WorldStatesmen.org HOME >
return to United States >
to U.S. States S to U >>







 

U.S. States  O-R

States Ohio (OH) - Oklahoma (OK) - Oregon (OR) - Pennsylvania (PA) - Rhode Island (RI) -

Party abbreviations: Dem = Democratic Party (liberal, center-left, former D-R, est.1829); Ind = Independent; Rep = Republican Party (conservative, center-right, est.1854); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: AMP = Anti-Masonic Party (opposed Free Masonry, 1827-1836); AP = American Party (anti-immigrant, anti-Roman Catholic, Unionist, 1853-1860, informally called Know-Nothing Party); CtyP = Country Party (Rhode Island, anti-federalist, 1786-1791); D-R = Democratic-Republican Party (pro-states rights, anti-federalist, 1794-1829, renamed Dem); DFS = Democratic Free Soil Party (anti-slavery, opposed extension of slavery into the west, 1848-1854); Fed = Federalist Party (conservative, federalist, 1792-1824); F-R = Federalist-Republican Party; LoP = Law and Order Party of Rhode Island (Rhode Island coalition of Whigs and conservative Democrats 1841-1847); N-R = National Republican Party (anti-Jacksonian, 1826-1834); RISP = People's Party (Rhode Island Suffrage Association, favored universal male suffrage, 1841-1842); Uni = Union Party (or Constitutional Union Party, formed chiefly by remnants of the AP and southern Whigs, May 1860-1861); Whg = Whig Party (economic nationalist, protectionist, anti-Jacksonian, 1833-1860)


Ohio
 
[Flag of Ohio]
               Adopted 9 May 1902
 
Map of Ohio
Hear State Song
"Beautiful Ohio"
Text of State Song
Adopted 14 Oct 1969
State Constitution
(1 Sep 1851)
 Capital: Columbus
(Marietta 9 Jul 1788-1801;
Chillicothe 1 Mar 1801-1810,
1812-16; Zanesville 1810-1812)
Motto: With God, all things
are possible.
Nickname: Buckeye State
Population: 11,570,808 (2013)
Mayors of
Akron
Chronology
 3 Sep 1783                Ceded to the United States by Britain.
13 Sep 1786 - 30 May 1800  Western Reserve (tract of land in NE Ohio, on
                             the southern shore of Lake Erie)
                             administered by Connecticut.
13 Jul 1787                Northwest Ordinance enacted.
 9 Jul 1788                Territory Northwest of the River Ohio 
                             (Northwest Territory) created.
 1 Mar 1803                State of Ohio
Mayors of
Cincinnati
Mayors of
Cleveland
Mayors of
Columbus
Mayors of Toledo
 

Governors
 9 Jul 1788 - 14 Dec 1802  Arthur St. Clair                   (b. 1736 - d. 1818)  Fed
14 Dec 1802 -  3 Mar 1803  Charles Willing Byrd (acting)      (b. 1770 - d. 1828)  D-R
 3 Mar 1803 -  4 Mar 1807  Edward Tiffin                      (b. 1766 - d. 1829)  D-R
 4 Mar 1807 - 12 Dec 1808  Thomas Kirker (acting)             (b. 1760 - d. 1837)  D-R
12 Dec 1808 -  8 Dec 1810  Samuel H. Huntington               (b. 1765 - d. 1817)  D-R
 8 Dec 1810 - 24 Mar 1814  Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr.         (b. 1765 - d. 1824)  D-R
24 Mar 1814 -  8 Dec 1814  Othneil Looker (acting)            (b. 1757 - d. 1845)  D-R
 8 Dec 1814 - 14 Dec 1818  Thomas Worthington                 (b. 1773 - d. 1827)  D-R
14 Dec 1818 -  4 Jan 1822  Ethan Allan Brown                  (b. 1776 - d. 1852)  D-R
 4 Jan 1822 - 28 Dec 1822  Allen Trimble (1st time)           (b. 1783 - d. 1870)  D-R
                             (acting)
28 Dec 1822 - 19 Dec 1826  Jeremiah Morrow                    (b. 1771 - d. 1852)  D-R
19 Dec 1826 - 18 Dec 1830  Allen Trimble (2nd time)           (s.a.)               N-R
18 Dec 1830 -  7 Dec 1832  Duncan McArthur                    (b. 1772 - d. 1839)  N-R
 7 Dec 1832 - 12 Dec 1836  Robert Lucas                       (b. 1781 - d. 1853)  Dem
12 Dec 1836 - 13 Dec 1838  Joseph Vance                       (b. 1786 - d. 1852)  Whg
13 Dec 1838 - 16 Dec 1840  Wilson Shannon (1st time)          (b. 1802 - d. 1865)  Dem
16 Dec 1840 - 14 Dec 1842  Thomas Corwin                      (b. 1794 - d. 1865)  Whg
14 Dec 1842 - 15 Apr 1844  Wilson Shannon (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Dem
15 Apr 1844 -  3 Dec 1844  Thomas Welles Bartley (acting)     (b. 1812 - d. 1885)  Dem
 3 Dec 1844 - 12 Dec 1846  Mordecai Bartley                   (b. 1783 - d. 1870)  Whg
12 Dec 1846 - 22 Jan 1849  William Bebb                       (b. 1801 - d. 1873)  Whg
22 Jan 1849 - 12 Dec 1850  Seabury Ford                       (b. 1801 - d. 1855)  Whg
12 Dec 1850 - 13 Jul 1853  Reuben Wood                        (b. 1792 - d. 1864)  Dem
13 Jul 1853 - 14 Jan 1856  William Medill                     (b. 1802 - d. 1865)  Dem
                             (acting to 9 Jan 1854)
14 Jan 1856 -  9 Jan 1860  Salmon Portland Chase              (b. 1808 - d. 1873)  Rep
 9 Jan 1860 - 13 Jan 1862  William Dennison, Jr.              (b. 1815 - d. 1882)  Rep
13 Jan 1862 - 11 Jan 1864  David Tod                          (b. 1805 - d. 1868)  Uni
11 Jan 1864 - 29 Aug 1865  John Brough                        (b. 1811 - d. 1865)  Uni
29 Aug 1865 -  8 Jan 1866  Charles Anderson (acting)          (b. 1814 - d. 1895)  Rep
 8 Jan 1866 - 13 Jan 1868  Jacob Dolson Cox                   (b. 1828 - d. 1900)  Rep
13 Jan 1868 -  8 Jan 1872  Rutherford Birchard Hayes          (b. 1822 - d. 1893)  Rep
                             (1st time)
 8 Jan 1872 - 12 Jan 1874  Edward Follansbee Noyes            (b. 1832 - d. 1890)  Rep
12 Jan 1874 - 10 Jan 1876  William Allen                      (b. 1803 - d. 1879)  Dem
10 Jan 1876 -  2 Mar 1877  Rutherford Birchard Hayes          (s.a.)               Rep
                             (2nd time)
 2 Mar 1877 - 14 Jan 1878  Thomas Lowry Young (acting)        (b. 1832 - d. 1888)  Rep
14 Jan 1878 - 12 Jan 1880  Richard Moore Bishop               (b. 1812 - d. 1893)  Dem
12 Jan 1880 - 14 Jan 1884  Charles Foster                     (b. 1828 - d. 1904)  Rep
14 Jan 1884 - 11 Jan 1886  George Hoadly                      (b. 1826 - d. 1902)  Dem
11 Jan 1886 - 13 Jan 1890  Joseph Benson Foraker              (b. 1846 - d. 1917)  Rep
13 Jan 1890 - 11 Jan 1892  James Edwin Campbell               (b. 1843 - d. 1924)  Dem
11 Jan 1892 - 13 Jan 1896  William McKinley                   (b. 1843 - d. 1901)  Rep
13 Jan 1896 -  8 Jan 1900  Asa Smith Bushnell                 (b. 1834 - d. 1904)  Rep
 8 Jan 1900 - 11 Jan 1904  George Kilborn Nash                (b. 1842 - d. 1904)  Rep
11 Jan 1904 -  8 Jan 1906  Myron Timothy Herrick              (b. 1854 - d. 1929)  Rep
 8 Jan 1906 - 18 Jun 1906  John M. Pattison                   (b. 1847 - d. 1906)  Dem
18 Jun 1906 - 11 Jan 1909  Andrew Linter Harris (acting)      (b. 1835 - d. 1915)  Rep
11 Jan 1909 - 13 Jan 1913  Judson Harmon                      (b. 1846 - d. 1927)  Dem
13 Jan 1913 - 11 Jan 1915  James Middleton Cox (1st time)     (b. 1870 - d. 1957)  Dem
11 Jan 1915 -  8 Jan 1917  Frank Bartlett Willis              (b. 1871 - d. 1928)  Rep
 8 Jan 1917 - 10 Jan 1921  James Middleton Cox (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Dem
10 Jan 1921 -  8 Jan 1923  Harry Lyman Davis                  (b. 1878 - d. 1950)  Rep
 8 Jan 1923 - 14 Jan 1929  Alvin Victor Donahey               (b. 1873 - d. 1946)  Dem
14 Jan 1929 - 12 Jan 1931  Myers Young Cooper                 (b. 1873 - d. 1958)  Rep
12 Jan 1931 - 14 Jan 1935  George White                       (b. 1872 - d. 1953)  Dem
14 Jan 1935 -  9 Jan 1939  Martin Luther Davey                (b. 1884 - d. 1946)  Dem
 9 Jan 1939 -  8 Jan 1945  John William Bricker               (b. 1893 - d. 1986)  Rep
 8 Jan 1945 - 13 Jan 1947  Frank John Lausche (1st time)      (b. 1895 - d. 1990)  Dem
13 Jan 1947 - 10 Jan 1949  Thomas John Herbert                (b. 1894 - d. 1974)  Rep 
10 Jan 1949 -  3 Jan 1957  Frank John Lausche (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Jan 1957 - 14 Jan 1957  John William Brown                 (b. 1913 - d. 1993)  Rep
14 Jan 1957 - 12 Jan 1959  Crone William O'Neill              (b. 1916 - d. 1978)  Rep
12 Jan 1959 - 14 Jan 1963  Michael Vincent DiSalle            (b. 1908 - d. 1981)  Dem
14 Jan 1963 - 11 Jan 1971  James Allan Rhodes (1st time)      (b. 1909 - d. 2001)  Rep
11 Jan 1971 - 13 Jan 1975  John Joyce Gilligan                (b. 1921 - d. 2013)  Dem
13 Jan 1975 - 10 Jan 1983  James Allan Rhodes (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Rep
10 Jan 1983 - 14 Jan 1991  Richard F. Celeste                 (b. 1937)            Dem
14 Jan 1991 - 31 Dec 1998  George Victor Voinovich            (b. 1936)            Rep
31 Dec 1998 - 11 Jan 1999  Nancy Putnam Hollister (f)         (b. 1949)            Rep
11 Jan 1999 -  8 Jan 2007  Robert "Bob" Alphonso Taft III     (b. 1942)            Rep
 8 Jan 2007 - 
10 Jan 2011  Ted Strickland                     (b. 1941)            Dem
10 Jan 2011 -              John R. Kasich                     (b. 1952)            Rep



