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Finland

[Flag of
                                    Sweden]
                c.1154 - 29 Mar 1809 
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
            29 Mar 1809 - 6 Dec 1917
 
Finland Temporary State Flag
                                    (1918)
6 Dec 1917 - 29 May 1918
   Temporary State Flag
Finland
                                    Temporary Merchant Ensign (1918)
            27 Feb 1918 - 29 May 1918
            Temporary Merchant Ensign
Finland
                                    State Flag (1918-1920)
              29 May 1918 - 26 May 1978  
Finland State Flag (1918-1920)
      29 May 1918 - 12 Feb 1920 State Flag
 
[Flag of
                                    Finland]
         Adopted 26 May 1978 Civil Flag
State Flag of
                                  Finland 1978
          Adopted 26 May 1978 State Flag
 
Map of Finland
Hear National Anthem
"Maamme" (Our Land)
Adopted 1917
(in use from 13 May 1848)
Former Anthem
"Keisarihymni"
(Song to the Grand Duke)
c.1830-1917

Constitution
(1 Mar 2000)
---------------------------------
1919 Constitution
(17 Jul 1919-22 Dec 1995)
Capital: Helsinki
(Helsingfors 1812-1917;
Abo [Turku]) to 1812
)
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1963-1 Jan 2002 New Markka
 (FIM); 1917-1963 Marrka (FIN);
1808-1917 Russian Ruble (RUES)
National Holiday: 6 Dec (1917)
Independence Day
Population: 5,266,114 (2013)
GDP: $195.5 billion (2013)
Exports: $75.7 billion (2013)
Imports: $70.6 billion (2013
Ethnic groups: Finnish 93.4%, Swedish 5.6%, Russian 0.5%,
Estonian 0.3%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)
Total Active Armed Forces: 36,479 (2010)
Merchant marine: 97 ships (2010)
Religions: Lutheran 78.4%, Orthodox 1.1%, other
Christian 1.1%, other 0.2%, none 19.2% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC, ACS (observer), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BIS, BTWC, CBSS, CE, CERN, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PA (observer), PCA, PFP, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Finland Index
Chronology
c.1154                     Conquest of Finland by Sweden begins (called
                             Österland or Österlanden). Later divided
                             into three (from 1634, five) provinces of Sweden;
                             with four periods granted as a fief of King of
                             Sweden as a duchy with varying size and degrees
                             of autonomy.
1284 - 25 May 1291         Duchy of Finland granted as fief of Swedish crown. 
 2 Dec 1302 - 10 Dec 1317  Duchy of Finland granted as fief of Swedish crown.
12 Aug 1323                Peace of Nöteburg (Pähkinäsaari) between Sweden
                             and Novgorod. Finland's eastern border is defined
                             for the first time.
1353 - 1357                Duchy of Finland granted as fief of Swedish crown.
1374 - 20 Aug 1386         Bo Jonsson Grip (b. c.1335 - d. 1386), Lord High
                             Steward of Sweden, effectively gains autonomous
                             control over Finland.
27 Jun 1556 - 12 Aug 1563  Duchy of Finland granted as fief of Swedish crown.
 3 Aug 1577                Grand Duchy of Finland (subject to, and from 21 Aug
                             1772 in nominal personal union with, Sweden).
27 Feb 1617                Karelia joined to Finland by treaty of Stolbova. 
28 Aug 1713 - 30 Aug 1721  Russian occupation.
30 Aug 1721                Karelia and Vyborg (Viipuri) ceded to Russia.
29 Aug 1742 - 16 Jun 1743  Russian occupation.
22 Mar 1808                Russian occupation (Tawastehus [Hämeenlinna]
                             fortress surrenders 6 Apr 1808).
29 Mar 1809                Personal union with Russia (Grand Duchy of Finland)
17 Sep 1809                Transfer from Sweden to Russia ratified in 
                             the Treaty of Fredrikshamn
 9 Nov 1917                Finnish Diet begins to exercise sovereign
                             authority (Finland).
 6 Dec 1917                Formal declaration of independence from Russia.
 4 Jan 1918                Independence recognized by Russia.
28 Jan 1918 - 25 Apr 1918  Finnish Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic
                             in southern Finland during the civil war; at
                             Helsinki to 4 Apr 1918, then at Viipuri.
14 Apr 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Germans military intervention in southern Finland.
17 Jul 1919                Republic of Finland (becomes officially accepted
                             name of the state, although it not given
                             constitutional recognition).
14 Oct 1920                Finland acquires the Arctic port of Petsamo
                             (Pechenga) in treaty with the Soviet Russia.
24 Jun 1921                Sovereignty over Åland Islands awarded to Finland.
 1 Dec 1939 - 12 Mar 1940  Finnish Democratic Republic, dissident government  
                             at Soviet occupied town of Terijoki.
13 Mar 1940                Finland cedes Karelian Isthmus (incl. Viipuri 
                             [Vyborg]), Finnish Aunus Karelia (Sordavala, 
                             north Ladoga), the Salla region, the Rybachi 
                             peninsula in the arctic, and a 30 year lease on 
                             the Hangö peninsula to the Soviet Union.
27 Jul 1941 - 19 Sep 1944  Karelo-Finnish S.S.R. in the Soviet Union almost
                             entirely occupied by Finland.
 7 Dec 1941                Territories annexed by Soviet Union on 13 Mar 1940
                             re-integrated into Finland (Rybachi penins.
                             reoccupied 29 Jun 1941, Viipuri on 29 Aug 1941).
 4 Oct 1944 - 25 Apr 1945  Formerly allied German forces occupy Lapland 
                            (retroactive to 15 Sep 1944).
19 Sep 1944 - 10 Feb 1947  Allied (Soviet) occupation; restoration of 
                             the 13 Mar 1940 borders (in Viipuri from 
                             20 Jun 1944, from 15 Oct 1944 in Petsmo).
10 Feb 1947                Petsamo ceded to Soviet Union; Porkkala peninsula
                             leased to Soviet Union until 26 Jan 1956.
30 Sep 1963 -              Finland leases the Saimaa Canal and the island of 
                             Malyj Vysotskij (Ravansaari) from Russia.
Regions
Provinces
(1634-2009)
Aland Islands
Hanko and
Porkkala

(1940-1941,
1944-1956)
Finnish Socialist Conciliar Republic
(1918)
Finnish Democratic Republic
(1939-1940)

