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Finland

[Flag of
                                    Sweden]
                c.1154 - 29 Mar 1809 
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
            29 Mar 1809 - 6 Dec 1917
 
Finland Temporary State Flag
                                    (1918)
6 Dec 1917 - 29 May 1918
   Temporary State Flag
Finland
                                    Temporary Merchant Ensign (1918)
            27 Feb 1918 - 29 May 1918
            Temporary Merchant Ensign
Finland
                                    State Flag (1918-1920)
              29 May 1918 - 26 May 1978  
Finland State Flag (1918-1920)
      29 May 1918 - 12 Feb 1920 State Flag
 
[Flag of
                                    Finland]
         Adopted 26 May 1978 Civil Flag
State Flag of
                                  Finland 1978
          Adopted 26 May 1978 State Flag
 
Map of Finland
Hear National Anthem
"Maamme/Vårt land" (Our Land)
Adopted 1917
(in use from 13 May 1848)
Former Anthem
"Keisarihymni"
(Song to the Grand  Prince)
c.1830-1917

Constitution
(1 Mar 2000)
---------------------------------
1919 Constitution
(17 Jul 1919-22 Dec 1995)
Capital: Helsinki
(Vaasa 29 Jan - 3 May 1918;
Helsingfors 1812-1917
;
Abo [Turku] 12..-1812
)
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1963-1 Jan 2002 New Markka
 (FIM); 1860-1963 Marrka (FIN);
1809-1917 Russian Ruble (RUES);
& 1776-1840 Riksdaler (SER)
National Holiday: 6 Dec (1917)
Independence Day
Population: 5,266,114 (2013)
3,148,000 (1920)
863,000 (1810)
GDP: $195.5 billion (2013)
Exports: $75.7 billion (2013)
Imports: $70.6 billion (2013
Ethnic groups: Finnish 93.4%, Swedish 5.6%, Russian 0.5%,
Estonian 0.3%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)
Total Active Armed Forces: 36,479 (2010)
Merchant marine: 97 ships (2010)
Religions: Lutheran 78.4%, Orthodox 1.1%, other
Christian 1.1%, other 0.2%, none 19.2% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC, ACS (observer), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, AIIB, ANT (consultative), APM, BIS, BTWC, CBSS, CE, CERN, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PA (observer), PCA, PFP, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Finland Index
Chronology
c.1154                     Conquest of Finland by Sweden begins (called
                             Österland or Österlanden). Later divided
                             into three (from 1634, five) provinces of Sweden;
                             with five periods granted as a fief of King of
                             Sweden as a duchy with varying size and degrees
                             of autonomy.
1284 - 25 May 1291         Duchy of Finland granted as fief of Swedish crown. 
 2 Dec 1302 - 10 Dec 1317  Duchy of Finland granted as fief of Swedish crown.
12 Aug 1323                Peace of Nöteburg (Pähkinäsaari) between Sweden
                             and Novgorod. Finland's eastern border is defined
                             for the first time.
1353 - 1357                Duchy of Finland granted as fief of Swedish crown.
1374 - 20 Aug 1386         Bo Jonsson "Grip" (b. c.1335 - d. 1386), Lord High
                             Steward of Sweden (Riksdrots), effectively gains
                             autonomous control over Finland.
1465 - 12 Nov 1467         Duchy of Finland granted as fief of Swedish crown.
27 Jun 1556 - 12 Aug 1563  Duchy of Finland granted as fief of Swedish crown.
 3 Aug 1577                Grand Principality of Finland¹ (subject to, and
                             from  21 Aug 1772) in nominally personal union
                             with Sweden.
27 Feb 1617                Karelia joined to Finland by the Treaty of
                             Stolbovo (Stolbova). 
28 Aug 1713 - 30 Aug 1721  Russian occupation.
30 Aug 1721                Karelia and Viborg (Vyborg) ceded to Russia.
29 Aug 1742 - 16 Jun 1743  Russian occupation.
22 Mar 1808                Russian occupation (Tawastehus [Hämeenlinna]
                             fortress surrenders on 6 Apr 1808).
28 Mar 1808                Russian imperial declaration on annexation of
                             Finnish lands in possession of Sweden is
                             communicated to the Great Powers.
 1 Apr 1808                Annexation of Finland is proclaimed, manifest of
                             the Emperor of Russia.
 6 Jan 1809                Grand princely title of Finland is included in the
                             Russian imperial title by decree of the Emperor.
29 Mar 1809                Personal union with Russia (Grand Principality
                             of Finland).
13 Oct 1809                Transfer from Sweden to Russia ratified in the
                             Treaty of Fredrikshamn (signed 17 Sep 1809). 
12 Nov 1905 -  1 Aug 1906  Local rebellions part of Russian Revolution of 1905
 9 Nov 1917                Supreme authority exercised by the Grand Prince is
                             transferred to a Council of Regency to be elected
                             by the Diet, but instead transferred to the Diet
                             itself on 15 Nov 1917.
15 Nov 1917                Finland
 6 Dec 1917                Proclamation of state sovereignty approved by Diet.
 4 Jan 1918                Independence recognized by Russia.
28 Jan 1918 - 25 Apr 1918  People's Delegation of Finland ("Red") established
                             in opposition to the Senate of  Finland ("White")
                             during the Finnish civil war.
  5 Apr 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Germans military intervention in Finland.
  9 Oct 1918                Prospective king elected (who withdraws on 14 Dec
                             1918 which is gazetted 28 Dec 1918).
17 Jul 1919                Republic of Finland (becomes officially accepted
                             name of the state, although it not given
                             constitutional recognition).
14 Oct 1920                Finland acquires the Arctic port of Petsamo
                             (Pechenga) by treaty with Soviet Russia.
24 Jun 1921                Sovereignty over Åland Islands awarded to Finland.
 1 Dec 1939 - 12 Mar 1940  Finnish Democratic Republic, dissident government  
                             at Soviet occupied town of Terijoki.
13 Mar 1940                Finland cedes Karelian Isthmus (incl. Viipuri 
                             [Viborg]), Finnish Aunus Karelia (Sordavala, 
                             north Ladoga), the Salla region, the Rybachi 
                             Peninsula in the arctic, and a 30 year lease on 
                             the Hanko peninsula to the Soviet Union.
27 Jul 1941 - 19 Sep 1944  Karelo-Finnish S.S.R. in the Soviet Union almost
                             entirely occupied by Finland.
 7 Dec 1941                Territories annexed by Soviet Union on 13 Mar 1940
                             re-integrated into Finland (Rybachi Peninsula
                             re-occupied 29 Jun 1941, Viipuri on 29 Aug 1941).
 4 Oct 1944 - 25 Apr 1945  Formerly allied German forces occupy Lapland 
                            (retroactive to 15 Sep 1944).
19 Sep 1944 - 10 Feb 1947  Allied (Soviet) occupation; restoration of 
                             the 13 Mar 1940 borders (in Viipuri from 
                             20 Jun 1944, from 15 Oct 1944 in Petsmo).
10 Feb 1947                Petsamo ceded to Soviet Union; Porkkala peninsula
                             leased to Soviet Union until 26 Jan 1956.
30 Sep 1963 -              Finland leases the Saimaa Canal and the island of 
                             Vysotskiy Island (Ravansaari) from Russia. From
                             17 Feb 2012, a second lease period begins and
                             Vysotskiy Island is deleted from the lease.
Regions
Provinces
(1634-2009)
Aland Islands
Hanko and
Porkkala

(1940-1941,
1944-1956)
People's
Delegation
of Finland
(1918)
Finnish Democratic Republic
(1939-1940)