Oklahoma
 
[1911
                                  Flag of Oklahoma]
           2 Mar 1911 - 2 Apr 1925
 
[1925
                                  Flag of Oklahoma]
               2 Apr 1925 - 9 May 1941
 
[Flag of
                                  Oklahoma]
                    Adopted 9 May 1941

Map of Oklahoma
Hear State Song
"Oklahoma!"
Text of State Song
Adopted 11 Mar 1953
State Constitution
(16 Nov 1907)
 Capital: Oklahoma City
(Guthrie 2 May 1890-
1 Jun 1910)
Motto: Labor omnia vincit
(Labor conquers all things)
Nickname: The Sooner State
Population: 3,850,568 (2013)
Mayors of
Oklahoma City
Chronology
26 Mar 1804                Part of Louisiana Territory.
 7 Dec 1812                Part of Missouri Territory.
 2 Mar 1819                Area south of 36.5 part of Arkansas Territory
26 May 1828                Unorganized territory.
28 May 1830                Settlement of "Five Civilized Nations" begun
                             under the Indian Removal Act.
30 Jun 1834                Indian Territory set aside.
30 May 1854                Officially named Indian Territory.
 8 Feb 1860 - 16 Mar 1896  Greer County claimed by Texas.
1879 - 1889                Bands of white migrants - the so-called
                             "Boomers" - try to settle the area.
22 Apr 1889                Unassigned lands were formally opened to white
                             settlement.
 2 May 1890                Oklahoma Territory
26 Apr 1906                End of sovereign rights of the Five Nations
                             (effective 4 Mar 1906).
16 Nov 1907                Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory 
                             united as State of Oklahoma.
 Mayors of Tulsa
Map of Indian
Territory
Historical Maps
of Oklahoma
 
 


Provisional Mayors of Oklahoma City 
22 Apr 1889 - 27 Apr 1889  James Murray
27 Apr 1889 - 11 Nov 1889  William L. Couch                   (
b. 1850 - d. 1890)
11 Nov 1889 - 27 Nov 1889  Sidney Clark (acting)              (b. 1831 - d. 1909)
27 Nov 1889 - 30 Dec 1889  Andrew Jackson Beale               (b.c.1831 - d. 1909)
15 Jul 1890 -  9 Aug 1890  David W. Gibbs                     (b. 1836 - d. 1917)
Governors
 2 May 1890 - 18 Oct 1891  George Washington Steele           (b. 1839 - d. 1922)  Rep
18 Oct 1891 -  1 Feb 1892  Robert Martin                      (b. 1833 - d. 1897)  Rep
 1 Feb 1892 -  7 May 1893  Abraham Jefferson Seay             (b. 1832 - d. 1915)  Rep
 7 May 1893 - 24 May 1897  William Cary Renfrow               (b. 1845 - d. 1922)  Dem
24 May 1897 - 20 Apr 1901  Cassius McDonald Barnes            (b. 1845 - d. 1925)  Rep
20 Apr 1901 - 30 Nov 1901  William Miller Jenkins             (b. 1856 - d. 1941)  Rep
30 Nov 1901 -  9 Dec 1901  William C. Grimes                  (b. 1857 - d. 1931)  Rep
 9 Dec 1901 -  5 Jan 1906  Thompson Benton Ferguson           (b. 1857 - d. 1921)  Rep
 5 Jan 1906 - 16 Nov 1907  Frank Frantz                       (b. 1872 - d. 1941)  Rep
16 Nov 1907 -  9 Jan 1911  Charles Nathaniel Haskell          (b. 1861 - d. 1933)  Dem
 9 Jan 1911 - 11 Jan 1915  Lee Cruce                          (b. 1863 - d. 1933)  Dem
11 Jan 1915 - 13 Jan 1919  Robert Lee Williams                (b. 1868 - d. 1948)  Dem
13 Jan 1919 -  8 Jan 1923  James Brooks Ayers Robertson       (b. 1871 - d. 1938)  Dem
 8 Jan 1923 - 19 Nov 1923  John Callaway Walton               (b. 1881 - d. 1949)  Dem
19 Nov 1923 - 10 Jan 1927  Martin Edwin Trapp                 (b. 1877 - d. 1951)  Dem
10 Jan 1927 - 20 Mar 1929  Henry Simpson Johnston             (b. 1867 - d. 1965)  Dem
20 Mar 1929 -  1 Jan 1931  William Judson Holloway            (b. 1888 - d. 1970)  Dem
 1 Jan 1931 - 14 Jan 1935  William Henry Murray               (b. 1869 - d. 1956)  Dem
14 Jan 1935 -  9 Jan 1939  Ernest Whitworth Marland           (b. 1874 - d. 1941)  Dem
 9 Jan 1939 - 11 Jan 1943  Leon Chase Phillips                (b. 1890 - d. 1958)  Dem
11 Jan 1943 - 13 Jan 1947  Robert Samuel Kerr                 (b. 1896 - d. 1963)  Dem
13 Jan 1947 -  8 Jan 1951  Roy Joseph Turner                  (b. 1894 - d. 1973)  Dem
 8 Jan 1951 - 10 Jan 1955  Johnston Murray                    (b. 1902 - d. 1974)  Dem
10 Jan 1955 - 12 Jan 1959  Raymond D. Gary                    (b. 1908 - d. 1993)  Dem
12 Jan 1959 -  6 Jan 1963  James Howard Edmondson             (b. 1925 - d. 1971)  Dem
 6 Jan 1963 - 14 Jan 1963  George Patterson Nigh (1st time)   (b. 1927)            Dem
14 Jan 1963 -  9 Jan 1967  Henry Louis Bellmon (1st time)     (b. 1921 - d. 2009)  Rep
 9 Jan 1967 - 11 Jan 1971  Dewey Follett Bartlett             (b. 1919 - d. 1979)  Rep
11 Jan 1971 - 13 Jan 1975  David Hall                         (b. 1930)            Dem
13 Jan 1975 -  3 Jan 1979  David Lyle Boren                   (b. 1941)            Dem
 3 Jan 1979 - 12 Jan 1987  George Patterson Nigh (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Dem
12 Jan 1987 - 14 Jan 1991  Henry Louis Bellmon (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Rep
14 Jan 1991 -  9 Jan 1995  David Lee Walters                  (b. 1951)            Dem
 9 Jan 1995 - 13 Jan 2003  Frank Anthony Keating              (b. 1944)            Rep
13 Jan 2003 - 10 Jan 2011  C. Brad Henry                      (b. 1963)            Dem
10 Jan 2011 -              Mary Fallin (f)                    (b. 1954)            Rep


Public Land Strip

Public Land Strip map
Capital: Beaver City
Population: 12,000 (1888)

25 Nov 1850                Public Land Strip ceded to U.S. by Texas (from 1885 
                             informally called No Man's Land); not part of any
                             territory. The area remained unclassified until 1890.
c.1880                     Settlement begins.
 4 Mar 1887                Territory of Cimarron proclaimed (not recognized by U.S.).
 2 May 1890                Part of Oklahoma (forming its panhandle).

