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States Louisiana (LA) - Maine (ME) - Maryland (MD) - Massachusetts (MA) - Michigan (MI) - Minnesota (MN) - Mississippi (MS) - Missouri (MO) - Montana (MT) -

Party abbreviations: Dem = Democratic Party (liberal, center-left, former D-R, est.1829); DFL = Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (democratic socialist, populist, upper-midwest Dem affiliate, to 1944 named Farm-Labor Party, est.1918); Ind = Independent; IPM = Independence Party of Minnesota (Minnesota regionalist, radical centrist, formerly J. Ventura personalist, split from Ref party, est.1992); Ref = Reform Party (social liberal, centrist, originally Ross Perot personalist, est.1995); Rep = Republican Party (conservative, center-right, est.1854); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: AJP = Anti-Jackson Party (1825-1833); anti-Fed = Anti-Federalist Party (pro-states rights, 1781-1796); AP = American Party (nativist, 1853-1860, informally K-N);
D-F = Democratic-Federalist Party; DFS = Democratic Free Soil Party (anti-slavery, opposed extension of slavery into western U.S. territories, 1848-1854); DGP = Democratic Greenback Party (opposed return to "gold standards", withdrawal of paper "greenbacks" and tightening of credit lines 1874-1884); D-R = Democratic-Republican Party (1794-1829, renamed Democratic party); Fed = Federalist Party (conservative, federalist, 1792-1824); Fus = Fusion (representing more than one party/coalition of parties); K-N = Know-Nothing Party (anti-immigrant, anti-Roman Catholic, Unionist, formally called AP, 1853-1860); Lib-R = Liberal Republican Party (split from Rep, 1870-1872); MFL = Minnesota Farmer-Labor Party (semi-Socialist, Minnesota regionalist, 1919-1944); N-R = National Republican Party (anti-Jacksonian, 1826-1834); Uni = Union Party (or Constitutional Union Party, formed chiefly by  remnants of the AP and southern Whigs, May 1860-1861); U-D = Union-Democratic Party (conservative, pro-Union, opposed civil rights for slaves, 1860-1868); Whg = Whig Party (economic nationalist, protectionist, anti-Jacksonian, 1833-1860)


Louisiana
 
[1861
                                  unofficial Pelican Flag of Louisiana]
    26 Jan 1861 - 11 Feb 1861 Unofficial
[National Flag of Louisiana
                                  (1861-1862)]
              11 Feb 1861 - 28 Apr 1862

[Flag of
                                  Louisiana 1912-2006]
            1 Jul 1912 - 25 May 2006

[Flag of
                                  Louisiana, 2006-2010]
          25 May 2006 - 22 Nov 2010
[Flag of
                                  Louisiana]
                Adopted 22 Nov 2010
 



Map of Louisiana
Hear State Song
"Give Me Louisiana"
Adopted 1970
Hear State Song
"You Are My Sunshine"
Adopted 1977
State Constitution
(1 Jan 1975)
 Capital: Baton Rouge
(Biloxi 1699-1702, 1720-1722;
Fort Louis de la Louisiane
[Mobile] 1702-1720;
New Orleans 1722-1830,
1831-1849, 1865-1882 [and
Union capital 1862-1865];
 Donaldsonville 1830-1831;
 Opelousas 1862;
 Shreveport 1863;
 Baton Rouge 1849-1862)
Motto: Union, justice,
and confidence
Nickname: Pelican State
Population: 4,625,470 (2013)
Mayors of
New Orleans
Chronology

20 Jan 1685                Claimed for France by La Salle.
 8 Dec 1699                French colony of Louisiana (part of 
                             New France [see Quebec, Canada]).
1717 - 1733                Under Compagnie de l'Ouest administration.
 3 Nov 1762                Ceded to Spain by France.
 5 Mar 1766                Spain takes over administration (subordinated
                             to Cuba).
 1 Oct 1800                Spain secretly agrees to restore Louisiana
                             to France by Treaty of Idelfonso.
21 Mar 1801                Secretly returned to France (French 
                             administration begins 30 Nov 1803).
30 Apr 1803                Sold to U.S. by France (signed 2 May 1803, 
                             but retro-dated to 30 Apr).
20 Dec 1803                U.S. assumes sovereignty
 
1 Oct 1804                Louisiana divided into two sections: the
                             Orleans Territory below 33rd parallel;
                             and Louisiana Territory (later Missouri
                             territory) above the 33rd parallel
                             from 4 Jul 1805.
30 Apr 1812                State of Louisiana
26 Jan 1861                Secession
 8 Feb 1861                Founding state of Confederate States of 
                             America.
28 Apr 1862                New Orleans occupied by Union troops.
25 Jul 1864                Ordinance of secession revoked (affected only
                             territories of Louisiana under federal rule).
 
9 Jul 1868                Readmitted to United States.

Mayors of
Shreveport
 
 
 
 
 

Governors
25 Jan 1699 -  4 May 1699  Pierre Le Moyne, sieur d'Iberville (b. 1661 - d. 1706)
 4 May 1699 - 21 Aug 1701  Sauvole de la Villantray           (b. c.1671 - d. 1701)
21 Aug 1701 - 17 Mar 1713  Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, sieur      (b. 1680 - d. 1767)
                             de Bienville (1st time) 
1707 - 1708                Nicolas Daneaux de Muy             (b. 16.. - d. 1708)
                             (did not take office)
17 Mar 1713 - 1716         Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (b. 1658 - d. 1730)
1716 -  9 Mar 1717         Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, sieur      (s.a.) 
                             de Bienville (2nd time)
                             (acting)
 9 May 1717 - 1718         Jean Michel de l'Espinay de la     (d. 1721)
                             Longeville
1718 - 16 Jan 1724         Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, sieur      (s.a.) 
                             de Bienville (3rd time)    
1724 - 1726                Pierre Sidrac Dugué, sieur de      (b. 1675 - d. 1736)
                             Boisbriant (acting)
 9 Aug 1726 - 1733         Étienne Périer de Salvert          (b. 1687 - d. 1766)
1733 - May 1743            Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, sieur      (s.a.)
                             de Bienville (4th time) 
10 May 1743 -  8 May 1753  Pierre de Rigaud,                  (b. 1698 - d. 1778)
                             marquis de Vaudreuil-Cabagnal
 8 May 1753 - 29 Apr 1763  Louis Billouart,                   (b. 1704 - d. 1770)
                             chevalier de Kerlérec 
29 Apr 1763 -  4 Feb 1765  Jean-Jacques Blaise d'Abbadie      (b. 1726 - d. 1765)
 4 Feb 1765 -  5 Mar 1766  Charles Philippe Aubry (acting)    (b. 17.. - d. 1770)
                             (1st time)
 5 Mar 1766 - 16 Nov 1768  Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre     (b. 1717 - d. 1795)
                             Guiral 
16 Nov 1768 - 17 Aug 1769  Charles Philippe Aubry (acting)    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Aug 1769 -  1 Dec 1769     Alejandro O'Reilly y McDowell      (b. 1722 - d. 1794)
                             Sillon
 1 Dec 1769 -  1 Apr 1777  Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga           (b. 1721 - d. 1793)
 1 Apr 1777 - 14 Jul 1785  Bernardo Vicente Pólinarde de      (b. 1726 - d. 1794)
                             Gálvez y Galardo 
14 Jul 1785 - 30 Nov 1791  Estéban Rodríguez Miró y Sabater   (b. 1744 - d. 1802)
30 Nov 1791 -  5 Aug 1797  Francisco Luis Héctor de           (b. 1747 - d. 1807) 
                             Carondelet de Novelles, 
                             baron de Carondelet 
 5 Aug 1797 - 18 Jul 1799  Manuel Gayoso de Lemos y           (b. 1752 - d. 1799)
                             Amorín y Magallanes
18 Jul 1799 - 15 Jul 1801  Nicolás María Vidal                (b. 17.. - d. 1805)
                             (acting civil governor)
18 Jul 1799 - 18 Sep 1799  Francisco Bouligny                 (b. 1736 - d. 1800)
                             (acting military governor)
18 Sep 1799 - 15 Jul 1801  Sebastián Calvo de la Puerta y     (b. 1751 - d. 1825)
                             O'Farril Arango y Arriola,
                             marqués de Casa Calvo 
                             (acting military governor) 
15 Jul 1801 - 30 Nov 1803  Juan Manuel de Salcedo             (b. 1743 - d. 18..)
30 Nov 1803 - 20 Dec 1803  Pierre-Clément de Laussat          (b. 1756 - d. 1835) 
20 Dec 1803 - 16 Dec 1816  William Charles Cole Claiborne     (b. 1775 - d. 1817)  D-R
16 Dec 1816 - 18 Dec 1820  Jacques Philippe Villeré           (b. 1761 - d. 1830)  D-R
18 Dec 1820 - 15 Nov 1824  Thomas Bolling Robertson           (b. 1779 - d. 1828)  D-R
15 Nov 1824 - 13 Dec 1824  Henry Schuyler Thibodaux (acting)  (b. 1769 - d. 1827)  D-R
13 Dec 1824 - 15 Dec 1828  Henry Johnson                      (b. 1783 - d. 1864)  N-R
15 Dec 1828 -  6 Oct 1829  Pierre Augustin Charles            (b. 1767 - d. 1829)  N-R
                             Bourguignon Derbigny
 6 Oct 1829 - 14 Jan 1830  Armand Julie Beauvais (acting)     (b. 1783 - d. 1843)  N-R
14 Jan 1830 - 31 Jan 1831  Jacques Dupré                      (b. 1773 - d. 1846)  N-R
31 Jan 1831 -  2 Feb 1835  André Bienvenue Roman (1st time)   (b. 1795 - d. 1866)  Whg
 2 Feb 1835 -  4 Feb 1839  Edward Douglas White               (b. 1795 - d. 1847)  Whg
 4 Feb 1839 - 30 Jan 1843  André Bienvenue Roman (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Whg
30 Jan 1843 - 12 Feb 1846  Alexandre Mouton                   (b. 1804 - d. 1885)  Dem
12 Feb 1846 - 28 Jan 1850  Isaac Johnson                      (b. 1803 - d. 1853)  Dem
28 Jan 1850 - 20 Jan 1853  Joseph Marshall Walker             (b. 1784 - d. 1856)  Dem
20 Jan 1853 - 28 Jan 1856  Paul Octave Hébert                 (b. 1818 - d. 1880)  Dem
28 Jan 1856 - 23 Jan 1860  Robert Charles Wickliffe           (b. 1819 - d. 1895)  Dem
23 Jan 1860 - 25 Jan 1864  Thomas Overton Moore               (b. 1804 - d. 1876)  Dem
                             (Confederate governor)
 1 May 1862 -  2 Jul 1862  Benjamin F. Butler                 (b. 1818 - d. 1893)  Mil  
                             (U.S. military governor)

 2 Jul 1862 -  4 Mar 1864  George Foster Shepley              (b. 1819 - d. 1878)  Mil
                             (U.S. military governor)
25 Jan 1864 -  2 Jun 1865  Henry Watkins Allen                (b. 1820 - d. 1866)  Dem
                             (Confederate governor)
 4 Mar 1864 -  4 Mar 1865  Michael Georg Decker Hahn          (b. 1830 - d. 1886)  Mil
                             (U.S. military governor)
 4 Mar 1865 -  3 Jun 1867  James Madison Wells                (b. 1808 - d. 1899)  Rep
 3 Jun 1867 -  8 Jan 1868  Benjamin Flanders                  (b. 1816 - d. 1896)  Rep
 8 Jan 1868 - 27 Jun 1868  Joshua Baker                       (b. 1799 - d. 1885)  Rep
27 Jun 1868 - 11 Dec 1872  Henry Clay Warmoth                 (b. 1842 - d. 1932)  Rep
11 Dec 1872 - 13 Jan 1873  Pinckey Benton Stewart Pinchback   (b. 1837 - d. 1921)  Rep
                             (acting)
13 Jan 1873 -  5 Jan 1877  William Pitt Kellogg               (b. 1830 - d. 1918)  Rep
13 Jan 1873 - 22 May 1873  John McEnery (in opposition)       (b. 1833 - d. 1891)  Rep
                             (1st time)
14 Sep 1874 - 16 Sep 1874  John McEnery (in opposition)       (s.a.)               Rep
                             (2nd time)
 8 Jan 1877 - 13 Jan 1880  Francis Tillou Nicholls (1st time) (b. 1834 - d. 1912)  Dem
 8 Jan 1877 - 25 Apr 1877  Stephen Bennett Packard            (b. 1843 - d. 1881)  Rep
                             (in opposition)
14 Jan 1880 - 16 Oct 1881  Louis Alfred Wiltz                 (b. 1843 - d. 1881)  Dem
16 Oct 1881 - 20 May 1888  Samuel Douglas McEnery             (b. 1837 - d. 1910)  Dem
21 May 1888 - 10 May 1892  Francis Tillou Nicholls (2nd time) (s.a.)               Dem
10 May 1892 -  8 May 1900  Murphy James Foster                (b. 1849 - d. 1921)  Dem
 8 May 1900 - 10 May 1904  William Wright Heard               (b. 1853 - d. 1926)  Dem
10 May 1904 - 12 May 1908  Newton Crain Blanchard             (b. 1849 - d. 1922)  Dem
12 May 1908 - 14 May 1912  Jared Young Sanders                (b. 1869 - d. 1944)  Dem
14 May 1912 -  9 May 1916  Luther Egbert Hall                 (b. 1869 - d. 1921)  Dem
 9 May 1916 - 11 May 1920  Ruffin Golson Pleasant             (b. 1871 - d. 1937)  Dem
11 May 1920 - 13 May 1924  John Milliken Parker               (b. 1863 - d. 1939)  Dem
13 May 1924 - 11 Oct 1926  Henry Fuqua                        (b. 1865 - d. 1926)  Dem
11 Oct 1926 - 21 May 1928  Oramel Hinckley Simpson            (b. 1870 - d. 1932)  Dem
21 May 1928 - 25 Jan 1932  Huey Pierce Long, Jr. "Kingfish"   (b. 1893 - d. 1935)  Dem
25 Jan 1932 - 10 May 1932  Alvin Olin King                    (b. 1890 - d. 1958)  Dem
10 May 1932 - 28 Jan 1936  Oscar Kelly Allen                  (b. 1882 - d. 1936)  Dem
28 Jan 1936 - 12 May 1936  James Albert Noe                   (b. 1890 - d. 1976)  Dem
12 May 1936 - 26 Jun 1939  Richard Webster Leche              (b. 1898 - d. 1965)  Dem
26 Jun 1939 - 14 May 1940  Earl Kemp Long (1st time)          (b. 1895 - d. 1960)  Dem
14 May 1940 -  9 May 1944  Sam Houston Jones                  (b. 1897 - d. 1978)  Dem
 9 May 1944 - 11 May 1948  James Houston Davis (1st time)     (b. 1899 - d. 2000)  Dem
11 May 1948 - 13 May 1952  Earl Kemp Long (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Dem
13 May 1952 -  8 May 1956  Robert Floyd Kennon                (b. 1902 - d. 1988)  Dem
 8 May 1956 - 10 May 1960  Earl Kemp Long (3rd time)          (s.a.)               Dem
10 May 1960 - 12 May 1964  James Houston Davis (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Dem
12 May 1964 -  9 May 1972  John Julian McKeithen              (b. 1918 - d. 1999)  Dem
 9 May 1972 - 10 Mar 1980  Edwin W. Edwards (1st time)        (b. 1927)            Dem
10 Mar 1980 - 12 Mar 1984  David C. Treen                     (b. 1928 - d. 2009)  Rep
12 Mar 1984 - 14 Mar 1988  Edwin W. Edwards (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Dem
14 Mar 1988 -  8 Jan 1992  Charles E. Roemer III              (b. 1943)        Dem;Mar 1991 Rep
 8 Jan 1992 -  8 Jan 1996  Edwin W. Edwards (3rd time)        (s.a.)               Dem
 8 Jan 1996 - 12 Jan 2004  Michael "Mike" J. Foster, Jr.      (b. 1930)            Rep
12 Jan 2004 - 14 Jan 2008  Kathleen Babineaux Blanco (f)      (b. 1942)            Dem
14 Jan 2008 -              Piyush "Bobby" Jindal              (b. 1971)            Rep


