (s.a.)
1998 - 1999                Kenny A. Anderson (2nd time)   
1999 - 13 Jul 2002         Curtis Anderson
Jul 2002 – 2004            Gloria Hernandez (f)
2004 – 2008                Alfreda L. Mitre (f) (3rd time) (s.a.)
2008 - 2010                Benny Tso (1st time)   
2010 – 2011                Lucille Campa (f)
2011 – 2012                Tonia Means (f)                 (b. 1964)
2012 -                     Benny Tso (2nd time)

Lovelock Paiute

 4 Sep 1907                Lovelock Indian Colony set aside.
1910 – 1912                Lovelock Indian agency.
1955 – 1975                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
14 Mar 1968                Lovelock Paiute Tribe.

Chairmen
c.1940                     Auburn Rhodes (spokesman)       (b. 1900 – d. 1976)
1968 – 19..                ....
bf.1976 - af.1978          Glenn H. Wasson (1st time)      (b. 1950 – d. 2008)
c.1984                     DeAnna J. Austin (f) (1st time)
c.1987                     Glenn H. Wasson (2nd time)      (s.a.)
bf.1989 - af.1990          Alfred Happy (1st time)         (b. 1950 – d. 2008)
bf.1993 - 1994             DeAnna J. Austin (f) (2nd time)
1994 – 1995                Harry B. Summerfield
1995 – af.1997             Darlene G. Byrd (f) (1st time)
bf.1998 - 2000             Allen Ambler
2000                       Glenn H. Wasson (3rd time)      (s.a.)
2000 – 2001                Darlene G. Byrd (f) (2nd time)
2001                       Leland Bliss
2001 – 2003                Glenn H. Wasson (4th time)      (s.a.)
2003 – 2004                Monty R. George
2004 – 2005                Glenn H. Wasson (5th time)      (s.a.)
2005 – 2007                Alfred Happy (2nd time)         (s.a.)
2007                       Richard Happy
2007 – 2008                Stephanie Rhodes (f)
2008 – 2009                Clark Rhodes
2009 – 2010                Doug Osborne
2010 -                     Victor Mann


Moapa Paiute of Moapa River

[ Moapa Band of
                Paiute Indians of the Moapa River Reservation (Nevada)]

12 Mar 1873                Moapa River Reservation set aside.
1907 – 1927                Moapa River Indian agency.
17 Apr 1942                Moapa Band of Paiute Indians of the Moapa River Reservation.
1994                       Gaming compact.

Chief
bf.1901 - 1921/26          Joseph Smith
Chairmen

bf.1940 - af.1942          Francis Swain
c.1964                     Eugene Tom (1st time)
bf.1970 - af.1979          Preston Tom
c.1984                     Clifton Surrett
bf.1986 - af.1989          Eugene Tom (2nd time)
bf.1990 - 1992             Wallace Kay                     (b. 1939 – d. 2001)
1992 - 1997                Rosalyn Mike (f)
1997 – 1999                Eugene Tom (3rd time)
1999 – 2000                William Anderson (1st time)
2000 – 2001                Eugene Tom (4th time)
2001 – 2002                Calvin Meyers
2002 – 2005                Philbert H. Swain (1st time)
2005 – 2006                Dalton Tom
2006 – 2007                Darren Daboda (1st time)
2007 – 2009                Philbert H. Swain (2nd time)
2009 – 2010                Darren Daboda (2nd time)
2010 – 2014                William Anderson (2nd time)
2014 -                     Aletha Tom (f)


Paiute-Shoshone of Fallon

[Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of the Fallon Reservation and
              Colony (Nevada)]

1908 – 1925                Fallon Indian agency.

13 Aug 1917                Fallon Indian Colony set aside.
17 May 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
12 Jun 1964                Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of the Fallon Reservation and Colony.

Chairmen
bf.1937 - af.1940          Willie Steve
c.1963                     Dell Steve
c.1976                     Chris Hicks
c.1978                     Donald Brown
c.1984                     Alvin Moyle (1st time)
c.1987                     Richard Hicks
bf.1989 - 1992             Merlyn David Dixon
1992 – 1996                Thomas C. Burton
1996 – 2000                Alvin Moyle (2nd time)
2000 – 2001                Lenora Rogers (f)
2001 – 2003                Donna L. Cosette (f)
2003 - 13 Nov 2012         Alvin Moyle (3rd time)
13 Nov 2012 -              Len George


Pyramid Lake Paiute

[Pyramid Lake Paiute
              Tribe (Nevada)]

 8 Dec 1859                Pyramid Lake Reservation set aside (formally in 23 Mar 1874).
1870 – 1933                Pyramid Lake Indian agency (1921-1930 closed).
26 Jan 1936                Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