Allied Control
Commission

(1945-1947)
Evangelical
Lutheran Church of
Finland

Orthodox Church of
Finland
Historical Maps
of Finland
 

Dukes (title Hertig till Finland)[as a fief of the Swedish crown]
1284 - 25 May 1291         Bengt I Folkunga, (from 1286)      (b. 1254 - d. 1291)
                             biskop av Linköping
 2 Dec 1302 - 10 Dec 1317  Valdemar Folkunga                  (b. bf.1290 - d. 1318)
1353 - 1357                Bengt II Algotsson                 (b. c.1330 - d. 1360)
1465 - 12 Nov 1467         Karl Knutsson "Bonde"              (b. 1408 - d. 1470)
                             (King Karl VIII of Sweden 1448–57, 1464–65, 1467–70
27 Jun 1556 - 12 Aug 1563  Johan Vasa                         (b. 1537 - d. 1592)
                             (from 26 Jan 1569, King Johan III of Sweden)
Grand Princes2 (also 29 Mar 1809 - 15 Mar 1917 the Emperors of Russia)
 3 Aug 1577 - 29 Mar 1809  the kings of Sweden
29 Mar 1809 -  1 Dec 1825  Aleksandr I                        (b. 1777 - d. 1825)
 1 Dec 1825 - 25 Dec 1825  Konstantin I                       (b. 1779 - d. 1831)
                             (proclaimed, but did not accept)
25 Dec 1825 -  2 Mar 1855  Nikolay I                          (b. 1796 - d. 1855)
                             (enthronement retroactive to 1 Dec 1825)
 2 Mar 1855 - 13 Mar 1881  Aleksandr II                       (b. 1818 - d. 1881)

13 Mar 1881 -  1 Nov 1894  Aleksandr III                      (b. 1845 - d. 1894)
 1 Nov 1894 - 15 Mar 1917  Nikolay II                         (b. 1868 - d. 1918)
15 Mar 1917 -  9 Nov 1917  Vacant; Russian provisional government
                           exercising grand-princely authority


Governors
(Lagman)
c.1155 - 1249              ....
1249 - 1255                Birger Magnusson jarl av Bielbo    (b. c.1196 - d. 1266)
1255 - 1280                ....
1280 - 1281                Karl Gustavsson
1283 - 25 May 1291         Bengt Folkunga                     (s.a.)
1291 - 1305                Torkel Knutsson                    (d. 1306)
1302 - 1317                Valdemar Folkunga                  (s.a.)
1320 - 1336                Per Johansson (in Viborg)
1324                       Algot Johansson
1324 - 1326                Mats Kettilmundsson                (d. 1326)
1326 - c.1331              Karl Näskonungsson (or Haraldsson)
1332 - 1334                Torinus Jönsson
1334 - 1337                Erengisle Andersson
1337 - 1340?               Lars (Laurentius) Petersson (in Abo)

1340 - 1347                Dan Niklisson (or Nilsson)
c.1343                     Johan Götesson (in Viborg)
1347 - 13..                Mats Kettilmundsson (in Abo)
1347 - c.1350              Gerhard Skytte
1353 - 1357                Bengt Algotsson                    (s.a.)
1357 - 21 Jun 1359         Erik Magnusson (King Erik XII)     (s.a.)
1357 - 1364                Nils Turesson Bielke (in Viborg)   (d. 1364)
1364 - 1365                Narve Ingvaldsson
1371 - 1386                Bo Jonsson Grip (in Abo)           (s.a.)
1386 - 15 Aug 1395         Jäppe Djäkn (in Abo)               (b. c.1350 - d. c.1411)
15 Aug 1395 - 1399         Knut Bosson Grip (in Abo)          (d. 1406)
1396 - 1421                Nils Tavast                        (b. 1355 - d. 1431)
1399 - 140.                Abraham Brodersson (in Abo)        (d. 1410)
140. - 1413                Knut Thordsson Bonde (in Abo)      (b. c.1377 - d. 1413)
1413 - 1434                Klaus Lydekesson Djäkn (in Abo)    (b. 1379 - d. 1437)
1434 - 1437                Henrik Klasson (in Abo)

1403 - 1417                Tord Bonde (in Viborg)
1421? - 1435               Klas Lydekesson Djäkn (in Abo)     (b. 1379 - d. 1437)
1417 - 1442                Krister Nilsson (Vasa) (in Viborg) (b. c.1365 - d. 1442)
1436 - 1437                Henrik Klasson (in Abo)
1437 - 1440                Hans Kröpelin d.ä. (in Abo)        (b. 1404 - d. 1440)
1440 - 144.                Jon Karlsson Färla (in Abo)
144. - 1442                Mats Ödgislesson Lillie (in Abo)   (b. 1382 - d. 1442)
1442 - 1446                Henrik Bitz (in Abo)               (d. 1458)
1440 - 1448                Carl Knutsson Bonde (in Viborg)    (b. 1408 - d. 1470)
1446 - 1450                Magnus Gren (in Abo)
1450 - 1457?               Erik Axelsson Tott (in Abo)        (b. c.1415 - d. 1481)
1450 - 1457                Olav Nilsson
1457 - 1463                Krister Bengtsson Oxenstierna      (b. 1415 - d. 1473)
                             (in Abo)
1457 - 1481                Erik Axelsson Tott (in Viborg)     (b. c.1420 - d. 1487)
1466 - 14..                Jöns Olofsson Stenbock (in Abo)    (d. 1488)
1481 - 1483                Laurens (Lars) Axelsson Tott       (d. c.1483)
                             (in Viborg)
1490 - 1495                Nils Eriksson Gyllenstierna        (b. c.1457 - d. 1495)
                             (in Viborg)
1491 - 1496?               Joakim Henriksson Fleming (in Abo) (d. 1496)
1495 - 1496                Knut Jönsson Posse (in Viborg)     (b. c.1446 - d. 1500)
1497 - 1501                Sten Sture den Äldre
("the Elder") (b. 1440 - d. 1503)
1499 - 1502                Magnus Frille (in Abo)             (d. 1508)

1499 - May 1511            Erik Turesson Bielke (in Viborg)   (b. c.1462 - d. 1511)
1504 - 1515                Josef Persson till Djula (in Abo)
1513 - 1520                Tönne Eriksson Tott (in Viborg)    (b. 1467 - d. 1522)
1515 - 1520                Krister Klasson Horn (in Abo)      (b. c.1480 - d. 1520)
1520 - 1522                Thomas Wulff van Grewendorp (in Abo)
1520 - 1523                Rolf Mattsson (in Viborg)
1522? - 1523/27            Jöns Vestgöte (in Abo)
1525 - 1534                Johan av Hoya (in Viborg)          (d. 1535)
1526 - 1529?               Joakim Henriksson Fleming (in Abo)
c.1530                     Erik Nilsson Sluk (in Abo)         (b. 1480 - d. c.1530)
1534 - 1545                Nils Mansson Grabbe (in Viborg)    (b. c.1490 - d. 1549)
1535 - 1547                Tomas Jönsson Ryting (in Abo)      (b. c.1500 - d. 1550)
1545 - 1554?               Mäns Nilsson Stjernkors (in Viborg)
1547 - May 1553            Olof Trottesson till Eka (in Abo)  (d. 1553)
1553 - 1560                Hans Thomasson till Kappelstrand
                             (in Abo)
1556 - 1560                Klas Kristersson Horn (in Viborg)  (b. 1517 - d. 1566)
Governors (title Ståthållare; 1623-1628 Landshöfding
1551 - 1561                Henrik Horn til Kanckas            (b. 1512? - d. 1595)
1561 - 1566                Gustav Fincke til Porkala och      (b. c.1510 - d. 1566)
                             Sonnäs
1563 - Jul 1564            Jakob Hästesko til Sjundby         (b. 152. - d. 1567?)
                             (acting for Fincke)
1566 - 1568                Ivar Månsson Stjernkors til        (b. c.1540 - d. 1573)
                             Kärknäs
1568 - 1571                Hans Larsson Björnram til Isnäs    (b. 152. - d. 1571)
1571 - 1576                Gustaf Banér til Djursholm och     (b. 1547 - d. 1600) 
                             Ekenäs            
1576 - 1594                Clas Åkesson Tott til Bystad       (b. c.1530 - d. 1596)
                             (from 28 Sep 1576, Clas Åkesson friherre Tott til Bystad)
1587 - 1590                Axel Leijonhufwud greve Raseborg   (b. 1554 - d. 1619)
1591 - 13 Apr 1597         
Clas Fleming friherre til Wik      (b. c.1530 - d. 1597)
13 Apr 1597 - 18 Sep 1599  Arvid Stålarm til Lindö            (b. 1549? - d. 1620)
                             (acting 1 Aug 1597)
18 Aug 1599 - 1623         Post abolished
1623 - 1628                Nils friherre Bjelke til Salestad  (b. 1569 - d. 1639)
Governors-general
1623 - 1631                Nils friherre Bjelke til Salestad  (s.a.)