President of the Convention
 4 Mar 1887 -  7 Nov 1887  Owen G. Chase
Governor
 7 Nov 1887 - 1890?        J.R. Linley


The Five Nations of the Indian Territory 1830-1906
 
Map of Indian Territory
 
28 May 1830                Settlement of "Five Civilized Nations" begun under the                              Indian Removal Act. 
30 Jun 1834                Indian Territory.
16 Mar 1861                Confederate Bureau of Indian Affairs established to manage affairs 
                             with "Five Civilized Nations."
Jul/Oct 1861 - 23 Jun 1865 "Five Civilized Nations" allied to the Confederate States.
1866                       "Reconstruction" Treaties signed with U.S.
 4 Mar 1906                End of sovereign rights of the Five Nations.
 

Cherokee Nation

[Cherokee Braves
                  Pro-Confederate Battle Flag, 1861-1865
             7 Oct 1861 - 23 Jun 1865 
    Pro-Confederate Cherokee Braves Flag
 7 Oct 1861                Treaty of alliance with the Confederate States of America.
20 Feb 1863                Pro-U.S. faction revokes treaty with the Confederacy.
19 Jul 1866                "Reconstruction" Treaty with U.S.

Principal chiefs of Western Cherokee
1819 - 28 Dec 1838         John Jolly (Ahuludegi)            (b. c.1763 - d. 1838)
Dec 1838 22 Apr 1839     John Looney (1st time)            (b. 1776 - d. 1846)
22 Apr 1839 Jul 1839     John Brown                        (b. 1751 d. 1839)
Jul 1839 - 11 Oct 1839     John Looney (2nd time)            (s.a.)       
11 Oct 1839 - 1840         John Rogers                       (b. 1778 - d. 1846)
                             (in opposition to the merger)
Principal Chiefs

 2 Oct 1839 -  1 Aug 1866  John Ross                         (s.a.)
                             (in exile in Kansas, 3 Aug 1862 - Jun 1865)
21 Aug 1862 13 Sep 1865  Isaac Stand Watie (in rebellion)  (b. 1806 - d. 1871)
                             (elected by Confederate Cherokee; from 1863 in exile
                             in the Creek country, later in the Choctaw country;
                             surrendered to U.S. on 23 Jun 1865)
1862 - 1863                Thomas Pegg (acting for Ross)
1863 1864                Smith Christie (acting for Ross)
1864 1865                Lewis Downing (acting for Ross)   (b. 1823 - d. 1872)
 1 Aug 1866 - 19 Oct 1866  Lewis Downing (1st time) (acting) (s.a.)
19 Oct 1866 -  4 Nov 1867  William Potter Ross (1st time)    (b. 1820 - d. 1891)  RP
 4 Nov 1867 -  9 Nov 1872  Lewis Downing (2nd time)          (s.a.)               DP
10 Nov 1872                Charles Thompson (1st time)       (d. 1891)            DP
                             (acting)
11 Nov 1872 -  1 Nov 1875  William Potter Ross (2nd time)    (s.a.)               RP
 1 Nov 1875 -  3 Nov 1879  Charles Thompson (2nd time)       (s.a.)               DP
 3 Nov 1879 -  1 Aug 1887  Dennis Wolf Bushyhead             (b. 1826 - d. 1898)  NP
                             (continued until taking of the office by successor)
 1 Aug 1887 - 14 Dec 1891  Joel Bryan Mayes                  (b. 1833 - d. 1891)  DP
                             (installed 4 Jan 1888)
14 Dec 1891 - 23 Dec 1891  Thomas Mitchell Buffington        (b. 1855 - d. 1938)  DP
                             (1st time) (acting)
23 Dec 1891 -  4 Nov 1895  Colonel Johnson Harris            (b. 1856 - d. 1921)  DP
 4 Nov 1895 -  6 Nov 1899  Samuel Houston Mayes              (b. 1845 - d. 1927)  DP
 6 Nov 1899 -  2 Nov 1903  Thomas Mitchell Buffington        (s.a.)               DP
                             (2nd time)
 2 Nov 1903 - 21 Nov 1905  William Charles Rogers (1st time) (b. 1849 - d. 1917)  DP
21 Nov 1905 Jan? 1906    Frank Josiah Boudinot             (b. 1866 - d. 1945)  NP
                             (not recognized by the U.S.)
Jan? 1906 26 Apr 1906    William Charles Rogers (2nd time) (s.a.)


Party abbreviations
(to 1906): RP = Ross Party (informal, 18661879, former northerners, becomes NP); DP = Downing Party (informal 18661879, former southerners, reorganized 1883, afterwards considered progressive); NP = National Party (conservative, former RP, 1879-c.1906) 


Chickasaw Nation

[Chickasaw Nation]

17 Jan 1837 - 22 Jun 1855  Component part (District) of the Choctaw Nation.
 1 Jul 1861                Treaty of alliance with the Confederate States of America.
28 Apr 1866                "Reconstruction" Treaty with U.S.

Minko (hereditary chief)
1838 - 1846                Ishtehotopa                       (b. c.1800 - d. 1848)
Chiefs of the Chickasaw District (under the Choctaw constitution)
1844 - 1846                Isaac Alberson                    (d. 1849/51)
1846 - 1848                James McLaughlin                  (b. c.1784 - d. c.1851)
1848 - 1852                Edmund Pickens                    (b. 1789 - d. 1868)
bf.1854 - 1856             Jackson Frazier                   (b. 1815 d. 1856)
Chiefs of the Chickasaw People
(under the Chickasaw constitution of 1848)
Nov 1848 1850            Edmund Pickens                    (s.a.)
Nov 1850 Aug 1856        Daugherty Winchester Colbert      (b. 1810 - d. 1880)
                             (from 1852, usually styled Financial Chief)
Governors
1856 - 1858                Cyrus H. Harris (1st time)        (b. 1817 - d. 1888)
1858 - 1860                Daugherty Winchester Colbert      (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
1860 - 1862                Cyrus H. Harris (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1862 - 1866                Daugherty Winchester Colbert      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(in Texas exile Feb Oct 1864)
1864                       Horace Pratt (acting for Colbert)
1866                       Jackson Kemp (acting)
1866 - 1870                Cyrus H. Harris (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1870 - 1871                William P. Brown                  (b. 1820 - d. 1884)
1871 - 1872                Thomas J. Parker                  (b. c.1800 - d. 1890)
1872 - 1874                Cyrus H. Harris (4th time)        (s.a.)               PP
1874 - 1878                Benjamin Franklin Overton         (b. 1836 - d. 1884)  NP
                             (1st time) 
1878 - 1880                Benjamin Crooks Burney            (b. 1844 - d. 1892)  NP
1880 -  8 Feb 1884         Benjamin Franklin Overton         (s.a.)               NP
                             (2nd time)
1881                       Hickeyubbee (acting for Overton)
Feb 1884 Mar 1884        Ah-chuck-ah-nubbe (acting)        (d. 1884)
Apr 1884 Aug 1886        Jonas Wolf (1st time)             (b. 1828 - d. 1900)  NP
Aug 1886 Sep 1888        William Malcolm Guy               (b. 1845 - d. 1918)  PP
Sep 1888 Aug 1892        William Leander Byrd              (b. 1844 - d. 1915)  NP
Aug 1892 - Jun 1894        Jonas Wolf (2nd time)             (s.a.)               NP
Jun 1894                   Nelson Chigley (acting)           (b. 1830 d. 1922)
Jun 1894 - Oct 1894        Tecumseh A. McClure (acting)      (b. 1830 - d. ....)
Oct 1894 - Aug 1896        Palmer Simeon Mosely (1st time)   (b. 1851 - d. 1908)  NP
Aug 1896 - 1898            Robert Maxwell Harris             (b. 1850 - d. 1927)  PP
1898   1 Sep 1902         Douglas Henry Johnston (1st time) (b. 1858 - d. 1939)  NP

 
1 Sep 1902   5 Sep 1904  Palmer Simeon Mosely (2nd time)   (s.a.)               NP
 5 Sep 1904 - 26 Jun 1939  Douglas Henry Johnston (2nd time) (s.a.)               NP to 1906

Party abbreviations (to 1906): NP = National Party (conservative, until 1896/98 also known as "Pull-Back" Party, 1871-1906); PP = Progressive Party (progressive, 1870/72-1906)


Choctaw Nation

[Choctaw Nation]

1834 - 1838                Governed by the chiefs of the Moshulatubbee District,
                             the Oklafalaya District, and the Pushmataha District.
1838 - Oct 1857            Governed by the chiefs of the Moshulatubbee District,
                             the Apukshunnubbee District, the Pushmataha District,
                             and the Chickasaw District (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1861                Treaty of alliance with the Confederate States of America.
28 Apr 1866                "Reconstruction" Treaty with U.S.