Chiefs (title: Poinnabi)

1860 – 1871                Charley Numaga                  (b. c1830 – d. 1871)
                             (Young Winnemucca)
1871 – 1874                George Curry                    (d. 1874)
c.1880                     Jim Mow-wee   
1883 – 1919                David Numana                    (b. c.1836 – d. 1919)
bf.1925 - 1934             Abraham Mauwee                  (b. c.1855 – d. 19..)
Chairmen
1934                       Dewey E. Sampson                (b. 1898 – d. 1982)
1934 – 1935                Teddy James (acting) (1st time)
1935 – af.1940             Lawrence B. Williams
bf.1949 - 1950             Avery Winnemucca (1st time)
1950                       Albert Aleck (1st time)
1950 – af.1954             Avery Winnemucca (2nd time)
bf.1955 - af.1956          Teddy James (2nd time)
bf.1960 - af.1961          Albert Aleck (2nd time)
bf.1964 - af.1966          Allen Aleck (1st time)
c.1967                     Wilfred Shaw
bf.1969 - 1970             James Vidovich (1st time)
1970 – 1971                Teddy James (3rd time)
1971 – 1974                Mervin K. Wright, Sr.           (b. 1939 – d. 2000)
bf.1975 - af.1976          Allen Aleck (2nd time)
bf.1977 - af.1980          James Vidovich (2nd time)
bf.1982 - 1984             Roy Garcia
1984 - 1985                Alvin Kelly                     (d. 1985)
1985 - 1990                Joseph H. Ely
bf.1992 – 1993             Elwood Lowery (1st time)
1993 – 1994                Alvin R. James
1994 – 1996                Norman Harry (1st time)
1996 – 1998                Mervin Wright, Jr. (1st time)
1998 – 2000                Norman Harry (2nd time)
2000 – 2002                Keith A. Mandell
2002 – 2004                Bonnie Akaka-Smith (f)
2004 – 2006                Norman Harry (3rd time)
2006 – 2010                Mervin Wright, Jr. (2nd time)
2010 – 2012                Wayne Burke                     (b. 1974 – d. 2012)
2012 -                     Elwood Lowery (2nd time)

Reno-Sparks

[Reno-Sparks Indian
                Colony (Nevada)]

1912 – 1925                Reno Indian agency.
13 Apr 1917                Reno-Sparks Indian Colony set aside.
1955 – 1975                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
2014                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1934 – af.1940             Harry Sampson                  (b. 1892 – d. 1975)
c.1942                     Hastings H. Pancho (1st time)
c.1944                     Willie Astor (1st time)
c.1949                     Dave Christy
c.1950                     Hastings H. Pancho (2nd time)
c.1953                     Willie Astor (2nd time)
c.1954                     Connie Hunter (f)
c.1955                     Tellivan Eben
19.. - 19..                John Henry Dressler             (b. 1916 - d. 1970)
c.1966                     Effie Dressler (f)
c.1970 – af.1989           Lawrence Astor                  (b. 1936 - d. 2011)
c.1990                     Robert D. Shaw
1991 -                     Arlan D. Melendez               (b. 1947)


Shoshone-Paiute of Duck Valley

 1 Oct 1863                Treaty with the U.S. by the Western Shoshone.
16 Apr 1877                Duck Valley (to 1936 also called Western Shoshone) Reservation
                             established.
17 Mar 1919                First constitution adopted.
20 Apr 1936                Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation.
1995                       Self-governance agreement.

Head chiefs of Western Shoshone
1879 – 18..                "Captain Sam"
c.1890                     "Captain George"
Chairmen
1912 – 19..                ....
bf.1936 – af.1961          Thomas Premo
bf.1967 - af.1975          Arthur T. Manning               (b. 1919 – d. 2006)
c.1976                     Whitney G. McKinney (1st time)
c.1978                     Ellwood Thomas
c.1979                     James Paiva (1st time)
bf.1984 - af.1987          Whitney G. McKinney (2nd time)
bf.1989 - 1992             James Paiva (2nd time)
1992 – 1996                Lindsey Manning (1st time)
1996 – 1999                James Paiva (3rd time)
1999 – 2002                Marvin Cota
2002 – 2006                Terry Gibson (1st time)
2006 – 2009                Kyle R. Prior
2009 – 2011                Robert C. Bear
2011 – 2013                Terry Gibson (2nd time)
2013 - 2014                Dennis Smith
2014 -                     Lindsey Manning (2nd time)