Military governors during Reconstruction

23 Apr 1865 -  3 Jun 1865  Nathaniel P. Banks                 (b. 1816 - d. 1894)  Mil
 3 Jun 1865 - May 1866     Edward R.S. Canby                  (b. 1817 - d. 1873)  Mil
19 Mar 1867 -  5 Sep 1868  Philip H. Sheridan                 (b. 1831 - d. 1888)  Mil



Maine
 
[Maine
                                  State Flag, 1901-1909]
                21 Mar 1901 - 24 Feb 1909
 
[Common
                                  Flag of Maine]
                  Adopted 24 Feb 1909
 
Map of Maine
Hear State Song
"State of Maine Song"
Text of State Song
Adopted 30 Mar 1937
State Constitution
(6 Dec 1819)
 Capital: Augusta
(Portland 1820-4 Jan 1832)
Motto: Dirigo (I lead)
Nickname: Pine Tree State
Population: 1,328,302 (2013)
 
Chronology

14 Aug 1607 - 17 Oct 1608   Popham colony (also known as Sagadahoc or
                              Kennebec colony) at Fort St. George (modern
                              Phippsurg).
10 Aug 1622                 Granted to John Mason and Sir Ferdinando
                              Gorges; claim included lands between the
                              Merrimack and Kennebec rivers and extending
                              inland 60 miles (Province of Maine).
 7 Nov 1629                 Mason and Gorges divided the province
                              between them. Mason's share being the area
                              between the Merrimack and the Piscataqua 
                              rivers, which he named New Hampshire;
                              Gorges calls his portion New Somersetshire.
31 May 1652                 Massachusetts-Bay Colony claims Maine
                            (Province of Maine of Massachusetts-Bay Colony)
12 Mar 1664 - 1668          Province of Maine was given in grant by King
                              Charles II to James, Duke of York as part
                              of New York as Cornwall County.
29 Jun 1674                 Restored to Gorges heirs by King Charles II.
13 Mar 1677                 Massachusetts purchases the rights of Gorges
                              family.
17 May 1686 - 18 Apr 1689   Along with Massachusetts part of the Dominion
                              of New England (see Massachusetts).
17 Oct 1691                 Maine formally made an integral part of 
                              Massachusetts-Bay (Province of Maine of
                              Massachusetts-Bay Colony).
1778                        Maine District of Massachusetts
 1 Sep 1814 - 15 Apr 1815   British occupy Castine & most of eastern Maine.
15 Mar 1820                 State of Maine
 9 Aug 1842                 Aroostook valley officially ceded to U.S. by
                              Britain in the Webster-Ashburn Treaty.

 
 
 
 
 
 

Proprietors of Maine
1622 - Dec 1635            John Mason                         (b. 1586 - d. 1635)
                           + Sir Ferdinando Gorges            (b. 1568 - d. 1647)
Proprietor of New Somersetshire
1635 - 14 May 1647         Sir Ferdinando Gorges              (s.a.)

Governor of Popham
14 Aug 1607 -  5 Feb 1608  George Popham                      (b. c.1550 - d. 1608)
Governors of New Somersetshire
1635 - 1647                William Gorges
1647 - 1652                Edward Godfrey
Commissioners
1664 - 1668                ....
Governors of Maine

31 May 1652 - 15 Mar 1820  the governors of Massachusetts
15 Mar 1820 - 28 May 1821  William King                       (b. 1768 - d. 1852)  D-R
29 May 1821 -  5 Dec 1821  William D. Williamson              (b. 1779 - d. 1846)  D-R
 5 Dec 1821 -  2 Jan 1822  Benjamin Ames                      (b. 1778 - d. 1835)  D-R
 2 Jan 1822 -  4 Jan 1822  Daniel Rose                        (b. 1772 - d. 1833)  D-R
 5 Jan 1822 -  3 Jan 1827  Albion K. Parris                   (b. 1788 - d. 1857)  D-R
 3 Jan 1827 -  8 Oct 1829  Enoch Lincoln                      (b. 1788 - d. 1829)  D-R
12 Oct 1829 -  5 Feb 1830  Nathan Cutler (acting)             (b. 1775 - d. 1861)  D-R
 5 Feb 1830 - 10 Feb 1830  Joshua Hall (acting)               (b. 1768 - d. 1862)  N-R
10 Feb 1830 -  5 Jan 1831  Jonathan G. Hunton                 (b. 1781 - d. 1851)  N-R
 5 Jan 1831 -  1 Jan 1834  Samual E. Smith                    (b. 1788 - d. 1860)  D-R
 1 Jan 1834 -  3 Jan 1838  Robert P. Dunlap                   (b. 1794 - d. 1859)  Dem
 3 Jan 1838 -  2 Jan 1839  Edward Kent (1st time)             (b. 1802 - d. 1877)  Whg
 2 Jan 1839 -  6 Jan 1841  John Fairfield (1st time)          (b. 1797 - d. 1847)  Dem
12 Jan 1841 - 13 Jan 1841  Richard H. Vose (acting)           (b. 1803 - d. 1864)  Whg 
13 Jan 1841 -  5 Jan 1842  Edward Kent (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Whg
 5 Jan 1842 -  7 Mar 1843  John Fairfield (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Dem
 7 Mar 1843 -  1 Jan 1844  Edward Kavanaugh                   (b. 1795 - d. 1844)  Dem
 2 Jan 1844 -  3 Jan 1844  David Dunn                         (b. 1811 - d. 1894)  Dem
 3 Jan 1844 -  5 Jan 1844  John W. Dana (1st time)            (b. 1808 - d. 1867)  Dem
 5 Jan 1844 - 12 May 1847  Hugh J. Anderson                   (b. 1801 - d. 1881)  Dem
13 May 1847 -  8 May 1850  John W. Dana (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Dem
 9 May 1850 -  5 Jan 1853  John Hubbard                       (b. 1794 - d. 1869)  Dem
 5 Jan 1853 -  3 Jan 1855  William G. Crosby                  (b. 1805 - d. 1881)  Whg
 3 Jan 1855 -  2 Jan 1856  Anson P. Morrill                   (b. 1803 - d. 1887)  K-N
 2 Jan 1856 -  8 Jan 1857  Samuel E. Wells                    (b. 1801 - d. 1868)  Dem
 8 Jan 1857 - 25 Feb 1857  Hannibal Hamlin                    (b. 1809 - d. 1891)  Rep
26 Feb 1857 -  8 Jan 1858  Joseph H. Williams (acting)        (b. 1814 - d. 1896)  Rep
 8 Jan 1858 -  2 Jan 1861  Lot M. Morrill                     (b. 1813 - d. 1883)  Rep
 2 Jan 1861 -  7 Jan 1863  Israel Washburn, Jr.               (b. 1813 - d. 1883)  Rep
 7 Jan 1863 -  6 Jan 1864  Abner Coburn                       (b. 1803 - d. 1885)  Rep
 6 Jan 1864 -  2 Jan 1867  Samuel Cony                        (b. 1811 - d. 1870)  Rep
 2 Jan 1867 -  4 Jan 1871  Joshua L. Chamberlain              (b. 1828 - d. 1914)  Rep
 4 Jan 1871 -  7 Jan 1874  Sidney Perham                      (b. 1819 - d. 1907)  Rep
 7 Jan 1874 -  5 Jan 1876  Nelson Dingley, Jr.                (b. 1832 - d. 1899)  Rep
 5 Jan 1876 -  8 Jan 1879  Seldon Connor                      (b. 1839 - d. 1917)  Rep
 8 Jan 1879 - 17 Jan 1880  Alonzo Garcelon                    (b. 1813 - d. 1906)  Dem
17 Jan 1880 - 13 Jan 1881  Daniel F. Davis                    (b. 1843 - d. 1897)  Rep
13 Jan 1881 -  3 Jan 1883  Harris M. Plaisted                 (b. 1828 - d. 1898)  Fus
 3 Jan 1883 -  5 Jan 1887  Frederick Robie                    (b. 1822 - d. 1912)  Rep
 5 Jan 1887 - 15 Dec 1887  Joseph R. Bodwell                  (b. 1818 - d. 1887)  Rep
16 Dec 1887 -  2 Jan 1889  Sebastian S. Marble (acting)       (b. 1817 - d. 1902)  Rep
 2 Jan 1889 -  4 Jan 1893  Edwin C. Burleigh                  (b. 1843 - d. 1916)  Rep
 4 Jan 1893 -  6 Jan 1897  Henry B. Cleaves                   (b. 1840 - d. 1912)  Rep
 6 Jan 1897 -  2 Jan 1901  Llewellyn Powers                   (b. 1836 - d. 1908)  Rep
 2 Jan 1901 -  4 Jan 1905  John F. Hill                       (b. 1855 - d. 1912)  Rep
 4 Jan 1905 -  6 Jan 1909  William T. Cobb                    (b. 1857 - d. 1937)  Rep
 6 Jan 1909 -  4 Jan 1911  Bert M. Fernald                    (b. 1858 - d. 1926)  Rep
 4 Jan 1911 -  1 Jan 1913  Frederick W. Plaisted              (b. 1865 - d. 1943)  Dem
 1 Jan 1913 -  6 Jan 1915  William T. Haines                  (b. 1854 - d. 1919)  Rep
 6 Jan 1915 -  3 Jan 1917  Oakley C. Curtis                   (b. 1865 - d. 1924)  Dem
 3 Jan 1917 -  5 Jan 1921  Carl E. Milliken                   (b. 1877 - d. 1961)  Rep
 5 Jan 1921 - 31 Jan 1921  Frederic H. Parkhurst              (b. 1864 - d. 1921)  Rep
31 Jan 1921 -  8 Jan 1925  Percival P. Baxter                 (b. 1876 - d. 1969)  Rep
 8 Jan 1925 -  2 Jan 1929  Owen Brewster                      (b. 1888 - d. 1961)  Rep
 2 Jan 1929 -  4 Jan 1933  William T. Gardiner                (b. 1892 - d. 1953)  Rep
 4 Jan 1933 -  6 Jan 1937  Louis J. Brann                     (b. 1876 - d. 1948)  Dem
 6 Jan 1937 -  1 Jan 1941  Lewis O. Barrows                   (b. 1893 - d. 1967)  Rep
 1 Jan 1941 -  3 Jan 1945  Sumner Sewall                      (b. 1897 - d. 1965)  Rep
 3 Jan 1945 -  5 Jan 1949  Horace A. Hildreth                 (b. 1902 - d. 1988)  Rep
 5 Jan 1949 - 25 Dec 1952  Frederick G. Payne                 (b. 1904 - d. 1978)  Rep
25 Dec 1952 -  6 Jan 1953  Burton M. Cross (1st time)         (b. 1902 - d. 1998)  Rep
 6 Jan 1953 -  7 Jan 1953  Nathaniel M. Haskell               (b. 1912 - d. 1983)  Rep
 7 Jan 1953 -  5 Jan 1955  Burton M. Cross (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Rep
 5 Jan 1955 -  2 Jan 1959  Edmund S. Muskie                   (b. 1914 - d. 1996)  Dem
 2 Jan 1959 -  7 Jan 1959  Robert N. Haskell                  (b. 1903 - d. 1987)  Rep
 7 Jan 1959 - 30 Dec 1959  Clinton A. Clauson                 (b. 1895 - d. 1959)  Dem
30 Dec 1959 -  5 Jan 1967  John H. Reed                       (b. 1921 - d. 2012)  Rep
 5 Jan 1967 -  2 Jan 1975  Kenneth M. Curtis                  (b. 1931)            Dem
 2 Jan 1975 -  3 Jan 1979  James B. Longley                   (b. 1924 - d. 1980)  Ind
 3 Jan 1979 -  7 Jan 1987  Joseph E. Brennan                  (b. 1934)            Dem
 7 Jan 1987 -  5 Jan 1995  John R. McKernan, Jr.              (b. 1948)            Rep
 5 Jan 1995 -  8 Jan 2003  Angus S. King, Jr.                 (b. 1944)            Ind
 8 Jan 2003 -  5 Jan 2011  John Elias Baldacci                (b. 1955)            Dem
 5 Jan 2011 -              
Paul LePage                        (b. 1948)            Rep



Maryland

[Flag of
                                  Maryland used c.1861-c.1880]
                  c.1861 - 9 Mar 1904
 
[Flag of
                                  Maryland]
                 Adopted 9 Mar 1904
 
Map of Maryland
Hear State Song
"Maryland, My Maryland"
Text of State Song
Adopted 29 Mar 1939
State Constitution
(5 Oct 1867)
 Capital: Annapolis
(St. Mary's 1634-1695)
Motto: Fatti maschii, parole
femine (Manly deeds,
womanly words)
Nicknames: The Old Line State,
Free State
Population: 5,928,814 (2013)
Mayors of
Annapolis
Chronology

28 May 1631                Virginia settlement at Kent Island.
20 Jun 1632                English proprietary colony of Maryland
                            (Province of Maryland).
25 Mar 1634                Settlement begins at St. Mary's.
27 Jun 1691                Royal province
21 Feb 1715                British proprietary colony.
 8 Nov 1776                State of Maryland (informal to 5 Feb 1777).
28 Apr 1788                State of the U.S.

