World Statesmen.org HOME >

 
 

 
 




Cuba 
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                     to 1 Jan 1899
 
[Céspedes Rebellion Flag]
  10 Oct 1868 - 1878 Céspedes Rebellion Flag
 
[Unofficial Cuban Autonomist
                                    Flag 1878-1899]
  1878 - c.1899 Unofficial Autonomist Flag
 
[US flag]
                   1 Jan 1899 - 20 May 1902
 
[Cuba
                                    flag]
   10 Apr 1869 - 1 Jan 1899; Re-adopted 20 May 1902
 

Map of Cuba
Hear National Anthem
"La Bayamesa"
(The Bayamo Song)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1940
 (in use from 1868)
 Constitution
 (24 Feb 1976)
Capital: Havana
(Baracoa 1511-1514;
Santiago de Cuba 1514-1589)
Currency: Cuban Peso
(CUP) & from 1994 Convertible Cuban Peso (CUC)
National Holidays: 10 Dec (1898)
Independence Day
------------------------------------
1 Jan (1959)
Triumph of the Revolution
Population: 11,061,886 (2013)
GDP: $121 billion (2012
Exports: $6.25 billion (2013)
Imports: $13.6 billion (2013
Ethnic groups: white 65.1%,, mulatto and mestizo 24.8%,
black 10.1% (2002)
Total Active Armed Forces: 49,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 3 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 47%, Protestant 5%,
nonreligious 22%, Santeria, other, and none 26% (2005)
note: State is officially atheist 
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ACS, ANT, AOSIS, BTWC, CELAC, CWC, ENMOD, ESCR (signatory), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBEC, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, LAES, LAIA, LAP, LU, NAM, NPT, OAS (signatory), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SEGIB, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Cuba Index
Chronology

27 Oct 1492                Discovered by Columbus and claimed for Spain,
                             named Juana, then Fernandina, finally Cuba.
Aug 1511                   Spanish colony (Cuba)
1511 - 1764                Subordinated to Santo Domingo.
16 Nov 1519                San Cristóbal de la Habana founded.
13 Aug 1762 -  8 Jul 1763  Occupied by Britain.
1764                       Cuba a separate captaincy-general (including
                             colonies of Louisiana [to 1803] and the Floridas
                             [to 1821]).
19 Mar 1812 -  4 May 1814  Cuba a diputación provincial of Spain.
19 Mar 1820 -  1 Oct 1823  Cuba a diputación provincial of Spain.
14 Aug 1836 - 16 Jun 1837  Cuba a diputación provincial of Spain.
10 Oct 1868                Independence declared as Republic of Cuba, in 
                             insurrection against colonial power Spain (this
                             insurrection is referred to retrospectively 
                             as República de Cuba en armas).
 1 Jan 1899                Spain cedes colonial authority to U.S. (de jure 
                             from 11 Apr 1899).
20 May 1902                Republic of Cuba (independence from U.S.);
                             status of the Isle of Pines to be determined.
20 May 1902 - 29 May 1934  U.S. protectorate
29 Sep 1906 - 28 Jan 1909  U.S. occupation.
 5 Jun 1912 -  5 Aug 1912  U.S. intervention.
Nov 1917 - Feb 1922        U.S. intervention.
13 Mar 1925                Cuban sovereignty over the Isle of Pines 
                             confirmed by U.S.

Isle of Pines
(1899-1925)
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC)
(to 26 Mar 1962, Integrated Revolutionary Organizations [ORI]; 
26 Mar 1962 - 3 Oct 1965, United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution [PURSC])
Jul 1961 - 19 Apr 2011     Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz         (b. 1926)
31 Jul 2006 -              Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz            (b. 1931)
                             (acting for Fidel Castro to 19 Apr 2011) 

De facto ruler
 5 Sep 1933 - 10 Oct 1940  Rubén Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (b. 1901 - d. 1973)  Mil

Lieutenant governors
1511 - 12 Jun 1524         Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar         (b. 1465 - d. 1524)
Jun 1524 - 14 Mar 1525     Manuel de Rojas (1st time)(acting)
14 Mar 1525 - 27 Apr 1526  Juan de Altamirano
27 Apr 1526 -  6 Nov 1531  Gonzalo de Guzmán (1st time) 
 7 Nov 1531 -  1 Mar 1532  Juan de Vadillo (acting)
 1 Mar 1532 - 28 Oct 1535  Manuel de Rojas (2nd time)(acting)
Oct 1535 - 20 Mar 1537     Gonzalo de Guzmán (2nd time)
Governors-general