Summit Lake Paiute

14 Jan 1913                Summit Lake Reservation set aside.
 8 Jan 1965                Summit Lake Paiute Tribe.

Chairmen
c.1964                     Josephine Townsend (f)
c.1976                     Melvin Sam
c.1978                     Arthur Brown (1st time)
c.1984                     Murray Barr
c.1987                     Josephine McLeod (f)
bf.1989 - af.1990          Robyn Burdette (f) (1st time)
bf.1993 - 2000             Robert Sam
2000 – 2006                Robyn Burdette (f) (2nd time)
2006                       Arthur Brown (2nd time)
2006 – 2007                Steve Frank
2007 – 2008                Jerri L. Barlese (f) (acting)
2008 – 2012                Warner Barlese
2012 -                     Randi DeSoto (f)


Te-Moak Western Shoshone

[Western Shoshone
                (U.S.)]
                 Western Shoshone Flag

 1 Oct 1863                Treaty with the U.S. by the Western Shoshone.
1869                       Western Shoshone Indian agency.
18 Jun 1917                Battle Mountain Indian Colony established.
25 Mar 1918                Elko Indian Colony established.
1938                       Te-Moak Bands of Western Shoshone Indians.

1955 – 1975                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
bf.1972                    Constituent self-governing bands established: Battle
                             Mountain, Elko, South Fork and (from 1982) Wells.

1994                       Renamed Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians.

Chiefs of Ruby Valley
(principal leaders in the northern part of the Western Shoshone country)

bf.1855 - 1861             Sho-kub                         (d. 1861)
1862 – 1891                Te-Moak                         (b. c.1810 - d. 1891)
1891 – 1916                Joe Temoke                      (d. af.1938)
1916 – 1954                Muchach Temoke                  (d. 1960)
Chairmen
1932 – 193.                Jack Frost
193. – 1938                Charles Malotte (1st time)
1938 – 19..                Jimmie James
c.1940                     Charles Malotte (2nd time)
bf.1977 - af.1978          Leslie L. Blossom
c.1981                     Charles Malotte, Jr.
c.1984                     Felix Ike (1st time)            (b. 1945)
bf.1989 - af.1991          Anthony C. Tom
bf.1993 - 1994             Dale S. Malotte
1994 – 1997                Felix Ike (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1997 – 2000                Elwood Mose
2000 – 2003                Felix Ike (3rd time)            (s.a.)
2003 – 2006                Hugh Stevens
2006 – 2009                Davis Gonzalez (1st time)
2009 – 2012                Bryan Cassadore
2012 -                     Davis Gonzalez (2nd time)


Walker River Paiute

[ Walker River Paiute
                Tribe (Nevada)]

29 Nov 1859                Walker River Reservation set aside (formally in 19 Mar 1874).
1908 – 1935                Walker River Indian agency.
26 Mar 1937                Walker River Paiute Tribe.

Chiefs
c.1866                     Oderie
c.1870                     Wahi "The Fox"
Chairmen
c.1934 – 19..              ....
c.1937                     McKinley Powell
c.1940                     Billie Miller
c.1945                     Peter Johnson
c.1965                     Stannard John Frank
c.1968                     Irwin E. Miller (1st time)
bf.1976 - af.1978          Jonathan Hicks (1st time)
c.1984                     Elvin Willie
c.1987                     Edmund D. Reymus (1st time)
c.1989                     Jonathan Hicks (2nd time)
bf.1990 - 1993             Anita M. Collins (f)
1993 – 1994                Irwin E. Miller (2nd time)
1994 – 1996                Raymond Hoferer
1996 – 1997                Harold Miller
1997 – 1998                Jonathan Hicks (3rd time)
1998 – 2000                Cassidy D. Williams
2000 – 2002                Robert W. Quintero
2002 – 2004                Victoria Guzman (f)
2004 – 2005                Laurie A. Thom (f)
2005 – 2007                Genia Williams (f)
2007 – 2009                Edmund D. Reymus (2nd time)
2009 – 2010                Lorren Sammaripa (1st time)
2010 – 2012                Melanie I. McFalls (f)
2012 - 2014                Lorren Sammaripa (2nd time)
2014 -                     Carl W. Johnson


Washoe

[Washoe Tribe of Nevada
                  and California]

1858                       Carson (to 1897, Carson Valley) Indian agency.
26 Mar 1917                Carson Indian Colony set aside.
16 May 1917                Dresslerville Indian Colony set aside.
24 Jan 1936                Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California.
1955 – 1975                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.
Jun 1966                   Constituent self-governing communities established: Carson,
                             Dresslerville, Woodfords, and (from 5 Sep 1990) Stewart.
2003                       Self-governance agreement.