 Mayors of
Baltimore
 
 
 

Lords Proprietary
20 Jun 1632 - 22 Jul 1654  Cecilius "Cecil" Calvert, Baron    (b. 1606 - d. 1675)
                             of Baltimore (1st time)
22 Jul 1654 - 24 Mar 1657  Parliamentary Commission
24 Mar 1657 - 30 Nov 1675  Cecilius "Cecil" Calvert, Baron    (s.a.)
                             of Baltimore (2nd time)
30 Nov 1675 - 27 Jun 1691  Charles Calvert, Baron of          (b. 1637 - d. 1715)
                             Baltimore
27 Jun 1691 - 21 Feb 1715  Post abolished
21 Feb 1715 - 16 Apr 1715  Benedict Leonard Calvert,          (b. 1679 - d. 1715)

                             Baron of Baltimore
16 Apr 1715 - 24 Apr 1751  Charles Calvert, Baron of          (b. 1699 - d. 1751)
                             Baltimore
24 Apr 1751 -  4 Sep 1771  Frederick Calvert, Baron of        (b. 1731 - d. 1771)
                             Baltimore
 4 Sep 1771 - 11 Nov 1776  Henry Hanford                      (b. 1758 - d. 1834)

Governors
28 May 1631 - 20 Jun 1632  William Claiborne (on Kent Island) (b. c.1600 - d. c.1677)
                             (in opposition to May 1635)
30 Jun 1632 - 11 Jun 1647  Leonard Calvert                    (b. 1606 - d. 1647)
                             (arrived 25 Mar 1634; Feb 1645 - 
                              to Aug 1646 in Virginia exile)
Feb 1638                   John Lewger (1st time)             (b. 1602 - d. 1665)

                             (acting for Calvert)
Apr 1638                   John Lewger (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                             (acting for Calvert)
27 May 1638 - 14 Aug 1638  Thomas Cornwaleys (1st time)       (b. c.1600 - d. 1676)
                             (acting for Calvert)
 8 May 1641 - 10 Jul 1641  Thomas Cornwaleys (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting for Calvert)
11 Apr 1643 - Sep 1644     Giles Brent                        (b. 1600 - d. 1672)
                             (acting for Calvert)
 3 Oct 1644 - 16 Nov 1644  William Brainthwait
                             (acting for Calvert)
Feb 1645 - 1645            Richard Ingle (usurper)            (b. 1609 - d. 1653)
1645 - 1646                Edward Hill (acting to Jul 1646)
                             (appointment by Calvert illegal)

11 Jun 1647 - 1649         Thomas Greene (1st time) 
c.Apr 1649 - 29 Mar 1652   William Stone (1st time)           (b. 1605 - d. 1695)
                             (deposed by Parliamentary Commissioners)
29 Mar 1652 - 28 Jun 1652  Parliamentary Commissioners
                           - Richard Bennett                  (b. 1609 - d. 1675)
                           - Edmund Curtis
                           - William Claiborne                (s.a.)

28 Jun 1652 - 22 Jul 1654  William Stone (2nd time)           (s.a.)

20 Sep 1649 - 1650
         Thomas Greene (2nd time)
                             (acting for Stone)
22 May 1650 - 25 Jun 1650  Thomas Hatton (acting for Stone)
Nov 1651 - 29 Mar 1652     Thomas Greene (3nd time)

                             (acting for Stone)
22 Jul 1654 - 24 Mar 1658  Commissioners

                           - William Fuller                   (b. c.1610 - d. 1695)
                           - Richard Preston
                           - William Durand

                           - Edward Lloyd
                           - John Smith
                           - Leonard Strong
                           - John Lawson
                           - John Hatch
                           - Richard Wells
                           - Richard Ewen
                           - Michael Brooke
Jan 1655 - 
10 Jul 1656     William Stone (3rd time)           (s.a.)
                             (in opposition to Commissioners)
10 Jul 1656 - 1660         Josias Fendall                     (b. c.1628 - d. 1687)
                             (in opposition to Commissioners to 24 Mar 1658)
18 Jun 1657 - 26 Feb 1658  Luke Barber (acting for Fendall)

c.Oct 1660 - c.Nov 1661    Philip Calvert                     (b. 1626 - d. 1682)
c.Nov 1661 - Jun 1676      Charles Calvert, Baron Baltimore   (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
May 1669 - 20 Jul 1670     Philip Calvert                     (s.a.)
                             (acting [for absent Calvert])

20 Jul 1670 - Nov 1670     Deputies and Commissioners
                           (acting for absent Calvert)
                           - Philip Calvert                   (s.a.)
                           - William Calvert
                           - Jerome White
                           - Baker Brooke
16 Jun 1676 - 14 Oct 1676  Cecilius Calvert (nominally)       (s.a.)
Jun 1676 - Jul 1676        Jesse Wharton                      (d. 1676)
                             (acting [for infant Calvert])
Jul 1676 - Apr 1679        Thomas Notley                      (d. 1679)
                             (acting [for infant Calvert to 14 Oct 1676])
Apr 1679 - May 1684        Charles Calvert, Baron Baltimore   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
May 1684 -  3 Oct 1688     Benedict Leonard Calvert           (s.a.)
                             (nominally)
May 1684 -  3 Oct 1688     Council of Deputies
                           (acting for infant Calvert)
                           -
Vincent Lowe
                           - Henry Darnall
                           - William Digges
                           - William Burgess
                           - Nicholas Sewall 
                           - Edward Pye
                           - Clement Hill
                           - Henry Coursey
                           - Henry Lowe
 3 Oct 1688 -  1 Aug 1689  William Joseph                     (b. 16.. - d. 17..) 

 1 Aug 1689 - Aug 1690     John Coode (commander in chief)    (b. 1648 - d. 1709)
Aug 1690 - 1692            Nehemiah Blakiston                 (b. c.1637 - d. 1693) 
 6 Apr 1692 -  9 Sep 1693  Sir Lionel Copley                  (d. 1693)

 9 Sep 1693 - 25 Sep 1693  Sir Thomas Lawrence (1st time)
25 Sep 1693 - 1693         Sir Edmund Andros (1st time)       (b. 1637 - d. 1714)
1693 - 1694                Nicholas Greenberry                (b. 1640 - d. 1697)
1694                       Sir Edmund Andros (2nd time)       (s.a.)
May 1694 - Jul 1694        Sir Thomas Lawrence (2nd time)
26 Jul 1694 - 1699         Francis Nicholson                  (b. 1655 - d. 1728)
 2 Jan 1699 - 1702         Nathaniel Blakistone
30 Jun 1702 - 1704         Thomas Tench
12 Apr 1704 - 1709         John Seymour                       (d. 1709)
30 Jul 1709                Francis Jenkins
                             (did not take office)

1709 - 29 May 1714         Edward Lloyd II (acting)           (b. 1670 - d. 1718)
29 May 1714 - 1720         John Hart                          (d. 1740)
May 1720 - Oct 1720        Thomas Brooke, Jr. (acting)        (b. 1659 - d. 1730/31)
Oct 1720 - 1727            Charles Calvert, Baron Baltimore   (b. 1699 - d. 1751)
                             (1st time)
 3 Jul 1727 - 1731         Benedict Leonard Calvert           (b. 1700 - d. 1732)
 7 Dec 1731 - 1732         Samuel Ogle (1st time)             (b. c.1694 - d. 1752)
11 Dec 1732 - 11 Jul 1733  Charles Calvert, Baron Baltimore   (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
11 Jul 1733 - 1742         Samuel Ogle (2nd time)             (s.a.)
23 Aug 1742 - 1747         Thomas Bladen                      (b. 1698 - d. 1780)
16 Mar 1747 -  3 May 1752  Samuel Ogle (3rd time)             (s.a.)
 4 May 1752 - 10 Aug 1753  Benjamin Tasker                    (b. 1690 - d. 1768)
10 Aug 1753 -  5 Jun 1769  Horatio Sharpe                     (b. 1718 - d. 1790)
 5 Jun 1769 - 23 Jun 1776  Robert Eden                        (b. 1741 - d. 1784)
28 May 1774 -  8 Nov 1774  Richard Lee                        (b. 1707 - d. 1787)
                             (acting for absent Eden)
23 Jun 1776 -  4 Jul 1776  Richard Lee (acting)               (s.a.)
Chairman of the Convention
22 Jun 1774 - 26 Jul 1775  Matthew Tilghman                   (b. 1718 - d. 1790)
President of the Council of Safety
30 Aug 1775 - 21 Oct 1775  Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer       (b. 1723 - d. 1790)

                             (1st time)
21 Oct 1775 - 18 Jan 1776  Vacant
18 Jan 1776 - 20 Mar 1777  Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer       (s.a.)