Allied Control
Commission

(1945-1947)
Evangelical
Lutheran Church
of Finland

Orthodox Church
of Finland
Historical Maps
of Finland
 

Dukes (title hertig av Finland)(granted as a fief by the Swedish crown)
1284 - 25 May 1291         Bengt I Folkunga, Bishop           (b. 1254 - d. 1291)
                             of Linköping
 2 Dec 1302 - 10 Dec 1317  Valdemar Folkunga                  (b. bf.1290 - d. 1318)
1353 - 1357                Bengt II Algotsson                 (b. c.1330 - d. 1360)
1465 - 1467                Karl Knutsson Bonde                (b. 1408 - d. 1470)
                             (1448–57, 1464–65, 1467–70 Karl VIII King of Sweden
27 Jun 1556 - 12 Aug 1563  Johan Vasa                         (b. 1537 - d. 1592)
                             (from 26 Jan 1569, Johan III King of Sweden)
Grand Dukes (also 29 Mar 1809 - 15 Mar 1917 the Emperors of Russia)
 3 Aug 1577 - 29 Mar 1809  the Kings of Sweden
29 Mar 1809 -  1 Dec 1825  Alexander I                        (b. 1777 - d. 1825)
 1 Dec 1825 - 25 Dec 1825  Konstantin                         (b. 1779 - d. 1831)
                             (proclaimed, but did not accept)
25 Dec 1825 -  2 Mar 1855  Nikolay I                          (b. 1796 - d. 1855)
 2 Mar 1855 - 13 Mar 1881  Alexander II                       (b. 1818 - d. 1881)
13 Mar 1881 -  1 Nov 1894  Alexander III                      (b. 1845 - d. 1894)
 1 Nov 1894 - 15 Mar 1917  Nikolay II                         (b. 1868 - d. 1918)
15 Mar 1917 -  9 Nov 1917  Vacant; Russian provisional government
                           exercising grand-ducal authority


Governors (Lagman)

c.1155 - 1249              ....
1249 - 1255                Birger Magnusson jarl av Bielbo    (b. c.1196 - d. 1266)
1255 - 1280                ....
1280 - 1281                Karl Gustavsson
1283 - 25 May 1291         Bengt Folkunga                     (s.a.)
1291 - 1305                Torkel Knutsson                    (d. 1306)
1302 - 1317                Valdemar Folkunga                  (s.a.)
1320 - 1336                Per Johansson (in Vyborg)
1324                       Algot Johansson
1324 - 1326                Mats Kettilmundsson                (d. 1326)
1326 - c.1331              Karl Näskonungsson (or Haraldsson)
1332 - 1334                Torinus Jönsson
1334 - 1337                Erengisle Andersson
1337 - 1340?               Lars (Laurentius) Petersson (in Abo)

1340 - 1347                Dan Niklisson (or Nilsson)
c.1343                     Johan Götesson (in Vyborg)
1347 - 13..                Mats Kettilmundsson (in Abo)
1347 - c.1350              Gerhard Skytte
1353 - 1357                Bengt Algotsson                    (s.a.)
1357 - 21 Jun 1359         Erik Magnusson (King Erik XII)     (s.a.)
1357 - 1364                Nils Turesson Bielke (in Vyborg)   (d. 1364)
1364 - 1365                Narve Ingvaldsson
1371 - 1386                Bo Jonsson Grip (in Abo)           (s.a.)
1386 - 15 Aug 1395         Jäppe Djäkn (in Abo)               (b. c.1350 - d. c.1411)
15 Aug 1395 - 1399         Knut Bosson Grip (in Abo)          (d. 1406)
1396 - 1421                Nils Tavast                        (b. 1355 - d. 1431)
1399 - 140.                Abraham Brodersson (in Abo)        (d. 1410)
140. - 1413                Knut Thordsson Bonde (in Abo)      (b. c.1377 - d. 1413)
1413 - 1434                Klaus Lydekesson Djäkn (in Abo)    (b. 1379 - d. 1437)
1434 - 1437                Henrik Klasson (in Abo)

1403 - 1417                Tord Bonde (in Vyborg)
1421? - 1435               Klas Lydekesson Djäkn (in Abo)     (b. 1379 - d. 1437)
1417 - 1442                Krister Nilsson (Vasa) (in Vyborg) (b. c.1365 - d. 1442)
1436 - 1437                Henrik Klasson (in Abo)
1437 - 1440                Hans Kröpelin d.ä. (in Abo)        (b. 1404 - d. 1440)
1440 - 144.                Jon Karlsson Färla (in Abo)
144. - 1442                Mats Ödgislesson Lillie (in Abo)   (b. 1382 - d. 1442)
1442 - 1446                Henrik Bitz (in Abo)               (d. 1458)
1440 - 1448                Carl Knutsson Bonde (in Vyborg)    (b. 1408 - d. 1470)
1446 - 1450                Magnus Gren (in Abo)
1450 - 1457?               Erik Axelsson Tott (in Abo)        (b. c.1415 - d. 1481)
1450 - 1457                Olav Nilsson
1457 - 1463                Krister Bengtsson Oxenstierna      (b. 1415 - d. 1473)
                             (in Abo)
1457 - 1481                Erik Axelsson Tott (in Vyborg)     (b. c.1420 - d. 1487)
1466 - 14..                Jöns Olofsson Stenbock (in Abo)    (d. 1488)
1481 - 1483                Laurens (Lars) Axelsson Tott       (d. c.1483)
                             (in Vyborg)
1490 - 1495                Nils Eriksson Gyllenstierna        (b. c.1457 - d. 1495)
                             (in Vyborg)
1491 - 1496?               Joakim Henriksson Fleming (in Abo) (d. 1496)
1495 - 1496                Knut Jönsson Posse (in Vyborg)     (b. c.1446 - d. 1500)
1497 - 1501                Sten Sture den Äldre
("the Elder") (b. 1440 - d. 1503)
1499 - 1502                Magnus Frille (in Abo)             (d. 1508)

1499 - May 1511            Erik Turesson Bielke (in Vyborg)   (b. c.1462 - d. 1511)
1504 - 1515                Josef Persson till Djula (in Abo)
1513 - 1520                Tönne Eriksson Tott (in Vyborg)    (b. 1467 - d. 1522)
1515 - 1520                Krister Klasson Horn (in Abo)      (b. c.1480 - d. 1520)
1520 - 1522                Thomas Wulff van Grewendorp (in Abo)
1520 - 1523                Rolf Mattsson (in Vyborg)
1522? - 1523/27            Jöns Vestgöte (in Abo)
1525 - 1534                Johan av Hoya (in Vyborg)          (d. 1535)
1526 - 1529?               Joakim Henriksson Fleming (in Abo)
c.1530                     Erik Nilsson Sluk (in Abo)         (b. 1480 - d. c.1530)
1534 - 1545                Nils Mansson Grabbe (in Vyborg)    (b. c.1490 - d. 1549)
1535 - 1547                Tomas Jönsson Ryting (in Abo)      (b. c.1500 - d. 1550)
1545 - 1554?               Mäns Nilsson Stjernkors (in Vyborg)
1547 - May 1553            Olof Trottesson till Eka (in Abo)  (d. 1553)
1553 - 1560                Hans Thomasson till Kappelstrand
                             (in Abo)
1556 - 1560                Klas Kristersson Horn (in Vyborg)  (b. 1517 - d. 1566)
Governors (Ståthållare; 1623-1628 Landshöfding
1551 - 1561                Henrik Horn til Kanckas            (b. 1512? - d. 1595)
1561 - 1566                Gustav Fincke til Porkala och      (b. c.1510 - d. 1566)
                             Sonnäs
1563 - Jul 1564            Jakob Hästesko til Sjundby         (b. 152. - d. 1567?)
                             (acting for Fincke)
1566 - 1568                Ivar Månsson Stjernkors til        (b. c.1540 - d. 1573)
                             Kärknäs
1568 - 1571                Hans Larsson Björnram til Isnäs    (b. 152. - d. 1571)
1571 - 1576                Gustaf Banér til Djursholm och     (b. 1547 - d. 1600) 
                             Ekenäs            
1576 - 1594                Clas Åkesson Tott til Bystad       (b. c.1530 - d. 1596)
                             (from 28 Sep 1576, Clas Åkesson friherre Tott til Bystad)
1587 - 1590                Axel Leijonhufwud greve Raseborg   (b. 1554 - d. 1619)
1591 - 13 Apr 1597         
Clas Fleming friherre til Wik      (b. c.1530 - d. 1597)
13 Apr 1597 - 18 Sep 1599  Arvid Stålarm til Lindö            (b. 1549? - d. 1620)
                             (acting 1 Aug 1597)
18 Aug 1599 - 1623         Post abolished
1623 - 1628                Nils friherre Bjelke til Salestad  (b. 1569 - d. 1639)
Governors-general
1623 - 1631                Nils friherre Bjelke til Salestad  (s.a.)