Chiefs of Carson Valley (largest of 3 tribal groups)
bf.1857 – c.1865           Henukeha "Captain Jim"          (d. c.1865)
187. – 1909                Gumalanga "Captain Jim"         (d. 1909)
c.1913                     Sam Pete
Chairmen
c.1934 – 19..              ....
c.1937                     Raymond Fillmore (1st time)
c.1939                     Willie Smokey
bf.1940 - c.1954           Raymond Fillmore (2nd time)
c.1961                     Earl James
c.1968 - 197.              John Henry Dressler             (b. 1916 – d. 1970)
bf.1974 - af.1985          Robert L. Frank
bf.1987 - 1990             Vernon Wyatt
1990 - 2006                A. Brian Wallace
 1 Dec 2006 -  1 Dec 2010  Waldo W. Walker
 1 Dec 2010 - Apr 2013     Wanda Batchelor (f)
Apr 2013 -                 Darrel D. Kizer


Winnemucca

18 Jun 1917                Winnemucca Indian Colony set aside.
1955 – 1975                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.

Chairmen (2000 - 2012 not recognized by the U.S.)
c.1940                     Andrew Cinnabar (spokesman)     (d. 1964)
1971 – 197.                ....
c.1976                     Doc Blossom
bf.1978 - af.1984          Leo Snapp                       (b. 1932 – d. 2009)
c.1987                     Robert Harney
1990 – 2000                Glenn E. Wasson                 (b. 1924 – d. 2000)
2000 – 2001                William R. Bills (acting)       (b. 1959)
2001 – c.2002              Allen Ambler
c.2002 - 2005              Vivian Leyva (f)
2005 – 2012                Linda J. Ayer (f)               (b. 1959)
2012 -                     Thomas R. Wassson
                             (2002-2012 in opposition in Susanville, California)



Yerington Paiute

18 May 1916                Yerington Indian Colony set aside.
 4 Jan 1937                Yerington Paiute Tribe.
2001                       Self-governance agreement.

Chairmen
1936 – 1937                Dennis Bender
1937 – 19..                Richard Conway                  (b. 1900 – d. 1986)
c.1965                     Frank Quinn (1st time)
c.1967                     Lindsey Rogers
c.1976                     Delmar Stevens
bf.1977 - af.1978          Linda L. Howard (f) (1st time)
c.1979                     Frank Quinn (2nd time)
c.1983                     Linda L. Howard (f) (2nd time)
c.1984                     Rena Hamilton (f)               (b. 1938 – d. 2013)
c.1985                     Ken Richardson
c.1986                     Linda L. Howard (f) (3rd time)
c.1987                     Richard Reymers
bf.1989 - 1993             Linda L. Howard (f)(4th time)
1993 – 1997                Stacy L. Stahl (f)
1997 – 2000                Kenneth L. Roberts
2000 – 2003                Elwood L. Emm (1st time)
2003 – 2006                Wayne M. Garcia
2006 – 2009                Vince Conway
2009 – 2011                Elwood L. Emm (2nd time)
2011 –                     Linda L. Howard (f) (5th time)



Yomba Shoshone

 1 Oct 1863                Treaty with the U.S. by the Western Shoshone.
10 Jul 1937                Yomba Reservation set aside.
20 Dec 1939                Yomba Shoshone Tribe.
1955 – 1975                Under jurisdiction of state courts and law enforcement.

Chiefs of Reese River
(principal leaders in the southern part of the Western Shoshone country)
c.1862                     Tu-tuwa (Totoi)
c.1905                     Kawich
Chairmen
1938 - af.1939             Hicks Darrough
c.1940                     Willie Bobb
bf.1976 - af.1978          Levi Hooper (1st time)
c.1984                     William Rosse
c.1987                     Kenneth Smith
bf.1989 - af.1990          Levi Hooper (2nd time)
bf.1992 - 1993             Wayne A. Dyer (1st time)
1993 – 1994                Gerald Johns (1st time)
1994 – 1997                James W. Birchim, Sr. (1st time)
1997 – 2000                Kevin Brady
2000 – 2003                James W. Birchim, Sr. (2nd time)
2003 – 2005                Gerald Johns (2nd time)
2005                       Lisa Cagle (f)
2005 – 2007                Dennis J. Bill
2007 – 2009                Wayne A. Dyer (2nd time)
2009 – 2010                James W. Birchim, Sr. (3rd time)
2010 – 2011                Wayne A. Dyer (3rd time)
2011 – 2012                David Smith
2012 – 2013                Elisha A. Mockerman
2013 - 2014                Wayne A. Dryer (4th time)
2014 -                     James Birchim, Jr.


New Hampshire

None Recognized

New Jersey

None Recognized

New Mexico

Acoma Pueblo

[Pueblo of Acoma
              (New Mexico)]

c.1100                     Pueblo founded by the Keresans (one of the oldest continuously
                             inhabited settlements in the U.S.)