                              (2nd time)
Governors

20 Mar 1777 - 12 Nov 1779  Thomas Johnson, Jr.                (b. 1732 - d. 1819)  Fed
12 Nov 1779 - 22 Nov 1782  Thomas Sim Lee (1st time)          (b. 1745 - d. 1819)  Fed
22 Nov 1782 - 26 Nov 1785  William Paca                       (b. 1740 - d. 1799)  anti-Fed
26 Nov 1785 - 27 Nov 1788  William Smallwood                  (b. 1732 - d. 1792)
27 Nov 1788 - 14 Nov 1791  John Eager Howard                  (b. 1752 - d. 1827)  Fed
14 Nov 1791 - 10 Feb 1792  George Plater                      (b. 1735 - d. 1792)  Fed
13 Feb 1792 -  5 Apr 1792  James Brice (acting)               (b. 1746 - d. 1801)  Fed
 5 Apr 1792 - 14 Nov 1794  Thomas Sim Lee (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Fed
14 Nov 1794 - 17 Nov 1797  John Hoskins Stone                 (b. 1750 - d. 1804)  Fed
17 Nov 1797 - 14 Nov 1798  John Henry                         (b. 1750 - d. 1798)  Fed
14 Nov 1798 - 10 Nov 1801  Benjamin Ogle                      (b. 1749 - d. 1809)  Fed
10 Nov 1801 - 13 Nov 1803  John Francis Mercer                (b. 1759 - d. 1821)  D-R
15 Nov 1803 - 10 Nov 1806  Robert Bowie (1st time)            (b. 1750 - d. 1818)  D-R
12 Nov 1806 -  6 May 1809  Robert Wright                      (b. 1752 - d. 1826)  D-R
 6 May 1809 -  9 Jun 1809  James Butcher (acting)             (b. 17.. - d. 1824)
 9 Jun 1809 - 16 Nov 1811  Edward Lloyd                       (b. 1779 - d. 1834)  D-R 
16 Nov 1811 - 25 Nov 1812  Robert Bowie (2nd time)            (s.a.)               D-R
25 Nov 1812 -  2 Jan 1816  Levin Winder                       (b. 1757 - d. 1819)  Fed
 2 Jan 1816 -  8 Jan 1819  Charles Ridgely                    (b. 1760 - d. 1829)  Fed
 8 Jan 1819 - 20 Dec 1819  Charles Goldsborough               (b. 1765 - d. 1834)  Fed
20 Dec 1819 - 16 Dec 1822  Samuel Sprigg                      (b. 1783 - d. 1855)  D-R
16 Dec 1822 -  9 Jan 1826  Samuel Stevens, Jr.                (b. 1778 - d. 1860)  D-R
 9 Jan 1826 - 15 Jan 1829  Joseph Kent                        (b. 1779 - d. 1837)  Dem
15 Jan 1829 - 15 Jan 1830  Daniel J. Martin (1st time)        (b. 1780 - d. 1831)  Whg
15 Jan 1830 - 13 Jan 1831  Thomas King Carroll                (b. 1793 - d. 1873)  Dem
13 Jan 1831 - 11 Jul 1831  Daniel J. Martin (2nd time)        (s.a.)               AJP
11 Jul 1831 - 17 Jan 1833  George Howard                      (b. 1789 - d. 1846)  Whg 
17 Jan 1833 - 14 Jan 1836  James Thomas                       (b. 1785 - d. 1845)  Whg
14 Jan 1836 -  7 Jan 1839  Thomas W. Veazey                   (b. 1774 - d. 1842)  Whg
 7 Jan 1839 -  3 Jan 1842  William Grason                     (b. 1788 - d. 1868)  Dem
 3 Jan 1842 -  6 Jan 1845  Francis Thomas                     (b. 1799 - d. 1876)  Dem
 6 Jan 1845 -  3 Jan 1848  Thomas G. Pratt                    (b. 1804 - d. 1869)  Whg
 3 Jan 1848 -  6 Jan 1851  Philip Francis Thomas              (b. 1810 - d. 1890)  Dem
 6 Jan 1851 - 11 Jan 1854  Enoch Louis Lowe                   (b. 1820 - d. 1892)  Dem
11 Jan 1854 - 13 Jan 1858  Thomas Watkins Ligon               (b. 1810 - d. 1881)  Dem
13 Jan 1858 -  8 Jan 1862  Thomas Holliday Hicks              (b. 1798 - d. 1865)  AP;1861 Rep
 8 Jan 1862 - 10 Jan 1866  Augustus W. Bradford               (b. 1806 - d. 1881)  Uni
10 Jan 1866 - 13 Jan 1869  Thomas Swann                       (b. 1809 - d. 1883)  Uni;1866 Dem
13 Jan 1869 - 10 Jan 1872  Oden Bowie                         (b. 1826 - d. 1894)  Dem
10 Jan 1872 -  4 Mar 1874  William Pinkney Whyte              (b. 1824 - d. 1908)  Dem
 4 Mar 1874 - 12 Jan 1876  James Black Groome                 (b. 1838 - d. 1893)  Dem
12 Jan 1876 - 14 Jan 1880  John Lee Carroll                   (b. 1830 - d. 1911)  Dem
14 Jan 1880 -  9 Jan 1884  William T. Hamilton                (b. 1820 - d. 1888)  Dem
 9 Jan 1884 - 27 Mar 1885  Robert M. McLane                   (b. 1815 - d. 1898)  Dem
27 Mar 1885 - 11 Jan 1888  Henry Lloyd                        (b. 1852 - d. 1920)  Dem
11 Jan 1888 - 13 Jan 1892  Elihu E. Jackson                   (b. 1837 - d. 1907)  Dem
13 Jan 1892 -  8 Jan 1896  Frank Brown                        (b. 1846 - d. 1920)  Dem
 8 Jan 1896 - 10 Jan 1900  Lloyd Lowndes                      (b. 1845 - d. 1905)  Rep
10 Jan 1900 - 13 Jan 1904  John Walter Smith                  (b. 1845 - d. 1925)  Dem
13 Jan 1904 -  8 Jan 1908  Edwin Warfield                     (b. 1848 - d. 1920)  Dem
 8 Jan 1908 - 10 Jan 1912  Austin L. Crothers                 (b. 1860 - d. 1912)  Dem
10 Jan 1912 - 12 Jan 1916  Phillips Lee Goldsborough          (b. 1865 - d. 1946)  Rep
12 Jan 1916 - 14 Jan 1920  Emerson C. Harrington              (b. 1864 - d. 1945)  Dem
14 Jan 1920 -  9 Jan 1935  Albert C. Ritchie                  (b. 1876 - d. 1936)  Dem
 9 Jan 1935 - 11 Jan 1939  Harry W. Nice                      (b. 1877 - d. 1941)  Rep
11 Jan 1939 -  3 Jan 1947  Herbert R. O'Conor                 (b. 1896 - d. 1959)  Dem
 3 Jan 1947 - 10 Jan 1951  William Preston Lane, Jr.          (b. 1892 - d. 1967)  Dem
10 Jan 1951 - 14 Jan 1959  Theodore R. McKeldin               (b. 1900 - d. 1974)  Rep
14 Jan 1959 - 25 Jan 1967  J. Millard Tawes                   (b. 1894 - d. 1979)  Dem
25 Jan 1967 -  7 Jan 1969  Spiro T. Agnew                     (b. 1918 - d. 1996)  Rep
 7 Jan 1969 - 17 Jan 1979  Marvin Mandel                      (b. 1920)            Dem
                             (suspended 7 Oct 1977 - 11 Jan 1979)
 4 Jun 1977 - 15 Jan 1979  Blair Lee III                      (b. 1916 - d. 1985)  Dem
                             (acting for Mandel)
17 Jan 1979 - 20 Jan 1987  Harry R. Hughes                    (b. 1926)            Dem
20 Jan 1987 - 18 Jan 1995  William Donald Schaefer            (b. 1921 - d. 2011)  Dem
18 Jan 1995 - 15 Jan 2003  Parris N. Glendening               (b. 1942)            Dem
15 Jan 2003 - 17 Jan 2007  Robert "Bob" L. Ehrlich, Jr.       (b. 1957)            Rep
17 Jan 2007 -             
Martin J. O'Malley                 (b. 1963)           



Massachusetts
 
[Massachusetts Naval Ensign (U.S.)
                                1776-1971]
         29 Apr 1776 - 18 Mar 1908
[Flag of
                                Massachusetts]
                    Adopted 18 Mar 1908

[Obverse of Massachusetts flag
                                  before 1971]
         6 Mar 1915 - 31 Oct 1971  Reverse 
 
Map of Massachusetts
Hear State Song
"All Hail to Massachusetts"
Text of State Song
Adopted 3 Sep 1966
State Constitution
(15 Jun 1780)
 Capital: Boston
(Watertown 5 May 1775 -
17 Mar 1776)
Motto: Ense petit placidam
sub libertate quietem
(By the sword we seekpeace,
but peace only under liberty)
Nickname: The Bay State
Population: 6,692,824 (2013)
Mayors of Boston
Chronology

25 Dec 1620                Pilgrims settle at Plymouth Bay.
1625 - Jun 1628            Mount Wollaston (later Mare Mount) settlement
                             near modern day Quincy.
14 Mar 1629                Massachusetts Bay Colony
13 Mar 1677 - 17 Oct 1691  Province of Maine administered by Massachusetts.
17 May 1686 - 18 Apr 1689  Part of the Dominion of New England
                             (Massachusetts crown colony).
17 Oct 1691                Plymouth part of Massachusetts Bay.
17 Oct 1691                Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island part of
                             Massachusetts (part of New York 1660-1692).
17 Oct 1691 - 15 Mar 1820  Maine part of Massachusetts.
26 May 1692                Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England
 5 May 1775 - 17 Mar 1776  British occupy Boston.
17 Mar 1776                Colony of the Massachusetts-Bay
18 Jul 1776                State of the Massachusetts-Bay
25 Oct 1780                Commonwealth of Massachusetts
 6 Feb 1788                State of the U.S.

 Plymouth Colony
(1620-1691)
 Dominion of
New England

(1686-1689)
Map of Cape Cod
 The Mayflower
Compact
(1620)
 

Governors of Mount Wollaston (later Mare Mount)
1625 - 1626                Thomas Wollaston
1626 - Jun 1628            Thomas Morton                      (b. c.1576 - d. 1647)
Governors
13 May 1628 - 30 Apr 1629  Matthew Cradock (in London)        (b. c.1590 - d. 1641)
30 Apr 1629 - 20 Oct 1630  John Endecott (1st time)           (b. 1589? - d. 1665)
20 Oct 1630 - 14 May 1634  John Winthrop (1st time)           (b. 1588 - d. 1649)
14 May 1634 -  6 May 1635  Thomas Dudley (1st time)           (b. 1576 - d. 1653)
 6 May 1635 - 25 May 1636  John Haynes                        (b. 1594 - d. 1654)
25 May 1636 - 17 May 1637  Sir Henry Vane                     (b. 1613 - d. 1662)
17 May 1637 - 13 May 1640  John Winthrop (2nd time)           (s.a.)
13 May 1640 -  2 Jun 1641  Thomas Dudley (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 2 Jun 1641 - 18 May 1642  Richard Bellingham (1st time)      (b. 1592 - d. 1672)
18 May 1642 - 29 May 1644  John Winthrop (3rd time)           (s.a.)
29 May 1644 - 14 May 1645  John Endecott (2nd time)           (s.a.)
14 May 1645 -  6 May 1646  Thomas Dudley (3rd time)           (s.a.)
 6 May 1646 - 26 Mar 1649  John Winthrop (4th time)           (s.a.)
 6 May 1649 - 22 May 1650  John Endecott (3rd time)           (s.a.)
22 May 1650 -  7 May 1651  Thomas Dudley (4th time)           (s.a.)
 7 May 1651 -  3 May 1654  John Endecott (4th time)           (s.a.)
 3 May 1654 - 23 May 1655  Richard Bellingham (2nd time)      (s.a.)
23 May 1655 - 15 Mar 1665  John Endecott (5th time)           (s.a.)
 3 May 1665 - 12 Dec 1672  Richard Bellingham (3rd time)      (s.a.)
12 Dec 1672 - 28 May 1679  John Leverett                      (b. 1616 - d. 1679)
28 May 1679 - 17 May 1686  Simon Bradstreet (1st time)        (b. 1603 - d. 1697)
17 May 1686 - 20 Dec 1686  Joseph Dudley (1st time)           (b. 1647 - d. 1720)
20 Dec 1686 - 18 Apr 1689  Sir Edmund Andros                  (b. 1637 - d. 1714)
24 May 1689 - 16 May 1692  Simon Bradstreet (2nd time)        (s.a.)
16 May 1692 - 17 Nov 1694  Sir William Phips                  (b. 1651 - d. 1695)
 4 Dec 1694 - 26 May 1699  William Stoughton (1st time)       (b. 1631 - d. 1701) 
                             (acting)
26 May 1699 - 17 Jul 1700  Richard Coote, Earl of Bellomont   (b. 1636 - d. 1701)
22 Jul 1700 -  7 Jul 1701  William Stoughton (2nd time)       (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
10 Jul 1701 - 11 Jun 1702  Governor's Council
11 Jun 1702 -  3 Feb 1715  Joseph Dudley (2nd time)           (s.a.)

 4 Feb 1715 - 21 Mar 1715  Governor's Council
21 Mar 1715 -  9 Nov 1715  Joseph Dudley (3rd time)           (s.a.)  
 9 Nov 1715 - Apr 1716     Elizeus Burgess
                             (did not take office)
 
9 Nov 1715 -  5 Oct 1716  William Tailer (1st time)(acting)  (b. 1676 - d. 1732)
 5 Oct 1716 -  1 Jan 1723  Samuel Shute                       (b. 1662 - d. 1742)
 2 Jan 1723 - 19 Jul 1728  William Dummer (1st time)          (b. 1677 - d. 1761)
19 Jul 1728 -  7 Sep 1729  William Burnett                    (b. 1688 - d. 1729)
10 Sep 1729 - 11 Jun 1730  William Dummer (acting)            (b. 1677 - d. 1761)
11 Jun 1730 - 10 Aug 1730  William Tailer (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.)
10 Aug 1730 - 14 Aug 1741  Jonathan Belcher                   (b. 1682 - d. 1757)
14 Aug 1741 - 11 Sep 1749  William Shirley (1st time)         (b. 1694 - d. 1771)
15 Sep 1749 -  7 Aug 1753  Spencer Phips (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1685 - d. 1757)
 7 Aug 1753 - 25 Sep 1756  William Shirley (2nd time)         (s.a.)
25 Sep 1756 -  4 Apr 1757  Spencer Phips (2nd time)(acting)   (s.a.)
 5 Apr 1757 -  3 Aug 1757  Governor's Council
 3 Aug 1757 -  3 Jun 1760  Thomas Pownall                     (b. 1722 - d. 1805)
 3 Jun 1760 -  2 Aug 1760  Thomas Hutchinson (1st time)       (b. 1771 - d. 1780)
                             (acting)
 2 Aug 1760 -  1 Aug 1769  Sir Francis Bernard                (b. 1712 - d. 1779)
 2 Aug 1769 - 17 May 1774  Thomas Hutchinson (2nd time)       (s.a.) 
                             (acting to 14 Mar 1771)
17 May 1774 - 17 Mar 1776  Thomas Gage                        (b. 1721 - d. 1787)