20 Mar 1537 - 12 May 1539  Hernando de Soto                   (b. c.1498 - d. 1542)
May 1539 - Oct 1543        Inés de Bobadilla de Soto (f)      (d. 1543)
                             (acting)
 2 Feb 1544 -  4 Jun 1546  Juan de Ávila 
 4 Jun 1546 - Nov 1549     Antonio de Chávez
 4 Nov 1549 -  7 Mar 1557  Gonzalo Pérez de Ángulo
 7 Mar 1557 - 18 Sep 1565  Diego de Mazariegos
19 Sep 1565 - 24 Oct 1567  Francisco García Osorio de Sandoval
24 Oct 1567 - 13 Dec 1573  Pedro Menéndez de Avilés           (b. 1519 - d. 1574)
13 Dec 1575 - Feb 1577     Gabriel Montalvo
13 Feb 1577 - 27 Apr 1579  Francisco Carreño                  (d. 1579)
Apr 1579 - Jul 1579        Santiesteban (acting)
 3 Oct 1579 - Aug 1580     Gaspar de Torres
Governors and Captains-general
17 Aug 1580 - 1589         Gabriel de Luján (Luxán)
21 Mar 1589 -  4 Jul 1594  Juan de Tejeda (Texada)
Jul 1594 - Jun 1602        Juan Maldonado Barnuevo
20 Jun 1602 - 16 Jun 1608  Pedro de Vadés Balnueva
18 Jun 1608 -  7 Sep 1616  Gaspar Ruíz de Pereda
Sep 1616 - Jun 1619        Sancho de Alquiza                  (d. 1620)
Jun 1619 - Jul 1619        Diego Vallejo (acting)
Jul 1619 - Jul 1620        Jerónimo de Quero (acting)         (d. 1635)
14 Aug 1620 - 18 Apr 1624  Francisco de Venegas

Mar 1624 - Mar 1625        Damián Velásquez de Contreras
                            
(1st time)(acting)
Mar 1625 - Jun 1625        Juan Riva Martin (acting)
Jun 1625 - 16 Sep 1625     Damián Velásquez de Contreras
                            
(2nd time)(acting)
Sep 1626 - Oct 1630        Lorenzo de Cabrera y Cervera
 7 Oct 1630 - 23 Oct 1634  Juan Bitrián de Beaumonte (Viamonte)
23 Oct 1634 - 15 Sep 1639  Francisco de Riaño y Gamboa
15 Sep 1639 - 1647         Álvaro de Luna y Sarmiento
Sep 1647 - Mar 1653        Diego de Villalba y Toledo,
                             marqués de Campo
Mar 1653 - Jun 1654        Francisco Gelder (Xelder) y
                             Calatayud  
Jun 1654 - Jun 1655        Ambrosio de Sotolongo (acting)
Jun 1655 - Jun 1656        Juan de Montaño Blázquez           (d. 1658)
Jun 1656 - Mar 1658        Diego Rangel (acting)
 3 Mar 1658 - Jun 1662     Juan de Salamanca