1631 - 1633                Gabriel friherre Oxenstierna       (b. 1586 - d. 1656)
                             til Mörby och Lindholmen
1633 - 21 Nov 1637         Vacant 
21 Nov 1637 -  7 Aug 1640  Per Brahe til Wisingsborg          (b. 1602 - d. 1680)
                             (1st time)
 7 Aug 1640 - 18 Jun 1648  Vacant
18 Jun 1648 - Sep 1651     Per Brahe til Wisingsborg          (s.a.)
                             (from 18 Sep 1650, Per friherre Brahe til Wisingsborg)
                             (2nd time)
Sep 1651 - 1657            Vacant
1657 - 23 Oct 1657         Erik friherre Gyllenstjerna til    (b. 1602 - d. 1657)
                             Uleberg     
1657 - 1658                Gustaf friherre Horn til           (b. 1614 - d. 1666)
                             Marienborg
1658 - 1664                Vacant
1664 - 1669                Herman Claesson friherre Fleming   (b. 1619 - d. 1673)
                             til Liebelitz 
1669 - 1710                Post abolished
Supreme Commanders
Oct 1700 - 12 Nov 1703     Abraham Cronhjort                  (b. 1634 - d. 1703)
12 Nov 1703 - Jan 1707     Georg Johan Maydell                (b. 1648 - d. 1709)
Jan 1707 - 23 Sep 1710     Georg f
riherre Lybecker            (b. c.1655 - d. 1718)
Governors-general
23 Sep 1710 - 25 Jan 1712  Carl Gustaf greve Nieroth          (b. c.1650 - d. 1712)
25 Jan 1712 - 28 Aug 1713  Georg friherre Lybecker            (s.a.)
                             (acting to Jul 1712)
28 Aug 1713 - 1717         Fyodor Matveyevich Graf            (b. 1661 - d. 1728)
                             Apraksin (Russian commander)
1717 - 30 Sep 1721         Gustaf Otto Graf von Douglas       (b. 1687 - d. 1771)                                           (Russian governor-general)
30 Sep 1721 - 29 Aug 1742  Post abolished
29 Aug 1742 -  2 Jan 1743  Francis Edward James Keith         (b. 1696 - d. 1758)
                             (Russian commander)
 3 Jan 1743 - 1743         Johann Balthasar von Campenhausen  (b. 1689 - d. 1758)
                             (Russian governor-general)
1743 - May 1747            Vacant
May 1747 - Jul 1754        Gustaf Fredric friherre von Rosen  (b. 1688 - d. 1769) 
                             (from 21 Nov 1751, Gustaf Fredric greve von Rosen)
Jul 1754 -  1 Dec 1808     Post abolished
Russian Commanding General
22 Mar 1808 - Feb 1809     Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von         (b. 1750 - d. 1811)
                             Buxhöwden (Fyodor Graf Buksgevden)
Governors-general
 1 Dec 1808 - 17 Jun 1809  Göran Magnus Freiherr              (b. 1740 - d. 1819)
                             Sprengtporten
17 Jun 1809 -  1 Feb 1810  Mikhail Andreas Barclay de Tolly   (b. 1761 - d. 1818)
                             (Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay-de-Tolli)
 3 Mar 1810 - 22 Mar 1824  Fabian Gotthard von Steinheil      (b. 1762 - d. 1831) 
                             (from 18 Sep 1812, Fabian Gotthard
                             Graf von Steinheil)
                             (Faddey Fyodorovich Shteyngel)
                             (acting from 1823) 
 6 Sep 1812 - 13 Apr 1813  Gustav Mauritz Graf Armfelt        (b. 1757 - d. 1814)
                             (acting for Steinheil)
22 Mar 1824 -  1 Dec 1831  Arseny Andreyevich Zakrevsky       (b. 1783 - d. 1865)
                             (from 14 Aug 1830, Arseny Andreyevich Graf Zakrevsky)
 1 Dec 1831 - 15 Mar 1855  Knyaz Aleksandr Sergeyevich        (b. 1787 - d. 1869)
                             Menshikov 
24 Apr 1833 -  6 Sep 1846  Alexander Amatus Thesleff          (b. 1778 - d. 1847)
                             (acting intermittently for Menshikov)
 4 May 1850 - 12 Jan 1851  Platon Ivanovich Rokasovsky        (b. 1800 - d. 1869) 
                             (acting for Menshikov)
26 Jul 1851 - 17 Dec 1851  Platon Ivanovich Rokasovsky        (s.a.) 
                             (acting for Menshikov)
22 Feb 1854 - 24 Jan 1855  Platon Ivanovich Rokasovsky        (s.a.) 
                             (acting for Menshikov)
24 Jan 1855 - 15 Mar 1855  Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Graf     (b. 1794 - d. 1874)
                             von Berg (Fyodor Graf Berg) 
                             (acting for Menshikov)
15 Mar 1855 - 11 Dec 1861  Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Graf     (s.a.)
                             von Berg (from 8 Oct 1857, Friedrich
                             Wilhelm Rembert Freiherr von Berg)
11 Dec 1861 -  2 Jun 1866  Platon Ivanovich Rokasovsky        (s.a.)
 5 Aug 1864 - 16 Oct 1864  Johan Mauritz Freiherr Nordenstam  (b. 1802 - d. 1882)
                             (acting for Rokasovsky)
 2 Jun 1866 - 18 Jun 1881  Nikolay Vladimirovich Graf         (b. 1819 - d. 1892)
                             Adlerberg 
23 Jun 1866 - 21 Jul 1866  Bernhard Indrenius (1st time)      (b. 1812 - d. 1884)
                             (acting for Adlerberg)
18 Jul 1867 - 18 Oct 1867  Bernhard Indrenius (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting for Adlerberg)
20 Jul 1868 - 18 Oct 1868  Johan Mauritz Freiherr Nordenstam  (s.a.)
                             (1st time)(acting for Adlerberg)
15 Jul 1869 -  6 Oct 1869  Bernhard Indrenius (3rd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting for Adlerberg)
 7 May 1870 - 11 Sep 1870  Johan Maurtiz Freiherr Nordenstam  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting for Adlerberg)
13 Jun 1871 - 13 Sep 1871  Bernhard Indrenius (3rd time)      (s.a.)  
 