1599                       Subject to the Spanish (Pueblo of Acoma); the land grant
                             issued in 1689.

Aug 1680 – Sep 1692        Pueblo Revolt against the Spanish (see under New Mexico).
1850                       Under the U.S. protection (in 1858, the Spanish land grant
                             confirmed).

1995                       Gaming compact with the state.

Governors (office established 1621, interrupted 1680-1692)
1692                       Mateo
1839                       Joaquin Seloso
1857                       Jose Lovato
1863                       Jose Miguel (1st time)
1866                       Mariano Pancho
1871                       Jose Miguel (2nd time)
1872                       Jose Antonio Garcia
1877                       Jose Berrendo
1884                       Martin del Vallo
1885 – 1888                Solomon Bibo                    (b. 1853 – d. 1934)
1888 - 1911                ....

1911 - 1915?               Lorenzo Concho (1st time)
1916 - 31 Dec 1919         Leo Garcia
 
1 Jan 1920 - 31 Dec 1920  Frank Ortiz
 
1 Jan 1921 - 31 Dec 1923  Juan Pablo Garcia (1st time)
 
1 Jan 1924 - 31 Dec 1925  James H. Miller
 
1 Jan 1926 - 31 Dec 1926  Bautisto Rey Josι
 
1 Jan 1927 - 31 Dec 1927  Juan Pablo Garcia (2nd time)
 
1 Jan 1928 - 31 Dec 1929  Juan Luis Haskaya
 
1 Jan 1930 - 31 Dec 1930  Josι L. Vallo
 
1 Jan 1931 - 31 Dec 1931  Juan Pablo Garcia (3rd itme)
 
1 Jan 1932 - 31 Dec 1932  Juan Luis Haskaya
 
1 Jan 1933 - 31 Dec 1933  Albert Paytiamo (1st time)
 
1 Jan 1934 - 31 Dec 1935  Bautisto Pino
 
1 Jan 1936 - 31 Dec 1936  James T. Vallo
 
1 Jan 1937 - 31 Dec 1937  Josι Leon Chino
 
1 Jan 1938 - 31 Dec 1938  Syme R. Sanchez (1st time)
 
1 Jan 1939 - 31 Dec 1939  Steve Orillo
 
1 Jan 1940 - 31 Dec 1940  Martin W. Pino
 
1 Jan 1941 - 31 Dec 1941  George Cerno
 
1 Jan 1942 - 31 Dec 1942  Antonio M. Torivio (1st time)
 
1 Jan 1943 - 31 Dec 1943  Vicente Ray Chavez
 
1 Jan 1944 - 31 Dec 1944  Josι A. Chino
 
1 Jan 1945 - 31 Dec 1947  Antonio M. Torivio (2nd time)
 
1 Jan 1948 - 31 Dec 1948  Martin W. Pino
 
1 Jan 1949 - 31 Dec 1949  Julian Chino
 
1 Jan 1950 - 31 Dec 1950  Lorenzo Concho (2nd time)
 
1 Jan 1951 - 31 Dec 1951  Syme R. Sanchez (2nd time)
 
1 Jan 1952 - 31 Dec 1952  Albert Paytiamo (2nd time)
 
1 Jan 1953 - 31 Dec 1955  Castillo A. Vallo
 
1 Jan 1956 - 31 Dec 1956  Henry Vallo
 
1 Jan 1957 - 31 Dec 1957  Josι A. Chino (1st time)
 
1 Jan 1958 - 31 Dec 1959  Frank L. Ortiz (1st time)
 
1 Jan 1960 - 31 Dec 1960  Sandy D. Vallo
 
1 Jan 1961 - 31 Dec 1961  Frank Estevan
 
1 Jan 1962 - 31 Dec 1962  Frank Torivio
 
1 Jan 1963 - 31 Dec 1963  Jerry Garcia
 
1 Jan 1964 - 31 Dec 1965  Sam Victorino (1st time)
 
1 Jan 1966 - 31 Dec 1966  Frank L. Ortiz (2nd time)
 
1 Jan 1967 - 31 Dec 1967  Syme R. Sanchez (3rd time)
 
1 Jan 1968 - 31 Dec 1968  Josι A. Chino (2nd time)
 
1 Jan 1969 - 31 Dec 1970  Sam Victorino (2nd time)
 
1 Jan 1971 - 31 Dec 1971  Lorenzo Toribio
 
1 Jan 1972 - 31 Dec 1972  Harry Martinez
 
1 Jan 1973 - 31 Dec 1974  Clyde J. Sanchez
 
1 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1976  Merle Garcia (1st time)
 1 Jan 1977 - 31 Dec 1978  Stanley Paytiamo (1st time)
 
