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United States of America
 
[Union Flag of
                            1606]
                     to 4 Jul 1776 
 
[First Navy
                            Jack flag]
          1775 - 14 Jun 1777 U.S. Naval Jack
 
Continental
                            Colors
       2 Jan 1776 - 14 Jun 1777 Grand Union flag
 
[US 13 star
                            flag 1777 ]
                  14 Jun 1777 - 4 Jul 1795 
 
[U.S. 13 star
                            Betsy Ross flag 1777 ]
   14 Jun 1777 - 1795 Variant (Betsy Ross flag)
 
[US 15 star
                            flag 1795]
   1795 - 1818  War of 1812 "Star Spangled Banner"
 
[US 34 star flag 1861]
    4 Jul 1861 - 4 Jul 1863  Civil War Era flag
 
[US 48 star flag 1912]
     4 Jul 1912 - 4 Jul 1959 (48 star American flag)
 
[U.S. flag]
                     Adopted 4 Jul 1960
 

Note:  every year that a new state was admitted to the union, until 4 Jul 1960 when the last state was admitted, a white star was added to the blue canton.  For more please see Flags of the World's History of the Stars and Stripes 1775-1960.
  
Map of United States
Hear National Anthem
 "The Star Spangled Banner"
Adopted 3 Mar 1931
Former Unofficial Anthem
"Hail Columbia"
(to 3 Mar 1931)
Constitution
(4 Mar 1789)
Map U.S. Expansion
Declaration of
Independence
(4 Jul 1776)
Articles of
Confederation
(2 Mar 1781 - 4 Mar 1789)
Bill of Rights
and Amendments
Capital: Washington, D.C.
(Philadelphia 1774 -1776,
 1778-1783 and 1790-1800;
New York City 1785-1790;
 Trenton 
1784; Annapolis 1783 -
1784; Princeton 1783; Baltimore
 1776-
1777; York  1777- 1778;
 Lancaster 1777)
Currency: US Dollar
(USD)
National Holiday: 4 Jul (1776)
Independence Day
Population: 316,438,601 (2013)
GDP: $16.72 trillion (2013)
Exports: $1.57 trillion (2013)
Imports: $2.72 trillion (2013)
Ethnic groups: white 72.4%, black 12.6%, Asian 4.8%,
American Indian and Eskimo 0.9%, native
Hawaiian and
other Pacific islander 0.2%, multiracial 2.9%, other 6.2% (2008)
¹
Total Armed Forces: 1,372,522 (2012)
Declared Nuclear Power (1945): 7,650 weapons (2012)
Merchant marine: 393 ships (2010)
Religions: Protestant 43.7% (of which Baptist 17.2%, Methodist 7.2%, Lutheran 4.9%, Presbyterian 2.8%, Pentecostal 2.2%, Church
of Christ 1.3%, Congregational 0.7%, Evangelical 0.5%,
other Protestant 4.3%), Roman Catholic 25.9%, non-denominational Christian 9.1%, Episcopalian 1.8%, Mormon 1.4%, Jewish 1.4%, Jehovah's Witness 0.7%,  Muslim 0.6%, Buddhist 0.5%, Seventh-
day Adventist 0.4%,
Hindu 0.4%, Eastern Orthodox 0.3%, Unitarian 0.3%, Bahai 0.04%, Scientologist 0.03%, Sikh 0.03%,
others 0.2%, atheist/none 13% (2001) 
International Organizations/Treaties: AC, ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANZUS, APEC, ANT, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC (observer), BTWC, CAFTA, CBSS (observer), CE (observer), CERN (observer), CFE, CICA (observer), CP, CTBT (signatory), CWC, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, ENMOD, ESCR (signatory), FAO, G-5, G-7, G- 8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IRENA, ISA (observer), ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP (signatory), MIGA, MTCR, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PAM (observer), PC, PCA, PIF (partner),  SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
United States
Index
Chronology
1607/1620                  English colonies founded (from 1607 at Jamestown
                             in Virginia; and 1620 at Plymouth Bay in 
                             Massachusetts).
23 Aug 1775                Colonies declared in rebellion by Britain.
 4 Jul 1776                Independence declared (United States of America)
                            (Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, 
                             Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, 
                             New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, 
                             Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia).
25 May 1775 - 17 Mar 1776  British occupy Boston.
15 Sep 1776 - 25 Nov 1783  British occupy New York City.
26 Sep 1777 - 18 Jun 1778  British occupy Philadelphia.
29 Dec 1778 - 11 Jul 1782  British occupy Savannah.
12 May 1780 - 14 Dec 1782  British occupy Charleston.
 2 Mar 1781                Articles of Confederation effective.
 3 Sep 1783                Independence recognized by Great Britain.
 4 Mar 1789                Constitution effective; 11 of the 13 original 
                             states have ratified it by that time.
21 Nov 1789                North Carolina ratifies Constitution.
29 May 1790                Rhode Island ratifies Constitution.
20 Dec 1803                Louisiana Territory purchased from France.
22 Feb 1819                Florida purchased from Spain.
29 Dec 1845                Texas annexed.
15 Jun 1846                Oregon Territory annexed.
 2 Feb 1848                Mexican cession territories annexed (modern
                             states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada,
                             New Mexico, and Utah).
 8 Feb 1861 - 10 May 1865  Confederate States of America secession.
30 Mar 1867                Alaska purchased from Russia.
 7 Jul 1898                Hawaii annexed.
States
  • A to D
  • F to K 
  • L to M 
  • N
  • O to R
  • S to U 
  • V to W
  • U.S. Cities
    A to L - M to W
     U.S. Federal
    Government
     Minor U.S.
    Territories
     Native
    American
    Nations
    Vermont
    Government