                            (acting for Adlerberg)
19 Jul 1872 - 19 Nov 1872  Edvard Gustaf af Forselles         (b. 1817 - d. 1891)
                             (acting for Adlerberg)
19 Nov 1872 - 24 Mar 1873  Johan Maurtiz Freiherr Nordenstam  (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting for Adlerberg)
25 Jun 1873 - 11 Nov 1873  Bernhard Freiherr Indrenius        (s.a.)  
                             (4th time)(acting for Adlerberg)
 2 Jun 1874 - 22 Oct 1874  Bernhard Freiherr Indrenius        (s.a.)
                             (5th time)(acting for Adlerberg)
22 Jun 1875 - 17 Nov 1875  Bernhard Freiherr Indrenius        (s.a.)
                             (6th time)(acting for Adlerberg)
17 Aug 1876 - 21 Jun 1876  Bernhard Freiherr Indrenius        (s.a.)
                             (7th time)(acting for Adlerberg)
 3 Jun 1881 - 31 Jan 1897  Friedrich Graf von Heyden          (b. 1831 - d. 1900)
                             (Fyodor Logginovich Graf Heiden)
31 Jan 1897 - 12 Oct 1898  Stepan Osipovich Goncharov         (b. 1831 - d. 1912)
                             (Gontscharoff)(acting)
12 Oct 1898 - 17 Jun 1904  Nikolay Ivanovich Bobrikov         (b. 1839 - d. 1904)
                             (Bobrikoff)
18 Jun 1904 - 18 Aug 1904  Nikolay Matveyevich Turbin (acting)(b. 1832 - d. 1913)
18 Aug 1904 -  6 Dec 1905  Knyaz Ivan Mikhailovich Obolensky  (b. 1853 - d. 1910)
18 Nov 1905 -  6 Dec 1905  Anton Freiherr Salza               (b. 1843 - d. 1916)
                             (acting for Obolensky)
 6 Dec 1905 - 28 Feb 1908  Nikolay Nikolayevich Gerard        (b. 1838 - d. 1929)
28 Feb 1908 -  4 Dec 1909  Vladimir Aleksandrovich Boeckmann  (b. 1848 - d. 1923)
 4 Dec 1909 - 16 Mar 1917  Frans Albert Seyn                  (b. 1862 - d. 1918)
16 Mar 1917 - 19 Mar 1917  Adam Iosipovich Lipsky (acting)    (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
19 Mar 1917 - 31 Mar 1917  Sergey Aleksandrovich Freiherr     (b. 1876 - d. 1924)
                             Korov (Korff)(acting)
31 Mar 1917 - 17 Sep 1917  Mikhail Aleksandrovich Stakhovich  (b. 1861 - d. 1923)
17 Sep 1917 -  9 Nov 1917  Nikolay Vissarionovich Nekrasov    (b. 1879 - d. 1940)  KDP
                             (Nekrasoff)
Acting Heads of State
 7 Nov 1917 - 15 Nov 1917  Eemil Nestor Setälä                (b. 1864 - d. 1935)  PSP
                             (chief minister)
15 Nov 1917 - 28 Nov 1917  Otto Johannes Lundson              (b. 1867 - d. 1939)  PSP
                             (Speaker of Diet)
28 Nov 1917 - 18 May 1918  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud af Qvalstad  (b. 1861 - d. 1944)  PSP
                             (chief minister)(in refuge at Vaasa 29 Jan - 3 May 1918)
State Protectors (Lieutenants of the Realm, usually referred to as Regents)
18 May 1918 - 12 Dec 1918  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud af Qvalstad  (s.a.)               SP
12 Dec 1918 - 27 Jul 1919  Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim  (b. 1867 - d. 1951)  Mil
King-elect¹
10 Oct 1918 - 14 Dec 1918  Väinö I (did not take office)      (b. 1868 - d. 1940)
Presidents
27 Jul 1919 -  1 Mar 1925  Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg              (b. 1865 - d. 1952)  ED
                             (Carl Johan Ståhlberg)
 1 Mar 1925 -  1 Mar 1931  Lauri Kristian Relander            (b. 1883 - d. 1942)  ML
                             (Lars Kristian Relander)
 1 Mar 1931 -  1 Mar 1937  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud af Qvalstad  (s.a.)               SDP
 1 Mar 1937 - 19 Dec 1940  Kyösti Kallio (Gustaf Kalliokangas)(b. 1873 - d. 1940)  ML
19 Dec 1940 -  4 Aug 1944  Risto Heikki Ryti                  (b. 1889 - d. 1956)  ED
                             (acting [for Kallio from 27 Nov 1940] to 21 Dec 1940)
 4 Aug 1944 - 11 Mar 1946  Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim        (s.a.)             Mil/Non-party
11 Mar 1946 -  1 Mar 1956  Juho Kusti Paasikivi               (b. 1870 - d. 1956)  KOK
                             (acting for Mannerheim from 5 Mar 1945)
 1 Mar 1956 - 27 Jan 1982  Urho Kaleva Kekkonen               (b. 1900 - d. 1986) ML;1965 KESK
27 Jan 1982 -  1 Mar 1994  Mauno Henrik Koivisto              (b. 1923)            SDP
                             (acting for Kekkonen 11 Sep 1981 - 27 Jan 1982)
 1 Mar 1994 -  1 Mar 2000  Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari       (b. 1937)            SDP
 1 Mar 2000 -  1 Mar 2012  Tarja Kaarina Halonen (f)          (b. 1943)            SDP
 1 Mar 2012 -              Sauli Väinämö Niinistö             (b. 1948)            KOK