1631 - 1633                Gabriel friherre Oxenstierna       (b. 1586 - d. 1656)
                             til Mörby och Lindholmen
1633 - 21 Nov 1637         Vacant 
21 Nov 1637 -  7 Aug 1640  Per Brahe til Wisingsborg          (b. 1602 - d. 1680)
                             (1st time)
 7 Aug 1640 - 18 Jun 1648  Vacant
18 Jun 1648 - Sep 1651     Per Brahe til Wisingsborg          (s.a.)
                             (from 18 Sep 1650, Per friherre Brahe til Wisingsborg)
                             (2nd time)
Sep 1651 - 1657            Vacant
1657 - 23 Oct 1657         Erik friherre Gyllenstjerna til    (b. 1602 - d. 1657)
                             Uleberg     
1657 - 1658                Gustaf friherre Horn til           (b. 1614 - d. 1666)
                             Marienborg
1658 - 1664                Vacant
1664 - 1669                Herman Claesson friherre Fleming   (b. 1619 - d. 1673)
                             til Liebelitz 
1669 - 1710                Post abolished
Supreme Commanders
Oct 1700 - 12 Nov 1703     Abraham Cronhjort                  (b. 1634 - d. 1703)
12 Nov 1703 - Jan 1707     Georg Johan Maydell                (b. 1648 - d. 1709)
Jan 1707 - 23 Sep 1710     Georg f
riherre Lybecker            (b. c.1655 - d. 1718)
Governors-general
23 Sep 1710 - 25 Jan 1712  Carl Gustaf greve Nieroth          (b. c.1650 - d. 1712)
25 Jan 1712 - 28 Aug 1713  Georg friherre Lybecker            (s.a.)
                             (acting to Jul 1712)
28 Aug 1713 - 1717         Graf Fyodor Matveyevich            (b. 1661 - d. 1728)
                             Apraksin (Russian commander)
1717 - 30 Sep 1721         Gustaf Otto Graf von Douglas       (b. 1687 - d. 1771)                                           (Russian governor-general)
30 Sep 1721 - 29 Aug 1742  Post abolished
29 Aug 1742 -  2 Jan 1743  Francis Edward James Keith         (b. 1696 - d. 1758)
                             (Russian commander)
 3 Jan 1743 - 1743         Johann Balthasar von Campenhausen  (b. 1689 - d. 1758)
                             (Russian governor-general)
1743 - May 1747            Vacant
May 1747 - Jul 1754        Gustaf Fredric friherre von Rosen  (b. 1688 - d. 1769) 
                             (from 21 Nov 1751, Gustaf Fredric greve von Rosen)
Russian Commanding General
22 Mar 1808 - Feb 1809     Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von         (b. 1750 - d. 1811)
                             Buxhöwden (= Fyodor Graf fon Buksgevden)
Governors-general
 1 Dec 1808 - 17 Jun 1809  Göran Magnus Freiherr              (b. 1740 - d. 1819)
                             Sprengtporten
17 Jun 1809 -  1 Feb 1810  Mikhail Andreas Barclay de Tolly   (b. 1761 - d. 1818)
                             (= Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay-de-Tolli)
 3 Mar 1810 - 22 Mar 1824  Fabian Gotthard von Steinheil      (b. 1762 - d. 1831) 
                             (from 18 Sep 1812, Fabian Gotthard Graf von Steinheil)
                             (= Faddey Fyodorovich Shteyngel)
                             (acting from 1823) 
 6 Sep 1812 - 13 Apr 1813  Gustav Mauritz Graf Armfelt        (b. 1757 - d. 1814)
                             (acting for Steinheil)
22 Mar 1824 -  1 Dec 1831  Arseniy Andreyevich Zakrevskiy     (b. 1783 - d. 1865)
                             (from 14 Aug 1830, Arseniy Andreyevich Graf Zakrevskiy)
 1 Dec 1831 - 15 Mar 1855  Knyaz' Aleksandr Sergeyevich       (b. 1787 - d. 1869)
                             Menshikov 
24 Apr 1833 -  6 Sep 1846  Alexander Amatus Thesleff          (b. 1778 - d. 1847)
                             (acting intermittently for Menshikov)
 4 May 1850 - 12 Jan 1851  Platon Ivanovich Rokasovskiy       (b. 1800 - d. 1869) 
                             (acting for Menshikov)(1st time)
26 Jul 1851 - 17 Dec 1851  Platon Ivanovich Rokasovskiy       (s.a.) 
                             (acting for Menshikov)(2nd time)
22 Feb 1854 - 24 Jan 1855  Platon Ivanovich Rokasovskiy       (s.a.) 
                             (acting for Menshikov)(3rd time)
24 Jan 1855 - 15 Mar 1855  Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Graf     (b. 1794 - d. 1874)
                             von Berg (Fyodor Graf fon Berg) 
                             (acting for Menshikov)
15 Mar 1855 - 11 Dec 1861  Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Graf     (s.a.)
                             von Berg (from 8 Oct 1857, Friedrich
                             Wilhelm Rembert Freiherr von Berg)
11 Dec 1861 -  2 Jun 1866  Platon Ivanovich Rokasovskiy       (s.a.)
 5 Aug 1864 - 16 Oct 1864  Johan Mauritz Freiherr Nordenstam  (b. 1802 - d. 1882)
                             (acting for Rokasovsky)(1st time)
 2 Jun 1866 - 18 Jun 1881  Graf Nikolay Vladimirovich         (b. 1819 - d. 1892)
                             Adlerberg
23 Jun 1866 - 21 Jul 1866  Bernhard Indrenius (1st time)      (b. 1812 - d. 1884)
                             (Berngard Emmanuilovich Indrenyus)
                             (acting for Adlerberg)
18 Jul 1867 - 18 Oct 1867  Bernhard Indrenius (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting for Adlerberg) 
20 Jul 1868 - 18 Oct 1868  Johan Mauritz Freiherr Nordenstam  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting for Adlerberg)
15 Jul 1869 -  6 Oct 1869  Bernhard Indrenius (3rd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting for Adlerberg)
 7 May 1870 - 11 Sep 1870  Johan Maurtiz Freiherr Nordenstam  (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting for Adlerberg)
13 Jun 1871 - 13 Sep 1871  Bernhard Baron Indrenius (4th time)(s.a.)  
 