    (1777-1791)
    Confederate States
    of America
    (1860-1865)
    California Republic
    (1846)
    West Florida
    Republic

    (1810)
    Kingdom of Hawaii
    (1795-1900)
    Republic of Texas
    (1835-1846)
     

    Presidents of the ("Continental") Congress
     5 Sep 1774 - 22 Oct 1774  Peyton Randolph (1st time)         (b. 1721 - d. 1775)  Non-party
    22 Oct 1774 - 26 Oct 1774  Henry Middleton                    (b. 1717 - d. 1784)  Non-party
    10 May 1775 - 24 May 1775  Peyton Randolph (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
    24 May 1775 - 29 Oct 1777  John Hancock                       (b. 1737 - d. 1793)  Non-party
    29 Oct 1777 -  1 Nov 1777  Charles Thomson (acting)           (b. 1729 - d. 1824)  Non-party
     1 Nov 1777 -  9 Dec 1778  Henry Laurens                      (b. 1724 - d. 1792)  Non-party
    10 Dec 1778 - 28 Sep 1779  John Jay                           (b. 1745 - d. 1829)  Non-party
    28 Sep 1779 -  2 Mar 1781  Samuel Huntington                  (b. 1731 - d. 1796)  Non-party
    Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
     2 Mar 1781 - 10 Jul 1781  Samuel Huntington                  (s.a.)               Non-party
    10 Jul 1781 -  4 Nov 1781  Thomas McKean                      (b. 1734 - d. 1817)  Non-party
     5 Nov 1781 -  3 Nov 1782  John Hanson                        (b. 1721 - d. 1783)  Non-party
     4 Nov 1782 -  2 Nov 1783  Elias Boudinot                     (b. 1740 - d. 1821)  Non-party
     3 Nov 1783 - 31 Oct 1784  Thomas Mifflin                     (b. 1744 - d. 1800)  Non-party
     3 Nov 1783 - 13 Dec 1783  Daniel Carroll (acting for Mifflin)(b. 1730 - d. 1796)  Non-party
    30 Nov 1784 -  6 Nov 1785  Richard Henry Lee                  (b. 1732 - d. 1794)  Non-party
    23 Nov 1785 -  5 Jun 1786  John Hancock                       (s.a.)               Non-party
    23 Nov 1785 - 12 May 1786  David Ramsay (acting for Hancock)  (b. 1749 - d. 1815)  Non-party
    15 May 1786 -  5 Nov 1786  Nathaniel Gorham                   (b. 1738 - d. 1796)  Non-party
                                 (acting for Hancock to 5 Jun 1786)
     2 Feb 1787 -  4 Nov 1787  Arthur St. Clair                   (b. 1736 - d. 1818)  Non-party
    22 Jan 1788 -  2 Mar 1789  Cyrus Griffin                      (b. 1748 - d. 1810)  Non-party
    Speaker of the House of Representatives²
     1 Apr 1789 - 30 Apr 1789  Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg      (b. 1750 - d. 1801)  Fed
    Presidents³
    30 Apr 1789 -  4 Mar 1797  George Washington                  (b. 1732 - d. 1799)  Non-party
     4 Mar 1797 -  4 Mar 1801  John Adams                         (b. 1735 - d. 1826)  Fed
     4 Mar 1801 -  4 Mar 1809  Thomas Jefferson                   (b. 1743 - d. 1826)  Dem-Rep
     4 Mar 1809 -  4 Mar 1817  James Madison                      (b. 1751 - d. 1836)  Dem-Rep
     4 Mar 1817 -  4 Mar 1825  James Monroe                       (b. 1758 - d. 1831)  Dem-Rep
     4 Mar 1825 -  4 Mar 1829  John Quincy Adams                  (b. 1767 - d. 1848)  Dem-Rep
     4 Mar 1829 -  4 Mar 1837  Andrew Jackson                     (b. 1767 - d. 1845)  Dem
     4 Mar 1837 -  4 Mar 1841  Martin Van Buren                   (b. 1782 - d. 1862)  Dem
     4 Mar 1841 -  4 Apr 1841  William Henry Harrison             (b. 1773 - d. 1841)  Whg