1 Jan 1979 - 1981         Raymond J. Concho (1st time)
1982 - 31 Dec 1985         Merle Garcia (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1986 - 31 Dec 1987  Stanley Paytiamo (2nd time)
 
1 Jan 1988 - 31 Dec 1990  Ray A. Histia
 
1 Jan 1991 - 31 Dec 1994  Reginald T. Pasqual
 
1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 1998  Ronnie Davis Shutiva
 
1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 2000  Lloyd D. Tortalita
 
1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2002  Cyrus G. Chino
 
1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2004  Fred S. Vallo (1st time)
 
1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Raymond J. Concho (2nd time)
 
1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2007  Jason Johnson
 
1 Jan 2008 - 31 Dec 2010  Chandler Sanchez
 
1 Jan 2011 - 31 Dec 2012  Randall Vicente
 
1 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2013  Gregg P. Shutiva
 
1 Jan 2014 -              Fred S. Vallo (2nd time)

Cochiti Pueblo

[Pueblo of Cochiti (New
              Mexico)]

c.1300                     Pueblo founded by the Keresans.
1599                       Subject to the Spanish (Pueblo de Cochiti); the land grant
                             issued in 1689.
Aug 1680 – Sep 1692        Pueblo Revolt against the Spanish (see under New Mexico).
1850                       Under the U.S. protection (in 1858, the Spanish land grant
                             confirmed).

Governors (office established 1621, interrupted 1680-1692)

1880                       Juan Jose Montoya
c.1891 - c.1901?           Josι Hilario Montoya

c.1906                     Santiago Quintana
1929                       Salvador Pecos

1931                       Marcial Quintana
bf.1950
                   Epitacio Aquerro
1966                       Fred Cordero
1968                       Celestino Quintana
1979                       Isaac P. Herrera (1st time)
1984                       Johnnie Bowannie

 
1 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1992  Epifanio Mody
 
1 Jan 1993 - 31 Dec 1993  Cedric Chavez
 
1 Jan 1994 - 31 Dec 1994  Andrew Quintana
 
1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 1995  Isaac P. Herrera (2nd time)
 
1 Jan 1996 - 31 Dec 1996  Joseph C. Quintana
 
1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1997  Lawrence Herrera
 
1 Jan 1998 - 31 Dec 1998  Joseph Henry Suina (1st time)
 
1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 1999  Isaac P. Herrera (3rd time)
 1 Jan 2000 - 31 Dec 2000  Wilson A. Romero
 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2001  Regis Pecos
 1 Jan 2002 - 31 Dec 2002  Andrew Quintana
 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2003  Simon Suina
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  Sam Arquero
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Leonard Trujillo
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Cippy CrazyHorse
 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2007  Ray J. Trujillo
 
1 Jan 2008 - 31 Dec 2008  Joseph Ernest Suina
 1 Jan 2009 - 31 Dec 2009  John F. Pecos
 1 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2010  Vernon M. Garcia
 1 Jan 2011 - 31 Dec 2011  Robert B. Pecos
 1 Jan 2012 - 31 Dec 2012  Phillip Quintana
 1 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2013  J. Leroy Arquero
 
1 Jan 2014 -              Joseph Henry Suina (2nd time)


Isleta Pueblo

[Pueblo of Isleta (New
              Mexico)]

c.1300                     Pueblo founded by the Tiwas.

1598                       Subject to the Spanish (Pueblo of Isleta); the land grant
                             is issued 1689.

Aug 1680 – Sep 1692        Pueblo Revolt against the Spanish (see under New Mexico;
                             the pueblo is abandoned 1681 - 1710).

1850                       Under the U.S. protection (in 1858, the Spanish land grant
                             confirmed).

1901 – 1935                Albuquerque (from 1919, Southern Pueblos) Indian Agency
                             established (1914 – 1919 closed).