Jun 1663 - Jun 1664        Rodrigo de Flores y Aldama         (b. 1625 - d. 1675?)
Aug 1664 - May 1670        Francisco Dávila Orejón y Gastón   (b. c.1617 - d. 1674)
May 1670 - Aug 1680        Francisco Rodríguez de Ledesma
Aug 1680 - Jul 1685        José Fernández de Córdoba y Ponce 
                             de León
Jul 1685 - Nov 1687        Manuel de Murguia y Mena (acting)
11 Nov 1687 - Oct 1689     Diego de Viana y Hinojosa
30 Oct 1689 -  2 Oct 1695  Severino de Manzaneda Salinas y    (b. 1644 - d. ....)
                             Rozas
 2 Oct 1695 - Sep 1702     Diego Córdoba y Lasso de la Vega,  (b. 16.. - d. 1720)
                             marqués del Vado               
20 Sep 1702 -  4 Dec 1704  Pedro Nicolás Benítez de Lugo      (b. 16.. - d. 1705)
 4 Dec 1704 - 13 May 1706  Nicolás Chirino de Vandevale       (b. 16.. - d. 1710)
                             (acting)
13 May 1706 -  8 Jun 1706  Pedro Álvarez de Villamarín        (b. 16.. - d. 1706)
 8 Jun 1706 - 18 Jan 1708  Luis Chacón y Castellón (1st time) (b. 1670 - d. 1716)
                             (acting)
18 Jan 1708 - 18 Feb 1711  Laureano José de Torres Ayala y    (b. 1645 - d. 1722)
                             Quadros Castellanos, marqués de
                             Casa Torres   
18 Feb 1711 - 26 May 1711  Luis Chacón y Castellón (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
26 May 1711 - 23 Aug 1717  Vicente de Raja                    (b. 16.. - d. 1717)
23 Aug 1717 - 23 Jun 1718  Gómez Maraver Ponce de León
                             (interim)
23 Jun 1718 - 29 Sep 1724  Gregorio Guazo y Calderón          (b. 1675 - d. 1726)
                             Fernández de la Vega   
29 Sep 1724 - 18 Mar 1734  Dionisio Martínez de la Vega       (b. 167. - d. 1741)
18 Mar 1734 - 22 Apr 1746  Juan Francisco de Güemes y         (b. 1681 - d. 1776)
                             Horacitas Gordón de Saenz de
                             Villamolinedo, conde de
                             Revillagigedo
22 Apr 1746 - 21 Jul 1746  Juan Antonio Tineo y Fuertes       (b. 169. - d. 1746)
21 Jul 1746 -  9 Jun 1747  Diego Peñalosa (acting)
 9 Jun 1747 - 18 May 1760  Francisco Antonio Cajigal de la    (b. 1695 - d. 1777)
                             Vega
18 May 1760 -  7 Feb 1761  Pedro Alonso (acting)              (b. 171. - d. 1766)
 7 Feb 1761 - 13 Aug 1762  Juan de Prado Mayera Portocarrero  (b. 1716 - d. c.1770)
                             y Luna
13 Aug 1762 -  1 Jan 1763  George Keppel, Earl of Albemarle   (b. 1724 - d. 1772)
 1 Jan 1763 -  8 Jul 1763  William Keppel, Earl of Albemarle  (b. 1727 - d. 1782)
 8 Jul 1763 - 27 Jun 1765  Ambrosio Funes Villalpando Abarca  (b. 1720 - d. 1780)
                             de Bolea, conde de Ricla
27 Jun 1765 - 24 Jul 1765  Diego Antonio Manrique             (b. 17.. - d. 1765)
24 Jul 1765 - 11 Mar 1766  Pascual Jiménez de Cisneros        (b. 1709 - d. 1784)
                             (acting)
11 Mar 1766 - 14 Aug 1771  Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa  (b. 1717 - d. 1779)
                             Hinostrosa Lasso de la Vega   
14 Aug 1771 - 18 Nov 1771  Diego José Navarro y García de     (b. 1708 - d. 1784)
                             Valladares (1st time) (acting) 
18 Nov 1771 - 12 Jun 1777  Felipe de Fondesviela y Ondeano,   (b. 1725 - d. 1784)
                             marqués de la Torre
12 Jun 1777 - 12 Feb 1782  Diego José Navarro García de       (s.a.) 
                             Valladares (2nd time)
12 Feb 1782 - 29 Dec 1782  Juan Manuel de Cajigal y           (b. 1739 - d. 1811)
                             Montserrat
29 Dec 1782 -  1 Feb 1785  Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga           (b. 1721 - d. 1793)
 5 Apr 1785 -  7 Apr 1785  Bernardo Vicente de Gálvez y       (b. 1746 - d. 1786)
                             Galardo, conde Gálvez
 7 Apr 1785 -  1 Dec 1785  Bernardo Troncoso y Martínez del   (b. 1730 - d. 1804)
                             Rincón (interim)
 1 Dec 1785 - 18 Apr 1789  José Manuel Ignacio Timoteo de     (b. 1741 - d. 1823)
                             Ezpeleta Galdeano                
18 Apr 1789 -  8 Jul 1790  Domingo Cabello y Robles           (b. c.1725 - d. 1801)
 8 Jul 1790 -  6 Dec 1796  Luis de las Casas y Arragorri      (b. 1745 - d. 1800)
 6 Dec 1796 - 13 May 1799  Juan Procopio Bassecourt y Bryas,  (b. 1740 - d. 1820)
                             conde de Santa Clara
13 May 1799 - 14 Apr 1812  Salvador de Muro y Salazar,        (b. 1754 - d. 1813) 
                             marqués de Someruleos
14 Apr 1812 -  1 Jul 1816  Juan Ruíz de Apodaca y Eliza       (b. 1754 - d. 1835)
 1 Jul 1816 - 29 Aug 1819  José María González de Cienfuegos  (b. 1763 - d. 1825)
                             y Jovellanos
29 Aug 1819 -  3 Mar 1821  Juan Manuel Cajigal y Niño         (b. 1754 - d. 1823) 
 3 Mar 1821 - 13 Jul 1822  Nicolás de Mahy y Romo             (b. 1757 - d. 1822)
13 Jul 1822 -  2 May 1823  Sebastián Kindelán y Oregón        (b. 1763 - d. 1836)
                             (acting)
 2 May 1823 - 15 May 1832  Francisco Dionisio Vivés y Llanes  (b. 1775 - d. 1840)
15 May 1832 -  1 Jun 1834  Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca  (b. 1776 - d. 1846)
 1 Jun 1834 - 20 Apr 1838  Miguel Tacón y Rosique, marqués    (b. 1775 - d. 1855)
                             de la Unión de Cuba
20 Apr 1838 - 10 Jan 1840  Joaquín de Ezpeleta y Enrile       (b. 1786 - d. 1863)