     4 Apr 1841 -  4 Mar 1845  John Tyler                         (b. 1790 - d. 1862)  Whg
     4 Mar 1845 -  4 Mar 1849  James Knox Polk                    (b. 1795 - d. 1849)  Dem
     5 Mar 1849 -  9 Jul 1850  Zachary Taylor                     (b. 1784 - d. 1850)  Whg
     9 Jul 1850 -  4 Mar 1853  Millard Fillmore                   (b. 1800 - d. 1874)  Whg
     4 Mar 1853 -  4 Mar 1857  Franklin Pierce                    (b. 1804 - d. 1869)  Dem
     4 Mar 1857 -  4 Mar 1861  James Buchanan                     (b. 1791 - d. 1868)  Dem
     3 Mar 1861 - 15 Apr 1865  Abraham Lincoln                    (b. 1809 - d. 1865)  Rep
    15 Apr 1865 -  4 Mar 1869  Andrew Johnson                     (b. 1808 - d. 1875)  Dem
     4 Mar 1869 -  4 Mar 1877  Ulysses Simpson Grant              (b. 1822 - d. 1885)  Rep
     4 Mar 1877 -  4 Mar 1881  Rutherford Birchard Hayes          (b. 1822 - d. 1893)  Rep
     4 Mar 1881 - 19 Sep 1881  James Abram Garfield               (b. 1831 - d. 1881)  Rep
    19 Sep 1881 -  4 Mar 1885  Chester Alan Arthur                (b. 1830 - d. 1886)  Rep
     4 Mar 1885 -  4 Mar 1889  Stephen Grover Cleveland           (b. 1837 - d. 1908)  Dem
                                 (1st time)
     4 Mar 1889 -  4 Mar 1893  Benjamin Harrison                  (b. 1833 - d. 1901)  Rep
     4 Mar 1893 -  4 Mar 1897  Stephen Grover Cleveland           (s.a.)               Dem
                                 (2nd time) 
     4 Mar 1897 - 14 Sep 1901  William McKinley                   (b. 1843 - d. 1901)  Rep
    14 Sep 1901 -  4 Mar 1909  Theodore Roosevelt                 (b. 1858 - d. 1919)  Rep
     4 Mar 1909 -  4 Mar 1913  William Howard Taft                (b. 1857 - d. 1930)  Rep
     4 Mar 1913 -  4 Mar 1921  Woodrow Thomas Wilson              (b. 1856 - d. 1924)  Dem
     4 Mar 1921 -  2 Aug 1923  Warren Gamaliel Harding            (b. 1865 - d. 1923)  Rep
     2 Aug 1923 -  4 Mar 1929  John Calvin Coolidge               (b. 1872 - d. 1933)  Rep
     4 Mar 1929 -  4 Mar 1933  Herbert Clark Hoover               (b. 1874 - d. 1964)  Rep
     4 Mar 1933 - 12 Apr 1945  Franklin Delano Roosevelt          (b. 1882 - d. 1945)  Dem
    12 Apr 1945 - 20 Jan 1953  Harry S. Truman                    (b. 1884 - d. 1972)  Dem
    20 Jan 1953 - 20 Jan 1961  Dwight David Eisenhower            (b. 1890 - d. 1969)  Rep
    20 Jan 1961 - 22 Nov 1963  John Fitzgerald Kennedy            (b. 1917 - d. 1963)  Dem
    22 Nov 1963 - 20 Jan 1969  Lyndon Baines Johnson              (b. 1908 - d. 1973)  Dem
    20 Jan 1969 -  9 Aug 1974  Richard Milhous Nixon              (b. 1913 - d. 1994)  Rep
     9 Aug 1974 - 20 Jan 1977  Gerald Rudolph Ford                (b. 1913 - d. 2006)  Rep
    20 Jan 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  James "Jimmy" Earl Carter          (b. 1924)            Dem
    20 Jan 1981 - 20 Jan 1989  Ronald Wilson Reagan               (b. 1911 - d. 2004)  Rep
    20 Jan 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  George Herbert Walker Bush         (b. 1924)            Rep
    20 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001  William "Bill" Jefferson Clinton   (b. 1946)            Dem
    20 Jan 2001 - 20 Jan 2009  George Walker Bush                 (b. 1946)            Rep
    20 Jan 2009 -              Barack H. Obama                    (b. 1961)            Dem
     