Chiefs of Moshulatubbee District
1834 - 1836                Moshulatubbee                      (b. c.1778 - d. 1838)
1836 - 1838                Joseph Kincaid
1838 - 1842                John McKinley
1842 - 1846                Nathaniel Folsom                   (b. 1811 - d. 18..)
1846 - 1850                Peter Folsom                       (d. 1885)
1850 - 1854                Cornelius McCurtain                (b. 1803 - d. 1871)
1854 - Oct 1857            David McCoy
Chief of Oklafalaya District
1834 - 1838                Thomas LeFlore                     (b. 1792 - d. c.1850)
Chiefs of Apukshunnubbee District
1838 - 1842                James Fletcher
1842 - 1850                Thomas LeFlore                     (s.a.)
1850 - Oct 1857            George Washington Harkins          (b. 1810 - d. 1861)
Chiefs of Pushmataha District
1834 - 1838                Nitukechi (1st time)               (d. 1846)
1838 - 1841                Pierre Juzan                       (b. 1805 - d. 1841)
1841 - 1846                Isaac Folsom
1846                       Nitukechi (2nd time)               (s.a.)
1846 - 1850                Silas D. Fisher
1850 - 1854                George Folsom
1854 - Oct 1857            Nicholas Cochnauer
Governors
Oct 1857 - 1858            Alfred Wade                        (b. 1811 - d. 1878)
1857 - Oct 1859            Tandy C. Walker                    (b. 1814 - d. 1877)
Oct 1859 -  1 Oct 1860     Basil LeFlore                      (b. 1810 - d. 1886)
Principal chiefs
 1 Oct 1860 -  6 Oct 1862  George Hudson                      (b. 1808 - d. 1865)
 6 Oct 1862 -  3 Oct 1864  Samuel Garland                     (b. 1803 - d. 1870)
 3 Oct 1864 -  1 Oct 1866  Peter Perkins Pitchlynn            (b. 1806 - d. 1881)
 1 Oct 1866 -  3 Oct 1870  Allen Wright                       (b. 1826 - d. 1885)
 3 Oct 1870 -  5 Oct 1874  William J. Bryant 
 5 Oct 1874 -  7 Oct 1878  Coleman Cole                       (b. c.1800 - d. 1886)
 7 Oct 1878 - Feb 1880     Isaac Levi Garvin                  (b. 1832 - d. 1880)
Feb 1880 -  6 Oct 1884     Jackson Frazier McCurtain          (b. 1830 - d. 1885)
                             (acting to 3 Oct 1880)
 6 Oct 1884 -  3 Oct 1886  Edmund McCurtain                   (b. 1842 - d. 1890)
 3 Oct 1886 -  1 Oct 1888  Thompson McKinney                  (b. c.1837 - d. 1889)
 1 Oct 1888 -  6 Oct 1890  Benjamin Franklin Smallwood        (b. 1829 - d. 1891)
 6 Oct 1890 -  1 Oct 1894  Wilson Nathaniel Jones             (b. 1831 - d. 1901)
 1 Oct 1894 -  5 Oct 1896  Jefferson Gardner                  (b. 1847 - d. 1906)
 5 Oct 1896 -  1 Oct 1900  Green McCurtain (1st time)         (b. 1848 - d. 1910)
 1 Oct 1900 -  6 Oct 1902  Gilbert W. Dukes                   (b. 1849 - d. 1919)  
 6 Oct 1902 - 26 Apr 1906  Green McCurtain (2nd time)         (s.a.)


Muskogee Nation (Creek)
 
[Muskogee Nation
                          (Creek)]
   
[Muskogee,
                          Creek confederate flag]
    1861 - 186.  Pro-Confederate States flag

1836 - Dec 1867            Divided into the Lower Towns and the Upper Towns.
 1 Jul 1861                Lower Creeks sign treaty of alliance with the Confederate States.
14 Jun 1866                "Reconstruction" Treaty with U.S.

Principal chiefs of the Lower Towns
1836 - 1837                Heneha Micco
1837 - 1859                Roderick McIntosh "Roley McIntosh"
1859 - 1863                Motey Canard "Motey Kinnard"       (b. c.1790 - d. 186.)
1863 - Dec 1867            Samuel Checote                     (b. 1819 - d. 1884)
Principal chiefs of the Upper Towns
1836 - 18..                Nehathlucco Hopoie "Little Doctor"
1861 - 27 Mar 1863         Hupuihilth Yahola "Opothle Yahola" (b. c.1780 - d. 1863)
                            (in opposition to Confederate sympathizers;
                             from Dec 1861 in Kansas exile)
18.. - 18..                Tamarthla Micco
18.. - 1859                Tuckabatchee Micco (1st time)
1859 - 1863                Echo Harjo
1863 - 1865                Tuckabatchee Micco (2nd time)
1865 - Dec 1867            Oktarharsars Harjo "Sands"         (d. 1872)
                             (already proclaimed 5 Aug 1861)
Principal chiefs
Dec 1867 - Dec 1875        Samuel Checote (1st time)          (s.a.)
Dec 1875 -  5 Dec 1876     Lochar Harjo                       (d. 1879)
 5 Dec 1876 -  6 Dec 1879  Ward Coachman                      (b. 1823 - d. 1884)
 6 Dec 1879 -  5 Dec 1883  Samuel Checote (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 5 Dec 1883 - Dec 1887     Joseph Moses Perryman              (b. 1833 - d. 1896)
Dec 1887 - 25 Nov 1895     Legus C. Perryman                  (b. 1838 - d. 1922)
25 Nov 1895 -  5 Dec 1895  Hotulke Emarthla "Edward Bullet"
 5 Dec 1895 - Dec 1899     Isparhecher                        (b. 1858 - d. 1902)
Dec 1899 - 26 Apr 1906     Pleasant Porter                    (b. 1840 - d. 1907)


Seminole Nation

[Seminole Confederate
                flag]
 29 Aug 1861 - 186. Pro-Confederate flag

 1 Jul 1861                Treaty of alliance with the Confederate States of America
                             divided the Seminole nation.
21 Mar 1866                "Reconstruction" Treaty with U.S.

Principal chiefs
1826 Nov 1833            John Hicks "Tuckose Emathla"       (b. c.1774 d. 1833)
1833 - Jan 1841            Mikanopi                           (b. c.1780 - d. 1849)
Jan 1841 - c.1849          Miconnutcharsar "Jim Jumper"       (d. c.1849)
c.1849 - 1865              John Jumper (1st time)             (b. c.1820 - d. 1896)
                            (pro-Confederate chief 1861 - 1865;
                             continues in rebellion to 1875)
1866 - Mar 1881            John Chupco                        (b. c.1821 - d. 1881)
                            (pro-U.S. chief; in Kansas exile
                             1861 - 1865)
Mar 1881 - 1882            Hulputta Che
Jul 1882 - 1885            John Jumper (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1885 - 1901                John Frippo Brown -Governor        (b. 1842 - d. 1919)
                             (1st time)
1901 - 1905                Hulputta Micco                     (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
Governor
1905 - 26 Apr 1906         John Frippo Brown (2nd time)       (s.a.) 


Sequoyah

22 Aug 1905                Attempt by the Five Nations to form a separate
                             state of Sequoyah convenes.
14 Oct 1905                Constitution published, Fort Gibson chosen as capital.
26 Apr 1906                U.S. Congress rejects petition, area included in 
                             the state of Oklahoma.

President of the Convention 
22 Aug 1905 - 26 Apr 1906  Pleasant Porter, Principal          (b. 1840 - d. 1907)
                             Chief of the Muskogee



Superintendents of the Central Superintendency
(subordinated to the Commissioners of Indian Affairs; in charge of 
all agencies and reservations except those of the Five Civilized Tribes)
1822 - 1838                William Clark                       (b. 1770 - d. 1838)
1838 - 1839                George Maguire (acting)
1839 - 1841                Joshua Pilcher
1841 - 1844                David D. Mitchell (1st time)
1844 - 1849                Thomas H. Harvey
13 Mar 1851 - 1853         David D. Mitchell (2nd time)
23 Apr 1853 - 1857         Alfred Cumming                      (b. 1802 - d. 1873) 
19 Aug 1857 - 1858         John Haverty
 1 Mar 1858 - 1861         Alexander M. Robinson
 8 Apr 1861 - 1864         Harrison B. Branch
 2 Mar 1864 - 1865         William M. Albin
 1 Jul 1865 - 1869         Thomas Murphy
22 Apr 1869 - 1876         Enoch Hoag                          (b. 1812 - d. 1884)
 