                             (left colony on 10 Oct 1775)
10 Oct 1775 - 17 Mar 1776  Thomas Oliver (acting for Gage)    (b. 1734 - d. 1815)
Chairman of the Provincial Congress
 7 Oct 1774 - 11 Oct 1774  John Hancock
                      (b. 1737 - d. 1793)
Presidents of the Provincial Congress
11 Oct 1774 - 10 Dec 1774  John Hancock (1st time)            (s.a.)
10 Dec 1774 -  1 Feb 1775  Vacant
 1 Feb 1775 - 29 May 1775  John Hancock (2nd time
)            (s.a.)
29 May 1775 - 31 May 1775  Vacant
31 May 1775 - 17 Jun 1775  Joseph Warren                      (b. 1741 - d. 1775)
17 Jun 1775 - 19 Jun 1775  Vacant
19 Jun 1775 - 19 Jul 1775  James Warren                       (b. 1726 - d. 1808)
Presidents of the Council
27 Jul 1775 - 12 Sep 1775  James Otis (1st time)              (b. 1702 - d. 1778)
21 Sep 1775 -  6 Oct 1775  William Sever (1st time)           (b. 1729 - d. 1809)
 7 Oct 1775 - 16 Oct 1775  James Otis (2nd time)              (s.a.)
17 Oct 1775 - 19 Oct 1775  James Bowdoin (1st time)           (b. 1726 - d. 1790)
20 Oct 1775 - 23 Oct 1775  James Otis (3rd time)              (s.a.)
24 Oct 1775 - 25 Oct 1775  James Bowdoin (2nd time)           (s.a.)
26 Oct 1775 - 16 Nov 1775  James Otis (4th time)              (s.a.)
29 Nov 1775 -  5 Dec 1775  Walter Spooner (1st time)          (b. 1720 - d. 1803)
 6 Dec 1775 - 29 Dec 1775  William Sever (2nd time)           (s.a.)
30 Dec 1775 - 15 Jan 1776  Walter Spooner (2nd time)          (s.a.)
16 Jan 1776 - 12 Feb 1776  William Sever (3rd time)           (s.a.)
13 Feb 1776 - 23 Feb 1776  Benjamin Greenleaf                 (b. 1701 - d. 1783)
14 Mar 1776 - 29 Mar 1776  William Sever (4th time)           (s.a.)
30 Mar 1776 - 30 Apr 1776  James Otis (5th time)              (s.a.)
 1 May 1776 -  3 May 1776  James Bowdoin (3rd time)           (s.a.)
 4 May 1776 -  7 May 1776  James Otis (6th time)              (s.a.)
 8 May 1776                James Bowdoin (4th time)           (s.a.)
 9 May 1776 - 13 May 1776  James Otis (7th time)              (s.a.)
30 May 1776 - 22 Jun 1776  James Bowdoin (5th time)           (s.a.)
24 Jun 1776 -  4 Jul 1776  Jeremiah Powell (1st time)         (b. 1720 - d. 1784)
 5 Jul 1776 - 16 Jul 1776  James Bowdoin (6th time)           (s.a.)
17 Jul 1776                Richard Darby, Jr.
17 Jul 1776 - 16 Aug 1776  "various individuals"
16 Aug 1776 - 25 Sep 1776  James Bowdoin (7th time)           (s.a.)
26 Sep 1776 -  4 Oct 1776  Walter Spooner (3rd time)          (s.a.)
 9 Oct 1776 - 16 Nov 1776  James Bowdoin (8th time)           (s.a.)
18 Nov 1776 -  2 Dec 1776  Jeremiah Powell (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1776 - 11 Feb 1777  James Bowdoin (9th time)           (s.a.)
12 Feb 1777 - 10 Jul 1777  Jeremiah Powell (3rd time)         (s.a.)
11 Jul 1777 - 21 Jul 1777  Artemas Ward (1st time)            (b. 1727 - d. 1800)
22 Jul 1777 -  1 Aug 1777  William Sever (5th time)           (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1777 - 13 Aug 1777  Artemas Ward (2nd time)            (s.a.)
14 Aug 1777 -  1 Jun 1778  Jeremiah Powell (4th time)         (s.a.)
 2 Jun 1778 -  8 Jun 1778  Artemas Ward (3rd time)            (s.a.)
 9 Jun 1778 -  7 Jun 1779  Jeremiah Powell (5th time)         (s.a.)
 8 Jun 1779 - 10 Jun 1779  Artemas Ward (4th time)            (s.a.)
11 Jun 1779 - 16 Oct 1779  Jeremiah Powell (6th time)         (s.a.)
18 Oct 1779 - 23 Oct 1779  Artemas Ward (5th time)            (s.a.)
25 Oct 1779 -  9 Nov 1779  William Sever (6th time)           (s.a.) 
10 Nov 1779 -  1 Dec 1779  Artemas Ward (6th time)            (s.a.)
 2 Dec 1779 -  7 Jun 1780  Jeremiah Powell (7th time)         (s.a.)
 8 Jun 1780 - 25 Aug 1780  James Bowdoin (10th time)          (s.a.)
28 Aug 1780 -  5 Sep 1780  Jeremiah Powell (8th time)         (s.a.)
 6 Sep 1780 - 16 Sep 1780  James Bowdoin (11th time)          (s.a.)
18 Sep 1780 - 13 Oct 1780  Jeremiah Powell (9th time)         (s.a.)
14 Oct 1780 - 18 Oct 1780  James Bowdoin (12th time)          (s.a.)
19 Oct 1780 - 25 Oct 1780  Jeremiah Powell (10th time)        (s.a.)
Governors
25 Oct 1780 - 18 Feb 1785  John Hancock (1st time)            (s.a.)               Fed
18 Feb 1785 - 27 May 1785  Thomas Cushing III (acting)        (b. 1725 - d. 1788)
27 May 1785 -  1 Jun 1787  James Bowdoin                      (s.a.)               Fed
 1 Jun 1787 -  8 Oct 1793  John Hancock (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Fed
 8 Oct 1793 -  2 Jun 1797  Samuel Adams                       (b. 1722 - d. 1803)  D-R
                             (acting to 29 May 1794)
 2 Jun 1797 -  7 Jun 1799  Increase Sumner                    (b. 1746 - d. 1799)  Fed

 7 Jun 1799 - 20 May 1800  Moses Gill (acting)                (b. 1734 - d. 1800)  Fed
20 May 1800 - 30 May 1800  Thomas Dawes                       (b. 1731 - d. 1809)  Fed
                             (chairman of the governor's council)
30 May 1800 - 29 May 1807  Caleb Strong (1st time)            (b. 1745 - d. 1819)  Fed

29 May 1807 - 10 Dec 1808  James Sullivan                     (b. 1744 - d. 1808)  D-R
10 Dec 1808 -  1 May 1809  Levi Lincoln (acting)              (b. 1749 - d. 1820)  D-R
 1 May 1809 - 10 Jun 1810  Christopher Gore                   (b. 1758 - d. 1827)  Fed
10 Jun 1810 - Jun 1812     Elbridge Gerry                     (b. 1744 - d. 1814)  D-R
Jun 1812 - 30 May 1816     Caleb Strong (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Fed
30 May 1816 - 31 May 1823  John Brooks                        (b. 1752 - d. 1825)  Fed
31 May 1823 -  6 Feb 1825  William Eustis                     (b. 1753 - d. 1825)  D-R
 6 Feb 1825 - 26 May 1825  Marcus Morton (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1784 - d. 1864)  D-R
26 May 1825 -  9 Jan 1834  Levi Lincoln, Jr.                  (b. 1782 - d. 1868)  D-F
 9 Jan 1834 -  1 Mar 1835  John Davis (1st time)              (b. 1787 - d. 1854)  Whg
 1 Mar 1835 - 13 Jan 1836  Samuel T. Armstrong (acting)       (b. 1784 - d. 1850)  Whg
13 Jan 1836 - 18 Jan 1840  Edward Everett                     (b. 1794 - d. 1865)  Whg
18 Jan 1840 -  7 Jan 1841  Marcus Morton (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Dem
 7 Jan 1841 - 17 Jan 1843  John Davis (2nd time)              (s.a.)               Whg
17 Jan 1843 - Jan 1844     Marcus Morton (3rd time)           (s.a.)               Dem
Jan 1844 - 11 Jan 1851     George N. Briggs                   (b. 1796 - d. 1861)  Whg
11 Jan 1851 - 14 Jan 1853  George S. Boutwell                 (b. 1818 - d. 1905)  DFS
14 Jan 1853 - 12 Jan 1854  John H. Clifford                   (b. 1809 - d. 1876)  Whg
12 Jan 1854 -  4 Jan 1855  Emory Washburn                     (b. 1800 - d. 1877)  Whg
 4 Jan 1855 -  7 Jan 1858  Henry J. Gardner                   (b. 1818 - d. 1892)  AP
 7 Jan 1858 -  3 Jan 1861  Nathaniel P. Banks                 (b. 1816 - d. 1894)  Rep
 3 Jan 1861 -  4 Jan 1866  John A. Andrew                     (b. 1818 - d. 1867)  Rep
 4 Jan 1866 -  7 Jan 1869  Alexander H. Bullock               (b. 1816 - d. 1882)  Rep
 7 Jan 1869 -  4 Jan 1872  William Claflin                    (b. 1818 - d. 1905)  Rep
 4 Jan 1872 - 29 Apr 1874  William B. Washburn                (b. 1820 - d. 1887)  Rep
29 Apr 1874 -  7 Jan 1875  Thomas Talbot (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1818 - d. 1886)  Rep
 7 Jan 1875 -  6 Jan 1876  William Gaston                     (b. 1820 - d. 1894)  Dem
 6 Jan 1876 -  2 Jan 1879  Alexander H. Rice                  (b. 1818 - d. 1895)  Rep
 2 Jan 1879 -  8 Jan 1880  Thomas Talbot (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Rep
 8 Jan 1880 -  4 Jan 1883  John D. Long                       (b. 1838 - d. 1915)  Rep
 4 Jan 1883 -  3 Jan 1884  Benjamin F. Butler                 (b. 1818 - d. 1893)  Dem
 3 Jan 1884 -  6 Jan 1887  George D. Robinson                 (b. 1834 - d. 1896)  Rep
 6 Jan 1887 -  7 Jan 1890  Oliver Ames                        (b. 1831 - d. 1895)  Rep
 7 Jan 1890 -  8 Jan 1891  John Q.A. Brackett                 (b. 1842 - d. 1918)  Rep
 8 Jan 1891 -  4 Jan 1894  William E. Russell                 (b. 1857 - d. 1896)  Dem
 4 Jan 1894 -  5 Mar 1896  Frederic T. Greenhalge             (b. 1842 - d. 1896)  Rep
 5 Mar 1896 -  4 Jan 1900  Roger Wolcott                      (b. 1847 - d. 1900)  Rep
 4 Jan 1900 -  8 Jan 1903  Winthrop M. Crane                  (b. 1853 - d. 1920)  Rep
 8 Jan 1903 -  5 Jan 1905  John L. Bates                      (b. 1859 - d. 1946)  Rep
 5 Jan 1905 -  4 Jan 1906  William L. Douglas                 (b. 1845 - d. 1924)  Dem
 4 Jan 1906 -  7 Jan 1909  Curtis Guild, Jr.                  (b. 1860 - d. 1915)  Rep
 7 Jan 1909 -  5 Jan 1911  Eben S. Draper                     (b. 1858 - d. 1914)  Rep
 5 Jan 1911 -  8 Jan 1914  Eugene N. Foss                     (b. 1858 - d. 1939)  Dem
 8 Jan 1914 -  6 Jan 1916  David I. Walsh                     (b. 1872 - d. 1947)  Dem
 6 Jan 1916 -  2 Jan 1919  Samuel W. McCall                   (b. 1851 - d. 1923)  Rep
 2 Jan 1919 -  6 Jan 1921  Calvin Coolidge                    (b. 1872 - d. 1933)  Rep
 6 Jan 1921 -  8 Jan 1925  Channing H. Cox                    (b. 1879 - d. 1968)  Rep
 8 Jan 1925 -  3 Jan 1929  Alvan T. Fuller                    (b. 1878 - d. 1958)  Rep
 3 Jan 1929 -  8 Jan 1931  Frank G. Allen                     (b. 1874 - d. 1950)  Rep
 8 Jan 1931 -  3 Jan 1935  Joseph B. Ely                      (b. 1881 - d. 1956)  Dem
 3 Jan 1935 -  7 Jan 1937  James M. Curley                    (b. 1874 - d. 1958)  Dem
 7 Jan 1937 -  5 Jan 1939  Charles F. Hurley                  (b. 1893 - d. 1946)  Dem
 5 Jan 1939 -  3 Jan 1945  Leverett Saltonstall               (b. 1892 - d. 1979)  Rep
 3 Jan 1945 -  2 Jan 1947  Maurice J. Tobin                   (b. 1901 - d. 1953)  Dem
 2 Jan 1947 -  6 Jan 1949  Robert F. Bradford                 (b. 1902 - d. 1983)  Rep
 6 Jan 1949 -  8 Jan 1953  Paul A. Dever                      (b. 1903 - d. 1958)  Dem
 8 Jan 1953 -  3 Jan 1957  Christian A. Herter                (b. 1895 - d. 1966)  Rep
 3 Jan 1957 -  5 Jan 1961  Foster Furcolo                     (b. 1911 - d. 1995)  Dem
 5 Jan 1961 -  3 Jan 1963  John A. Volpe (1st time)           (b. 1908 - d. 1994)  Rep
 3 Jan 1963 -  7 Jan 1965  Endicott Peabody                   (b. 1920 - d. 1997)  Dem
 7 Jan 1965 - 22 Jan 1969  John A. Volpe (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Rep
22 Jan 1969 -  2 Jan 1975  Francis W. Sargent                 (b. 1915 - d. 1998)  Rep
 2 Jan 1975 -  4 Jan 1979  Michael S. Dukakis (1st time)      (b. 1933)            Dem

 4 Jan 1979 -  6 Jan 1983  Edward J. King                     (b. 1925 - d. 2006)  Dem
 6 Jan 1983 -  3 Jan 1991  Michael S. Dukakis (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Jan 1991 - 29 Jul 1997  William F. Weld                    (b. 1945)            Rep
29 Jul 1997 - 10 Apr 2001  Paul Cellucci                      (b. 1948 - d. 2013)  Rep
10 Apr 2001 -  2 Jan 2003  Jane Swift (f)                     (b. 1965)            Rep
 2 Jan 2003 -  4 Jan 2007  W. Mitt Romney                     (b. 1947)            Rep
 4 Jan 2007 -              Deval L. Patrick                   (b. 1956)            Dem


Dominion of New England

17 May 1686                Colonies of Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, and Plymouth
                             united as Dominion of New England.
12 Jan 1687                Rhode Island annexed to the dominion.
 1 Nov 1687                Connecticut annexed to the dominion.
 8 Apr 1688                East Jersey annexed to the dominion.
 9 Oct 1688                West Jersey and New York annexed to the dominion.
18 Apr 1689                Dissolved.