      ¹a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the U.S. Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean persons of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin including those of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Dominican Republic, Spanish, and Central or South American origin living in the U.S. who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); about 16% of the total U.S. population is Hispanic (2008).
     ²Between Nov 1788 - 6 Apr 1789, the United States had no chief executive due to transitional period and organization of federal government according to the Constitution of 1789. Congress did not hold regular sessions, though delegates from the various states continued to appear and present their credentials, so that it would have been possible at any time that seven states were present for the secretary to have read the credentials and for Congress to have begun its sessions. According to the provisions of the new Constitution, federal Congress met on 4 Mar 1789, but it could not proceed with any business as the number of delegates was insufficient for quorum. The House of Representatives reached quorum on 1 Apr 1789, and elected Speaker, who in this case was the highest state officer until inauguration of President George Washington on 30 Apr. Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg (s.a.) was elected Speaker on 1 Apr 1789. The Senate of the United States achieved quorum on 6 Apr 1789. John Langdon (b. 1741 - d. 1819) was elected President pro tempore "for the sole purpose of opening and counting the votes for President of the United States."  John Adams, elected Vice President and entitled to serve as a presiding officer of the Senate, was introduced by John Langdon (s.a.) to the chair of the Senate on 21 Apr 1789. George Washington was inaugurated on 30 Apr 1789.

     ³On six occasions, a president took the oath of office one or (in Tyler's case) two days after the beginning of his term of office, either because the demise of the presidency was due to the death of the incumbent or because of religious scruples about swearing an oath on Sunday. These occasions are: Monroe 1821 (upon reelection), Tyler 1841, Taylor 1849, Fillmore 1850, Arthur 1881, Coolidge 1923. Although the oath is necessary for a president to "enter on the execution of the office," the presidential term itself begins on time. On two occasions the new president took the oath of office in public the day after the beginning of the term but, in view of the concerns voiced about earlier Sunday deferrals, had taken the oath in private (Hayes 1877 actually one day early). The beginnings of the terms are listed here, not the oath-taking dates. It may be noted in this context that there is no substance to the legend that David Rice Atchison (b. 1807 - d. 1886)(Dem) was president 4-5 Mar 1849. (If not being sworn in as president is held against Zachary Taylor's being president already from noon on 4 Mar 1849, it cannot be argued that another person, however qualified otherwise, could have been acting president without being sworn in that capacity).

    Territorial Disputes: the U.S. has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea awaits Russian Duma ratification; managed  maritime boundary disputes with Canada at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; The Bahamas and U.S. have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or U.S. abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims Navassa Island; U.S. has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nations; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island; the Bajo Nuevo Bank are claimed by Jamaica; the Serranilla Bank is possibly claimed by Colombia and Honduras; Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution.

    Party abbreviations: Dem = Democratic Party (liberal, center-left, former D-R, est.1829); Rep = Republican Party (conservative, center-right, est.1854);
    - Former parties: D-R = Democratic-Republican Party (pro-states rights, anti-Federalist, 1791-1829, renamed Dem); Fed = Federalist Party (conservative, federalist, 1792-1824); Whg = Whig Party (economic nationalist, protectionist, anti-Jacksonian, 1833-1860)



    Confederate States of America
    [Bonnie Blue flag]
                   9 Jul 1860 - 4 Mar 1861 
     
    [stars
                                    and bars - 13 stars]
                    4 Mar 1861 - 26 May 1863 
     
