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Confederate States of America
Government

 
[Bonnie Blue
                            flag]
               9 Jul 1860 - 4 Mar 1861 
 
[stars and bars -
                            13 stars]
                 4 Mar 1861 - 26 May 1863 
 
[stainless
                            banner]
             26 May 1863 - 4 Mar 1865
 
[third national
                            flag]
              4 Mar 1865 - 10 May 1865
 


Map of the Confederate
States of America
Hear National Anthem
"God Save the South"
(1861 - 1865)
Popular Patriotic Song
"Dixie"
Constitution
(11 Mar 1861)
Capital: Richmond;
(4 Feb 1861- 20 May 1861
Montgomery; 3 Apr 1865 -
10 Apr 1865  Danville)
Currency: Confederate States
Dollar  (CSAD)
National Holiday: 4 Jul (1776)
Independence Day
Population9,103,332 (1860)
(of which 3,521,110 were slaves)
Armed Forces: 439,675 (1865)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $ N/A
Imports: $ N/A
Religions: mostly Protestant, some Roman Catholic
Confederate
States Index
Chronology
20 Dec 1860                South Carolina declares secession.
 9 Jan 1861                Mississippi declares secession.
10 Jan 1861                Florida declares secession.
11 Jan 1861                Alabama declares secession.
19 Jan 1861                Georgia declares secession.
26 Jan 1861                Louisiana declares secession. 
 4 Feb 1861                Congress of the secessionist states convenes in
                              Montgomery, Alabama.
 8 Feb 1861                Confederate States of America founded by Alabama,
                             Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, 
                             and South Carolina.
 5 Mar 1861                Accession of Texas.
16 Mar 1861                Bureau Of Indian Affairs established to manage
                             affairs with
Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek
                             and Seminole nations
of Indian territory.
20 May 1861                Accession of Arkansas and North Carolina.
23 May 1861                Accession of Virginia.
22 Jul 1861                Accession of Tennessee.
28 Nov 1861                Accession of Missouri.
10 Dec 1861                Accession of Kentucky.
14 Feb 1862                Arizona territory admitted (occupied by Union
                             forces Jul 1862).
 9 Apr 1865                Army of Northern Virginia surrenders at
                             Appomattox.
10 May 1865                President Davis captured in Irwinville, Georgia;
                             Confederate government extinguished.
26 May 1865                Surrender of Confederate forces west of the
                             Mississippi River.

State
Treasury
War 
Justice
Post Office
Navy
Congress
 
Note: The states making up the Confederate States of America previously seceded from the United States; the secession of Missouri (31 Oct 1861) and Kentucky (20 Nov 1861) affected only geographic parts of those states.

Presidents

Chairman of the Congress
 4 Feb 1861  (hours)       Robert Woodward Barnwell          (b. 1801 - d. 1882)  Dem 
President of the Congress

 4 Feb 1861 - 18 Feb 1861  Howell Cobb                       (b. 1815 - d. 1868)  Dem
President
18 Feb 1861 - 10 May 1865  Jefferson Davis                   (b. 1808 - d. 1889)  Dem 

Vice President

Vice President
18 Feb 1861 - 11 May 1865  Alexander Hamilton Stephens       (b. 1812 - d. 1883)  Dem 

Department of State

Secretaries of State
21 Feb 1861 - 24 Jul 1861  Robert Augustus Toombs            (b. 1810 - d. 1885)
                             (provisional)
25 Jul 1861 - 17 Feb 1862  Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter   (b. 1809 - d. 1887)
                             (provisional)
17 Feb 1862 - 18 Mar 1862  William Montague Brown (acting)   (b. 1827 - d. 1883)
18 Mar 1862 - 10 May 1865  Judah Philip Benjamin             (b. 1811 - d. 1884)

Department of the Treasury

Secretaries of the Treasury
21 Feb 1861 - 18 Jul 1864  Christopher Gustavus Memminger    (b. 1803 - d. 1888)
                             (provisional to 17 Feb 1862)
18 Jul 1864 - 27 Apr 1865  George Alfred Trenholm            (b. 1807 - d. 1876)
                             (acting to 22 Nov 1864) 
27 Apr 1865 - 10 May 1865  John Henninger Reagan (acting)    (s.a.)

Treasurers of the Confederate States
 6 Mar 1861 - 1864         Edward Carrington Elmore          (b. c.1826 - d. ....)
10 Oct 1864 - Apr 1865     John N. Hendren                   (b. 1822 - d. 1898)

Registers
16 Mar 1861 - 13 Aug 1861  Alexander Baron Clitherall        (b. 1820 - d. 1869)
13 Aug 1861 - 1865         Robert Tyler                      (b. 1816 - d. 1877)

Comptroller of the Treasury
1861 - 1865                Lewis Cruger

Chief Clerk of the War Tax Bureau
 1 Oct 1861 -  2 Jul 1863  
Thompson Allan
Commissioner of Taxes
 2 Jul 1863 - 1865         Thompson Allan

Chief Commissioner of the Produce Loan Office

1861 -  3 Jan 1862         
James Dunwoody Brownson DeBow     (b. 1820 - d. 1867) 
Chief Clerk of the Produce Loan Office
(from 1 May 1863, Produce Loan Bureau)