President of the Provisional Government
17 May 1686 - 20 Dec 1686  Joseph Dudley                      (b. 1647 - d. 1720)
Governor
20 Dec 1686 - 18 Apr 1689  Sir Edmund Andros                  (b. 1637 - d. 1714)


Plymouth Colony

21 Dec 1620                English colonists from the Mayflower arrive in America
                             landing at Plymouth Rock.
25 Dec 1620                The Pilgrims establish Plymouth colony.
17 May 1686 - 18 Apr 1689  Part of the Dominion of New England.
17 Oct 1691                Part of Massachusetts.

Governors
11 Nov 1620 -  5 Apr 1621  John Carver                        (b. 1576 - d. 1621)
Apr 1621 -  1 Jan 1633     William Bradford (1st time)        (b. 1590 - d. 1657)
 1 Jan 1633 - 27 Mar 1634  Edward Winslow (1st time)          (b. 1595 - d. 1655)
27 Mar 1634 -  3 Mar 1635  Thomas Prence (1st time)           (b. 1599 - d. 1673)
 3 Mar 1635 -  1 Mar 1636  William Bradford (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1636 -  7 Mar 1637  Edward Winslow (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 7 Mar 1637 -  5 Jun 1638  William Bradford (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 5 Jun 1638 -  3 Jun 1639  Thomas Prence (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 3 Jun 1639 -  5 Jun 1644  William Bradford (4th time)        (s.a.)
 5 Jun 1644 -  4 Jun 1645  Edward Winslow (3rd time)          (s.a.)
 4 Jun 1645 -  3 Jun 1657  William Bradford (5th time)        (s.a.)
 3 Jun 1657 -  3 Jun 1673  Thomas Prence (3rd time)           (s.a.)
 3 Jun 1673 - 18 Dec 1680  Josiah Winslow                     (b. 1628 - d. 1680)
18 Dec 1680 - 17 May 1686  Thomas Hinckley (1st time)         (b. 1618 - d. 1705)
17 May 1686 - 18 Apr 1689  Sir Edmund Andros                  (b. 1637 - d. 1714)
18 Apr 1689 - 17 Oct 1691  Thomas Hinckley (2nd time)         (s.a.)



Michigan
 
[Flag of Michigan]
                Adopted 1 Aug 1911
 
Map of Michigan
Hear State Song
"Michigan, My Michigan"
Text of State Song
Adopted 1937
State Constitution
(1 Jan 1964)
 Capital: Lansing
(Detroit 1805-16 Mar 1847;
Michigan Town 16 Mar 1847-1848)
Motto: Si quaeris peninsulam
amoenam circumspice
(If you seek a pleasant
peninsula, look around you)
Nicknames: Wolverine State,
The Lake State
Population: 9,895,622 (2013)
Mayors of Detroit
Chronology

13 Jul 1787                Part of Northwest Territory (see Ohio). 
 4 Jul 1800                Part of Indiana Territory.
11 Jan 1805                Territory of Michigan (effective 30 Jun 1805).
16 Aug 1812 - 18 Sep 1813  British occupy Fort Detroit.
26 Jan 1837                State

Mayors of Lansing
 
 

Governors
30 Jun 1805 - 29 Oct 1813  William Hull                       (b. 1753 - d. 1825)  Mil
29 Oct 1813 -  6 Aug 1831  Lewis Cass                         (b. 1782 - d. 1866)  Mil
 6 Aug 1831 -  6 Jul 1834  George B. Porter                   (b. 1791 - d. 1834)  Mil
 6 Jul 1834 -  1 Sep 1835  Stevens Thomas Mason (1st time)    (b. 1811 - d. 1843)  Dem
                             (acting)
 1 Sep 1835 -  1 Nov 1835  John S. Horner (acting)            (b. 1802 - d. 1883)
 1 Nov 1835 -  7 Jan 1840  Stevens Thomas Mason (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Dem

                             (acting to 2 Nov 1835)
 7 Jan 1840 - 23 Feb 1841  William Woodbridge                 (b. 1780 - d. 1861)  Whg

24 Feb 1841 -  3 Jan 1842  James Wright Gordon (acting)       (b. 1809 - d. 1853)  Whg
 3 Jan 1842 -  5 Jan 1846  John Stweart Barry (1st time)      (b. 1802 - d. 1870)  Dem
 5 Jan 1846 -  3 Mar 1847  Alpheus Felch                      (b. 1804 - d. 1896)  Dem
 4 Mar 1847 -  3 Jan 1848  William L. Greenly (acting)        (b. 1813 - d. 1883)  Dem
 3 Jan 1848 -  7 Jan 1850  Epaphroditus Ransom                (b. 1787 - d. 1859)  Dem
 7 Jan 1850 -  1 Jan 1852  John Stewart Barry (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Dem
 1 Jan 1852 -  7 Mar 1853  Robert McClelland                  (b. 1807 - d. 1880)  Dem
 8 Mar 1853 -  3 Jan 1855  Andrew Parsons (acting)            (b. 1817 - d. 1855)  Dem
 3 Jan 1855 -  5 Jan 1859  Kinsley Scott Bingham              (b. 1808 - d. 1861)  Rep
 5 Jan 1859 -  2 Jan 1861  Moses Wisner                       (b. 1815 - d. 1863)  Rep
 2 Jan 1861 -  3 Jan 1865  Austin Blair                       (b. 1818 - d. 1894)  Rep
 3 Jan 1865 -  6 Jan 1869  Henry Howland Crapo                (b. 1804 - d. 1869)  Rep
 6 Jan 1869 -  1 Jan 1873  Henry Porter Baldwin               (b. 1814 - d. 1892)  Rep
 1 Jan 1873 -  3 Jan 1877  John Judson Bagley                 (b. 1832 - d. 1881)  Rep
 3 Jan 1877 -  1 Jan 1881  Charles Miller Croswell            (b. 1825 - d. 1886)  Rep
 1 Jan 1881 -  1 Jan 1883  David Howell Jerome                (b. 1829 - d. 1896)  Rep
 1 Jan 1883 -  1 Jan 1885  Josiah Williams Begole             (b. 1815 - d. 1896)  DGP
 1 Jan 1885 -  1 Jan 1887  Russell Alexander Alger            (b. 1836 - d. 1907)  Rep
 1 Jan 1887 -  1 Jan 1891  Cyrus Gray Luce                    (b. 1824 - d. 1905)  Rep
 1 Jan 1891 -  1 Jan 1893  Edwin Baruch Winans                (b. 1826 - d. 1894)  Dem
 1 Jan 1893 -  1 Jan 1897  John Tyler Rich                    (b. 1841 - d. 1926)  Rep
 1 Jan 1897 -  1 Jan 1901  Hazen Stuart Pingree               (b. 1840 - d. 1901)  Rep
 1 Jan 1901 -  1 Jan 1905  Aaron Thomas Bliss                 (b. 1837 - d. 1906)  Rep
 2 Jan 1905 -  2 Jan 1911  Fred Maltby Warner                 (b. 1865 - d. 1923)  Rep
 2 Jan 1911 -  1 Jan 1913  Chase Salmon Osborn                (b. 1860 - d. 1949)  Rep
 1 Jan 1913 -  1 Jan 1917  Woodbridge Nathan Ferris           (b. 1853 - d. 1928)  Dem
 1 Jan 1917 -  1 Jan 1921  Albert Eeson Sleeper               (b. 1862 - d. 1934)  Rep
 1 Jan 1921 -  1 Jan 1927  Alexander Joseph Groesbeck         (b. 1873 - d. 1953)  Rep
 1 Jan 1927 -  1 Jan 1931  Fred Warren Green                  (b. 1872 - d. 1936)  Rep
 1 Jan 1931 -  1 Jan 1933  Wilber Marion Brucker              (b. 1894 - d. 1968)  Rep
 1 Jan 1933 -  1 Jan 1935  William Alfred Comstock            (b. 1877 - d. 1949)  Dem
 1 Jan 1935 -  1 Jan 1937  Frank Dwight Fitzgerald (1st time) (b. 1885 - d. 1939)  Rep
 1 Jan 1937 -  1 Jan 1939  Frank William Murphy               (b. 1890 - d. 1949)  Dem
 1 Jan 1939 - 16 Mar 1939  Frank Dwight Fitzgerald (2nd time) (s.a.)               Rep
16 Mar 1939 -  1 Jan 1941  Luren Dudley Dickinson             (b. 1859 - d. 1943)  Rep
 1 Jan 1941 -  1 Jan 1943  Murray Delos Van Wagoner           (b. 1898 - d. 1986)  Dem
 1 Jan 1943 -  1 Jan 1947  Harry Francis Kelly                (b. 1895 - d. 1971)  Rep
 1 Jan 1947 -  1 Jan 1949  Kimber Cornellus Sigler            (b. 1894 - d. 1953)  Rep
 1 Jan 1949 -  1 Jan 1961  Gehard Mennen Williams             (b. 1911 - d. 1988)  Dem
 1 Jan 1961 -  1 Jan 1963  John Burley Swainson               (b. 1925 - d. 1994)  Dem
 1 Jan 1963 - 22 Jan 1969  George Wilcken Romney              (b. 1907 - d. 1995)  Rep
22 Jan 1969 -  1 Jan 1983  William Grawn Milliken             (b. 1922)            Rep
 1 Jan 1983 -  1 Jan 1991  James Johnston Blanchard           (b. 1942)            Dem
 1 Jan 1991 -  1 Jan 2003  John M. Engler                     (b. 1948)            Rep
 1 Jan 2003 -  1 Jan 2011  Jennifer Granholm (f)              (b. 1959)            Dem
 1 Jan 2011 -              Richard "Rick" D. Snyder
          (b. 1958)            Rep



Minnesota
 
[Minnesota flag 1893-1957]
                 4 Apr 1893 - 19 Mar 1957
 
[Minnesota flag 1893-1957
                                  Obverse]    4 Apr 1893 - 19 Mar 1957 Reverse

[Flag of
                                  Minnesota]
               19 Mar 1957 - 1 Aug 1983
 
[Flag of
                                  Minnesota]
                   Adopted 1 Aug 1983
Map of Minnesota
Hear State Song
"Hail! Minnesota"
Text of State Song
 Adopted 19 Apr 1945
State Constitution
(11 May 1858)
 Capital: Saint Paul
Motto: L'Étoile du Nord
(The North Star)
Nicknames: North Star State,
Land of 10,000 Lakes,
Gopher State
Population: 5,420,380 (2013)
Mayors of
Minneapolis
Chronology

13 Jul 1787                Northeast MN part of Northwest Territory
                             (see Ohio). 
 4 Jul 1800                Northeast MN part of Indiana Territory. 
26 Mar 1804                Southwest MN part Louisiana Territory. 
 2 Feb 1809                Northeast MN part of Illinois Territory. 
 7 Dec 1812                Southwest MN part of Missouri Territory. 
 3 Dec 1818                Northeast MN part of Michigan Territory.
10 Aug 1821                Southwest MN unorganized territory. 
28 Jun 1834                Southwest MN part of Michigan Territory. 
 4 Jul 1836                Northeast MN part of Wisconsin Territory. 
 4 Jul 1836                Southwest MN part of Wisconsin Territory. 
 4 Jul 1838                Southwest MN part of Iowa Territory. 
28 Dec 1846                Southwest MN unorganized territory. 
 3 Mar 1849                Territory of Minnesota.
11 May 1858                State