10 Jan 1840 -  7 Mar 1841  Pedro Alcántara Téllez Girón y     (b. 1776 - d. 1851)
                             Pimentel, principe de Anglona 
 7 Mar 1841 - 13 Sep 1843  Jerónimo Valdés y Sierra, conde    (b. 1784 - d. 1855)
                             de Villaria
13 Sep 1843 - 20 Oct 1843  Francisco Javier de Ulloa y        (b. 1777 - d. 1855) 
                             Ramírez de Laredo (acting)        
20 Oct 1843 - 20 Feb 1848  Leopoldo O'Donnell y Jorris,       (b. 1809 - d. 1867)
                             conde de Lucena 
20 Feb 1848 - 11 Nov 1850  Federico Roncali y Ceruti,         (b. 1801? - d. 1857)
                             conde de Alcoy 
11 Nov 1850 - 16 Apr 1852  José Gutiérrez de la Concha y      (b. 1809 - d. 1895)
                             Irigoyen (1st time)
16 Apr 1852 -  3 Dec 1853  Valentín Cañedo y Miranda          (b. 1806 - d. 1856)
 3 Dec 1853 - 21 Sep 1854  Juan Manuel González de la Pezuela (b. 1809 - d. 1906)
                             y Cabello
21 Sep 1854 - 24 Nov 1859  José Guitérrez de la Concha y      (s.a.) 
                             Irigoyen, marqués de la Habana
                             (2nd time)
24 Nov 1859 - 10 Dec 1862  Francisco Serrano y Domínguez,     (b. 1810 - d. 1885)
                             duque de la Torre 
10 Dec 1862 - 30 May 1866  Domingo Dulce y Garay, marqués     (b. 1808 - d. 1869)
                             de Florit (1st time)
30 May 1866 -  3 Nov 1866  Francisco Alejandro de Lersundi y  (b. 1817 - d. 1874)
                             Ormaechea Olabe y Bustinzuria
                             (1st time)
 3 Nov 1866 - 24 Sep 1867  Joaquín del Manzano y Manzano      (b. 1805 - d. 1867)
24 Sep 1867 - 21 Dec 1867  Blas Villate y de la Hera          (b. 1824 - d. 1882)
                             (1st time)(acting)
21 Dec 1867 -  4 Jan 1869  Francisco Alejandro de Lersundi y  (s.a.)
                             Ormaechea Olabe y Bustinzuria
                             (2nd time)
 4 Jan 1869 -  2 Jun 1869  Domingo Dulce y Garay, marqués     (s.a.)
                             de Florit (2nd time)
 2 Jun 1869 - 28 Jun 1869  Felipe Ginovés del Espinar
                             (acting)
28 Jun 1869 - 13 Dec 1870  Antonio Caballero y Fernández de   (b. 1816 - d. 1876)
                             Rodas 
13 Dec 1870 - 11 Jul 1872  Blas Villate y de la Hera,         (s.a.)
                             conde de Balmaseda (2nd time)
11 Jul 1872 - 18 Apr 1873  Francisco Ceballos y Vargas        (b. 1814 - d. 1883)
                             (acting)
18 Apr 1873 -  4 Nov 1873  Cándido Pieltaín y Jove-Huelgo     (b. 1822 - d. 1888)
 4 Nov 1873 -  6 Apr 1874  Joaquín Jovellar y Soler           (b. 1819 - d. 1892)
                             (1st time)
 6 Apr 1874 -  1 Mar 1875  José Gutiérrez de la Concha y      (s.a.)
                             Irgoyen, marqués de la Habana 
                             (3rd time)
 1 Mar 1875 -  8 Mar 1875  Buenaventura Carbó y Alcoy         (b. 1819 - d. 1888)
                             (acting)
 8 Mar 1875 - 18 Jan 1876  Blas Villate y de la Hera,         (s.a.)
                             conde de Balmaseda (3rd time)
18 Jan 1876 - 17 Jun 1876  Joaquín Jovellar y Soler (2nd time)(s.a.)
17 Jun 1876 -  5 Feb 1879  Arsenio Martínez de Campos y       (b. 1831 - d. 1900)
                             Antón (1st time) 
 5 Feb 1879 - 17 Apr 1879  Cayetano Figueroa y Garaondo
                             (acting)
17 Apr 1879 - 28 Nov 1881  Ramón Blanco y Ereñas,             (b. 1831 - d. 1906)
                             marqués de Peña Plata (1st time)
28 Nov 1881 -  4 Aug 1883  Luís Prendergast y Gordón,         (b. 1823 - d. 1892)
                             marqués de la Victória de las Tunas
 5 Aug 1883 - 28 Sep 1883  Tomás de Reyna y Reyna (acting)    (b. 1821 - d. 1896) 
28 Sep 1883 -  8 Nov 1884  Ignacio María del Castillo y Gill  (b. 1817 - d. 1893)
                             de la Torre, conde de Bilbao
 8 Nov 1884 -  5 Mar 1886  Ramón Fajardo y Izquierdo          (b. 1826 - d. 1888)
 5 Mar 1886 - 30 Mar 1886  Sabas Marín y González (1st time)  (b. 1828 - d. 1901)
                             (acting)
30 Mar 1886 - 15 Jul 1887  Emilio Calleja y Isasi (1st time)  (b. 1830 - d. 1906)
15 Jul 1887 - 13 Mar 1889  Sabas Marín y González (2nd time)  (s.a.)
13 Mar 1889 -  6 Feb 1890  Manuel Salamanca y Negrete         (b. 1831 - d. 1891)
 6 Feb 1890 -  4 Apr 1890  José Sánchez Gómez (acting)
 4 Apr 1890 - 24 Aug 1890  José Chinchilla y Diez de Oñate    (b. 1839 - d. 1898)
24 Aug 1890 - 20 Jun 1892  Camilo García de Polavieja y del   (b. 1838 - d. 1914) 
                             Castillo Negrete 
20 Jun 1892 - 15 Jul 1893  Alejandro Rodríguez Arías y        (b. 1838 - d. 1893)
                             Rodulfo
15 Jul 1893 - 16 Sep 1893  José Arderius y García (acting)
16 Sep 1893 - 16 Apr 1895  Emilio Calleja y Isasi (2nd time)  (s.a.)
16 Apr 1895 - 11 Jan 1896  Arsenio Martínez de Campos y       (s.a.)
                             Antón (2nd time)
11 Jan 1896 - 31 Oct 1897  Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau,        (b. 1838 - d. 1930)
                             marqués de Tenerife 
31 Oct 1897 - 30 Nov 1898  Ramón Blanco y Ereñas,             (s.a.)
                             marqués de Peña Plata (2nd time)
30 Nov 1898 -  1 Jan 1899  Adolfo Jiménez Castellanos y de    (b. 1844 - d. 1929)
                             Tapia
Captain-general of Liberating Army of Cuba and in charge of its provisional government