1862 - 1865                Archibald Roane

Chief Clerk of the Treasury Note Division

10 Mar 1862 - 10 Feb 1864  Sanders G. Jamison
Chief of the Treasury Note Bureau
10 Feb 1864 - 1865         Sanders G. Jamison


Chiefs of the Lighthouse Bureau

 4 Apr 1861 - 18 Apr 1861  Raphael Semmes                    (b. 1809 - d. 1877)
18 Apr 1861 - Sep 1861     Ebenezer Farrand                  (b. 1803 - d. 1873)
Sep 1861 - 1865            Thomas E. Martin (acting)

Commissioners of Customs
1861 - 1865
               the Secretaries of Treasury

[Confederate States Revenue
                Marine Ensign ]
  C.S. Revenue Marine Ensign

Chiefs of the Revenue Marine Customs Service
1861 - 1865                the Secretaries of Treasury 

 
War Department

Secretaries of War
21 Feb 1861 - 16 Sep 1861  Leroy Pope Walker (provisional)   (b. 1817 - d. 1884)
17 Sep 1861 - 23 Mar 1862  Judah Philip Benjamin             (s.a.) 
                            (acting provisional to 21 Nov 1861, 
                             acting from 17 Feb 1862) 
24 Mar 1862 - 17 Nov 1862  George Wythe Randolph             (b. 1818 - d. 1867)
17 Nov 1862 - 21 Nov 1862  Gustavus Woodson Smith (acting)   (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
21 Nov 1862 -  6 Feb 1865  James Alexander Seddon            (b. 1815 - d. 1880)
 6 Feb 1865 - 10 May 1865  John Cabell Breckenridge          (b. 1821 - d. 1875)

Generals-in-chief (commander-in-chief, operations officer, adviser to the President)
13 Mar 1862 - 31 May 1862  Robert E. Lee (1st time)(de facto)(b. 1807 - d. 1870)
24 Feb 1864 - 31 Jan 1865  Braxton Bragg                     (b. 1817 - d. 1876)
31 Jan 1865 -  9 Apr 1865
 Robert E. Lee (2nd time)          (s.a.)

Chiefs of the Bureau of War
 7 Jun 1861 -  7 Apr 1862  Albert Taylor Bledsoe             (b. 1809 - d. 1877)
 7 Apr 1862 - 26 Apr 1865  Robert Garlick Hill Keane         (b. 1828 - d. 1898)

Chiefs of the Army Engineers Bureau
 8 Apr 1861 -  3 Aug 1861  Josiah Gorgas (acting)            (b. 1818 - d. 1883)
 3 Aug 1861 - 11 Nov 1861  Danville Leadbetter (acting)      (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
11 Nov 1861 - 24 Sep 1862  Alfred Landon Rives (1st time)    (b. 1830 - d. 1903)
                             (acting)
25 Sep 1862 - 17 Aug 1863  Jeremy Francis Gilmer (1st time)  (b. 1818 - d. 1883)
18 Aug 1863 -  9 Mar 1864  Alfred Landon Rives (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 9 Mar 1864 -  2 Apr 1864  Martin Luther Smith               (b. 1819 - d. 1866)
 2 Apr 1864 - 18 Jul 1864  Alfred Landon Rives (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
18 Jul 1864 - Apr 1865     Jeremy Francis Gilmer (2nd time)  (s.a.)

Chief of Ordinance
 8 Apr 1861 - 26 Apr 1865  Josiah Gorgas                     (b. 1818 - d. 1883)

Chiefs of Niter and Mining Bureau
28 May 1863 - 16 Feb 1865  Isaac Munroe St. John             (b. 1827 - d. 1880)
22 Feb 1865 - Apr 1865     Richard Morton

Commissioners-general of the Bureau of Prisons
21 Nov 1864 -  7 Feb 1865  John H. Winder                    (b. 1800 - d. 1865)
14 Feb 1865 - 20 Mar 1865  Gideon J. Pillow                  (b. 1806 - d. 1878)
20 Mar 1865 - 24 Mar 1865  William M. Gardner                (b. 1824 - d. 1901)
24 Mar 1865 - Apr 1865     Daniel Ruggels                    (b. 1810 - d. 1897)

Chief of the Bureau of Exchange
22 Jul 1862 -  9 Apr 1865  Robert Ould                       (b. 1820 - d. 1881)

Chief of the Signal Bureau
31 Jul 1862 - 25 Apr 1865  William Norris                    (b. 1820 - d. 1896)
 8 Aug 1864 - Apr 1865     William N. Barker
                             (acting for Norris)

Surgeon-general
16 Mar 1861 - Apr 1865     Samuel Preston Moore              (b. 1813 - d. 1889)

Commissioners of Bureau of Indian Affairs
15 Mar 1861 -  7 Apr 1862  David Hubbard (1st time)          (b. 1792 - d. 1874)
 8 Apr 1862 - 1863         Sutton S. Scott                   (b. 1829 - d. 1907)
1863 - 1865
               David Hubbard (2nd time)          (s.a.)         
21 Feb 1865 - 1865         Douglas Hancock Cooper            (b. 1815 - d. 1879)