Mayors of
St. Paul
 

Governors
 1 Jun 1849 - 15 May 1853  Alexander Ramsey (1st time)        (b. 1815 - d. 1903)  Whg
15 May 1853 - 23 Apr 1857  Willis Arnold Gorman               (b. 1816 - d. 1876)  Dem
23 Apr 1857 - 24 May 1858  Samuel Medary                      (b. 1801 - d. 1864)  Dem
24 May 1858 -  2 Jan 1860  Henry Hastings Sibley              (b. 1811 - d. 1891)  Dem
 2 Jan 1860 - 10 Jul 1863  Alexander Ramsey (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Rep
10 Jul 1863 - 11 Jan 1864  Henry Adoniram Swift               (b. 1823 - d. 1869)  Rep
11 Jan 1864 -  8 Jan 1866  Stephen Miller                     (b. 1816 - d. 1881)  Rep
 8 Jan 1866 -  9 Jan 1870  William Rainey Marshall            (b. 1825 - d. 1896)  Rep
 9 Jan 1870 -  7 Jan 1874  Horace Austin                      (b. 1831 - d. 1905)  Rep
 7 Jan 1874 -  7 Jan 1876  Cushman Kellog Davis               (b. 1838 - d. 1900)  Rep
 7 Jan 1876 - 10 Jan 1882  John Sargent Pillsbury             (b. 1828 - d. 1901)  Rep
10 Jan 1882 -  5 Jan 1887  Lucius Frederick Hubbard           (b. 1836 - d. 1913)  Rep
 5 Jan 1887 -  9 Jan 1889  Andrew Ryan McGill                 (b. 1840 - d. 1905)  Rep
 9 Jan 1889 -  4 Jan 1893  William Rush Merriam               (b. 1849 - d. 1931)  Rep
 4 Jan 1893 - 31 Jan 1895  Knute Nelson                       (b. 1843 - d. 1923)  Rep
31 Jan 1895 -  2 Jan 1899  David Marston Clough               (b. 1846 - d. 1924)  Rep
 2 Jan 1899 -  7 Jan 1901  John Lind                          (b. 1854 - d. 1930)  Dem
 7 Jan 1901 -  4 Jan 1905  Samuel Rinnah Van Sant             (b. 1844 - d. 1936)  Rep
 4 Jan 1905 - 21 Sep 1909  John Albert Johnson                (b. 1861 - d. 1909)  Dem
21 Sep 1909 -  5 Jan 1915  Adolph Olson Eberhart              (b. 1870 - d. 1944)  Rep
 5 Jan 1915 - 30 Dec 1915  Winfield Scott Hammond             (b. 1863 - d. 1915)  Dem
30 Dec 1915 -  5 Jan 1921  Joseph Alfred Arner Burnquist      (b. 1879 - d. 1961)  Rep
 5 Jan 1921 -  6 Jan 1925  Jacob Aall Ottesen Preus           (b. 1883 - d. 1961)  Rep
 6 Jan 1925 -  6 Jan 1931  Theodore Christianson              (b. 1883 - d. 1948)  Rep
 6 Jan 1931 - 24 Aug 1936  Floyd Bjernstjerne Olson           (b. 1891 - d. 1936)  MFL
24 Aug 1936 -  4 Jan 1937  Hjalmar Petersen                   (b. 1890 - d. 1968)  MFL
 4 Jan 1937 -  2 Jan 1939  Elmer Austin Benson                (b. 1895 - d. 1985)  MFL
 2 Jan 1939 - 27 Apr 1943  Harold Edward Stassen              (b. 1907 - d. 2001)  Rep
27 Apr 1943 -  8 Jan 1947  Edward John Thye                   (b. 1896 - d. 1969)  Rep
 8 Jan 1947 - 27 Sep 1951  Luther Wallace Youngdahl           (b. 1896 - d. 1978)  Rep
27 Sep 1951 -  5 Jan 1955  Clyde Elmer Anderson               (b. 1912 - d. 1998)  Rep
 5 Jan 1955 -  2 Jan 1961  Orville Lothrop Freeman            (b. 1918 - d. 2003)  DFL
 2 Jan 1961 - 25 Mar 1963  Elmer Lee Andersen                 (b. 1909 - d. 2004)  Rep 
25 Mar 1963 -  2 Jan 1967  Karl Fritjof Rolvaag               (b. 1913 - d. 1990)  DFL
 2 Jan 1967 -  4 Jan 1971  Harold Powrie LeVander             (b. 1910 - d. 1992)  Rep
 4 Jan 1971 - 29 Dec 1976  Wendell Richard Anderson           (b. 1933)            DFL
29 Dec 1976 -  4 Jan 1979  Rudolph George Perpich (1st time)  (b. 1928 - d. 1995)  DFL
 4 Jan 1979 -  3 Jan 1983  Albert Harold Quie                 (b. 1923)            Rep
 3 Jan 1983 -  7 Jan 1991  Rudolph George Perpich (2nd time)  (s.a.)               DFL
 7 Jan 1991 -  4 Jan 1999  Arne Helge Carlson                 (b. 1934)            Rep
 4 Jan 1999 -  6 Jan 2003  Jesse "the Body" Ventura           (b. 1951)            Ref;
                             (James George Janos)                               4 Mar 2000 IPM
 6 Jan 2003 -  3 Jan 2011  Tim Pawlenty                       (b. 1960)            Rep
 3 Jan 2011 -              
Mark Dayton                        (b. 1947)            Dem



Mississippi
 
[Mississippi secession flag,
                                  1861]
                 9 Jan 1861 - 25 Jan 1861
[Mississippi Flag of 1861-1894]
                26 Jan 1861 - 7 Feb 1894
 
[Mississippi state flag]
                  Adopted 7 Feb 1894

Map of Mississippi
Hear State Song
"Go, Mississippi"
Text of State Song
Adopted 17 May 1962
State Constitution
(1 Nov 1890)
 Capital: Jackson
(Natchez 1798 - 12 Dec 1801;
 Washington 12 Dec 1801 -
23 Dec 1822)
Motto: Virtute et armis
(By valor and arms)
Nickname: Magnolia State
Population: 2,991,207 (2013)
Mayors of Jackson
Chronology

 7 Apr 1798                Territory of Mississippi
10 Dec 1817                State
 9 Jan 1861                Secession
 8 Feb 1861                Founding state of Confederate States of 
                             America.
 5 Oct 1863 - 10 Jan 1865  Confederate deserters led by Newton Knight
                             (b. 1837 - d. 1922) seizes power in most of
                             Jones county in southern Mississippi, creating
                             so-called "Free State of Jones."
23 Feb 1870                Readmitted to United States.

 
 
 
 

Governors
 7 May 1798 - 25 May 1801  Winthrop Sargent                   (b. 1753 - d. 1820)  Fed
25 May 1801 -  1 Mar 1805  William Charles Coles Claiborne    (b. 1775 - d. 1817)  D-R
 1 Mar 1805 -  7 Mar 1809  Robert Williams                    (b. 1773 - d. 1855)  D-R
 7 Mar 1809 -  5 Jan 1820  David Holmes (1st time)            (b. 1769 - d. 1832)  D-R
 5 Jan 1820 -  7 Jan 1822  George Poindexter                  (b. 1779 - d. 1853)  D-R
 7 Jan 1822 - 17 Nov 1825  Walter Leake                       (b. 1762 - d. 1825)  D-R
17 Nov 1825 -  7 Jan 1826  Gerard Chittocque Brandon          (b. 1788 - d. 1850)  D-R
                             (1st time)(acting)
 7 Jan 1826 - 25 Jul 1826  David Holmes (2nd time)            (s.a.)               D-R
25 Jul 1826 -  9 Jan 1832  Gerard Chittocque Brandon          (s.a.)               D-R
                             (2nd time)
 9 Jan 1832 - 12 Jul 1833  Abram Marshall Scott               (b. 1785 - d. 1833)  Dem
12 Jul 1833 - 20 Nov 1833  Charles Lynch (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1783 - d. 1853)  Dem
20 Nov 1833 -  3 Dec 1835  Hiram George Runnels               (b. 1796 - d. 1857)  Dem
 3 Dec 1835 -  7 Jan 1836  John Anthony Quitman (1st time)    (b. 1798 - d. 1858)  Whg
                             (acting)
 7 Jan 1836 -  8 Jan 1838  Charles Lynch (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Dem
 8 Jan 1838 - 10 Jan 1842  Alexander Gallatin McNutt          (b. 1802 - d. 1848)  Dem
10 Jan 1842 - 10 Jan 1844  Tilgham Mayfield Tucker            (b. 1802 - d. 1859)  Dem
10 Jan 1844 - 10 Jan 1848  Albert Gallatin Brown              (b. 1813 - d. 1880)  Dem
10 Jan 1848 - 10 Jan 1850  Joseph W. Matthews                 (b. 1812 - d. 1862)  Dem
10 Jan 1850 -  3 Feb 1851  John Anthony Quitman (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Feb 1851 - 24 Nov 1851  John Isaac Guion (acting)          (b. 1802 - d. 1855)  Dem
24 Nov 1851 - 10 Jan 1852  James Whitfield (acting)           (b. 1791 - d. 1875)  Dem
10 Jan 1852 -  5 Jan 1854  Henry Stuart Foote                 (b. 1804 - d. 1880)  U-D
 5 Jan 1854 - 10 Jan 1854  John Jones Pettus (1st time)       (b. 1813 - d. 1867)  Dem
                             (acting)
10 Jan 1854 - 16 Nov 1857  John J. McRae                      (b. 1815 - d. 1861)  Dem
16 Nov 1857 - 21 Nov 1859  William McWillie                   (b. 1795 - d. 1869)  Dem
21 Nov 1859 - 16 Nov 1863  John Jones Pettus (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Dem
16 Nov 1863 - 13 Jun 1865  Charles Clark                      (b. 1810 - d. 1877)  Dem
13 Jun 1865 - 16 Oct 1865  William Lewis Sharkey (acting)     (b. 1798 - d. 1873)  Whg

16 Oct 1865 - 15 Jun 1868  Benjamin Grubb Humphreys           (b. 1808 - d. 1882)  Dem

15 Jun 1868 - 10 Mar 1870  Adelbert Ames (1st time)           (b. 1835 - d. 1933)  Mil/Rep

10 Mar 1870 - 30 Nov 1871  James Lusk Alcorn                  (b. 1816 - d. 1894)  Rep
30 Nov 1871 -  4 Jan 1874  Ridgley Ceylon Powers              (b. 1836 - d. 1912)  Rep
 4 Jan 1874 - 20 Mar 1876  Adelbert Ames (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Rep
20 Mar 1876 -  9 Jan 1882  John Marshall Stone (1st time)     (b. 1830 - d. 1900)  Dem
 9 Jan 1882 - 13 Jan 1890  Robert Lowry                       (b. 1830 - d. 1910)  Dem
13 Jan 1890 - 20 Jan 1896  John Marshall Stone (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Dem
20 Jan 1896 - 16 Jan 1900  Anselm Joseph McLaurin             (b. 1848 - d. 1909)  Dem
16 Jan 1900 - 19 Jan 1904  Andrew Houston Longino             (b. 1854 - d. 1942)  Dem
19 Jan 1904 - 21 Jan 1908  James Kimble Vardaman              (b. 1861 - d. 1930)  Dem
21 Jan 1908 - 16 Jan 1912  Edmund Favor Noel                  (b. 1856 - d. 1927)  Dem
16 Jan 1912 - 18 Jan 1916  Earl LeRoy Brewer                  (b. 1869 - d. 1942)  Dem
18 Jan 1916 - 18 Jan 1920  Theodore Gilmore Bilbo (1st time)  (b. 1877 - d. 1947)  Dem
18 Jan 1920 - 18 Jan 1924  Lee Maurice Russell                (b. 1875 - d. 1943)  Dem
18 Jan 1924 - 18 Mar 1927  Henry Lewis Whitfield              (b. 1868 - d. 1927)  Dem
18 Mar 1927 - 16 Jan 1928  Herron Dennis Murphree (1st time)  (b. 1886 - d. 1949)  Dem
16 Jan 1928 - 19 Jan 1932  Theodore Gilmore Bilbo (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Dem
19 Jan 1932 - 21 Jan 1936  Martin Sennett Conner              (b. 1891 - d. 1950)  Dem
21 Jan 1936 - 16 Jan 1940  Hugh Lawson White (1st time)       (b. 1881 - d. 1965)  Dem
16 Jan 1940 - 26 Dec 1943  Paul Burney Johnson                (b. 1880 - d. 1943)  Dem
26 Dec 1943 - 18 Jan 1944  Herron Dennis Murphree (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Dem
18 Jan 1944 -  2 Nov 1946  Thomas Lowry Bailey                (b. 1888 - d. 1946)  Dem
 2 Nov 1946 - 22 Jan 1952  Fielding Lewis Wright              (b. 1895 - d. 1956)  Dem
22 Jan 1952 - 17 Jan 1956  Hugh Lawson White (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Dem
17 Jan 1956 - 19 Jan 1960  James Plemon Coleman               (b. 1914 - d. 1991)  Dem
19 Jan 1960 - 21 Jan 1964  Ross Robert Barnett                (b. 1898 - d. 1987)  Dem
21 Jan 1964 - 16 Jan 1968  Paul Burney Johnson, Jr.           (b. 1916 - d. 1985)  Dem
16 Jan 1968 - 18 Jan 1972  John Bell Williams                 (b. 1918 - d. 1983)  Dem
18 Jan 1972 - 20 Jan 1976  William Lowe Waller                (b. 1926 - d. 2011)  Dem
20 Jan 1976 - 22 Jan 1980  Charles Clifton Finch              (b. 1927 - d. 1986)  Dem
22 Jan 1980 - 10 Jan 1984  William Forrest Winter             (b. 1923)            Dem
10 Jan 1984 - 12 Jan 1988  William A. Allain                  (b. 1928 - d. 2013)  Dem
12 Jan 1988 - 14 Jan 1992  Raymond "Ray" Edwin Mabus, Jr.     (b. 1948)            Dem
14 Jan 1992 - 11 Jan 2000  Kirk Fordice                       (b. 1934 - d. 2004)  Rep
11 Jan 2000 - 13 Jan 2004  Ronnie Musgrove                    (b. 1956)            Dem
13 Jan 2004 - 10 Jan 2012  Haley Barbour                      (b. 1947)            Rep
10 Jan 2012 -              Phil Bryant                        (b. 1954)            Rep


Military governors during Reconstruction

22 May 1865 - 25 Jun 1865  Peter J. Osterhaus                 (b. 1823 - d. 1917)  Mil
25 Jun 1865 - 14 Nov 1865  William H. Slocum                  (b. 1827 - d. 1894)  Mil

14 Nov 1865 - Jan 1867     Thomas J. Wood                     (b. 1823 - d. 1906)  Mil
Jan 1867 -  4 Jun 1868     Alvan Cullen Gillem                (b. 1830 - d. 1875)  Mil

 4 Jun 1868 - 15 Jun 1868  Irvin McDowell
                    (b. 1818 - d. 1885)  Mil
15 Jun 1868 - 10 Mar 1870  Adelbert Ames                      (s.a.)               Mil



Missouri
 
[Missouri
                                  Confederate State Guard 1861-1865]
  5 Jun 1861 - 1865 Confederate Missouri
 
[Flag of
                                  Missouri]
                    Adopted 23 Mar 1913
 
Map of Missouri
Hear State Song
"Missouri Waltz"
Text of State Song
Adopted 22 Jun 1949
State Constitution
(30 Mar 1945)
 Capital: Jefferson City
(St. Louis 7 Dec 1812-1821;
Saint Charles 1821-
21 Nov 1825) 
Motto: Salus populi suprema
lex esto (The welfare of
the people shall be the
supreme law)
Nickname: Show Me State
Population: 6,044,171 (2013)
Mayors of
Kansas City
Chronology

26 Mar 1804                Part of Orleans Territory.
 4 Jul 1805                Part of Louisiana Territory.
 7 Dec 1812                Missouri Territory.
10 Aug 1821                State
28 Oct 1861                Secession by part of the state (decision of a
                             "rump legislature" consisting of members of
                             the disbanded legislature of the state).
28 Nov 1861                Accession to Confederate States of America 
                            (not recognized by U.S. government).