Chairman of the Finnish Delegation (in Saint Petersburg)
12 Nov 1808 -  9 Jan 1809  Carl Erik Graf Mannerheim          (b. 1759 - d. 1837)
State Secretaries for Finnish Affairs (in Saint Petersburg)
 9 Jan 1809 -  7 Nov 1811  Mikhail Mikhailovich Speranskiy    (b. 1772 - d. 1839)
 7 Nov 1811 - 18 Dec 1834  Robert Henrik Rehbinder            (b. 1777 - d. 1841)
                             (from 3 Sep 1826, Robert Henrik Graf Rehbinder)
Chairman of the Committee for Finnish Affairs (in Saint Petersburg)
20 Oct 1811 - 19 Aug 1814  Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt             (s.a.)
                             (from 18 Sep 1812 Gustaf Mauritz Graf Armfelt)
19 Aug 1814 -  9 Sep 1832  Knut von Troil                     (b. 1760 - d. 1825)    
                             (from 22 Jan 1818, Knut Freiherr von Troil)
                             (acting to 12 Sep 1814)
28 Aug 1821 - 29 Mar 1826  Robert Henrik Rehbinder            (s.a.)    
                             (acting for Troil)
Ministers of State for the Grand Duchy of Finland (in Saint Petersburg)
18 Dec 1834 -  8 Mar 1841  Robert Henrik Graf Rehbinder       (s.a.)
 8 Mar 1841 -  8 Jan 1876  Alexander Graf Armfelt             (b. 1794 - d. 1876)
                             (acting to 17 Mar 1841)
 8 Jan 1876 -  3 Sep 1881  Carl Knut Emil Freiherr Stjernvall (b. 1806 - d. 1890)
                             -Walléen (acting to 13 Jan 1876)
 3 Sep 1881 -  3 Sep 1888  Theodor von Bruun                  (b. 1821 - d. 1888) 
                             (from 14 Apr 1883, Theodor Freiherr von Brunn)
 3 Sep 1888 -  9 Apr 1891  Johann Casimir Ehrnrooth           (b. 1833 - d. 1913) 
                             (acting to 9 Nov 1888)
 9 Apr 1891 - 13 Jun 1898  Woldemar Carl von Daehn            (b. 1838 - d. 1900) 
13 Jun 1898 - 29 Aug 1899  Victor Napoleon von Procopé        (b. 1839 - d. 1906)
                             (acting)
29 Aug 1899 - 28 Jul 1904  Vyacheslav Konstantinovich Pleve   (b. 1846 - d. 1904)
                             (von Plehwe)(acting to 13 Jan 1900) 
28 Jul 1904 - 18 Jan 1905  Edvard Oerstroem (1st time)(acting)(b. 1862 - d. 1922) 
18 Jan 1905 - 28 Nov 1905  Constantin Linder                  (b. 1836 - d. 1908)
28 Nov 1905 -  5 Feb 1906  Edvard Oerstroem (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)   
 5 Feb 1906 - 21 Apr 1913  Carl Fredrik Langhoff              (b. 1856 - d. 1929) 
                             (from 14 Oct 1912, Carl Frederik Freiherr Langhoff)
21 Apr 1913 - 19 Mar 1917  Vladimir Ivanovich Markov (Markoff)(b. 1859 - d. 1919)
19 Mar 1917 -  8 Apr 1917  Theodor Izmailovich Rodichev       (b. 1854 - d. 1923)  KDP
                             (Roditscheff)(acting)
                             (Minister Secretary for Finnish Affairs)
 8 Apr 1917 - 14 Dec 1917  Carl Johan Alexis Enckell          (b. 1876 - d. 1959)
                             (Minister Secretary for Finnish Affairs)
Chief ministers (from 1 Oct 1822, vice chairmen of the Senate's Economy Department, 
from 27 Nov 1917 chairmen of the Senate)
 1 Oct 1822 - 28 Feb 1826  Carl Erik Freiherr Mannerheim      (s.a.)
                             (from 7 Jan 1824, Carl Erik Graf Mannerheim)  
 1 Mar 1826 - 12 Jan 1828  Samuel Fredrik von Born            (b. 1782 - d. 1850)
                             (acting to 1 Jan 1827)
12 Jan 1828 - 10 Apr 1833  Anders Henrik Falck                (b. 1772 - d. 1851)
10 Apr 1833 - 30 Sep 1841  Gustaf Hjärne                      (b. 1768 - d. 1845)
                             (from 5 May 1841, Gustaf Freiherr Hjarne)
                             (acting to 1 Oct 1834)
 1 Oct 1841 - 30 Apr 1858  Lars Gabriel von Haartman          (b. 1789 - d. 1859)
                             (from 26 Apr 1851, Lars Gabriel Freiherr von Haartman)
 1 Jun 1858 -  8 Jun 1882  Johan Mauritz Nordenstam           (s.a.)             
                             (from 15 Apr 1860, Johan Mauritz Freiherr Nordenstam)
 1 Oct 1882 - 30 Sep 1885  Edvard Gustaf af Forselles         (s.a.)  
 1 Oct 1885 -  1 Dec 1891  Samuel Werner Freiherr von Troil   (b. 1833 - d. 1900)
 1 Dec 1891 - 29 Oct 1900  Sten Carl Tudeer                   (b. 1840 - d. 1905)
29 Oct 1900 - 18 Jan 1905  Constantin Linder                  (s.a.)
 4 May 1905 -  4 Dec 1905  Emil Streng                        (b. 1838 - d. 1911)
 1 Dec 1905 - 10 Jun 1908  Leopold Henrik Stanislaus Mechelin (b. 1839 - d. 1914)  SFP
 5 Aug 1908 - 27 Apr 1909  Edvard Immanuel Hjelt              (b. 1855 - d. 1921)  PSP
27 Apr 1909 - 19 Oct 1909  August Johannes Hjelt (acting)     (b. 1862 - d. 1919)  SP
19 Oct 1909 - 21 Dec 1909  Andrey Andreyevich Virenius        (b. 1850 - d. 1919)  Mil
                             (1st time)(acting)
21 Dec 1909 - 21 Apr 1913  Vladimir Ivanovich Markov          (s.a.)               Mil
21 Apr 1913 - 16 Mar 1917  Mikhail Mikhailovich Borovitinov   (b. 1874 - d. 1921)  Non-party
17 Mar 1917 - 26 Mar 1917  Andrey Andreyevich Virenius        (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)(acting)
26 Mar 1917 - 17 Aug 1917  Antii Oskari Tokoi                 (b. 1873 - d. 1963)  SDP
17 Aug 1917 - 27 Nov 1917  Eemil Nestor Setälä                (s.a.)               PSP
27 Nov 1917 - 27 May 1918  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud af Qvalstad  (s.a.)               PSP
                             (1st time)(in Vaasa refuge 29 Jan - 3 May 1918)
27 May 1918 - 26 Nov 1918  Juho Kusti Paasikivi (1st time)    (s.a.)               SP
                             (Johan Gustaf Hellstén)
Prime ministers
26 Nov 1918 - 17 Apr 1919  Lauri Johannes Ingman (1st time)   (b. 1868 - d. 1934)  KOK
17 Apr 1919 - 15 Aug 1919  Kaarlo Castrén                     (b. 1860 - d. 1938)  NPP
15 Aug 1919 - 15 Mar 1920  Juho Heikki Vennola (1st time)     (b. 1872 - d. 1938)  NPP
15 Mar 1920 -  9 Apr 1921  Rafael Waldemar Erich              (b. 1879 - d. 1946)  KOK
 9 Apr 1921 -  2 Jun 1922  Juho Heikki Vennola (2nd time)     (s.a.)               NPP