10 Oct 1868 - 12 Apr 1869  Carlos Manuel Perfecto del Carmen  (b. 1819 - d. 1874)  Mil
                             de Céspedes y del Castillo 
Presidents
12 Apr 1869 - 27 Oct 1873  Carlos Manuel Perfecto del Carmen  (s.a.)               Non-party
                             de Céspedes y del Castillo 
27 Oct 1873 -  1 Jul 1875  Salvador Cisneros y Betancourt,    (b. 1848 - d. 1914)  PC
                             marqués de Santa Lucía 
                             (1st time) (interim)
 1 Jul 1875 - 29 Mar 1876  Juan Bautista Spotorno y           (b. 1832 - d. 1917)  PL
                             Georovich (interim)
29 Mar 1876 - 19 Oct 1877  Tomás Estrada Palma (1st time)     (b. 1835 - d. 1908)  PL
19 Oct 1877 - 13 Dec 1877  Francisco Javier de Jesús de       (b. 1821 - d. 1903)  PC
                             Céspedes y del Castillo (interim)
13 Dec 1877 - 10 Feb 1878  Vicente García y González          (b. 1833 - d. 1886)  PC
10 Feb 1878 - 16 Mar 1878  Spanish control reasserted
16 Mar 1878 - 28 May 1878  Manuel de Jesús Calvar y Odoardo   (b. 1832 - d. 1895)  PC
                             (president of Provisional Government)
28 May 1878 - 18 Sep 1895  Spanish control reasserted
18 Sep 1895 - 30 Oct 1897  Salvador Cisneros y Betancourt,    (s.a.)               PRC
                             marqués de Santa Lucía (2nd time) 
                             (president of Government Council)
30 Oct 1897 -  7 Nov 1898  Bartolomé Masó y Márquez           (b. 1830 - d. 1907)  PRC
President of the Assembly of Representatives of the Cuban Revolution
 7 Nov 1898 - 10 Nov 1898  Domingo Méndez Capote              (b. 1863 - d. 1933)  PRC
Presidents of the Executive Council of the Assembly of 
Representatives of the Cuban Revolution
10 Nov 1898 -  4 Apr 1899  Rafael María Portuondo Tomayo      (b. 1840 - d. 1908)  Mil
 4 Apr 1899 - 30 Jun 1899  José Lacret y Morlot               (b. 1848 - d. 1904)  PRC
Governors
 1 Jan 1899 - 23 Dec 1899  John Ruller Brooke                 (b. 1838 - d. 1926)
23 Dec 1899 - 20 May 1902  Leonard Wood                       (b. 1868 - d. 1927)
President
20 May 1902 - 28 Sep 1906  Tomás Estrada Palma (2nd time)     (s.a.)              Non-party/PM
Provisional Governors
29 Sep 1906 - 13 Oct 1906  William Howard Taft                (b. 1857 - d. 1930)
13 Oct 1906 - 28 Jan 1909  Charles Edward Magoon              (b. 1861 - d. 1920)
Presidents
28 Jan 1909 - 20 May 1913  José Miguel Gómez y Gómez          (b. 1858 - d. 1921)  PL
20 May 1913 - 20 May 1921  Aurelio Mario Gabriel Francisco    (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  PC
                             García Menocal y Deop
20 May 1921 - 20 May 1925  Alfredo Zayas y Alfonso            (b. 1861 - d. 1934)  PPC-LN
20 May 1925 - 24 Aug 1933  Gerardo Machado y Morales          (b. 1871 - d. 1939)  PL
                             (left Cuba on 12 Aug 1933)
12 Aug 1933 - 13 Aug 1933  Alberto Herrera y Franchi          (b. 1874 - d. 1954)  Mil
                             (provisional [acting for Machado])
13 Aug 1933 -  5 Sep 1933  Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y        (b. 1871 - d. 1939)  ABC
                             Quesada 
                            (provisional [acting for Machado to 24 Aug 1933])
 5 Sep 1933 - 10 Sep 1933  Executive Commission of the 
                           Provisional Government
                           - Ramón Grau San Martín            (b. 1887 - d. 1969)  PRC
                           - Guillermo Francisco Leopoldo     (b. 1886 - d. 1958)  PL
                               Portela y Möller 
                           - José Miguel Irisarri y Gamio     (b. 1895 - d. 1968)  PC
                           - Sergio Carbó y Morera            (b. 1891 - d. 1971)  PPC-LN
                           - Porfirio Franca y Álvarez de     (b. 1878 - d. 1950)  PL 
                               la Campa 
10 Sep 1933 - 15 Jan 1934  Ramón Grau San Martín (1st time)   (s.a.)               PRC
15 Jan 1934 - 18 Jan 1934  Carlos Hevia y de los Reyes        (b. 1900 - d. 1964)  PRC
                             Gavilán (provisional) 
18 Jan 1934  (hours)       Carlos Manuel Agustín Márquez      (b. 1872 - d. 1934)  Mil
                             Sterling y Loret de Mola (acting)
18 Jan 1934 - 11 Dec 1935  Carlos Mendieta y Montefur         (b. 1873 - d. 1960)  UN
                             (provisional)
11 Dec 1935 - 20 May 1936  José Agripino Barnet y Vinageras   (b. 1864 - d. 1945)  UN
                             (acting to 13 Dec 1935, provisional from 13 Dec 1935)
20 May 1936 - 24 Dec 1936  Miguel Mariano Gómez y Arias       (b. 1889 - d. 1950)  UN
24 Dec 1936 - 10 Oct 1940  Federico Laredo Bru                (b. 1875 - d. 1946)  UN
10 Oct 1940 - 10 Oct 1944  Rubén Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (s.a.)               CSD
                             (1st time) 
10 Oct 1944 - 10 Oct 1948  Ramón Grau San Martín (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PRC-A
10 Oct 1948 - 10 Mar 1952  Carlos Prío Socarrás               (b. 1903 - d. 1977)  PRC-A
10 Mar 1952 -  1 Jan 1959  Rubén Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (s.a.)               Mil/PAU/PAP
                             (Chief of State to 4 Apr 1952; provisional to 24 Feb 1955)  
                             (2nd time)
14 Aug 1954 - 24 Feb 1955  Andrés Domingo Morales y del       (b. 1892 - d. 1979)
                             Castillo (acting for Batista) 
 1 Jan 1959                Anselmo Alliegro y Milá (acting)   (b. 1899 - d. 1961)  Non-party
                             (did not take office)
 1 Jan 1959 -  2 Jan 1959  Carlos Manuel Piedra y Piedra      (b. 1895? - d. 1988) Non-party
                             (interim) (did not take office)
 2 Jan 1959 - 17 Jul 1959  Manuel Urrutia Lleó                (b. 1901 - d. 1981)  Non-party
18 Jul 1959 -  2 Dec 1976  Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado           (b. 1919 - d. 1983)ORI/PURSC/PCC
Presidents of the Council of State
 2 Dec 1976 - 24 Feb 2008  Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz         (s.a.)               PCC 
31 Jul 2006 -              Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz            (s.a.)               PCC
                             (acting for Fidel Castro to 24 Feb 2008)
 