Superintendents of the Western Superintendency
(subordinated to the Commissioners of Indian Affairs; in charge
of the Five Civilized Tribes)
1837 - Jun 1846            William Armstrong                   (d. 1846)
1846 - 1849                Samuel M. Rutherford
1849 - 1850?               John Drennen (1st time)(acting)
1850 - Mar 1851            A.S. Loughrey
Mar 1851 - 1854?           John Drennen (2nd time)
Superintendents of the Southern Superintendency

(subordinated to the Commissioners of Indian Affairs; in charge of the 
Five Civilized Tribes, from 1870 in charge of all agencies)
1854 - 1857                Charles W. Dean
1857 - 1861                Elias Rector 
 9 Apr 1861 - 20 Apr 1861  Samuel L. Griffith (1st time)
1861 - May 1865            William C. Coffin
20 Apr 1861 - 186.         Samuel L. Griffith (2nd time)
                             (for the Confederate States)
May 1865 - 1866            Elijah Sells 
1867                       Byers
1868 - 1869                L.N. Robinson
1869 -  2 Sep 1869         William B. Hazen
1869 - 1876                Enoch Hoag                           (s.a.)
1876 - 1878                William Nicholson                    (b. 1826 - d. 1899)

Commanders of the Confederate Department of Indian Territory
and Commissioners (from Dec 1863 Commanders and Superintendents of Indian Affairs)
1862 -  7 Mar 1862         Benjamin J. McCullough               (b. 1811 - d. 1862) 
1862 -  5 Nov 1862         Albert Pike                          (b. 1809 - d. 1891) 
Nov 1862 - Jan 1863        Douglas Hancock Cooper               (b. 1815 - d. 1879)
Jan 1863 - Dec 1863        William Steels
Dec 1863 - 1865            Samuel Ball Maxey                    (b. 1825 - d. 1895) 
1865                       Douglas Hancock Cooper               (s.a.) 



Oregon
 
[Flag of
                                  Oregon c.1900-1925]                   c.1900 - 26 Feb 1925
 
[Flag of
                                  Oregon (front)]                    Adopted 26 Feb 1925
 
[Flag
                                  of Oregon (Reverse)]              Adopted 26 Feb 1925 (Reverse)

Map of Oregon
Hear State Song
"Oregon, My Oregon"
Text of State Song
Adopted 12 Feb 1927
State Constitution
(14 Feb 1859)
 Capital: Salem
(Champoeg 2 May 1843-1848;
Oregon City 14 Aug 1848-1852;

Salem 4 May 1852-1855;
Corvallis 13 Jan 1855 -
18 Dec 1855)
Motto: Alis volat Propriis
(She flies with her own wings)
Nickname: Beaver State
Population: 3,930,065 (2013)
Mayors of
Portland
Chronology

27 Aug 1775                Claimed for Spain by Bruno de Heceta and 
                             Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra.
15 Feb 1812                Oregon Country claimed by U.S.
12 Dec 1813                Columbia District claimed by U.K.
20 Oct 1818                Joint U.S.-British administration of Oregon
                             Country/Columbia Department (see Canada
                             Provinces under
British Columbia).
22 Feb 1819                Spain renounces claim.
 2 May 1843                Provisional Government in the Oregon Country
                             formed (not recognized by U.S. or U.K.)
17 Jul 1846                Oregon territory south of 40 degrees latitude
                             ceded to U.S, north ceded to Britain.
14 Aug 1848                Territory (effective 3 Mar 1849).
14 Feb 1859                State

 
 
 
 
 
 


Provisional Government in the Oregon Country

 5 Jul 1843 - 14 May 1844  First Executive Committee
                           - Joseph Gale                      (b. 1800 - d. 1881)
                           - Alanson Beers                    (b. 1800 - d. 1853)
                           - David Hill                       (b. 1809 - d. 1850)
14 May 1844 - 12 Jul 1845  Second Executive Committee
                           - Peter G. Stewart                 (b. 1809 - d. 1900)
                           - William J. Bailey                (b. 1807 - d. 1876)
                           - Osborne Russell                  (b. 1814 - d. 1892)

Governors
14 Jul 1845 -  3 Mar 1849  George Abernethy (provisional)     (b. 1807 - d. 1877)  Whg
 3 Mar 1849 - 18 Jun 1850  Joseph Lane (1st time)             (b. 1801 - d. 1881)  Dem

18 Jun 1850 - 18 Aug 1850  Kintzing Prichette (acting)        (b. 1800 - d. 1869)  Dem
18 Aug 1850 - 16 May 1853  John Pollard Gaines                (b. 1795 - d. 1857)  Whg
16 May 1853 - 19 May 1853  Joseph Lane (2nd time)(acting)     (s.a.)               Dem
19 May 1853 -  2 Dec 1853  George Law Curry (1st time)(acting)(b. 1820 - d. 1878)  Dem
 2 Dec 1853 -  1 Aug 1854  John Wesley Davis                  (b. 1799 - d. 1859)  Dem
 1 Aug 1854 -  3 Mar 1859  George Law Curry (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Dem
                             (acting to 14 Dec 1854)
 3 Mar 1859 - 10 Sep 1862  John Whiteaker                     (b. 1820 - d. 1902)  Dem
10 Sep 1862 - 12 Sep 1866  Addison Crandall Gibbs             (b. 1825 - d. 1886)  Rep
12 Sep 1866 - 14 Sep 1870  George Lemuel Woods                (b. 1832 - d. 1890)  Rep
14 Sep 1870 -  1 Feb 1877  LaFayette Grover                   (b. 1823 - d. 1911)  Dem
 1 Feb 1877 - 11 Sep 1878  Stephen Fowler Chadwick            (b. 1825 - d. 1895)  Dem
11 Sep 1878 - 13 Sep 1882  William Wallace Thayer             (b. 1827 - d. 1899)  Dem
13 Sep 1882 - 12 Jan 1887  Zenas Ferry Moody                  (b. 1832 - d. 1917)  Rep
12 Jan 1887 - 14 Jan 1895  Sylvester Pennoyer                 (b. 1831 - d. 1902)  Dem
14 Jan 1895 -  9 Jan 1899  William Paine Lord                 (b. 1839 - d. 1911)  Rep
 9 Jan 1899 - 14 Jan 1903  Theodore Thurston Geer             (b. 1851 - d. 1924)  Rep
15 Jan 1903 - 28 Feb 1909  George Earle Chamberlain           (b. 1854 - d. 1928)  Dem
 1 Mar 1909 - 17 Jun 1910  Frank Williamson Benson (acting)   (b. 1858 - d. 1911)  Rep
17 Jun 1910 -  8 Jan 1911  Jay Bowerman (acting)              (b. 1876 - d. 1957)  Rep
11 Jan 1911 - 12 Jan 1915  Oswald West                        (b. 1873 - d. 1960)  Dem
12 Jan 1915 -  3 Mar 1919  James Withycombe                   (b. 1854 - d. 1919)  Rep
 3 Mar 1919 -  8 Jan 1923  Ben Wilson Olcott (acting)         (b. 1872 - d. 1952)  Rep
 8 Jan 1923 - 10 Jan 1927  Walter Marcus Pierce               (b. 1861 - d. 1954)  Dem
10 Jan 1927 - 21 Dec 1929  Isaac Lee Patterson                (b. 1859 - d. 1929)  Rep
22 Dec 1929 - 12 Jan 1931  Albin Walter Norblad (acting)      (b. 1881 - d. 1960)  Rep
12 Jan 1931 - 14 Jan 1935  Julius L. Meier                    (b. 1874 - d. 1937)  Ind
14 Jan 1935 -  9 Jan 1939  Charles Henry Martin               (b. 1863 - d. 1946)  Dem
 9 Jan 1939 - 11 Jan 1943  Charles Arthur Sprague             (b. 1887 - d. 1969)  Rep
11 Jan 1943 - 28 Oct 1947  Earl Wilcox Snell                  (b. 1895 - d. 1947)  Rep
30 Oct 1947 - 10 Jan 1949  John Hubert Hall (acting)          (b. 1899 - d. 1970)  Rep
10 Jan 1949 - 27 Dec 1952  James Douglas McKay                (b. 1893 - d. 1959)  Rep
27 Dec 1952 - 31 Jan 1956  Paul Liuton Patterson              (b. 1900 - d. 1956)  Rep
                            (acting to 10 Jan 1955)
 1 Feb 1956 - 14 Jan 1957  Elmo Everett Smith (acting)        (b. 1909 - d. 1968)  Rep
14 Jan 1957 - 12 Jan 1959  Robert Denison Holmes              (b. 1909 - d. 1976)  Dem 
12 Jan 1959 -  9 Jan 1967  Mark Odom Hatfield                 (b. 1922 - d. 2011)  Rep
 9 Jan 1967 - 13 Jan 1975  Thomas Lawson McCall               (b. 1913 - d. 1983)  Rep
13 Jan 1975 -  8 Jan 1979  Robert William Straub              (b. 1920 - d. 2002)  Dem
 8 Jan 1979 - 12 Jan 1987  Victor George Atiyeh               (b. 1923 - d. 2014)  Rep
12 Jan 1987 - 14 Jan 1991  Neil Edward Goldschmidt            (b. 1940)            Dem
14 Jan 1991 -  9 Jan 1995  Barbara Hughey Roberts (f)         (b. 1936)            Dem
 9 Jan 1995 - 13 Jan 2003  John Albert Kitzhaber (1st time)   (b. 1947)            Dem
13 Jan 2003 - 10 Jan 2011  Theodore "Ted" R. Kulongoski       (b. 1940)            Dem
10 Jan 2011 - 18 Feb 2015  John Albert Kitzhaber (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Dem
18 Feb 2015 -              Katherine "Kate" Brown (f)         (b. 1960)            Dem