    [stainless banner]
                  26 May 1863 - 4 Mar 1865
     
    [third
                                    national flag]
                  4 Mar 1865 - 10 May 1865
     


    Map of the Confederate
    States of America
    Hear National Anthem
    "God Save the South"
    (1861-9 Apr 1865)
    Popular Patriotic Song
    "Dixie"
    Constitution
    (11 Mar 1861)
    Capital: Richmond
    (4 Feb 1861- 20 May 1861
    Montgomery; 3 Apr 1865 -
    10 Apr 1865  Danville)
    Currency: Confederate
    States
    Dollar  (CSAD)
    National Holiday: 4 Jul (1776)
    Independence Day
    Population: 9,103,332
    (1860 est.)
    GDP: $N/A
    Exports: $ N/A
    Imports: $ N/A
    Armed Forces: 439,675 (1865)
    International Organizations/Treaties: None
    Confederate States Index
    Chronology
     
     4 Feb 1861                Congress of secessionist states
                                 convenes in Montgomery, Alabama.
     8 Feb 1861                Confederate States of America founded by 
                                 Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
                                 Mississippi, and South Carolina.
     5 Mar 1861                Accession of Texas.
    20 May 1861                Accession of Arkansas and North Carolina.
    23 May 1861                Accession of Virginia.
    22 Jul 1861                Accession of Tennessee.
    28 Nov 1861                Accession of Missouri.
    10 Dec 1861                Accession of Kentucky.
    10 May 1865                President Davis captured in Irwinville,
                                 Georgia; Confederate government ended.
    Confederate
    Government
    (1861-1865)
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Note: The states making up the Confederate States of America previously seceded from the United States; the secession of Missouri and Kentucky affected only geographic parts of
    those states.
     
    Chairman of the Congress
     4 Feb 1861 (hours)        Robert Woodward Barnwell           (b. 1801 - d. 1882)  Dem
    President of the Congress
     4 Feb 1861 - 18 Feb 1861  Howell Cobb                        (b. 1815 - d. 1868)  Dem
    President
    18 Feb 1861 - 10 May 1865  Jefferson Davis                    (b. 1808 - d. 1889)  Dem

    Party abbreviation: Dem = Democratic Party ("southern" wing of democratic party, pro-states
    rights, pro-slavery)


    California Republic
    [California Bear
                  Revolt flag, 1846]
                 14 Jun 1846 - 7 Jul 1846
    Capital: Sonoma

    1821                       Province of Mexico.
    14 Jun 1846 -  9 Jul 1846  California Republic proclaimed during the 
                                 "Bear Flag Revolt" at Sonoma (ruling only
                                 that small town).
     7 Jul 1846                California occupied by U.S. military.
     9 Sep 1850                State of the U.S.

    President
    14 Jun 1846 -  9 Jul 1846  William Brown Ide                 (b. 1796 - d. 1852)



    Republic of West Florida
    [Flag of West Florida]
                   26 Sep 1810 - 10 Dec 1810
    Map of Republic of
    West Florida
    Capital: St. Francisville
    Constitution
    (27 Oct 1810)

    22 Sep 1810                Convention of representatives of several districts of West
                                 Florida assumes the authority of the governor of West Florida.

    26 Sep 1810                R
    epublic of West Florida (official styles State of Florida and
                                 Commonwealth of Florida are both used in official documents
    ).
    10 Dec 1810                Incorporated into Louisiana.

    President of the Convention
    22 Sep 1810 - 10 Oct 1810  John Rhea                         (b. 1753 - d. 1832)
    Chairman of the Committee of the Convention
    10 Oct 1810 - 21 Nov 1810 
    John Hunter Johnson               (b. 1778 - d. 1819)
    Governors
    21 Nov 1810 - 29 Nov 1810  John Rea                          (s.a.)
                               + John Hunter Johnson             (s.a.)