President of the Cabinet
 1 Jan 1898 - 1898         José María Gálvez Alonso           (b. 1834 - d. 1906)  PAL
Premiers
10 Oct 1940 - 16 Aug 1942  Carlos Saladrigas y Zayas          (b. 1900 - d. 1956)  CSD
16 Aug 1942 - 16 Mar 1944  Ramón Zaydín y Márquez Sterling    (b. 1895 - d. 1968)  CSD 
16 Mar 1944 - 10 Oct 1944  Anselmo Alliegro y Milá            (s.a.)               CSD
10 Oct 1944 - 13 Oct 1945  Félix Lancís Sánchez (1st time)    (b. 1900 - d. 1976)  PRC-A
13 Oct 1945 -  1 May 1947  Carlos Prío Socarrás               (s.a.)               PRC-A
 1 May 1947 - 10 Oct 1948  Raúl López del Castillo            (b. 1893 - d. 1963)  PRC-A
10 Oct 1948 -  6 Oct 1950  Manuel Antonio de Varona y Loredo  (b. 1908 - d. 1992)  PRC-A
 6 Oct 1950 -  1 Oct 1951  Félix Lancís Sánchez (2nd time)    (s.a.)               PRC-A
 1 Oct 1951 - 10 Mar 1952  Óscar B. Gans y López Martínez     (b. 1903 - d. 1965)  PAU
10 Mar 1952 -  4 Apr 1952  Rubén Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (s.a.)               Mil
24 Feb 1955 - 26 Mar 1957  Jorge García Montes                (b. 1898 - d. 1982)  PAP
26 Mar 1957 -  6 Mar 1958  Andrés Rivero Agüero               (b. 1905 - d. 1997)  PAP
 6 Mar 1958 - 12 Mar 1958  Emilio Núñez Portuondo             (b. 1898 - d. 1978)  PAP
12 Mar 1958 -  1 Jan 1959  Gonzalo Güell y Morales de los     (b. 1895 - d. 1985)  PAP
                             Ríos
 5 Jan 1959 - 13 Feb 1959  José Miró Cardona                  (b. 1902 - d. 1974)  Non-party
16 Feb 1959 -  2 Dec 1976  Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz         (s.a.)              MR-26-7/ORI/
Presidents of the Council of Ministers                                             PURSC/PCC
 3 Dec 1976 - 24 Feb 2008  Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz         (s.a.)               PCC
31 Jul 2006 -              Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz            (s.a.)               PCC
                             (acting for Fidel Castro to 24 Feb 2008)