Pennsylvania
 
[Flag of
                      Pennsylvania]
                 Adopted 13 Jun 1907
 
Map of Pennsylvania
Hear State Song
"Pennsylvania"
Text of State Song
Adopted 29 Nov 1990
State Constitution
(16 Dec 1873)
 Capital: Harrisburg
(Tinicum Island 1643-1681;
Chester 1681-1683;
Philadelphia 1683-Nov 1799;
Lancaster Nov 1799-1812)
Motto: Virtue, Liberty, and
Independence
Nickname: Keystone State
Population: 12,773,801 (2013)
Mayors of
Philadelphia
Chronology

26 Mar 1638                Parts of Delaware River valley part of 
                             Swedish colony (New Sweden)(see Delaware).
25 Sep 1655                Parts of Delaware River valley part of
                             New Netherland, Dutch colony (see New York).
14 Mar 1682                English proprietary colony (Province of
                             Pennsylvania
).
26 Apr 1693 - 20 Aug 1694  English crown rule.
25 Jul 1776                State of Pennsylvania
28 Sep 1776                Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
26 Sep 1777 - 18 Jun 1778  British occupy Philadelphia.
12 Dec 1787                State of the U.S.

Mayors of
Pittsburgh
Gettysburg
National Military
Park Map
 
 
 

Lords Proprietors
14 Mar 1682 - 26 Apr 1693  William Penn (1st time)            (b. 1644 - d. 1718)
20 Aug 1694 - 30 Jul 1718  William Penn (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1712 - 20 Dec 1726         Hannah C. Penn (f)                 (b. 1671 - d. 1726)
                             (acting for William Penn, then for sons below)
30 Jul 1718 - Oct 1746     John Penn                          (b. 1700 - d. 1746)
30 Jul 1718 - 21 Mar 1775  Thomas Penn                        (b. 1703 - d. 1775)
30 Jul 1718 - 16 Oct 1771  Richard Penn "the Elder"           (b. 1706 - d. 1771)
21 Mar 1775 -  1 Nov 1776  John Penn of Stoke                 (b. 1760 - d. 1834)
                           + John Penn                        (b. 1729 - d. 1795)

Director of the English (or New Haven) Colony on South River
1641 - 1653                Thomas Lamberton
Commanders on the Delaware

1664 - 1668                Robert Needham  
1668 - 1673                John Carr
Dutch Deputy governor of the colonies on the west side of the Delaware
19 Sep 1673 - 10 Nov 1674  Peter Alrichs                      (b. 1632 - d. 1697)
Governors

Jun 1681 - 24 Oct 1682     William Markham (1st time)         (b. 1635 - d. 1704)
                             (deputy governor)
24 Oct 1682 - Jun 1684     William Penn (1st time)            (s.a.)
Aug 1684 - 18 Dec 1688     Thomas Lloyd (1st time)            (b. 1640 - d. 1694)
                             (president of the Council)
18 Dec 1688 -  2 Jan 1690  John Blackwell (deputy governor)
 2 Jan 1690 - 26 Apr 1693  Thomas Lloyd (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                             (president of the Council to Mar 1691,
                             then deputy governor)
26 Apr 1693 - 20 Aug 1694  Benjamin Fletcher -Captain-general (b. 1640 - d. 1703)
27 Apr 1693 - Dec 1699     William Markham (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                             (deputy governor)
Dec 1699 - Nov 1701        William Penn (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Lieutenant governors
14 Nov 1701 - 20 Apr 1703  Andrew Hamilton                    (b. 16.. - d. 1703)
 4 May 1703 -  3 Feb 1704  Edward Shippen                     (b. 1639 - d. 1712)
                             (president of the Council)
 3 Feb 1704 -  1 Feb 1709  John Evans                         (b. c.1678 - d. c.1730)
 1 Feb 1709 - 31 May 1717  Charles Gookin                     (b. c.1660 d. c.1723)
31 May 1717 - 22 Jun 1726  Sir William Keith                  (b. 1680 - d. 1749)
22 Jun 1726 -  5 Aug 1736  Patrick Gordon                     (b. 1644 - d. 1736)
 5 Aug 1736 -  1 Jun 1738  James Logan                        (b. 1674 - d. 1751)
                             (president of the Council)
 1 Jun 1738 - 29 May 1747  George Thomas                      (b. 1695 - d. 1774)
 6 Jun 1747 - 23 Nov 1748  Anthony Palmer                     (b. 1675 - d. 1749)
                             (president of the Council)
23 Nov 1748 -  3 Oct 1754  James Hamilton (1st time)          (b. 1710? - d. 1783)
 3 Oct 1754 - 20 Aug 1756  Robert Hunter Morris               (b. 1700? - d. 1764)
                             (deputy governor)
20 Aug 1756 - 17 Nov 1759  William Denny
18 Nov 1759 - 31 Oct 1763  James Hamilton (2nd time)          (s.a.)
31 Oct 1763 -  4 May 1771  John Penn (1st time)               (b. 1729 - d. 1795)
 6 May 1771 - 16 Oct 1771  James Hamilton (3rd time)          (s.a.)
                             (president of the Council)
16 Oct 1771 - 30 Aug 1773  Richard Penn                       (b. 1735 - d. 1811)
30 Aug 1773 - 28 Sep 1776  John Penn (2nd time)               (s.a.)
President of the Committee of Safety
 3 Jul 1775 -  4 Jul 1776  Benjamin Franklin                  (b. 1706 - d. 1790)
Chairmen of the Committee of Safety
 4 Jul 1776                Owen Biddle (1st time)             (b. 1737 - d. 1799)
 4 Jul 1776 -  8 Jul 1776  George C. Clymer                   (b. 1739 - d. 1813)
 8 Jul 1776                Owen Biddle (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 9 Jul 1776                James Mease (1st time)             (d. 1785)
10 Jul 1776                Owen Biddle (3rd time)             (s.a.)
11 Jul 1776                Alexander Wilcocks (1st time)      (b. 1741 - d. 1801)
12 Jul 1776                Samuel Howell
15 Jul 1776                James Mease (2nd time)             (s.a.)
16 Jul 1776                Owen Biddle (4th time)             (s.a.)
17 Jul 1776                James Biddle                       (b. 1731 - d. 1797)
19 Jul 1776 - 22 Jul 1776  Alexander Wilcocks (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Council of Safety
24 Jul 1776 - 26 Jul 1776  David Rittenhouse (1st time)       (b. 1732 - d. 1796)
27 Jul 1776                Samuel Morris (1st time)           (b. 1734 - d. 1812)
29 Jul 1776 - 31 Jul 1776  David Rittenhouse (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1776                Samuel Morris (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1776                Thomas Wharton, Jr.                (b. 1735 - d. 1778)
 5 Aug 1776 -  6 Aug 1776  David Rittenhouse (3rd time)       (s.a.)
President of the Council of Safety
 6 Aug 1776 -  4 Mar 1777  Thomas Wharton, Jr.                (s.a.)
Presidents of the Supreme Executive Council
 4 Mar 1777 - 23 May 1778  Thomas Wharton, Jr.                (s.a.)
23 May 1778 -  1 Dec 1778  George Bryan (acting)              (b. 1731 - d. 1791)
 1 Dec 1778 - 12 Oct 1799  Joseph Reed (1st time)             (b. 1741 - d. 1785)
12 Oct 1779 - 15 Oct 1779  Matthew Smith (acting)
18 Oct 1779 -  9 Oct 1781  Joseph Reed (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 9 Oct 1781 -  8 Oct 1782  William Moore                      (b. 1735? - d. 1793)
                             (acting to 15 Nov 1781)
 8 Oct 1782 -  7 Nov 1782  James Potter (acting)              (b. 1729 - d. 1789)
 7 Nov 1782 - 11 Oct 1785  John Dickinson                     (b. 1732 - d. 1808)
11 Oct 1785 - 18 Oct 1785  Charles Biddle (acting)            (b. 1745 - d. 1821)
18 Oct 1785 - 14 Oct 1788  Benjamin Franklin                  (s.a.)
15 Oct 1788 -  5 Nov 1788  David Redick (acting)              (b. 1750 - d. 1805)
 5 Nov 1788 - 21 Dec 1790  Thomas Mifflin                     (b. 1744 - d. 1800)
Governors
21 Dec 1790 - 17 Dec 1799  Thomas Mifflin                     (s.a.)               Fed
17 Dec 1799 - 20 Dec 1808  Thomas McKean                      (b. 1735 - d. 1817)  D-R
20 Dec 1808 - 16 Dec 1817  Simon Snyder                       (b. 1759 - d. 1819)  D-R
16 Dec 1817 - 19 Dec 1820  William Findlay                    (b. 1768 - d. 1846)  D-R
19 Dec 1820 - 16 Dec 1825  Joseph Hiester                     (b. 1752 - d. 1832)  D-R
16 Dec 1825 - 15 Dec 1829  John A. Shulze                     (b. 1775 - d. 1852)  D-R
15 Dec 1829 - 15 Dec 1835  George Wolf                        (b. 1777 - d. 1840)  Dem
15 Dec 1835 - 15 Jan 1839  Joseph Ritner                      (b. 1780 - d. 1869)  AMP
15 Jan 1839 - 21 Jan 1845  David R. Porter                    (b. 1788 - d. 1867)  Dem
21 Jan 1845 -  9 Jul 1848  Francis R. Shunk                   (b. 1788 - d. 1848)  Dem
26 Jul 1848 - 20 Jan 1852  William F. Johnston                (b. 1808 - d. 1872)  Whg
20 Jan 1852 - 16 Jan 1855  William Bigler                     (b. 1814 - d. 1880)  Dem
16 Jan 1855 - 19 Jan 1858  James Pollock                      (b. 1810 - d. 1890)  Dem
19 Jan 1858 - 15 Jan 1861  William Fisher Packer              (b. 1807 - d. 1870)  Dem
15 Jan 1861 - 15 Jan 1867  Andrew Gregg Curtin                (b. 1817 - d. 1894)  Rep
15 Jan 1867 - 21 Jan 1873  John White Geary                   (b. 1819 - d. 1873)  Rep
21 Jan 1873 - 21 Jan 1879  John Frederick Hartranft           (b. 1830 - d. 1889)  Rep
21 Jan 1879 - 16 Jan 1883  Henry Martyn Hoyt                  (b. 1830 - d. 1892)  Rep
16 Jan 1883 - 18 Jan 1887  Robert Emory Pattison              (b. 1850 - d. 1904)  Dem
                             (1st time) 
18 Jan 1887 - 20 Jan 1891  James Addams Beaver                (b. 1837 - d. 1914)  Rep
20 Jan 1891 - 15 Jan 1895  Robert Emory Pattison              (s.a.)               Dem
                             (2nd time) 
15 Jan 1895 - 17 Jan 1899  Daniel H. Hastings                 (b. 1849 - d. 1903)  Rep
17 Jan 1899 - 20 Jan 1903  William A. Stone                   (b. 1846 - d. 1920)  Rep
20 Jan 1903 - 15 Jan 1907  Samuel W. Pennypacker              (b. 1843 - d. 1916)  Rep
15 Jan 1907 - 17 Jan 1911  Edwin S. Stuart                    (b. 1853 - d. 1937)  Rep
17 Jan 1911 - 19 Jan 1915  John K. Tener                      (b. 1863 - d. 1946)  Rep
19 Jan 1915 - 21 Jan 1919  Martin G. Brumbaugh                (b. 1862 - d. 1930)  Rep
21 Jan 1919 - 16 Jan 1923  William C. Sproul                  (b. 1870 - d. 1928)  Rep
16 Jan 1923 - 18 Jan 1927  Gifford Pinchot (1st time)         (b. 1865 - d. 1946)  Rep
18 Jan 1927 - 20 Jan 1931  John S. Fisher                     (b. 1867 - d. 1940)  Rep
20 Jan 1931 - 15 Jan 1935  Gifford Pinchot (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Rep
15 Jan 1935 - 17 Jan 1939  George H. Earle                    (b. 1890 - d. 1974)  Dem
17 Jan 1939 - 19 Jan 1943  Arthur H. James                    (b. 1883 - d. 1973)  Rep
19 Jan 1943 -  2 Jan 1947  Edward Martin                      (b. 1879 - d. 1967)  Rep
 2 Jan 1947 - 21 Jan 1947  John C. Bell, Jr.                  (b. 1892 - d. 1974)  Rep
21 Jan 1947 - 16 Jan 1951  James H. Duff                      (b. 1883 - d. 1969)  Rep
16 Jan 1951 - 18 Jan 1955  John S. Fine                       (b. 1893 - d. 1978)  Rep
18 Jan 1955 - 20 Jan 1959  George M. Leader                   (b. 1918 - d. 2013)  Dem
20 Jan 1959 - 15 Jan 1963  David L. Lawrence                  (b. 1889 - d. 1966)  Dem
15 Jan 1963 - 17 Jan 1967  William W. Scranton                (b. 1917 - d. 2013)  Rep
17 Jan 1967 - 19 Jan 1971  Raymond P. Shafer                  (b. 1917 - d. 2006)  Rep
19 Jan 1971 - 16 Jan 1979  Milton J. Shapp                    (b. 1912 - d. 1994)  Dem
16 Jan 1979 - 20 Jan 1987  Richard Thornburgh                 (b. 1932)            Rep
20 Jan 1987 - 17 Jan 1995  Robert P. Casey                    (b. 1932 - d. 2000)  Dem
17 Jan 1995 -  5 Oct 2001  Tom Ridge                          (b. 1945)            Rep
 5 Oct 2001 - 21 Jan 2003  Mark S. Schweiker                  (b. 1953)            Rep
21 Jan 2003 - 18 Jan 2011  Edward "Ed" Rendell                (b. 1944)            Dem
18 Jan 2011 - 20 Jan 2015  Tom W. Corbett                     (b. 1949)            Rep
20 Jan 2015 -              Thomas "Tom" W. Wolf               (b. 1948)            Dem