27 Mar 1947                First constitution adopted.
1995                       Gaming compact with the state.

Governors (office established 1621, interrupted 1680-1710)
1899                       Vicente Jiron

1928                       Pablo Abeita                    (b. 1871 – d. 1940)
1940                       Juan A. Abeita
1964                       Juan B. Jojola
1965                       Andy Abeita
1979                       Alvino Lucero (1st time)
1984                       Andy Lucero
1985 – 1986                Alvino Lucero (2nd time)
1987 – 1990                Verna J. Williamson-Teller (f)
1991 – 1992                Alex Lucero
1993 – 1996                Alvino Lucero (3rd time)
1997 – 1998                Fred R. Lujan
1999 – 2004                Alvino Lucero (4th time)
2005 – 2010                Robert J. Benavides
2011 – 2012                Frank E. Lujan
2013 -                     E. Paul Torres


Jemez Pueblo


[Pueblo of Jemez (New
                Mexcio)]

c.1350                     Pueblo founded by the Towas.
1598                       Subject to the Spanish (Pueblo of Jemez); the land grant
                             issued in 1689.
Aug 1680 – Sep 1692        Pueblo Revolt against the Spanish (see under New Mexico;
                             the pueblo is abandoned 1681 – 1692 and 1696 - 1706).
1850                       Under the U.S. protection (in 1858, Spanish land grant
                             confirmed).
17 Jun 1935                Rejected the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 by referendum.
2011                       Self-governance agreement with the U.S.

Governors (office established 1621, mostly interrupted 1680-1706)
1665                       Matheo Pacheco
1849                       Francisco Josto
1888                       Agustin Cota
1923                       Juan L. Pecos
1958                       Antonio Sando
1974                       Vincent A. Toya (1st time)
1979                       Frank Loretto
1984                       Joe Loretto
1990                       Rosendo Gachupin

 1 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1992  Joe V. Cajero (1st time)
 1 Jan 1993 - 31 Dec 1993  Paul Tosa (1st time)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Dec 1994  Jose L. Pecos
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 1995  Paul S. Chinana (1st time)
 1 Jan 1996 - 31 Dec 1996  Randolph Padilla
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1997  Leonard Loretto
 1 Jan 1998 - 31 Dec 1998  Vincent A. Toya (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 2000  Raymond Gachupin (1st time)
 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2001  Joe V. Cajero (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2002 - 31 Dec 2002  Paul Tosa (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2003  Raymond Loretto
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  Paul S. Chinana (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Michael Toledo (1st time)
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  James R. Madalena
 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2007  Raymond Gachupin (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2008 - 31 Dec 2008  Paul S. Chinana (3rd time)
 1 Jan 2009 - 31 Dec 2009  David M. Toledo
 1 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2010  Joshua Madalena (1st time)
 1 Jan 2011 - 31 Dec 2011  Michael Toledo (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2012 - 31 Dec 2012  Joshua Madalena (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2013  Vincent A. Toya (3rd time)
 1 Jan 2014                Joshua Madalena (3rd time)


Jicarilla Apache


[Jicarilla Apache (New
              Mexico)]

1854                       Abiquiu (from 1901, Jicarilla) Indian Agency established
                             (1878 – 1901 closed; 1862 – 1876 there was separate Cimarron
                             Indian Agency for the Llaneros).

1874                       Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation set aside (abolished 1876
                             – 1880 and 1884 – 11 Feb 1887).

 4 Aug 1937                Jicarilla Apache Tribe of the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation.
1995                       Gaming compact with the state.
2000                       Renamed Jicarilla Apache Nation.

Chiefs of Olleros (the western division)
bf.1849 - af.1854          Francisco Chacon
bf.1868 - af.1873          Huero Mundo
bf.1880 - 1886             Huerito Mundo
Chief of Lllaneros (the eastern division)
bf.1873 - 1886             San Pablo
Head chiefs (title of chief: Nant’an)
1886 – 18..                Garfield Velarde                (b. 1851 – d. 1958)
c.1890                     Augustine Velarde
1920 – 1937                General Council
Chairmen
1937 – af.1940             Agapito Baltazar
1952 – 1954                Frank Vigil
c.1960 - 1964              James D. Garcia
1964 – 1968                Charlie Vigil
Presidents
1968 - 1972                Charlie Vigil
1972 - 1976                Hubert Velarde
1976 - 1988                Leonard Atole (1st time)        (b. 1942 - d. 2002)
1988 - 1992                Levi Pesata (1st time)      
1992 - Jun 1997            Leonard Atole (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1997 - Feb 1998            Arnold Cassador
1998 - 1999                Ron Julian (acting)
Jan 1999 - 25 Jun 1999     Arnold Cassador
Jun 1999 - Jul 2000        Rodger T. Vicenti
                             (acting to Sep 1999)
Jul 2000 - Mar 2004        Claudia J. Vigil-Muniz (f)
Jul 2004 - 2012            Levi Pesata (2nd time)      
2012 -                     Roger "Ty" Vicenti


Kewa Pueblo

c.1300                     Pueblo founded by the Keresans.
1598                       Subject to the Spanish (Pueblo of Santo Domingo); the land
                             grant issued in 1689.
Aug 1680 – Sep 1692        Pueblo Revolt against the Spanish (see under New Mexico;
                             the pueblo is abandoned 1681 - 1692).
1850                       Under the U.S. protection (in 1858, the Spanish land grant
                             confirmed).
 1 Jan 2010                Renamed Kewa Pueblo.