Mayors of
St. Louis
 
 
 
 
 

Commissioner of District of Louisiana
 9 Mar 1803 - 30 Sep 1804  Amos Stoddard                      (b. 1762 - d. 1813)
Governors of Louisiana Territory
 1 Oct 1804 -  4 Jul 1805  William Henry Harrison             (b. 1773 - d. 1841)
 4 Jul 1805 -  3 Mar 1807  James Wilkinson                    (b. 1757 - d. 1825) 
Mar 1807 -  1 Apr 1807     Joseph Browne (acting) 
 1 Apr 1807 -  8 Mar 1808  Frederick Bates (acting)(1st time) (b. 1777 - d. 1825)
Mar 1807 - 11 Oct 1809     Meriwether Lewis                   (b. 1774 - d. 1809) 
11 Oct 1809 - Sep 1810     Frederick Bates (acting (2nd time) (s.a.)
Sep 1810 - Feb 1812        Benjamin A. Howard                 (b. 1760 - d. 1814) 
Feb 1812 -  7 Dec 1812     Frederick Bates (3rd time)         (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
Governors of Missouri
 7 Dec 1812 -  1 Jul 1813  Frederick Bates (1st time)         (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
 1 Jul 1813 - 20 Sep 1820  William Clark                      (b. 1770 - d. 1838)
20 Sep 1820 - 15 Nov 1824  Alexander McNair                   (b. 1775 - d. 1826)  D-R
15 Nov 1824 -  4 Aug 1825  Frederick Bates (2nd time)         (s.a.)               D-R
 4 Aug 1825 - 20 Jan 1826  Abraham J. Williams (acting)       (b. 1781 - d. 1839)  D-R
20 Jan 1826 - 14 Nov 1832  John Miller                        (b. 1781 - d. 1846)  D-R
14 Nov 1832 - 13 Sep 1836  Daniel Dunklin                     (b. 1790 - d. 1844)  Dem
23 Nov 1836 - 16 Nov 1840  Lilburn Wycliffe Boggs             (b. 1796 - d. 1860)  Dem
16 Nov 1840 -  9 Feb 1844  Thomas Reynolds                    (b. 1796 - d. 1844)  Dem
 9 Feb 1844 - 20 Nov 1844  Meredith Miles Marmaduke (acting)  (b. 1791 - d. 1864)  Dem
20 Nov 1844 - 27 Dec 1848  John Cummins Edwards               (b. 1804 - d. 1888)  Dem
27 Dec 1848 -  3 Jan 1853  Austin Augustus King               (b. 1802 - d. 1870)  Dem
 3 Jan 1853 -  5 Jan 1857  Sterling Price                     (b. 1809 - d. 1867)  Dem
 5 Jan 1857 - 27 Feb 1857  Trusten Polk                       (b. 1811 - d. 1876)  Dem
27 Feb 1857 - 22 Oct 1857  Hancock Lee Jackson (acting)       (b. 1796 - d. 1876)  Dem
22 Oct 1857 -  3 Jan 1861  Robert Marcellus Stewart           (b. 1815 - d. 1871)  Dem
 3 Jan 1861 - 31 Jul 1861  Claiborne Fox Jackson              (b. 1806 - d. 1862)  Dem
                            (Confederate governor 31 Jul 1861 - 7 Dec 1862;
                             from 8 Mar 1862 in Arkansas exile)
31 Jul 1861 - 31 Jan 1864  Hamilton Rowan Gamble (acting)     (b. 1798 - d. 1864)  Uni
 7 Dec 1862 -  7 Mar 1865  Thomas Caute Reynolds              (b. 1821 - d. 1887)  Dem
                             (Confederate governor; in Texas exile)
31 Jan 1864 -  2 Jan 1865  Willard Preble Hall (acting)       (b. 1820 - d. 1882)  Uni
 2 Jan 1865 - 12 Jan 1869  Thomas Clement Fletcher            (b. 1827 - d. 1899)  Rep
12 Jan 1869 -  9 Jan 1871  Joseph Washington McClurg          (b. 1818 - d. 1900)  Rep
 9 Jan 1871 -  8 Jan 1873  Benjamin Gratz Brown               (b. 1826 - d. 1885)  Lib-R
 8 Jan 1873 - 12 Jan 1875  Silas Woodson                      (b. 1819 - d. 1896)  Dem
12 Jan 1875 -  8 Jan 1877  Charles Henry Hardin               (b. 1820 - d. 1892)  Dem
 8 Jan 1877 - 10 Jan 1881  John Sith Phelps                   (b. 1814 - d. 1886)  Dem
10 Jan 1881 - 12 Jan 1885  Thomas Theodore Crittenden         (b. 1832 - d. 1909)  Dem
12 Jan 1885 - 28 Dec 1887  John Sappington Marmaduke          (b. 1833 - d. 1887)  Dem
28 Dec 1887 - 14 Jan 1889  Albert Pickett Morehouse (acting)  (b. 1835 - d. 1891)  Dem
14 Jan 1889 -  9 Jan 1893  David Rowland Francis              (b. 1850 - d. 1927)  Dem
 9 Jan 1893 - 11 Jan 1897  William Joel Stone                 (b. 1848 - d. 1918)  Dem
11 Jan 1897 - 14 Jan 1901  Lawrence Vest "Lon" Stephens       (b. 1858 - d. 1923)  Dem
14 Jan 1901 -  9 Jan 1905  Alexander Monroe Dockery           (b. 1845 - d. 1926)  Dem
 9 Jan 1905 - 11 Jan 1909  Joseph Wingate Folk                (b. 1869 - d. 1923)  Dem
11 Jan 1909 - 13 Jan 1913  Herbert Spencer Hadley             (b. 1872 - d. 1927)  Rep
13 Jan 1913 -  8 Jan 1917  Elliot Woolfork Major              (b. 1864 - d. 1949)  Dem
 8 Jan 1917 - 10 Jan 1921  Frederick Dozier Gardner           (b. 1869 - d. 1933)  Dem
10 Jan 1921 - 12 Jan 1925  Arthur Mastick Hyde                (b. 1877 - d. 1947)  Rep
12 Jan 1925 - 14 Jan 1929  Samuel "Sam" Aaron Baker           (b. 1874 - d. 1933)  Rep
14 Jan 1929 -  9 Jan 1933  Henry Stewart Caulfield            (b. 1873 - d. 1966)  Rep
 9 Jan 1933 - 11 Jan 1937  Guy Brasfield Park                 (b. 1872 - d. 1946)  Dem
11 Jan 1937 - 13 Jan 1941  Lloyd Crow Stark                   (b. 1886 - d. 1972)  Dem
13 Jan 1941 -  8 Dec 1945  Forrest C. Donnell                 (b. 1884 - d. 1980)  Rep
 8 Dec 1945 - 10 Jan 1949  Phil M. Donnelly (1st time)        (b. 1891 - d. 1961)  Dem
10 Jan 1949 - 12 Jan 1953  Forrest Smith                      (b. 1886 - d. 1962)  Dem
12 Jan 1953 - 14 Jan 1957  Phil M. Donnelly (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Dem
14 Jan 1957 -  9 Jan 1961  James Thomas Blair, Jr.            (b. 1902 - d. 1962)  Dem
 9 Jan 1961 - 11 Jan 1965  John Montgomery Dalton             (b. 1900 - d. 1972)  Dem
11 Jan 1965 -  8 Jan 1973  Warren Eastman Hearnes             (b. 1923 - d. 2009)  Dem
 8 Jan 1973 - 10 Jan 1977  Christopher S. "Kit" Bond          (b. 1939)            Rep
                             (1st time)
10 Jan 1977 - 12 Jan 1981  Joseph Patrick Teasdale            (b. 1936 - d. 2014)  Dem
12 Jan 1981 - 14 Jan 1985  Christopher S. "Kit" Bond          (s.a.)               Rep
                             (2nd time)
14 Jan 1985 - 11 Jan 1993  John David Ashcroft                (b. 1942)            Rep
11 Jan 1993 - 16 Oct 2000  Mel Carnahan                       (b. 1934 - d. 2000)  Dem
17 Oct 2000 -  8 Jan 2001  Roger B. Wilson (acting)           (b. 1948)            Dem
 8 Jan 2001 - 10 Jan 2005  Bob Holden                         (b. 1949)            Dem
10 Jan 2005 - 12 Jan 2009  Matt Blunt                         (b. 1970)            Rep
12 Jan 2009 -              
Jeremiah "Jay" W. Nixon            (b. 1956)            Dem



Montana
 
[1905
                                  Flag of Montana]
            27 Feb 1905 - 1 Jul 1981
 
[Flag of
                                  Montana]
                 Adopted 1 Jul 1981
 
Map of Montana
Hear State Song
"Montana"
Text of State Song
Adopted 20 Feb 1945
State Constitution
(1 Jul 1973)
 Capital: Helena
(Bannack 1864- 7 Feb 1865;
Virginia City 1865-Jan 1875)
Motto: Oro y plata
(Gold and silver)
Nicknames: Big Sky Country,
Treasure State
Population: 1,015,165 (2013)
Mayors of
Billings
Chronology

 7 Dec 1812                Part of Missouri Territory.
10 Aug 1821                Unorganized territory.
30 May 1854                Part of Nebraska Territory.
 2 Mar 1861                Part of Dakota Territory.
 4 Mar 1863                Part of Idaho Territory.
26 May 1864                Territory of Montana
 8 Nov 1889                State

 
 
 

Governors 
22 Jun 1864 - 12 Jul 1866  Sidney Edgerton                    (b. 1818 - d. 1900)  Rep
Sep 1865 - Oct 1866        Thomas Francis Meagher (acting)    (b. 1823 - d. 1867)  Dem
13 Jul 1866 -  9 Apr 1869  Green Clay Smith                   (b. 1826 - d. 1895)  Rep
1869                       James Tufts (acting for Smith)     (b. 1829 - d. 1884)  Rep
 9 Apr 1869 - 12 Jul 1870  James Mitchell Ashley              (b. 1824 - d. 1896)  Rep
1869 - 1870                Wiley S. Scribner (or Schribner)   (b. 1840 - d. 1889) 
                             (acting for Ashley)
13 Jul 1870 - 14 Jan 1883  Benjamin Franklin Potts            (b. 1836 - d. 1887)  Rep
14 Jan 1883 - 15 Dec 1884  John Schuyler Crosby               (b. 1839 - d. 1914)  Rep
16 Dec 1884 - 13 Jul 1885  Benjamin Platt Carpenter           (b. 1837 - d. 1921)  Rep
14 Jul 1885 -  7 Feb 1887  Samuel Thomas Hauser               (b. 1833 - d. 1914)  Dem
 8 Feb 1887 -  8 Apr 1889  Preston Hopkins Leslie             (b. 1819 - d. 1907)  Dem
 9 Apr 1889 -  8 Nov 1889  Benjamin Franklin White            (b. 1833 - d. 1920)  Rep
 8 Nov 1889 -  1 Jan 1893  Joseph Kemps Toole (1st time)      (b. 1851 - d. 1929)  Dem
 2 Jan 1893 -  3 Jan 1897  John Ezra Rickards                 (b. 1848 - d. 1927)  Rep
 4 Jan 1897 -  7 Jan 1901  Robert Burns Smith                 (b. 1854 - d. 1908)  Dem
 7 Jan 1901 -  1 Apr 1908  Joseph Kemps Toole (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Dem
 1 Apr 1908 -  5 Jan 1913  Edwin Lee Norris                   (b. 1865 - d. 1924)  Dem
 6 Jan 1913 -  2 Jan 1921  Samuel Vernon Stewart              (b. 1872 - d. 1939)  Dem
 3 Jan 1921 -  4 Jan 1925  Joseph Moore Dixon                 (b. 1867 - d. 1934)  Rep
 4 Jan 1925 - 13 Mar 1933  John Edward Erickson               (b. 1863 - d. 1946)  Dem
13 Mar 1933 - 15 Dec 1935  Frank Henry Cooney                 (b. 1872 - d. 1935)  Dem
16 Dec 1935 -  4 Jan 1937  William Elmer Holt                 (b. 1884 - d. 1945)  Dem
 4 Jan 1937 -  6 Jan 1941  Roy Elmer Ayres                    (b. 1882 - d. 1955)  Dem
 6 Jan 1941 -  3 Jan 1949  Samuel Clarence Ford               (b. 1882 - d. 1961)  Rep
 3 Jan 1949 -  4 Jan 1953  John Woodrow Bonner                (b. 1902 - d. 1970)  Dem
 4 Jan 1953 -  4 Jan 1961  John Hugo Aronson                  (b. 1891 - d. 1978)  Rep
 4 Jan 1961 - 25 Jan 1962  Donald G. Nutter                   (b. 1915 - d. 1962)  Rep
26 Jan 1962 -  6 Jan 1969  Tim M. Babcock                     (b. 1919)            Rep
 6 Jan 1969 -  1 Jan 1973  Forrest Howard Anderson            (b. 1913 - d. 1989)  Dem

 1 Jan 1973 -  5 Jan 1981  Thomas Lee Judge                   (b. 1934 - d. 2006)  Dem
 5 Jan 1981 -  2 Jan 1989  Ted Schwinden                      (b. 1925)            Dem
 2 Jan 1989 -  4 Jan 1993  Stan Stephens                      (b. 1929)            Rep
 4 Jan 1993 -  2 Jan 2001  Marc F. Racicot                    (b. 1948)            Rep
 2 Jan 2001 -  3 Jan 2005  Judy Martz (f)                     (b. 1943)            Rep
 3 Jan 2005 -  7 Jan 2013  Brian Schweitzer                   (b. 1955)            Dem
 7 Jan 2013 -              Steve Bullock                      (b. 1966)            Dem






© Ben Cahoon