                            (acting for Adlerberg)
19 Jul 1872 - 19 Nov 1872  Edvard Gustaf af Forselles         (b. 1817 - d. 1891)
                             (acting for Adlerberg)
19 Nov 1872 - 24 Mar 1873  Johan Maurtiz Freiherr Nordenstam  (s.a.)
                             (4th time)(acting for Adlerberg)
25 Jun 1873 - 11 Nov 1873  Bernhard Baron Indrenius           (s.a.)  
                             (5th time)(acting for Adlerberg)
 2 Jun 1874 - 22 Oct 1874  Bernhard Baron Indrenius           (s.a.)
                             (6th time)(acting for Adlerberg)
22 Jun 1875 - 17 Nov 1875  Bernhard Baron Indrenius           (s.a.)
                             (7th time)(acting for Adlerberg)
17 Aug 1876 - 21 Jun 1876  Bernhard Baron Indrenius           (s.a.)
                             (8th time)(acting for Adlerberg)
 3 Jun 1881 - 31 Jan 1897  Friedrich Graf von Heyden          (b. 1831 - d. 1900)
                             (= Graf Fyodor Logginovich fon Heiden)
31 Jan 1897 - 12 Oct 1898  Stepan Osipovich Goncharov         (b. 1831 - d. 1912)
                             (Gontscharoff)(acting)
12 Oct 1898 - 17 Jun 1904  Nikolay Ivanovich Bobrikov         (b. 1839 - d. 1904)
                             (Bobrikoff)
18 Jun 1904 - 18 Aug 1904  Nikolay Matveyevich Turbin (acting)(b. 1832 - d. 1913)
18 Aug 1904 -  6 Dec 1905  Knyaz' Ivan Mikhaylovich Obolenskiy(b. 1853 - d. 1910)
18 Nov 1905 -  6 Dec 1905  Anton Freiherr Salza               (b. 1843 - d. 1916)
                             (acting for Obolenskiy)
 6 Dec 1905 - 15 Feb 1908  Nikolay Nikolayevich Gerard        (b. 1838 - d. 1929)
15 Feb 1908 - 24 Nov 1909  Vladimir Aleksandrovich Bekman     (b. 1848 - d. 1923)
                             (Boeckmann)
19 Feb 1908 - 28 Feb 1908  Frans-Al'bert Aleksandrovich Zeyn  (b. 1862 - d. 1918)
                             (Sejn)(acting for Bekman)
24 Nov 1909 - 16 Mar 1917  Frans-Al'bert Aleksandrovich Zeyn  (s.a.)
                             (Sejn)
16 Mar 1917 - 19 Mar 1917  Adam Iosipovich Lipskiy (acting)   (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
19 Mar 1917 - 31 Mar 1917  Baron Sergey Aleksandrovich        (b. 1876 - d. 1924)
                             Korov (Korff) (acting)
31 Mar 1917 - 17 Sep 1917  Mikhail Aleksandrovich Stakhovich  (b. 1861 - d. 1923)
17 Sep 1917 -  9 Nov 1917  Nikolay Vissarionovich Nekrasov    (b. 1879 - d. 1940)  KDP
                             (Nekrasoff)
Speaker of the Diet of Finland
 9 Nov 1917 - 18 May 1918  Otto Johannes Lundson              (b. 1867 - d. 1939)  PSP
Holder of Supreme Authority (commonly called Regent)
18 May 1918 - 12 Dec 1918  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud af Qvalstad  (b. 1861 - d. 1944)  PSP
                             (formally held the office of chairman of
                             Senate 27 Nov 1917 - 27 Nov 1918, then chairman
                             of Council of State 27 Nov - 12 Dec 1918;
                             in Vaasa refuge 29 Jan - 3 May 1918) 
King-elect3
 9 Oct 1918 - 14 Dec 1918  Friedrich Karl (did not reign)     (b. 1868 - d. 1940)
Lieutenant of the Realm (commonly called Regent)
12 Dec 1918 - 26 Jul 1919  vapaaherra Carl Gustaf Emil        (b. 1867 - d. 1951)  Mil
                             Mannerheim (= Kustaa Mannerheim)
                             (landed in Turku 22 Dec 1918, in Helsinki 23 Dec 1918)
12 Dec 1918 - 23 Dec 1918  Lauri Johannes Ingman              (b. 1868 - d. 1934)  KOK
                             (acting for absent Mannerheim)
Presidents
26 Jul 1919 -  1 Mar 1925  Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg              (b. 1865 - d. 1952)  ED
                             (Carl Johan Ståhlberg)
 1 Mar 1925 -  1 Mar 1931  Lauri Kristian Relander            (b. 1883 - d. 1942)  ML
                             (Lars Kristian Relander)
 1 Mar 1931 -  1 Mar 1937  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud af Qvalstad  (s.a.)               SDP
 1 Mar 1937 - 19 Dec 1940  Kyösti Kallio (Gustaf Kalliokangas)(b. 1873 - d. 1940)  ML
19 Dec 1940 -  4 Aug 1944  Risto Heikki Ryti                  (b. 1889 - d. 1956)  ED
                             (acting [for Kallio from 27 Nov 1940] to 21 Dec 1940)
 4 Aug 1944 - 11 Mar 1946  vapaaherra Carl Gustaf Emil        (s.a.)             Mil/Non-party
                             Mannerheim
11 Mar 1946 -  1 Mar 1956  Juho Kusti Paasikivi               (b. 1870 - d. 1956)  KOK
                             (Johan August Hellstén)
                             (acting for Mannerheim from 5 Mar 1945)
 1 Mar 1956 - 27 Jan 1982  Urho Kaleva Kekkonen               (b. 1900 - d. 1986) ML;1965 KESK
27 Jan 1982 -  1 Mar 1994  Mauno Henrik Koivisto              (b. 1923 - d. 2017)  SDP
                             (acting for Kekkonen 11 Sep 1981 - 27 Jan 1982)
 1 Mar 1994 -  1 Mar 2000  Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari       (b. 1937)            SDP
 1 Mar 2000 -  1 Mar 2012  Tarja Kaarina Halonen (f)          (b. 1943)            SDP
 1 Mar 2012 -              Sauli Väinämö Niinistö             (b. 1948)            KOK