Rhode Island
 
[1877
                                  flag of Rhode Island]
           30 Mar 1877 - 1 Feb 1882 
 
[1882
                                  flag of Rhode Island]
             1 Feb 1882 - 19 May 1897
 
[Flag of
                                  Rhode Island]
         Adopted 19 May 1897
 
Map of Rhode Island
Hear State Song
"Rhode Island, It's for Me"
Text of State Song
Adopted 29 Jul 1996
State Constitution
(2 May 1843)
 Capital: Providence
(Providence 1663-1776;
Bristol, East Greenwich,
Newport, Providence and
South Kingstown 1776- Jan
1854; Newport and Providence
Jan 1854-Jan 1900)
Motto: Hope
Nicknames: Ocean State,
Little Rhody
Population: 1,051,511 (2013)
Mayors of
Providence
Chronology

Jun 1636                   Providence settled by dissident groups 
                             from Massachusetts.
Apr 1638                   Portsmouth settled.
Apr 1639                   Newport settled.
Apr 1640                   Settlements of Newport and Portsmouth
                             combined. 
Jan 1643                   Warwick founded.
19 May 1647                All four colonies combined as the Government
                             of the Providence Plantations.
Apr 1651 - May 1654        Redivided.
15 Jul 1663                Colony of Rhode Island and Providence
                             Plantations.
 4 May 1664                Block Island part of Rhode Island.
12 Jan 1687 - 18 Apr 1689  Part of the Dominion of New England
                             (see under Massachusetts).
 4 May 1776                State of Rhode Island and Providence
                             Plantations
29 May 1790                State of the U.S.
1841 - 1842                Pro-universal suffrage "Dorr rebellion."

 
 
 
 
 