                               (acting)
    29 Nov 1810 - 10 Dec 1810  Fulwar Skipwith                   (b. 1765 - d. 1839)



    Kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands
     
    [Hawaii
                                  flag 1793-1816]
                           1793 - 1816
     
    [Hawaii flag 1816-1843]
                              1816 - 25 Feb 1843
     
    [Flag of the
                                  United Kingdom]
                   25 Feb 1843 - 31 Jul 1843 
     
    [Hawaii flag 1843-1845]
                            1843 - 20 May 1845
     
     
    [Flag of
                                  Hawaii]
             20 May 1845 - 1 Feb 1893,  from 1 Apr 1893
                           Confirmed 4 Jul 1894
     
    [U.S. 44
                                  star flag 1891]
                   1 Feb 1893 - 1 Apr 1893
     
     
    Map of Hawaii Hear National Anthem
    "Hawai`i Pono`i "
    (Hawaii's Own)
    (1876-1893)

    Former National Anthem
    “He Mele Lahui Hawaiʻi”
    (The Song of the Hawaiian Nation) (1866 - 1876)
    Constitutions
    (1840, 1852, 1864, 1887)
    ---------------------------------
    Republic Constitution
    (1894-1900)
    Capital: Honolulu
    (Lahaina 1802-1845;
    Kamakahonu 1795-1802)
    Currency 1847-1899:
    Hawaiian Dollar (HWD)
    National Holiday: 1825-1871:
     Birthday of King
     Kamehameha III

    17 Mar (1813);
    1871-1894: Kamehameha
    Day 11 June;
    Hawaiian Independence
    Day 28 Nov (1843);
    from 1894: Hawaiian
     Republic Day 4 Jul (1894)
    Population: 154,001 (1900)
    89,990 (1890)
    GDP: $N/A
    Exports: $29,342,697 (1900)
    Imports: $2,964,693 (1900)
    Total Armed Forces: 76 (1892); 476 (1896)
    International Organizations/Treaties: UPU
    Hawaii Index
    Chronology


    18 Jan 1778                Discovered by British Capt. James Cook.

    1795                       Kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands (also
                                 officially styled Hawaiian Kingdom).
    25 Feb 1843 - 31 Jul 1843  Provisionally ceded to Britain 
                                (Sandwich Islands)(not recognized by U.K.)
    28 Nov 1843                U.K. & France recognize Hawaii independence
    17 Jan 1893                Hawaiian Islands (provisional)

     1 Feb 1893 -  8 Dec 1893  U.S. protectorate declared (then revoked).
     4 Jul 1894 - 14 Jun 1900  Republic of Hawaii
    12 Aug 1898                Annexed by the U.S.
    14 Jun 1900                Territory of Hawaii
    21 Aug 1959                U.S. State (see U.S. states).

    Governments
    of Hawaii
    (1795-1900)
    Kauai
    (to 1824)
    Maui
    (to 1795)
    Oahu
    (to 1783)
     

    Kings¹
    1795 -  8 May 1819         Kamehameha I "the Great"           (b. 1758? - d. 1819)
    20 May 1819 - 14 Jul 1824  Kamehameha II                      (b. 1797 - d. 1824)
    14 Jul 1824 -  6 May 1825  Queen Elisabeta Kaahumanu -Regent  (b. 1772? - d. 1832)
                                (regent [for Kamehameha II from 1823;
                                 for Kamehameha III to 5 Jun 1832])
     6 May 1825 - 15 Dec 1854  Kamehameha III                     (b. 1814 - d. 1854)
    Jun 1832 - Mar 1833        Kinau (Kaahumanu II) (f) -Regent   (b. 1805 - d. 1839)
    25 Feb 1843 - 31 Jul 1843  Lord George Paulet -U.K. Commander (b. 1803 - d. 1879)
    25 Feb 1843 - 31 Jul l843  Kekauluohi (f) -Regent             (b. 1794 - d. 1845)
    15 Dec 1854 - 30 Nov 1863  Kamehameha IV                      (b. 1834 - d. 1863)
    30 Nov 1863                Princess Victoria Kamamalu (f)     (b. 1838 - d. 1866)
                                 (Kaahumanu IV) -Regent
    30 Nov 1863 - 11 Dec 1872  Kamehameha V                       (b. 1830 - d. 1872)
    11 Dec 1872 -  9 Jan 1873  Executive Ministry
                               - Ferdinand William Hutchison      (b. 1819 - d. 1893)
                               - Robert Stirling (1st time)
                               - Stephen Henry Phillips           (b. 1823 - d. 1897)
     9 Jan 1873 -  3 Feb 1874  William Charles Lunalilo           (b. 1835 - d. 1874)
     3 Feb 1874 - 13 Feb 1874  Executive Ministry
                               - Edwin Oscar Hall                 (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
                               - Charles Reed Bishop              (b. 1822 - d. 1915)
                               - Robert Stirling (2nd time)
                               - Albert Francis Judd              (b. 1838 - d. 1900)
    13 Feb 1874 - 20 Jan 1891  David Kalakaua                     (b. 1836 - d. 1891)
    Queen¹
    20 Jan 1891 - 17 Jan 1893  Liliuokalani                       (b. 1838 - d. 1917) 
                                (regent to 29 Jan 1891; formally abdicates 24 Jan 1895)
    Chairman of the Citizen's Committee of Public Safety
    14 Jan 1893 - 17 Jan 1893  Henry Ernest Cooper (in rebellion) (b. 1857 - d. 1929)
    Chairman of the Executive Council of the Provisional Government
    17 Jan 1893 - 15 Feb 1893  Sanford Ballard Dole               (b. 1844 - d. 1926)
    President of the Provisional Government
    15 Feb 1893 -  4 Jul 1894  Sanford Ballard Dole               (s.a.)
    24 Aug 1893 - 19 Oct 1893  Francis March Hatch                (b. 1852 - d. 1923)
                                 (acting for Dole)
    President