 2 Jun 1922 - 14 Nov 1922  Aimo Kaarlo Cajander (1st time)    (b. 1879 - d. 1943)  Non-party
14 Nov 1922 - 18 Jan 1924  Kyösti Kallio (1st time)           (s.a.)               ML
18 Jan 1924 - 31 May 1924  Aimo Kaarlo Cajander (2nd time)    (s.a.)               ED
31 May 1924 - 31 Mar 1925  Lauri Johannes Ingman (2nd time)   (s.a.)               KOK
31 Mar 1925 - 31 Dec 1925  Antti Agaton Tulenheimo            (b. 1879 - d. 1952)  KOK
31 Dec 1925 - 13 Dec 1926  Kyösti Kallio (2nd time)           (s.a.)               ML
13 Dec 1926 - 17 Dec 1927  Väinö Alfred Tanner                (b. 1881 - d. 1966)  SDP
17 Dec 1927 - 22 Dec 1928  Juho Emil Sunila (1st time)        (b. 1875 - d. 1936)  ML
22 Dec 1928 - 16 Aug 1929  Oskari Mantere (Oskar Majamäki)    (b. 1874 - d. 1942)  NPP
16 Aug 1929 -  6 Jul 1930  Kyösti Kallio (3rd time)           (s.a.)               ML
 6 Jul 1930 - 16 Feb 1931  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud af Qvalstad  (s.a.)               KOK
                             (2nd time) 
16 Feb 1931 - 21 Mar 1931  Juho Heikki Vennola (3rd time)     (s.a.)               ED
21 Mar 1931 - 14 Dec 1932  Juho Emil Sunila (2nd time)        (s.a.)               ML
14 Dec 1932 -  7 Oct 1936  Toivo Mikael Kivimäki              (b. 1886 - d. 1968)  NPP
 7 Oct 1936 - 17 Feb 1937  Kyösti Kallio (4th time)           (s.a.)               ML
17 Feb 1937 - 12 Mar 1937  Eino Rudolf Woldemar Holsti        (b. 1881 - d. 1945)  ED 
                             (acting)
12 Mar 1937 -  1 Dec 1939  Aimo Kaarlo Cajander (3rd time)    (s.a.)               NPP
 1 Dec 1939 - 21 Dec 1940  Risto Heikki Ryti                  (s.a.)               NPP
21 Dec 1940 -  3 Jan 1941  Rudolf Waldén (acting)             (b. 1878 - d. 1946)  Mil
 3 Jan 1941 -  5 Mar 1943  Johan Wilhelm Rangell              (b. 1894 - d. 1982)  NPP
 5 Mar 1943 -  8 Aug 1944  Edwin Johannes Hildegard Linkomies (b. 1894 - d. 1963)  KOK
 8 Aug 1944 - 21 Sep 1944  Antti Verner Hackzell              (b. 1881 - d. 1946)  KOK
21 Sep 1944 - 17 Nov 1944  Urho Jonas Castrén                 (b. 1886 - d. 1965)  Non-party
17 Nov 1944 - 26 Mar 1946  Juho Kusti Paasikivi (2nd time)    (s.a.)               KOK
26 Mar 1946 - 29 Jul 1948  Mauno Pekkala                      (b. 1890 - d. 1952)  SKDL
29 Jul 1948 - 17 Mar 1950  Karl August Fagerholm (1st time)   (b. 1901 - d. 1984)  SDP
17 Mar 1950 - 17 Nov 1953  Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (1st time)    (s.a.)               ML
17 Nov 1953 -  5 May 1954  Sakari Severi Tuomioja             (b. 1911 - d. 1964)  VL
 5 May 1954 - 20 Oct 1954  Ralf Johan Gustaf Törngren         (b. 1899 - d. 1961)  SFP
20 Oct 1954 -  3 Mar 1956  Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (2nd time)    (s.a.)               ML
15 Feb 1956 -  3 Mar 1956  Johannes Virolainen                (b. 1914 - d. 2000)  ML 
                             (acting for Kekkonen)
 3 Mar 1956 - 27 May 1957  Karl August Fagerholm (2nd time)   (s.a.)               SDP
27 May 1957 - 29 Nov 1957  Vieno Johannes Sukselainen         (b. 1906 - d. 1995)  ML
                             (1st time) 
29 Nov 1957 - 26 Apr 1958  Berndt Rainer von Fieandt          (b. 1890 - d. 1972)  Non-party 
26 Apr 1958 - 29 Aug 1958  Reino Iisakki Kuuskoski            (b. 1907 - d. 1965)  Non-party 
29 Aug 1958 - 13 Jan 1959  Karl August Fagerholm (3rd time)   (s.a.)               SDP
13 Jan 1959 - 19 May 1961  Vieno Johannes Sukselainen         (s.a.)               ML 
                             (2nd time)
19 May 1961 - 14 Jul 1961  Eemil Vihtori Luukka (acting)      (b. 1892 - d. 1970)  ML
14 Jul 1961 - 13 Apr 1962  Martti Johannes Miettunen          (b. 1907 - d. 2002)  ML 
                             (1st time)
13 Apr 1962 - 18 Dec 1963  Ahti Kalle Samuli Karjalainen      (b. 1923 - d. 1990)  ML 
                             (1st time) 
18 Dec 1963 - 12 Sep 1964  Reino Ragnar Lehto                 (b. 1898 - d. 1966)  Non-party 
12 Sep 1964 - 27 May 1966  Johannes Virolainen                (b. 1914 - d. 2000) ML;1965 KESK
27 May 1966 - 22 Mar 1968  Kustaa Rafael Paasio (1st time)    (b. 1903 - d. 1980)  SDP 
22 Mar 1968 - 14 May 1970  Mauno Henrik Koivisto (1st time)   (s.a.)               SDP
14 May 1970 - 15 Jul 1970  Teuvo Ensio Aura (1st time)(acting)(b. 1912 - d. 1999)  Non-party 
15 Jul 1970 - 29 Oct 1971  Ahti Kalle Samuli Karjalainen      (s.a.)               KESK 
                             (2nd time) 
29 Oct 1971 - 23 Feb 1972  Teuvo Ensio Aura (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)               Non-party 
23 Feb 1972 -  4 Sep 1972  Kustaa Rafael Paasio (2nd time)    (s.a.)               SDP 
 4 Sep 1972 - 13 Jun 1975  Taisto Kalevi Sorsa (1st time)     (b. 1930 - d. 2004)  SDP
13 Jun 1975 - 30 Nov 1975  Keijo Anfero Liinamaa (acting)     (b. 1929 - d. 1980)  Non-party 
30 Nov 1975 - 15 May 1977  Martti Johannes Miettunen          (s.a.)               KESK 
                             (2nd time)
15 May 1977 - 26 May 1979  Taisto Kalevi Sorsa (2nd time)     (s.a.)               SDP
26 May 1979 - 27 Jan 1982  Mauno Henrik Koivisto (2nd time)   (s.a.)               SDP
11 Sep 1981 - 19 Feb 1982  Eino Oskari Uusitalo               (b. 1924)            KESK
                             (acting [for Koivisto to 27 Jan 1982])
19 Feb 1982 - 30 Apr 1987  Taisto Kalevi Sorsa (3rd time)     (s.a.)               SDP
30 Apr 1987 - 26 Apr 1991  Harri Hermanni Holkeri             (b. 1937 - d. 2011)  KOK
26 Apr 1991 - 13 Apr 1995  Esko Tapani Aho                    (b. 1954)            KESK
13 Apr 1995 - 17 Apr 2003  Paavo Tapio Lipponen               (b. 1941)            SDP
17 Apr 2003 - 24 Jun 2003  Anneli Tuulikki Jäätteenmäki (f)   (b. 1955)            KESK
24 Jun 2003 - 22 Jun 2010  Matti Taneli Vanhanen              (b. 1955)            KESK
22 Jun 2010 - 22 Jun 2011  Mari Johanna Kiviniemi (f)         (b. 1968)            KESK
22 Jun 2011 - 24 Jun 2014  Jyrki Tapani Katainen              (b. 1971)            KOK
24 Jun 2014 -              Alexander Stubb                    (b. 1968)            KOK