Governors (office established 1621, interrupted 1680-1692)
1706 – 1715                Christophor Coris
1929                       Jose E. Calabasa
1967                       Diego Rosetta
1979                       Alex Garcia
1984                       Ramon C. Garcia (1st time)

1990                       Ernest Lovato (1st time)
1992                       Victor Reano
1993                       Thomas Moquino
1994                       Ernest Lovato (2nd time)
1995                       Bennie Star
1996                       Vidal Aragon
 1 Jan 1998 - 31 Dec 1998  Tony Tortalita (1st time)
 1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 1999  Alex Bailon
 1 Jan 2000 - 31 Dec 2000  Tony Tortalita (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2001  Ramon C. Garcia (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2002 - 31 Dec 2002  Ernest Lovato (3rd time)
 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2003  Everett F. Chavez (1st time)
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  Sisto Quintana (1st time)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Everett F. Chavez (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Julian Coriz
 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2007  Nelson Pacheco
 1 Jan 2008 - 31 Dec 2008  Sisto Quintana (2nd time)
 1 Jan 2009 - 31 Dec 2009  Everett F. Chavez (3rd time)
 1 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2010  Tony Tortalita (3rd time)
 1 Jan 2011 - 31 Dec 2011  David F. Garcia
 1 Jan 2012 - 31 Dec 2012  Sisto Quintana (3rd time)
 1 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2013  Felix Tenorio
 1 Jan 2014                Oscar K. Lovato



Laguna
Pueblo


[Pueblo of Laguna
              (New Mexico)]

1699                       Spanish land grant (Pueblo of Laguna) to the Keresan emigrants
                             from the Pueblo of Santo Domingo (modern Kewa Pueblo).
1850                       Under the U.S. protection (in 1897, the Spanish land grant
                             confirmed).
 1 Jan 1908                First constitution adopted.
1997                       Gaming compact with the state.

Governors (office established 1699)

1855                       Juan Pedro Garbiso
1866                       Francisco Juancho

1877                       Juan Analla
1880                       Robert G. Marmon                (b. 1848 - d. 1933)
1886                       Walter G. Marmon                (b. 1845 - d. 1899)

c.1899                     Josι A. Paisano
c.1903                     Martin Paisano
c.1904 - c.1906            Josι M. Shocema
1908                       William Paisano (1st time)
1910                       Bautista Kawenicema
1913
                      William Paisano (2nd time)
c.1932                     Francisco Lorenzo (1st time)
1935 - c.1937              Walter Sarracino
1942 - 1943                John C. Sarracino
1944                       John Alonzo
c.1945                     Francisco Lorenzo (2nd time)
c.1949                     John C. Sarracino
c.1951                     Francisco Lorenzo (3rd time)
1954 - 1955                Tom Dailey (1st time)
1956                       John Paisano
1958                       James Solomon
1959                       Timothy P. Analla (1st time)
1960                       Robert Pacheco
1963                       Walter Sarracino
1964                       Irvin Santiago
1967 - 31 Dec 1971         Tom Dailey (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1972 - 31 Dec 1974  Timothy P. Analla (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1977  Roland Johnson (1st time)
 1 Jan 1978 - 31 Dec 1979  Floyd R. Correa
 1 Jan 1980 - 31 Dec 1982  Harry D. Early (1st time)
 1 Jan 1983 - 31 Dec 1984  Edwin Martinez
 1 Jan 1985 - 1988         Chester T. Fernando
1989                       Delfino Begay
 1 Jan 1990 - 31 Dec 1990  Conrad Lucero
 1 Jan 1991 - 31 Dec 1994  Harry D. Early (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 1998  Roland Johnson (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 2002  Harry D. Early (3rd time)
 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2006  Roland Johnson (3rd time)
 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2010  John E. Antonio
 1 Jan 2011 -              Richard Luarkie



Mescalero Apache

[Mescalero
                Apache Tribe (New Mexico)]

1855                       Mescalero Indian Agency established.

c.1870                     Lipan Apaches arrived from Texas.
27 May 1873                Mescalero Apache (to 1883, referred also as Fort Stanton
                             Indian Reservation set aside.

25 Mar 1936                Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation.
12 Jan 1965                Renamed Mescalero Apache Tribe.
1995                       Gaming compact with the state.

Head chiefs of Mescalero Apache (title of chief: Nant’an)
c.1830 – 1857              Barranquito                     (d. 1857)
1857 – 1876                Cadete (Zhee-es-not-son)        (d. 1872)
                           + Santana