     4 Jul 1894 - 14 Jun 1900  Sanford Ballard Dole               (s.a.)

    Kuhina Nui (Premiers)²
    May 1819 -  5 Jun 1832     Elisabeta Kaahumanu (f)            (s.a.)
     5 Jun 1832 -  4 Apr 1839  Kinau (Kaahumanu II) (f)           (s.a.)
     5 Apr 1839 -  7 Jun 1845  Kekauluohi (Kaahumanu III) (f)     (s.a.)
    10 Jun 1845 -  5 Sep 1853  John Kaleipahala Young II          (b. c.1810 - d. 1857)
                                 (1st time)(Keoni Ana Opio)
     5 Sep 1853 - 14 Sep 1853  Lot Kamehameh (=Kamehameha V)      (s.a.)
    14 Sep 1853 - 15 Jan 1855  John Kaleipahala Young II          (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    15 Jan 1855 - 19 Dec 1863  Victoria Kamamalu (f)(Kaahumanu IV)(s.a.)
    19 Dec 1863 - 20 Aug 1864  Mataio Kekuanaoa                   (b. 1791 - d. 1868)
    24 Aug 1864                Post abolished

    U.S. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
    23 Sep 1889 - 18 May 1893  John Leavitt Stevens               (b. 1820 - d. 1895)
                                 (to 6 Dec 1889, Minister Resident)
    Special Commissioner

    23 May 1893 -  8 Aug 1893  James Henderson Blount             (b. 1837 - d. 1903)
    U.S. Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary
     7 Nov 1893 -  6 Jan 1897  Albert Shelby Willis               (b. 1843 - d. 1897)
    22 Apr 1897 - 12 Aug 1898  Harold Marsh Sewall                (b. 1860 - d. 1924)
    Special Agent
    12 Aug 1898 - 14 Jun 1900  Harold Marsh Sewall                (s.a.)


    Kauai

    1810                       Subject to Kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands
     1 Jul 1816 -  7 Jul 1817  Russian America Company colony at Fort Elizabeth
                                 near Waimea (and 8 Oct 1816 Forts Alexander and Barclay).
    26 May 1824                Separate monarchy extinct.

    Kings
    .... - 1730                Kualii                             (d. 1730)
    1730 - 1770                Peleioholani                       (d. 1770)
    1770 - 1795                Kamakahelai (f)
    1795 - 26 May 1824         George Kaumualii                   (b. c.1780 - d. 1824)
                                 (from 1821, prisoner in Honolulu)

    Russian Governor at Fort Elizabeth
     1 Jul 1816 -  7 Jul 1817  Georg Anton Scheffer (Schäffer)    (b. 1779 - d. 1836)


    Maui

    1783                       Annexes Oahu.
     1 May 1795                Part of Kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands.

    Kings
    .... - 17..                Lonohonuakini
    17.. - 17..                Kaulahea II
    17.. - 1736                Kekaulike Kuihonoikamoku           (d. 1736)
    1736 - 1765                Kamehamehanui Ailuau               (d. 1765)
    1765 - 1794                Kahekili II                        (b. c.1737 - d. 1794)
    1794 - Jul 1794            Kaeokulani                         (d. 1794)
    Jul 1794 -  1 May 1795     Kalanikupule                       (d. 1795)