Allied (Soviet) Occupation

Chairman of the Allied Control Commission
22 Sep 1944 - 15 Sep 1947  Andrey Aleksandrovich Zhdanov      (b. 1896 - d. 1948) 
                            (Soviet Union)

German Forces 1918

Director-general of German Forces in Finland
14 Apr 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Gustav Rüdiger Graf von der Goltz  (b. 1865 - d. 1946)  Mil 
 
 ¹elected king (Suomen kuningas) 10 Oct 1918, Friedrich Karl Ludwig Konstantin, Prinz und Landgraf zu Hessen (s.a.), did not arrive, and declined the throne 8 Dec 1918, the refusal became definitive on 29 Dec 1918. In the Finnish election document the prince is called Fredrik Kaarle, but according to conventional wisdom his name as king would have been Väinö I of Finland.
 
Noble titles: Greve/Graf = Count, Friherre/Freiherr = Baron, Jarl = Earl; Knyaz = Prince.
 
Territorial Disputes: Following a treaty agreement in 1963, the USSR leased the Soviet section of the Saimaa Canal area and the island of Malyj Vysotskij (Ravansaari) to Finland for fifty years. Under the new Saimaa Canal lease treaty signed by the Finnish and Russian governments in 2010, the lease was extended for fifty years and Malyj Vysotskij was again to be managed by Russian authorities. The treaty went into effect on 17 Feb 2012; Various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish government asserts no territorial demands.
 
Party abbreviations: KESK = Suomen Keskusta (Finnish Centre Party, centrist, est.1965);
KOK = Kansallinen Kokoomus (National Coalition Party, center-right, est.1918); LKP = Liberaalinen Kansanpuolue (Liberal People's Party, liberal, merger of VL and KP, from 2001 named Liberaalit [Liberals], est.1965); SDP = Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue (Social Democratic Party of Finland, social-democratic, est.1899); SFP = Svenska Folkpartiet i Finland/Ruotsalainen kansanpuolue (Swedish People's Party of Finland, liberal, est.1906, as Svenska Partiet/Ruotsalainen Puolue [Swedish Party] 1870-1906); KD = Suomen Kristillisdemokraatit (Christian Democratic Party of Finland, christian democratic, former SKL, est.2001); VS = Vasemmistoliitto (Left Alliance, democratic socialist, merger of SKDL and SKP, est.1990); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ED = Kansallinen Edistyspuolue (National Progressive Party, liberal, republican, former, NSP, 1918-1951); KDP = Konstitutsionno Demokraticheskaya Partia (Russian Constitutional Democrat Party "Cadets", nationalist, social-democratic, 1905-1921); KP = Suomen Kansanpuolue (Finnish People's Party, liberal conservative, nationalist, 1951-1965, merged with VL as LKP); ML = Maalaisliitoksi (Farmers League, agrarian, liberal, 1906-1965, renamed KESK); NPP = Kansallinen Edistyspuole (National Progressive Party, liberal, 1918-1951); SKDL = Suomen Kansan Demokraattinen Liitto (Finnish People's Democratic League, communists and socialists, 1944-1990, then VS); PSP = Perustuslaillis-Suomenmielinen Puolue (Constitutional-Fennoman Party, "Young Finnish" Party, liberal, opposed Russification, 1894-1918, succeeded by ED); SKL = Suomen Kristillinen Liitto (Christian League of Finland, christian democratic, centrist, 1958-2001, renamed KD); SKP = Suomen Kommunistinen Puolue (Finnish Communist Party, communist, suppressed 1923-44, merged with SKDL into VS, 1918-1990); SMP = Suomen Maaseudun Puolue (Finnish Agrarian Party, agrarian, 1959-2003); SP = Suomalainen puolue/Finska Partiet (Finnish Party, "Old Finnish" Party, conservative, 1863-1918, succeeded by KOK); VL = Vapaamielisten Liitto (Liberal League, liberal, 1951-1965, merged with KP as LKP)


Alternative Government: Finnish Socialist Conciliar Republic

[ Finnish Socialist
                    Conciliar Republic 1918]

28 Jan 1918                Finnish Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic (also called
                             Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic), dissident government
                             in the south of Finland during civil war.
 4 Apr 1918                Evacuation from Helsinki to Viipuri (Viborg).
25 Apr 1918                Dissolution.

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
14 Feb 1918 - 25 Apr 1918  Valfrid Perttilä                   (b. 1878 - d. 1953)  SDP

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
28 Jan 1918 - 13 Apr 1918  Kullervo Akilles Manner            (b. 1880 - d. 1936)  SDP
13 Apr 1918 - 17 Apr 1918  Otto Ville Kuusinen                (b. 1881 - d. 1964)  SDP
17 Apr 1918 - 21 Apr 1918  Lauri Aukusti Letonmäki (acting)   (b. 1886 - d. 1935)  SDP
21 Apr 1918 - 25 Apr 1918  Edvard Gylling (acting)            (b. 1881 - d. 1938)  SDP

Party abbreviation: SDP = Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue (Social Democratic Party of Finland, social-democratic, radicalized 1917/18, est.1899)


Alternative Government: Finnish Democratic Republic

[Flag
                              of Finland]

 1 Dec 1939                Finnish Democratic Republic, dissident government proclaimed
                             at Soviet occupied
town of Terijoki (now Zelenogorsk, Russia).
12 Mar 1940                Dissolution, territory fully incorporated into Soviet Union
                             as Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic.

Chairman of the Finnish People's Government
 1 Dec 1939 - 12 Mar 1940  Otto Ville Kuusinen                (b. 1881 - d. 1964)  SKP

Party abbreviation: SKPSuomen Kommunistinen Puolue (Finnish Communist Party, communist, suppressed 1923-44, merged with SKDL into VS, 1918-1990)



Hanko and Porkkala

[Flag of
                        USSR]

 
Map of Hanko Map of Porkkala
Headquarters: Kirkkonummi

22 May 1940                Hanko peninsula (Hangö) leased to Soviet Union
                             (Hanko Leased Territory).
 2 Dec 1941                Soviet evacuation of Hanko.
 4 Dec 1941                Hanko retaken by Finland, lease terminated.
19 Sep 1944                Port of Porkkala occupied by Soviet Union.
10 Feb 1947 - 26 Jan 1956  Porkkala leased to Soviet Union
                             (Naval Base Porkkala).

Commanders of Hanko
22 May 1940 - 13 May 1941  Aleksey Borisovich Yeliseyev     (b. 1887 - d. 1942)
13 May 1941 -  2 Dec 1941  Sergey Ivanovich Kabanov         (b. 1901 - d. 1973)
Commanders of Porkkala
19 Sep 1944 - Jun 1945     Neon Vasilyevich Antonov         (b. 1907 - d. 1948)
1945 - 1950                Konstantin Davidovich            (b. 1902 - d. 1955)
                             Sukhiashvili
Oct 1951 - 26 Jan 1956     Sergey Ivanovich Kabanov         (s.a.)