Territorial Dispute: U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to U.S., since 1903 and renewed 1934, and only mutual agreement or U.S. abandonment of the area can terminate the lease.

Party abbreviations: PCC = Partido Comunista de Cuba (Communist Party of Cuba, communist, 
authoritarian, former PUSC, only legal party since 1965); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ABC = ABC Sociedad Revolucionaria (A.B.C. Revolutionary Society, student and professionals opposed to Machado, 1925-1933); AR = Acción Republicana (Republican Action, est.1935); CSD = Coalición Socialista Democrática (Democratic Socialist Coalition, alliance of Communist Revolutionary Union, PAP, Democratic National Association, PL and the Republican Democratic Party, est.1939); MR-26-7 = Movemiento Revolucionario de 26 Julio (Revolutionary Movement of Jul 26th, communist, Jul 1961 joined ORI); ORI = Organizaciones Revolucionarias Integradas (Integrated Revolutionary Organizations, merger of MR-26-7, People's Socialist Party, and Revolutionary Directory March 13th, communist, Jul 1961-62, from 26 Mar 1962 PUSC); PAL = Partido Liberal Autonomist (Autonomist Liberal Party, 1879-1898); PAP = Partido Acción Progresista (Progressive Action Party, 1954-1959); PAU = Partido de Acción Unitaria (United Action Party, pro-Batista, 1949-1952); PC = Partido Conservador (Conservative Party, 1907-1959); PCSD = Coalicion Socialista Democratico (Social Democratic Coalition, pro-Batista, 1940-1944); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, liberal, 1878-1959); PM = Partido Moderado (Moderate Party, conservative, 1902-1906); PPC-LN = Partido Popular Cubano-Liga Nacional (Cuban Popular Party-National League, PPC and PC alliance, est.1920); PRC = Partido Revolucionario Cubano (Cuban Revolutionary Party, 1892-1902); PRC-A = Partido Revolucionaro Cubano-Auténtico (Cuban Revolutionary Party-Authentic, nationalist, 1934-1953); PURSCPartido Unido de la Revolución Socialista de Cuba (United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution, communist, 1962-1965, only legal party, then PCC); UN = Unión Nacionalista (Nationalist Union, est.1927)


Isle of Pines

 
Capital: Nueva Gerona
Population: 4, 817 (1925)

 1 Jan 1899                Spain cedes colonial authority to U.S. (de jure 11 Apr 1899).
20 May 1902                Republic of Cuba independent from U.S. with status of the
                             Isle of Pines (Isla de Pinos) to be determined.
 8 Apr 1907                U.S. Supreme Court rules (Pearcy v. Stranahan) that the island
                             is not a U.S. territory.
23 Mar 1925                U.S. Senate confirms Cuban sovereignty over the Isle of Pines by
                             Isle of Pines Treaty.
28 Jun 1978                Renamed Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth).

Mayors (Alcaldes) of Nueva Gerona
1898 - 1899                Fernando Plazaola
Aug 1899 - 1908            Juan Manuel Sánchez Amat           (b. 1866 - d. 1934)
1908 - 19..                Benito Ortiz y Ortiz
19.. - 19..                José Elías Sardá                   (b. 1874 - d. 19..)
c.1921 - c.1924            Francisco Llorca Soto



Guantanamo Bay U.S. Naval Base 

[US flag]          
          Adopted 10 Dec 1903

Map of Guantanamo Bay
Guantanamo Base website
1934 Treaty
Population: 8,500 (2012)
U.S. Forces: 1,002 (2012)


23 Feb 1903                U.S. leases naval base at Guantánamo Bay in Cuba (the agreement 
                             also gave the U.S. the right to establish another base at
                             Bahía Honda, this area was however returned to Cuba in 1912, 
                             in exchange for larger facilities at Guantanamo Bay).
10 Dec 1903                Guantanamo Bay Naval Station leased to U.S.
10 Dec 1913                Naval Station officially opens.
31 May 1934                Treaty affirms perpetual U.S. sovereignty (only mutual
                             agreement or U.S. abandonment of the area can terminate the 
                             lease), treaty is reaffirmed again in 1963.
 1 Apr 1941                Renamed U.S. Naval Operating Base Guantanamo Bay
18 Jun 1952                Renamed U.S. Naval Base Guantanamo Bay.