Chairman of the Finnish Delegation (in Saint Petersburg)
12 Nov 1808 -  9 Jan 1809  Carl Erik Graf Mannerheim          (b. 1759 - d. 1837)
State Secretaries for Finnish Affairs (in Saint Petersburg)
 9 Jan 1809 -  7 Nov 1811  Mikhail Mikhaylovich Speranskiy    (b. 1772 - d. 1839)
 7 Nov 1811 - 18 Dec 1834  Robert Henrik Rehbinder            (b. 1777 - d. 1841)
                             (from 3 Sep 1826, Robert Henrik Graf Rehbinder)
Chairman of the Committee for Finnish Affairs (in Saint Petersburg)
20 Oct 1811 - 19 Aug 1814  Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt             (s.a.)
                             (from 18 Sep 1812 Gustaf Mauritz Graf Armfelt)
19 Aug 1814 -  9 Sep 1832  Knut von Troil                     (b. 1760 - d. 1825)    
                             (from 22 Jan 1818, Knut Freiherr von Troil)
                             (acting to 12 Sep 1814)
28 Aug 1821 - 29 Mar 1826  Robert Henrik Rehbinder            (s.a.)    
                             (acting for Troil)
Ministers of State for the Grand Principality of Finland (in Saint Petersburg)
18 Dec 1834 -  8 Mar 1841  Robert Henrik Graf Rehbinder       (s.a.)
 8 Mar 1841 -  8 Jan 1876  Alexander Graf Armfelt             (b. 1794 - d. 1876)
                             (acting to 17 Mar 1841)
 8 Jan 1876 -  3 Sep 1881  Carl Knut Emil Freiherr Stjernvall (b. 1806 - d. 1890)
                             -Walléen (acting to 13 Jan 1876)
 3 Sep 1881 -  3 Sep 1888  Theodor von Bruun                  (b. 1821 - d. 1888) 
                             (from 14 Apr 1883, Theodor Freiherr von Brunn)
 3 Sep 1888 -  9 Apr 1891  Johann Casimir Ehrnrooth           (b. 1833 - d. 1913) 
                             (acting to 9 Nov 1888)
 9 Apr 1891 - 13 Jun 1898  Woldemar Carl von Daehn            (b. 1838 - d. 1900) 
13 Jun 1898 - 29 Aug 1899  Victor Napoleon von Procopé        (b. 1839 - d. 1906)
                             (acting)
29 Aug 1899 - 28 Jul 1904  Vyacheslav Konstantinovich Pleve   (b. 1846 - d. 1904)
                             (von Plehwe)(acting to 13 Jan 1900) 
28 Jul 1904 - 18 Jan 1905  Edvard Oerstroem (1st time)(acting)(b. 1862 - d. 1922) 
18 Jan 1905 - 28 Nov 1905  Constantin Linder                  (b. 1836 - d. 1908)
28 Nov 1905 -  5 Feb 1906  Edvard Oerstroem (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)   
 5 Feb 1906 - 21 Apr 1913  Carl Fredrik Langhoff              (b. 1856 - d. 1929) 
                             (from 14 Oct 1912, Carl Frederik Freiherr Langhoff)
21 Apr 1913 - 19 Mar 1917  Vladimir Ivanovich Markov (Markoff)(b. 1859 - d. 1919)
19 Mar 1917 -  8 Apr 1917  Theodor Izmailovich Rodichev       (b. 1854 - d. 1923)  KDP
                             (Roditscheff)(acting)
                             (Minister Secretary for Finnish Affairs)
 8 Apr 1917 - 14 Dec 1917  Carl Johan Alexis Enckell          (b. 1876 - d. 1959)
                             (Minister Secretary for Finnish Affairs)
Chief ministers (from 1 Oct 1822, Vice Chairmen of the Senate's Economy Department;
from 27 Nov 1917, Chairmen of the Senate)
 1 Oct 1822 - 28 Feb 1826  Carl Erik Freiherr Mannerheim      (s.a.)
                             (from 7 Jan 1824, Carl Erik Graf Mannerheim)  
 1 Mar 1826 - 12 Jan 1828  Samuel Fredrik von Born            (b. 1782 - d. 1850)
                             (acting to 1 Jan 1827)
12 Jan 1828 - 10 Apr 1833  Anders Henrik Falck                (b. 1772 - d. 1851)
10 Apr 1833 - 30 Sep 1841  Gustaf Hjärne                      (b. 1768 - d. 1845)
                             (from 5 May 1841, Gustaf Freiherr Hjarne)
                             (acting to 1 Oct 1834)
 1 Oct 1841 - 30 Apr 1858  Lars Gabriel von Haartman          (b. 1789 - d. 1859)
                             (from 26 Apr 1851, Lars Gabriel Freiherr von Haartman)
 1 Jun 1858 -  8 Jun 1882  Johan Mauritz Nordenstam           (s.a.)             
                             (from 15 Apr 1860, Johan Mauritz Freiherr Nordenstam)
 1 Oct 1882 - 30 Sep 1885  Edvard Gustaf af Forselles         (s.a.)  
 1 Oct 1885 -  1 Dec 1891  Samuel Werner Freiherr von Troil   (b. 1833 - d. 1900)
 1 Dec 1891 - 29 Oct 1900  Sten Carl Tudeer                   (b. 1840 - d. 1905)
29 Oct 1900 - 18 Jan 1905  Constantin Linder                  (s.a.)
 4 May 1905 -  4 Dec 1905  Emil Streng                        (b. 1838 - d. 1911)
 1 Dec 1905 - 10 Jun 1908  Leopold Henrik Stanislaus Mechelin (b. 1839 - d. 1914)  SFP
 5 Aug 1908 - 27 Apr 1909  Edvard Immanuel Hjelt              (b. 1855 - d. 1921)  PSP
27 Apr 1909 - 19 Oct 1909  August Johannes Hjelt (acting)     (b. 1862 - d. 1919)  SP
19 Oct 1909 - 21 Dec 1909  Andrey Andreyevich Virenius        (b. 1850 - d. 1919)  Mil
                             (1st time) (acting)
21 Dec 1909 - 21 Apr 1913  Vladimir Ivanovich Markov          (s.a.)               Mil
21 Apr 1913 - 16 Mar 1917  Mikhail Mikhaylovich Borovitinov   (b. 1874 - d. 1921)  Non-party
17 Mar 1917 - 26 Mar 1917  Andrey Andreyevich Virenius        (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time) (acting)
26 Mar 1917 - 17 Aug 1917  Antii Oskari Tokoi                 (b. 1873 - d. 1963)  SDP
17 Aug 1917 - 27 Nov 1917  Eemil Nestor Setälä                (b. 1864 - d. 1935)  PSP
27 Nov 1917 - 27 Nov 1918  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud af Qvalstad  (s.a.)               PSP
                             (1st time)(in Vaasa refuge 29 Jan - 3 May 1918)
27 May 1918 - 27 Nov 1918  Juho Kusti Paasikivi               (s.a.)               SP
                             (Johan Gustaf Hellsténa)
                             (acting for Svinhufvud)
Prime ministers
27 Nov 1918                Juho Kusti Paasikivi (1st time)    (s.a.)               SP
27 Nov 1918 - 17 Apr 1919  Lauri Johannes Ingman (1st time)   (s.a.)               KOK
17 Apr 1919 - 15 Aug 1919  Kaarlo Castrén                     (b. 1860 - d. 1938)  NPP
15 Aug 1919 - 15 Mar 1920  Juho Heikki Vennola (1st time)     (b. 1872 - d. 1938)  NPP
15 Mar 1920 -  9 Apr 1921  Rafael Waldemar Erich              (b. 1879 - d. 1946)  KOK
 9 Apr 1921 -  2 Jun 1922  Juho Heikki Vennola (2nd time)     (s.a.)               NPP
 2 Jun 1922 - 14 Nov 1922  Aimo Kaarlo Cajander (1st time)    (b. 1879 - d. 1943)  Non-party
14 Nov 1922 - 18 Jan 1924  Kyösti Kallio (1st time)           (s.a.)               ML
18 Jan 1924 - 31 May 1924  Aimo Kaarlo Cajander (2nd time)    (s.a.)               ED
31 May 1924 - 31 Mar 1925  Lauri Johannes Ingman (2nd time)   (s.a.)               KOK
31 Mar 1925 - 31 Dec 1925  Antti Agaton Tulenheimo            (b. 1879 - d. 1952)  KOK
31 Dec 1925 - 13 Dec 1926  Kyösti Kallio (2nd time)           (s.a.)               ML
13 Dec 1926 - 17 Dec 1927  Väinö Alfred Tanner                (b. 1881 - d. 1966)  SDP
17 Dec 1927 - 22 Dec 1928  Juho Emil Sunila (1st time)        (b. 1875 - d. 1936)  ML
22 Dec 1928 - 16 Aug 1929  Oskari Mantere (Oskar Majamäki)    (b. 1874 - d. 1942)  NPP
16 Aug 1929 -  6 Jul 1930  Kyösti Kallio (3rd time)           (s.a.)               ML
 6 Jul 1930 - 16 Feb 1931  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud af Qvalstad  (s.a.)               KOK
                             (2nd time) 
16 Feb 1931 - 21 Mar 1931  Juho Heikki Vennola (3rd time)     (s.a.)               ED
21 Mar 1931 - 14 Dec 1932  Juho Emil Sunila (2nd time)        (s.a.)               ML
14 Dec 1932 -  7 Oct 1936  Toivo Mikael Kivimäki              (b. 1886 - d. 1968)  NPP
 7 Oct 1936 - 17 Feb 1937  Kyösti Kallio (4th time)           (s.a.)               ML
17 Feb 1937 - 12 Mar 1937  Eino Rudolf Woldemar Holsti        (b. 1881 - d. 1945)  ED 
                             (acting)
12 Mar 1937 -  1 Dec 1939  Aimo Kaarlo Cajander (3rd time)    (s.a.)               NPP
 1 Dec 1939 - 21 Dec 1940  Risto Heikki Ryti                  (s.a.)               NPP
21 Dec 1940 -  3 Jan 1941  Rudolf Waldén (acting)             (b. 1878 - d. 1946)  Mil
 3 Jan 1941 -  5 Mar 1943  Johan Wilhelm Rangell              (b. 1894 - d. 1982)  NPP
 5 Mar 1943 -  8 Aug 1944  Edwin Johannes Hildegard Linkomies (b. 1894 - d. 1963)  KOK
 8 Aug 1944 - 21 Sep 1944  Antti Verner Hackzell              (b. 1881 - d. 1946)  KOK
21 Sep 1944 - 17 Nov 1944  Urho Jonas Castrén                 (b. 1886 - d. 1965)  Non-party
17 Nov 1944 - 26 Mar 1946  Juho Kusti Paasikivi (2nd time)    (s.a.)               KOK
26 Mar 1946 - 29 Jul 1948  Mauno Pekkala                      (b. 1890 - d. 1952)  SKDL
29 Jul 1948 - 17 Mar 1950  Karl August Fagerholm (1st time)   (b. 1901 - d. 1984)  SDP
17 Mar 1950 - 17 Nov 1953  Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (1st time)    (s.a.)               ML
17 Nov 1953 -  5 May 1954  Sakari Severi Tuomioja             (b. 1911 - d. 1964)  VL
 5 May 1954 - 20 Oct 1954  Ralf Johan Gustaf Törngren         (b. 1899 - d. 1961)  SFP
20 Oct 1954 -  3 Mar 1956  Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (2nd time)    (s.a.)               ML
15 Feb 1956 -  3 Mar 1956  Johannes Virolainen                (b. 1914 - d. 2000)  ML 
                             (acting for Kekkonen)
 3 Mar 1956 - 27 May 1957  Karl August Fagerholm (2nd time)   (s.a.)               SDP
27 May 1957 - 29 Nov 1957  Vieno Johannes Sukselainen         (b. 1906 - d. 1995)  ML
                             (1st time) 
29 Nov 1957 - 26 Apr 1958  Berndt Rainer von Fieandt          (b. 1890 - d. 1972)  Non-party 
26 Apr 1958 - 29 Aug 1958  Reino Iisakki Kuuskoski            (b. 1907 - d. 1965)  Non-party 
29 Aug 1958 - 13 Jan 1959  Karl August Fagerholm (3rd time)   (s.a.)               SDP
13 Jan 1959 - 19 May 1961  Vieno Johannes Sukselainen         (s.a.)               ML 
                             (2nd time)
19 May 1961 - 14 Jul 1961  Eemil Vihtori Luukka (acting)      (b. 1892 - d. 1970)  ML
14 Jul 1961 - 13 Apr 1962  Martti Johannes Miettunen          (b. 1907 - d. 2002)  ML 
                             (1st time)
13 Apr 1962 - 18 Dec 1963  Ahti Kalle Samuli Karjalainen      (b. 1923 - d. 1990)  ML 
                             (1st time) 
18 Dec 1963 - 12 Sep 1964  Reino Ragnar Lehto                 (b. 1898 - d. 1966)  Non-party 
12 Sep 1964 - 27 May 1966  Johannes Virolainen                (b. 1914 - d. 2000) ML;1965 KESK
27 May 1966 - 22 Mar 1968  Kustaa Rafael Paasio (1st time)    (b. 1903 - d. 1980)  SDP 
22 Mar 1968 - 14 May 1970  Mauno Henrik Koivisto (1st time)   (s.a.)               SDP
14 May 1970 - 15 Jul 1970  Teuvo Ensio Aura (1st time)(acting)(b. 1912 - d. 1999)  Non-party 
15 Jul 1970 - 29 Oct 1971  Ahti Kalle Samuli Karjalainen      (s.a.)               KESK 
                             (2nd time) 
29 Oct 1971 - 23 Feb 1972  Teuvo Ensio Aura (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)               Non-party 
23 Feb 1972 -  4 Sep 1972  Kustaa Rafael Paasio (2nd time)    (s.a.)               SDP 
 4 Sep 1972 - 13 Jun 1975  Taisto Kalevi Sorsa (1st time)     (b. 1930 - d. 2004)  SDP
13 Jun 1975 - 30 Nov 1975  Keijo Anfero Liinamaa (acting)     (b. 1929 - d. 1980)  Non-party 
30 Nov 1975 - 15 May 1977  Martti Johannes Miettunen          (s.a.)               KESK 
                             (2nd time)
15 May 1977 - 26 May 1979  Taisto Kalevi Sorsa (2nd time)     (s.a.)               SDP
26 May 1979 - 27 Jan 1982  Mauno Henrik Koivisto (2nd time)   (s.a.)               SDP
11 Sep 1981 - 19 Feb 1982  Eino Oskari Uusitalo               (b. 1924 - d. 2015)  KESK
                             (acting [for Koivisto to 27 Jan 1982])
19 Feb 1982 - 30 Apr 1987  Taisto Kalevi Sorsa (3rd time)     (s.a.)               SDP
30 Apr 1987 - 26 Apr 1991  Harri Hermanni Holkeri             (b. 1937 - d. 2011)  KOK
26 Apr 1991 - 13 Apr 1995  Esko Tapani Aho                    (b. 1954)            KESK
13 Apr 1995 - 17 Apr 2003  Paavo Tapio Lipponen               (b. 1941)            SDP
17 Apr 2003 - 24 Jun 2003  Anneli Tuulikki Jäätteenmäki (f)   (b. 1955)            KESK
24 Jun 2003 - 22 Jun 2010  Matti Taneli Vanhanen              (b. 1955)            KESK
22 Jun 2010 - 22 Jun 2011  Mari Johanna Kiviniemi (f)         (b. 1968)            KESK
22 Jun 2011 - 24 Jun 2014  Jyrki Tapani Katainen              (b. 1971)            KOK
24 Jun 2014 - 29 May 2015  Alexander Stubb                    (b. 1968)            KOK