    Oahu

    1783                       Conquered by Kingdom of Maui.

    Kings 
    .... - 1730                Kualii                             (d. 1730)
    1730 - 1737                Kapionookalani                     (d. 1737)
    1737 - 1738                Kanahaokalani                      (d. 1738)
    1738 - 1770                Peleioholani                       (d. 1770)
    1770 - 1773                Kumahana
    1773 - 1783                Kaneoneo                           (d. 1785)

     ¹Full style of the ruler:
    (a) 1810 - 14 Jun 1852: Ali‘i Nui ("King"). The traditional style of the rulers of the major Hawaiian polities is Ali‘i Nui, literally "Great Chief." This style is adopted in the Hawaiian-language text of the Constitution of 6 Oct 1840. The English-language text uses the style "King";
    (b) 14 Jun 1852 - 6 Jul 1887: Ali‘i o ko Hawai‘i Pae ‘Aina ("King of the Hawaiian Islands");
    (c) 30 Nov 1863 - 11 Dec 1872 in some documents: Ma ka Lokomaika‘i o ke Akua, Ke Ali‘i o ko Hawai‘i Pae ‘Aina ("by the grace of God, King of the Hawaiian Islands");
    (d)  6 Jul 1887 - 29 Jan 1891: Mo‘i o ko Hawai‘i Pae ‘Aina ("King of the Hawaiian Islands");
    (e) 29 Jan 1891 - 17 Jan 1893: Mo‘i Wahine o ko Hawai‘i Pae ‘Aina ("Queen of the Hawaiian Islands"). 

      ²The Hawaiian office most commonly translated as that of 'Prime minister' is Kuhina nui. The office was created in 1819 upon the death of Kamehameha I. Kamehameha's favorite wife, Ka‘ahumanu, reported that it was the King's wish that she become in effect the co-sovereign along with the King's young son. In her position as Kuhina nui she ruled the Kingdom until Kamehameha II came to majority and then for the remainder of her life. The Kuhina nui's power was greater than that of a prime minister in the western sense. The Constitution of 1864 abolished the office of Kuhina nui returning the power held by the Kuhina nui back to the 
    monarch.



    Republic of Texas
     
    Dodson
                                  Lone Star flag
                 1 Mar 1836 - 10 Dec 1836 
     
    [Burnet's Flag (1836) of Texas
                                  Republic]
              10 Dec 1836 - 24 Jan 1839 
     
    [Flag of
                                  Texas]
                    Adopted 24 Jan 1839
     
    Map of Texas Republic
     National Anthem
    Declaration of
    Independence

    (2 Mar 1836)
    Constitution
    (Sep 1836)
    Capitals: Washington-on-the
    Brazos
    (1836, 1842 -1844)
    (Austin 1836 -1842,
    1844 - 1846)
    Currency: Texas Dollar
    (TXSD)
    National Holiday: 2 Mar (1836)
    Independence Day
      Population: 212,592 (1850)
    Texas Index
    Chronology


    1682                       Spanish rule part of New Spain 

                                 (see Mexico).
    23 Jan 1691                Province of Coahuila and Texas (within 
                                 New Spain)(see U.S. states).
    18 Jul 1821                Independence from Spain declared.
    28 Sep 1821                Part of independent Mexico.
    14 Oct 1824                Mexican state of Coahuila and Texas.
    15 Nov 1835                Texas ruled by Provisional Government.
     2 Mar 1836                Independence (Republic of Texas).

    16 Feb 1846                Annexed by U.S. (State of Texas).

    Texas Republic
    Government
    (1835-1846)
     
     
     

    Governors
    15 Nov 1835 - 11 Jan 1836  Henry Smith                        (b. 1788 - d. 1851)
                                 (in opposition to 1 Mar 1836)
    11 Jan 1836 -  1 Mar 1836  James W. Robinson (acting)         (b. 1790 - d. 1857)
    President of the Convention
     2 Mar 1836 - 17 Mar 1836  Richard Ellis                      (b. 1781 - d. 1846)
    Presidents
    17 Mar 1836 - 22 Oct 1836  David Gouverneur Burnet            (b. 1788 - d. 1870)
    22 Oct 1836 - 10 Dec 1838  Samuel "Sam" Houston (1st time)    (b. 1793 - d. 1863)
    10 Dec 1838 - 13 Dec 1841  Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar          (b. 1798 - d. 1859)
    13 Dec 1841 -  9 Dec 1844  Samuel "Sam" Houston (2nd time)    (s.a.)
     9 Dec 1844 - 19 Feb 1846  Anson Jones                        (b. 1798 - d. 1858)





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