Commissioner of Indian Territory
16 Mar 1861 - 1862         Albert Pike                       (b. 1809 - d. 1891) 
Commanders of the Department of Indian Territory and 
Commissioners of Indian Territory  
1862 -  7 Mar 1862         Benjamin J. McCullough            (b. 1811 - d. 1862) 
1862 -  5 Nov 1862         Albert Pike                       (s.a.) 
Nov 1862 - Jan 1863        Douglas Hancock Cooper            (s.a.) 
 8 Jan 1863 - 11 Dec 1863  William Steele                    (b. 1819 - d. 1885)
Commanders of the Department of Indian Territory and 
Superintendents of Indian Affairs
Dec 1863 - 1865            Samuel Ball Maxey                 (b. 1825 - d. 1895) 
1865                       Douglas Hancock Cooper            (s.a.)

Department of Justice

Attorneys General
25 Feb 1861 - 17 Sep 1861  Judah Philip Benjamin             (s.a.)
                             (provisional)
17 Sep 1861 - 21 Nov 1861  Wade Rutledge Keyes (1st time)    (b. 1821 - d. 1879) 
                             (acting)
21 Nov 1861 - 17 Mar 1862  Thomas Bragg, Jr.                 (b. 1810 - d. 1872)
                             (provisional to 17 Feb 1862)
18 Mar 1862 -  1 Oct 1863  Thomas Hill Watts                 (b. 1819 - d. 1892) 
 1 Oct 1863 -  2 Jan 1864  Wade Rutledge Keyes (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 2 Jan 1864 - 26 Apr 1865  George Davis                      (b. 1820 - d. 1896)
26 Apr 1865 - 10 May 1865  John Henninger Reagan (acting)    (b. 1818 - d. 1905)

Commissioner of Patents
22 May 1861 - Apr 1865     Rufus Randolph Rhodes             (b. 1818 - d. 1870

Superintendent of Public Printing
1861 - 1865                George E.W. Nelson


Post Office Department

Postmaster General
25 Feb 1861 -  5 Mar 1861  Henry T. Ellet                    (b. 1812 - d. 1887)
                            (nominated and confirmed,
                             but declined appointment)
 6 Mar 1861 - 10 May 1865  John Henninger Reagan             (s.a.)
                             (provisional to 17 Feb 1862)

Navy Department

Secretaries of the Navy
 4 Mar 1861 -  2 May 1865  Stephan Russell Mallory           (b. 1811 - d. 1873)
                             (provisional to 17 Feb 1862)
 2 May 1865 - 10 May 1865  
John Henninger Reagan (acting)    (s.a.)

Ranking Officer of the Confederate States Navy
21 Aug 1861 - 17 May 1865  Franklin Buchanan                 (b. 1800 - d. 1874)
                            (U.S. prisoner 5 Aug 1864 - Feb 1865)

Engineer-in-chief of the Confederate States Navy
21 Apr 1862 - Apr 1865     William P. Williamson

Chiefs of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography
10 Jun 1861 - 16 Nov 1861  Duncan N. Ingraham                (b. 1802 - d. 1891)
Dec 1861 - Mar 1863        George Buckner Minor              (b. 1808 - d. 1879)
Mar 1863 - Apr 1865        John M. Brooke                    (b. 1826 - d. 1906)

Superintendent of the Confederate States Naval Academy
23 Jul 1863 -  2 May 1865  William H. Parker                 (b. 1826 - d. 1896)

Commandant of the Confederate States Marine Corps

23 May 1861 - 10 May 1865  Lloyd J. Beall                    (b. 1808 - d. 1887)


Senate

President of the Senate
18 Feb 1862 - 18 Mar 1865  the Vice President
President Pro Tempore of the Senate

18 Feb 1862 - 18 Mar 1865  Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter   (s.a.)               Dem


House of Representatives

Chairman of the Congress
 4 Feb 1861  (hours)       Robert Woodward Barnwell          (b. 1801 - d. 1882)  Dem 
President of the Congress

 4 Feb 1861 - 17 Feb 1862  Howell Cobb                       (b. 1815 - d. 1868)  Dem 
Presidents Pro Tempore of the Provisional Congress
10 Dec 1861 - 21 Dec 1861  Thomas Stanhope Bobcock (1st time)(b. 1815 - d. 1891)  Dem 
23 Dec 1861 - 24 Dec 1861  Josiah A. Patterson Campbell      (b. 1830 - d. 1917)
                             (1st time)
 6 Jan 1862
               Josiah A. Patterson Campbell      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 7 Jan 1862 -  8 Jan 1862  Thomas Stanhope Bobcock (2nd time)(s.a.)               Dem
Speaker of the House of Representatives
18 Feb 1862 - 18 Mar 1865  Thomas Stanhope Bobcock           (s.a.)               Dem 
 


Supreme Court

The Confederate Constitution provided for a Supreme Court, but one was never organized.


Party abbreviation
: Dem = Democratic Party (southern democrat, pro-states rights, pro-slavery)






Ben Cahoon