29 May 2015 -              Juha Petri Sipilä                  (b. 1961)            KESK

Allied (Soviet) Occupation

Chairman of the Allied Control Commission
22 Sep 1944 - 15 Sep 1947  Andrey Aleksandrovich Zhdanov      (b. 1896 - d. 1948)  Mil
                             (Soviet Union)

German Forces 1918

Director-general of German Forces in Finland (Ostsee-Division)
12
Apr 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Gustav Adolph Joachim Rüdiger von  (b. 1865 - d. 1946)  Mil
                             der Goltz

 ¹common confusion over the polity name ("grand principality" versus "grand duchy") stems from the fact that the title initially introduced was that of a "duke" (Hertig til Finland); "duchy" being the regular designation of a region within the Swedish kingdom), whereas subsequently and still in the 19th century the title used was that of "grand prince" (Storfurste till Finland, in Russian Velikiy knyaz'). The style of the polity should therefore be correctly rendered as "Grand Principality".
 
 2title used 1809-1917 only as a part of the full and/or short title of the Emperor of Russia; equivalents in other languages used for official purposes: (in Russian) Velikiy knyaz' Finlyandskiy; (in Swedish) Storfurste till Finland; (in Finnish) Suomen suuriruhtinas (Grand Prince of Finland).

  3Friedrich Karl Ludwig Konstantin, Prinz und Landgraf zu Hessen (s.a.) was elected King of Finland (Suomen kuningas) by the Diet on 9 Oct 1918, but declined to accept the crown. His decision was communicated by a letter on 14 Dec 1918 addressed to the Finnish ambassador in Berlin. The Council of State of Finland published the letter in the official gazette 28 Dec 1918. In the Finnish election document the prince was called "Fredrik Kaarle", the name "Väinö I", occasionally reported as the intended regnal name, was never actually considered a name for the king of Finland.