Commandants
10 Dec 1903 - May 1904     William H. Allen
17 May 1904 - Sep 1906     Charles C. Rogers
 8 Sep 1906 - Jul 1907     Albert A. Ackerman
Aug 1907 - May 1908        Clark D. Stearns (acting)
May 1908 - April 1909      Charles H. Harlow
May 1909 - Nov 1909        Myles Joyce (acting)
Nov 1909 - Jan 1912        Walter Ball                        (b. 1872 - d. 1944)
18 Jan 1912 - Jun 1913     George W. Kline
Jun 1913 - Jan 1914        Merritt S. Corning (acting)
Jan 1914 - Oct 1914        Hilary Williams
Dec 1914 - May 1916        John M. Luby
 4 May 1916 - Sep 1917     Dudley Wright Knox                 (b. 1877 - d. 1960)
Sep 1917 - Nov 1918        E.E. Wright
Dec 1918 - Sep 1920        Guy Whitlock                       (d. 1922?)
Sep 1920 - Jun 1921        John J. Hannigan
Jun 1921 - May 1923        Robert T. Menner                   (d. 1932)
May 1923 - Jun 1924        Ward K. Wortman
Jun 1924 - Jun 1926        Charles M. Tozer                   (b. 1876 - d. 1949)
Jun 1926 - Aug 1928        Charles C. Soule, Jr.
Aug 1928 - Jun 1930        Charles S. McWhorter
Aug 1930 - Feb 1931        Alfred Hart Miles                  (b. 1883 - d. 1956)
Feb 1931 - May 1933        Thomas L. Johnson
Jun 1933 - Jun 1934        Edward C. Raguet
Jun 1934 - Apr 1936        Charles "Saavy" M. Cooke Jr.       (b. 1886 - d. 1970)
May 1936 - Jun 1938        Mark L. Hersey, Jr.                (b. 1888 - d. 1974)
Jun 1938 - Aug 1940        Worrall R. Carter                  (b. 1885 - d. 1975)
Sep 1940 - Mar 1944        George L. Weyler                   (b. 1886 - d. 1971)
Commanders
Apr 1944 - Oct 1944        Frank Alfred Braisted              (b. 1889 - d. 1981)
Oct 1944 - Dec 1945        J.J. Mahoney
Jan 1946 - May 1948        C.E. Battle, Jr.
Jun 1948 - Jun 1950        W.K. Phillips
Jun 1950 - Dec 1950        Albert M. Bledsoe                  (b. 1896 - d. 19..)
Dec 1950 - Jan 1953        Marion E. Murphy                   (b. 1899 - d. 1980)
Jan 1953 - Dec 1953        Clarence Lee Conner Atkeson        (b. 1899 - d. 1975)
Feb 1954 - Sep 1955        Edmund B. Taylor                   (b. 1904 - d. 1973)
Sep 1955 - Oct 1956        W.G. Cooper
Dec 1956 - Nov 1958        Robert B. Ellis                    (d. 1984)
Nov 1958 - Oct 1960        Frank W. Fenno                     (b. 1902 - d. 1973)
Dec 1960 - Dec 1962        Edward J. O'Donnell                (b. 1907 - d. 1991)
Dec 1962 - Dec 1963        J.W. Davis
Dec 1963 - Jun 1966        John Duncan Bulkeley               (b. 1911 - d. 1996)
Jun 1966 - Jul 1968        E.R. Crawford
Jul 1968 - Jun 1970        James B. Hildreth                  (b. 1920 - d. 2006)
Jun 1970 - Aug 1972        Brian McCauley
Aug 1972 - Jun 1973        Leo B. McCuddin                    (b. 1917 - d. 1983)
Jun 1973 - Jul 1975        Ralph M. Ghormley                  (b. 1927 - d. 2012) 
Jul 1975 - Jun 1977        J.H. McConnell 
Jun 1977 - Feb 1979        David W. DeCook
Feb 1979 - Mar 1981        John H. Fetterman, Jr.             (b. 1932 - d. 2006)
Mar 1981 - Oct 1983        M.D. Fitzgerald
Oct 1983 - Oct 1985        R.A. Allen 
Oct 1985 - Apr 1988        John R. Condon 
Apr 1988 - Jun 1990        John S. Boyd
Jun 1990 - Aug 1992        William C. McCamy, Jr.
Aug 1992 - Sep 1994        William M. DeSpain
Sep 1994 - Sep 1995        James F. Boland, Jr.
Sep 1995 - Apr 1997        Jim Cannon
Apr 1997 - 12 May 2000     Larry E. Larson
12 May 2000 - 27 Mar 2003  Robert A. Buehn                    (b. 1951?)
27 Mar 2003 -  9 Jul 2005  Leslie J. McCoy
 9 Jul 2005 - 22 Sep 2005  Lawrence S. Cotton, Jr.            (b. 1956?)
22 Sep 2005 - 25 Sep 2008  Mark M. Leary                      (b. 1958?)
25 Sep 2008 - 23 Sep 2010  Steven H. Blaisdell
23 Sep 2010 - 29 Jun 2012  Kirk R. Hibbert 
29 Jun 2012 -              John R. Nettleton

Territorial Dispute: Claimed by Cuba; leased to U.S. renewed 1934, and only mutual agreement
or U.S. abandonment of the area can terminate the lease.






 © Ben Cahoon