Aland Islands
 
[Triband
                          unofficial flag of the Aland Islands
                          1922-1954]
          1922 - 7 Apr 1954 (unofficial)
 
 
[Aland Island
                          Banner of Arms 1951-2009]
  18 Apr 1951 - 31 Dec 2009
           Province flag
 
[Flag of the Åland
                          Islands]
               Adopted 7 Apr 1954
 
 
Map of Aland Islands Hear Local Anthem
"Ålänningens Sång"
(Song of the Alanders)
Text of Local Anthem
Adopted 1922
Autonomy Act
(1 Jan 1993)
Capital: Mariehamn
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1963-1 Jan 2002 New Markka
 (FIM); 1917-1963 Marrka
 (FIN); 1808-1917 Russian
 Ruble (RUES)

Local Holiday: 9 Jun (1922)
Självstyrelsedagen
(Aland Autonomy Day)
Population: 28,355 (2012)
International Organizations/Treaties: NC, NIB

c.1154                     Part of Sweden.
1556                       Granted as a feudal lordship.
13 Nov 1621                Crown possession.
1634                       Administered as a district of a Finnish province
                             (Åbo och Björneborgs län [Turun ja Porin lääni]).
27 Jul 1714 - 30 Aug 1721  Russian occupation.
Aug 1742 - 17 Aug 1743     Russian occupation.
24 Mar 1808 - 13 Mar 1809  Russian occupation.
1808 - 1809                Attempted separation from Åbo och Björneborgs län.
21 Apr 1809 - 17 Sep 1809  Russian occupation.
17 Sep 1809                Part of the Grand Duchy of Finland.
Aug 1854 - Sep 1854        British and French occupation.
20 Aug 1917 - 1919         Popular movement to rejoin Sweden.
 6 Dec 1917                Part of independent Finland.
Feb 1918 - 13 Jun 1918     Occupied by Sweden.
24 Jun 1921                League of Nations decides in favor of Finland.
 9 Jun 1922                Åland Autonomous Region.
28 Dec 1951                Autonomy confirmed.
16 Aug 1991                Autonomy reconfirmed (from 1 Jan 1993).

Military governors
27 Jul 1714 - 30 Aug 1721  Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin        (b. 1671 - d. 1728)
                             (Russia) 
Aug 1742 - 17 Aug 1743     Pyotr Petrovich Lacy (Lassy)       (b. 1678 - d. 1751)

                             (Peter Graf von Lacy)(Russia) 
1808 - 1809                Knyaz Pytor Ivanovich              (b. 1765 - d. 1812)
                             Bagration (Russia) 
Aug 1854 - Sep 1854        Sir Charles Napier (U.K.)          (b. 1786 - d. 1860)
Feb 1918 - 1918            Hugo Erik Gustaf greve Hamilton    (b. 1849 - d. 1928)
                             (Sweden)
 9 Mar 1918 - 13 Jun 1918  Hjalmar von Bonsdorff (Sweden)     (b. 1869 - d. 1945)
Governors (title Landshövding)
1808 - 1809                Otto Reinhold Meurman (acting)     (b. 1750 - d. 1814)
 8 Feb 1918 - Apr 1918     Rudolf Wilhelm Österman            (b. 1890 - d. 1918)
                             (Åbo och Björneborgs län provincial Commissar
                             of the Finnish Socialist Republic)

13 Jun 1918 - 17 Oct 1922  William Isaksson                   (b. 1866 - d. 1924)
17 Oct 1922 -  1 Jan 1938  Wilhelm Fagerlund                  (b. 1852 - d. 1939)
 1 Jan 1938 -  3 Nov 1938  Torsten Rothberg                   (b. 1884 - d. 1938)
 3 Nov 1938 - 21 Dec 1938  Walter Johansson (acting)          (b. 1885 - d. 1960)
21 Nov 1938 -  1 May 1945  Ruben Österberg                    (b. 1895 - d. 1959)
14 May 1945 -  1 Jan 1954  Herman Koroleff                    (b. 1883 - d. 1957)
 1 Jan 1954 -  1 Jul 1972  Tor Brenning                       (b. 1903 - d. 1983)
 1 Jul 1972 -  1 Oct 1982  Martin Isaksson                    (b. 1921 - d. 2001)
 1 Oct 1982 -  1 Apr 1999  Henrik Gustafsson                  (b. 1934)
 1 Apr 1999 -              Peter Lindbäck                     (b. 1955)

Bailiffs 
1832 - 1853                Adolf Fredrik von Willebrand       (b. 1796 - d. 1853)
1853 - 1880                Carl Oskar Lignell                 (b. 1815 - d. 1880)
1881 - 1890                Johan Frithiof Salvén              (b. 1836 - d. 1890)
1890 - 1896                Alexander Stefanus Träskelin       (b. 1854 - d. 1896)
1896 - 1897                Thure Severin Granberg             (b. 1861 - d. 1928)
1898 - 1906                Reinhold Waldemar Blomqvist        (b. 1845 - d. 1906)
1906 - 1913                Johan Axel Bergroth                (b. 1862 - d. 1923)
1913 - 1915                Robert Optatus Silander            (b. 1861 - d. 1917)
1915 - 1916                Karl Fredrik Nummelin              (b. 1881 - d. 1916)
1917                       Aarne Nyström Inha
1917                       Robert Optatus Silander            (b. 1861 - d. 1917)
1917 - 1919                Emil Valter Johansson 
Leader of the Popular Movement to Rejoin Sweden
1917 - 1919                Julius Sundblom                    (b. 1865 - d. 1945)
Speaker of the Landsting
 9 Jun 1922 - 10 Jul 1922  Julius Sundblom                    (s.a.)
Chief ministers (title Lantråd)
10 Jul 1922 - 30 Dec 1938  Carl Björkman                      (b. 1873 - d. 1948)  Non-party 
30 Dec 1938 -  1 Jan 1955  Victor Strandfeldt                 (b. 1897 - d. 1962)  Non-party 
 1 Jan 1955 - 28 Mar 1967  Hugo Valdemar Johansson            (b. 1900 - d. 1983)  Non-party 
28 Mar 1967 -  1 Jul 1972  Martin Isaksson                    (s.a.)               Non-party 
 1 Jul 1972 -  1 Jan 1979  Alarik Häggblom                    (b. 1914 - d. 1996)Non-party/LPA
 1 Jan 1979 - 20 Apr 1988  Folke Woivalin                     (b. 1928)            Non-party 
20 Apr 1988 - 28 Nov 1991  Sune Eriksson                      (b. 1939)            LPA
28 Nov 1991 - 24 Nov 1995  Ragnar Erlandsson                  (b. 1941)            AC
24 Nov 1995 -  3 Dec 1999  Roger Jansson                      (b. 1943)            FS
 3 Dec 1999 - 26 Nov 2007  Roger Nordlund                     (b. 1957)            AC
26 Nov 2007 - 
25 Nov 2011  Viveka Eriksson (f)                (b. 1956)            LPA
25 Nov 2011 -              Camilla Gunell (f)                 (b. 1970)            AS

Party abbreviations (party government introduced 1987): AC = Åländsk Center (Aland Centre, centrist, agrarian, est.1976); AS = Ålands Socialdemokrater (Åland Social Democrats, social-democratic, est.1971); FS = Frisinnad Samverkan (Progressive Cooperation, conservative, est.1967); LPA = Liberalerna på Åland (Liberals for Aland, social-liberal, est.1978)







© Ben Cahoon