Noble titles: Greve/Graf = Count; Friherre/Freiherr/Vapaaherra = Baron; Jarl = Earl; Knyaz' = Prince.
 
Territorial Disputes: Following a treaty agreement in 1963, the USSR leased the Soviet section of the Saimaa Canal area and the island of Malyj Vysotskij (Ravansaari) to Finland for fifty years. Under the new Saimaa Canal lease treaty signed by the Finnish and Russian governments in 2010, the lease was extended for fifty years and Malyj Vysotskij was again to be managed by Russian authorities. The treaty went into effect on 17 Feb 2012; Various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish government asserts no territorial demands.
 
Party abbreviations: KESK = Suomen Keskusta (Finnish Centre Party, centrist, est.1965);
KOK = Kansallinen Kokoomus (National Coalition Party, center-right, est.1918); LKP = Liberaalinen Kansanpuolue (Liberal People's Party, liberal, merger of VL and KP, from 2001 named Liberaalit [Liberals], est.1965); SDP = Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue (Social Democratic Party of Finland, social-democratic, est.1899); SFP = Svenska Folkpartiet i Finland/Ruotsalainen kansanpuolue (Swedish People's Party of Finland, liberal, est.1906, as Svenska Partiet/Ruotsalainen Puolue [Swedish Party] 1870-1906); KD = Suomen Kristillisdemokraatit (Christian Democratic Party of Finland, christian democratic, former SKL, est.2001); VS = Vasemmistoliitto (Left Alliance, democratic socialist, merger of SKDL and SKP, est.1990); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ED = Kansallinen Edistyspuolue (National Progressive Party, liberal, republican, former, NSP, 1918-1951); KDP =
Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-12 Dec 1917); KP = Suomen Kansanpuolue (Finnish People's Party, liberal conservative, nationalist, 1951-1965, merged with VL as LKP); ML = Maalaisliitoksi (Farmers League, agrarian, liberal, 1906-1965, renamed KESK); NPP = Kansallinen Edistyspuole (National Progressive Party, liberal, 1918-1951); SKDL = Suomen Kansan Demokraattinen Liitto (Finnish People's Democratic League, communists and socialists, 1944-1990, then VS); PSP = Perustuslaillis-Suomenmielinen Puolue (Constitutional-Fennoman Party, "Young Finnish" Party, liberal, opposed Russification, 1894-1918, succeeded by ED); SKL = Suomen Kristillinen Liitto (Christian League of Finland, christian democratic, centrist, 1958-2001, renamed KD); SKP = Suomen Kommunistinen Puolue (Finnish Communist Party, communist, suppressed 1923-44, merged with SKDL into VS, 1918-1990); SMP = Suomen Maaseudun Puolue (Finnish Agrarian Party, agrarian, 1959-2003); SP = Suomalainen puolue/Finska Partiet (Finnish Party, "Old Finnish" Party, conservative, 1863-1918, succeeded by KOK); VL = Vapaamielisten Liitto (Liberal League, liberal, 1951-1965, merged with KP as LKP)


Alternative Government: People's Delegation of Finland

[ Finnish Socialist
                    Conciliar Republic 1918]

28 Jan 1918                Finland (name "Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic" was
                             used as polity name only in a treaty with Soviet Russia,
                             but not in national legislation), established in Helsinki in
                             opposition to the Senate of Finland and preventing the Diet
                             from holding sessions in the south of Finland.
 4-9 Apr 1918              Forced to move from Helsinki to Viipuri (modern Vyborg).
25 Apr 1918                Government flees national territory from Viipuri to Petrograd,
                             Russia (holding last meeting in Russia exile on 27 Apr 1918).

Chairman of the Central Workers' Council of Finland
14 Feb 1918 - 25 Apr 1918  Matti Valfrid Perttilä             (b. 1878 - d. 1953)  SDP

Chairmen of the People's Delegation of Finland
28 Jan 1918 - 12? Apr 1918 Kullervo Akilles Manner            (b. 1880 - d. 1939)  SDP
12? Apr 1918 - 17 Apr 1918 Otto Ville Kuusinen                (b. 1881 - d. 1964)  SDP
                             (Otto Wilhelm Kuusinen)
17 Apr 1918 - 25 Apr 1918  Lauri Aukusti Letonmäki            (b. 1886 - d. 1935)  SDP

Party abbreviation: SDP = Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue (Social Democratic Party of Finland, social-democratic, radicalized 1917/18, est.1899)

Alternative Government: Finnish Democratic Republic

[Flag
                              of Finland]

 1 Dec 1939                Finnish Democratic Republic, dissident government proclaimed
                             at Soviet occupied
town of Terijoki (now Zelenogorsk, Russia).
12 Mar 1940                Dissolution, Vyborg area ceded to Soviet Union (ratified 21 Mar 
                            
1940) as part of Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic.

Chairman of the Finnish People's Government
 1 Dec 1939 - 12 Mar 1940  Otto Ville Kuusinen                (b. 1881 - d. 1964)  SKP
                             (= Otto Wilhelm Kuusinen)

Party abbreviation: SKPSuomen Kommunistinen Puolue (Finnish Communist Party, communist, 1923-44 suppressed, 1918-1990, merged with SKDL into VS)



Hanko and Porkkala

[Flag of
                        USSR]

 
Map of Hanko
Headquarters: Hanko

Map of Porkkala
Headquarters: Kirkkonummi

12 Mar 1940                Finland agrees to lease 115 sq. km of Hanko (Hangö) peninsula
                             and surrounding maritime areas and islands to Soviet Union
                             for 30 years by the Treaty of Moscow.
22 May 1940                Soviets occupy Hanko (Hangö)(Hanko Leased Territory).
 2 Dec 1941                Soviet forces withdraw from Hanko.
 4 Dec 1941                Hanko re-occupied by Finland, lease terminated.
19 Sep 1944                Finland agrees to lease the territory and waters of Porkkalanniemi
                             (Porkala-Udd) to Soviet Union for 50 years and in exchange the
                             Soviet Union renounces its lease over Hanko, by the Moscow
                             Armistice (confirmed  by the Treaty of Paris on 10 Feb 1947).
Nov 1944                   Soviets occupy Porkkala (Naval Base Porkkala).
19 Sep 1955                Soviet Union agrees to restore Porkala to Finland by agreement.
26 Jan 1956                Soviet Union restores Porkkala to Finland.

Soviet Commanders of Hanko
22 May 1940 - 13 May 1941  Aleksey Borisovich Yeliseyev     (b. 1887 - d. 1942)
13 May 1941 -  2 Dec 1941  Sergey Ivanovich Kabanov         (b. 1901 - d. 1973)
Commanders of Porkkala
 9 Nov 1944 - Jun 1945     Neon Vasilyevich Antonov         (b. 1907 - d. 1948)
Jun 1945 - Apr 1950        Konstantin Davidovich            (b. 1902 - d. 1955)
                             Sukhiashvili
Apr 1950 – Oct 1951        Andrey Trofimovich Chabanenko    (b. 1909 - d. 1986)
Oct 1951 - 25 Jan 1956     Sergey Ivanovich Kabanov         (s.a.)



Aland Islands
 
[Triband
                          unofficial flag of the Aland Islands 1922-1954
                          (Finland)]
          1922 - 7 Apr 1954 (unofficial)
 
[Aland Island
                          Banner of Arms 1951-2009 (Finland)]
  18 Apr 1951 - 31 Dec 2009
           Province flag
[Flag of the Åland
                          Islands (Finland)]
                Adopted 7 Apr 1954
 
Map of Aland Islands Hear Local Anthem
"Ålänningens Sång"
(Song of the Alanders)
Text of Local Anthem
Adopted 1922
Autonomy Act
(1 Jan 1993)
Capital: Mariehamn
(Maarianhamina)

Currency: Euro (EUR);
1963-1 Jan 2002 New Markka
 (FIM); 1917-1963 Marrka
 (FIN); 1840-1917 Russian
 Ruble (RUES)

Local Holiday: 9 Jun (1922)
Självstyrelsedagen
(Aland's Autonomy Day)
Population: 28,355 (2012)
International Organizations/Treaties: NC, NIB

c.730                      Part of Sweden.
29 Jul 1634                Administered as a district of the Finnish province
                             of Åbo och Björneborgs län (= Turun ja Porin lääni).
 
8 Aug 1714 - 10 Sep 1721  Russian occupation (along with all of Finland).
 1 Jun 1743 - 16 Jun 1743  Russian occupation
(along with all of Finland).
22 Mar 1808 - May 1808     Russian occupation (along with all of Finland).
May 1808 - 17 Mar 1809     Swedish re-occupation of the islands;
attempt to separate
                             the islands from Åbo och Björneborgs län.

17 Mar 1809 - 13 Oct 1809  Russian re-occupation
of the islands.
17 Sep 1809                By the Treaty of Fredrikshamn, Finland (including Åland) ceded to
                             Russia as part of Finland (ratified 13 Oct 1809).
16 Aug 1854 - Nov 1855     Allied (British and French) occupation of the islands during
                             the Crimean War.
30 Mar 1856                Åland Convention, concluded between U.K, France, and Russia
                             stipulates that the Åland Islands shall be demilitarized.
20 Aug 1917 - 1921         Popular local movement to rejoin Sweden.
 6 Dec 1917                Part of independent Finland.
25-29 Dec 1917             By plebiscite the islands vote 95% for reunion with Sweden.
13 Feb
1918 - May 1918     Occupied by Sweden.

 
6 Mar 1918 - Oct 1918     Occupied by Germany.
 7 May 1920                Autonomy Act for Åland is enacted by the Finnish parliament.
24 Jun 1921                Recognized as part of Finland by the League of Nations.

 9 Jun 1922                Åland Autonomous Region
28 Dec 1951                New autonomy act (effective 1 Jan 1952).
16 Aug 1991                Revised
autonomy act approved (from 1 Jan 1993).

Crown Bailiffs (title Kronofogde)
1811 - 1817                Israel Wallin                      (b. 1777 - d. 1839)
13 May 1817 - 24 Jan 1832  Samuel Gabriel Crusell             (b. 1786 - d. 1832)
1832 - 20 Jul 1853         Adolf Fredrik von Willebrand       (b. 1796 - d. 1853)
1853 - 17 Dec 1880         Karl Oskar Lignell                 (b. 1815 - d. 1880)
1881 - 16 Jun 1890         Johan Frithiof Salvén              (b. 1836 - d. 1890)
1890 - 22 Jan 1896         Alexander Stefanus Träskelin       (b. 1854 - d. 1896)
1896 - 1897                Thure Severin Granberg             (b. 1861 - d. 1928)
1898 - 13 Jul 1906         Reinhold Waldemar Blomqvist        (b. 1845 - d. 1906)
1906 - 1913                Johan Axel Bergroth                (b. 1862 - d. 1923)
1913 - 1915                Robert Optatus Silander (1st time) (b. 1861 - d. 1917)
1915 - 1916                Karl Fredrik Nummelin              (b. 1881 - d. 1916)
1917                       Aarne Nyström Inha                 (b. 1885 - d. 1921)
1917 - 17 Sep 1917         Robert Optatus Silander (2nd time) (s.a.)
1917 - 1918                Emil Walter Johansson              (b. 1885 - d. 1960)
Governors
(title Landshövding)
May 1808 - 17 Mar 1809     Otto Reinhold Meurman (acting)     (b. 1750 - d. 1815)  Mil
 9 Mar 1918 - 13 Jun 1918  Hjalmar von Bonsdorff (acting)     (b. 1869 - d. 1945)  Mil
13 Jun 1918 - 17 Oct 1922  Karl William Isaksson              (b. 1866 - d. 1924)
17 Oct 1922 -  1 Jan 1938  Lars Wilhelm Fagerlund             (b. 1852 - d. 1939)
 1 Jan 1938 -  3 Nov 1938  Johan Torsten Rothberg             (b. 1884 - d. 1938)
 3 Nov 1938 - 21 Dec 1938  Emil Walter Johansson (acting)     (s.a.)
21 Nov 1938 -  1 May 1945  Ruben Fredrik Österberg            (b. 1895 - d. 1959)
14 May 1945 - 31 Dec 1953  Herman Koroleff                    (b. 1883 - d. 1957)
                            (Herman Vasilyevich Korolov)
 1 Jan 1954 -  1 Jul 1972  Tor Johan Brenning                 (b. 1903 - d. 1983)

 1 Jul 1972 -  1 Oct 1982  Gunnar Martin Isaksson             (b. 1921 - d. 2001)
 1 Oct 1982 -  1 Apr 1999  Pehr Henrik Gustafsson             (b. 1934)
 1 Apr 1999 -              Rolf Peter Lindbäck                (b. 1955)


Chief ministers
(title Lantråd)
10 Jul 1922 - 30 Dec 1938  Carl Björkman                      (b. 1873 - d. 1948)  Non-party 
30 Dec 1938 -  1 Jan 1955  Viktor Strandfält                  (b. 1887 - d. 1962)  Non-party 
 1 Jan 1955 - 28 Mar 1967  Hugo Valdemar Johansson            (b. 1900 - d. 1983)  Non-party
28 Mar 1967 -  1 Jul 1972  Gunnar Martin Isaksson             (s.a.)               Non-party 
 1 Jul 1972 -  1 Jan 1979  Elmar Alarik Häggblom              (b. 1914 - d. 1996)  Non-party
 1 Jan 1979 - 20 Apr 1988  Folke Edvin Ossian Woivalin        (b. 1928)            Non-party 
20 Apr 1988 - 28 Nov 1991  John Sune Eriksson                 (b. 1939)            LpA
28 Nov 1991 - 24 Nov 1995  Knut Ragnar Erlandsson             (b. 1941)            AC
24 Nov 1995 -  3 Dec 1999  Roger Karl Helge Jansson           (b. 1943)            FS
 3 Dec 1999 - 26 Nov 2007  Kjell Roger Nordlund               (b. 1957)            AC
26 Nov 2007 - 25 Nov 2011  Viveka Emilia Eriksson (f)         (b. 1956)            LpA
25 Nov 2011 - 25 Nov 2015  Camilla Gunell (f)                 (b. 1970)            AS
25 Nov 2015 -              Katrin Sjögren (f)                 (b. 1966)            LpA


Military Commanders
13 Feb 1918 - May 1918     Carl August, greve Ehrensvärd      (b. 1858 - d. 1944)  Mil
                             (Sweden)(commander of the Expeditionary Corps)
 
6 Mar 1918 -  2 May 1918  Hugo Karl August Meurer (Germany)  (b. 1869 - d. 1960)  Mil
                             (Chef des Sonderverbandes Ostsee)

Party abbreviations: AC = Åländsk Center/Ahvenanmaan Keskusta (Aland Centre, centrist, agrarian, est.13 Jan 1976); AS = Ålands Socialdemokrater/Ahvenanmaan Sosiaalidemokraatit (Åland Social Democrats, social-democratic, est.1971); LpA = Liberalerna på Åland/Ahvenanmaan Liberaalit (Liberals for Aland, social-liberal, est.1978); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: FS = Frisinnad Samverkan/Vapaamielinen Yhteistoiminta (Progressive Cooperation, conservative, 1967-Mar 2011, renamed Moderaterna på Åland/Ahvenanmaan Maltilliset [Moderates of Åland])







© Ben Cahoon