Governor in Providence
Jun 1636 - 19 May 1647     Roger Williams                     (b. c.1599 - d. 1683)
Judge of Portsmouth
Apr 1638 - 19 May 1647     William Coddington                 (b. 1601 - d. 1678)
Presidents
19 May 1647 - May 1648     John Coggeshall                    (b. 1599 - d. 1647)
May 1648 - Mar 1649        Jeremy Clarke                      (b. 1605 - d. 1651)
Mar 1649 - May 1649        Roger Williams (acting)            (s.a.)
May 1649 - May 1650        John Smith (1st time)              (b. 1602 - d. 1663)
May 1650 - Aug 1651        Nicholas Easton (1st time)         (b. 1593 - d. 1675)
Governors in Newport and Portsmouth
May 1651 - May 1653        William Coddington                 (s.a.)
May 1653 - May 1654        John Sanford                       (b. c.1600 - d. 1654)
Governors in Providence and Warwick
Oct 1651 - May 1652        Samuel Gorton                      (b. 1592 - d. 1677)
May 1652 - May 1653        John Smith (2nd time)              (s.a.)
May 1653 - May 1654        Gregory Dexter                     (b. 1610 - d. 1669)
Presidents
May 1654 - 12 Sep 1654     Nicholas Easton (2nd time)         (s.a.)
12 Sep 1654 - May 1657     Roger Williams                     (s.a.)
May 1657 - May 1660        Benedict Arnold (1st time)         (b. 1615 - d. 1678)
May 1660 - May 1662        William Brenton                    (b. c.1600 - d. 1674)
May 1662 - 25 Nov 1663     Benedict Arnold (2nd time)         (s.a.)
Governors
25 Nov 1663 - May 1666     Benedict Arnold (1st time)         (s.a.)
May 1666 - May 1669        William Brenton                    (s.a.)
May 1669 - May 1672        Benedict Arnold (2nd time)         (s.a.)
May 1672 - May 1674        Nicholas Easton                    (s.a.)
May 1674 - May 1676        William Coddington (1st time)      (s.a.)
May 1676 - May 1677        Walter Clarke (1st time)           (b. 1640 - d. 1714)
May 1677 - 20 Jun 1678     Benedict Arnold (3rd time)         (s.a.)
20 Jun 1678 - 28 Aug 1678  John Cranston (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1625 - d. 1680)
28 Aug 1678 -  1 Nov 1678  William Coddington (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 8 Nov 1678 - 12 Mar 1680  John Cranston (2nd time)           (s.a.)
16 Mar 1680 - May 1683     Peleg Sanford                      (b. 1639 - d. 1701)
May 1683 - May 1685        William Coddington, Jr.            (b. 1651 - d. 1688)
May 1685 - May 1686        Henry Bull (1st time)              (b. 1608 - d. 1693)
May 1686 - 20 Dec 1686     Walter Clarke (2nd time)           (s.a.)
20 Dec 1686 - 18 Apr 1689  Sir Edmund Andros                  (b. 1637 - d. 1714)
 1 May 1689 - 27 Feb 1690  John Coggeshall (acting)           (b. 1618 - d. 1708)
27 Feb 1690 -  7 May 1690  Henry Bull (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 7 May 1690 - May 1695     John Easton                        (b. c.1617 - d. 1705)
May 1695 - 17 Dec 1695     Caleb Carr                         (b. 1616 - d. 1695)
Jan 1696 - May 1698        Walter Clarke (3rd time)           (s.a.)
May 1698 - 26 Apr 1727     Samuel Cranston                    (b. 1659 - d. 1727)
May 1727 - May 1732        Joseph Jenckes                     (b. 1656 - d. 1740)
May 1732 - Dec 1733        William Wanton                     (b. 1670 - d. 1733)
May 1734 -  5 Jul 1740     John Wanton                        (b. 1672 - d. 1740)
15 Jul 1740 - May 1743     Richard Ward                       (b. 1689 - d. 1763)
May 1743 - May 1745        William Greene (1st time)          (b. 1695 - d. 1758)
May 1745 - May 1746        Gideon Wanton (1st time)           (b. 1693 - d. 1767)
May 1746 - May 1747        William Greene (2nd time)          (s.a.)
May 1747 - May 1748        Gideon Wanton (2nd time)           (s.a.)
May 1748 - May 1755        William Greene (3rd time)          (s.a.)
May 1755 - May 1757        Stephen Hopkins (1st time)         (b. 1707 - d. 1785)
May 1757 - 22 Feb 1758     William Greene (4th time)          (s.a.)
14 Mar 1758 - May 1762     Stephen Hopkins (2nd time)         (s.a.)
May 1762 - May 1763        Samuel Ward (1st time)             (b. 1725 - d. 1776)
May 1763 - May 1765        Stephen Hopkins (3rd time)         (s.a.)
May 1765 - May 1767        Samuel Ward (2nd time)             (s.a.)
May 1767 - May 1768        Stephen Hopkins (4th time)         (s.a.)
May 1768 - May 1769        Josias Lyndon                      (b. 1704 - d. 1778)
May 1769 -  7 Nov 1775     Joseph Wanton                      (b. 1705 - d. 1780)
 7 Nov 1775 -  4 May 1778  Nicholas Cooke                     (b. 1717 - d. 1782)
 4 May 1778 -  3 May 1786  William Greene, Jr.                (b. 1731 - d. 1809)  Non-party
 3 May 1786 -  5 May 1790  John Collins                       (b. 1717 - d. 1795)  Non-party  
 5 May 1790 - 15 Oct 1805  Arthur Fenner                      (b. 1745 - d. 1805)  CtyP
15 Oct 1805 -  7 May 1806  Henry Smith (acting)               (b. 1766 - d. 1818)  CtyP
 7 May 1806 -  6 May 1807  Isaac Wilbour (acting)             (b. 1763 - d. 1837)  CtyP
 6 May 1807 -  1 May 1811  James Fenner (1st time)            (b. 1771 - d. 1846)  D-R
 1 May 1811 -  7 May 1817  William Jones                      (b. 1753 - d. 1822)  Fed
 7 May 1817 -  9 Jan 1821  Nehemiah R. Knight                 (b. 1780 - d. 1854)  D-R
 9 Jan 1821 -  2 May 1821  Edward Wilcox (acting)             (b. 1751 - d. 1838)  Fed?
 2 May 1821 -  5 May 1824  William C. Gibbs                   (b. 1789 - d. 1871)  D-R
 5 May 1824 -  4 May 1831  James Fenner (2nd time)            (s.a.)               D-R
 4 May 1831 -  1 May 1833  Lemuel H. Arnold                   (b. 1792 - d. 1852)  Whg
 1 May 1833 -  2 May 1838  John B. Francis                    (b. 1791 - d. 1864)  Whg
 2 May 1838 -  1 May 1839  William Sprague                    (b. 1799 - d. 1856)  Whg
 2 May 1839 -  2 May 1843  Samuel Ward King                   (b. 1786 - d. 1851)  Whg/LoP
                             (acting to Apr 1840)
 3 May 1842 - 19 May 1842  Thomas W. Dorr                     (b. 1805 - d. 1854)  Peop

                             (in rebellion; fled 19 May 1842, in exile to 1843)
 2 May 1843 -  6 May 1845  James Fenner (3rd time)            (s.a.)               LoP/Whg

 6 May 1845 -  6 May 1846  Charles Jackson                    (b. 1797 - d. 1876)  AP/Whg
 6 May 1846 -  4 May 1847  Byron Diman                        (b. 1795 - d. 1865)  LoP/Whg
 4 May 1847 -  1 May 1849  Elisha Harris                      (b. 1791 - d. 1861)  Whg
 1 May 1849 -  6 May 1851  Henry B. Anthony                   (b. 1815 - d. 1884)  Whg
 6 May 1851 - 20 Jul 1853  Philip Allen                       (b. 1785 - d. 1865)  Dem/DFS
20 Jul 1853 -  2 May 1854  Francis M. Dimond (acting)         (b. 1796 - d. 1859)  Dem
 2 May 1854 - 26 May 1857  William W. Hoppin                  (b. 1807 - d. 1890)  AP/Whg
26 May 1857 - 31 May 1859  Elisha Dyer                        (b. 1811 - d. 1890)  Rep
31 May 1859 -  1 May 1860  Thomas G. Turner                   (b. 1810 - d. 1875)  Rep
 1 May 1860 -  3 Mar 1863  William Sprague                    (b. 1831 - d. 1915)  Rep
 3 Mar 1863 - 26 May 1863  William C. Cozzens                 (b. 1811 - d. 1876)  Dem  
26 May 1863 - 29 May 1866  James Y. Smith                     (b. 1809 - d. 1876)  Rep
29 May 1866 - 25 May 1869  Ambrose E. Burnside                (b. 1824 - d. 1881)  Rep
25 May 1869 - 27 May 1873  Seth Padelford                     (b. 1807 - d. 1878)  Rep
27 May 1873 - 25 May 1875  Henry Howard                       (b. 1826 - d. 1905)  Rep
25 May 1875 - 29 May 1877  Henry Lippitt                      (b. 1818 - d. 1891)  Rep
29 May 1877 - 25 May 1880  Charles C. Van Zandt               (b. 1830 - d. 1894)  Rep
25 May 1880 - 29 May 1883  Alfred H. Littlefield              (b. 1829 - d. 1893)  Rep
29 May 1883 - 26 May 1885  Augustus O. Bourn                  (b. 1834 - d. 1925)  Rep
26 May 1885 - 31 May 1887  George P. Wetmore                  (b. 1846 - d. 1921)  Rep
31 May 1887 - 29 May 1888  John W. Davis (1st time)           (b. 1826 - d. 1907)  Dem
29 May 1888 - 28 May 1889  Royal C. Taft                      (b. 1823 - d. 1912)  Rep
28 May 1889 - 27 May 1890  Herbert W. Ladd (1st time)         (b. 1843 - d. 1913)  Rep
27 May 1890 - 26 May 1891  John W. Davis (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Dem
26 May 1891 - 31 May 1892  Herbert W. Ladd (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Rep
31 May 1892 - 29 May 1895  D. Russell Brown                   (b. 1848 - d. 1919)  Rep
29 May 1895 - 25 May 1897  Charles W. Lippitt                 (b. 1846 - d. 1924)  Rep
25 May 1897 - 29 May 1900  Elisha Dyer, Jr.                   (b. 1839 - d. 1906)  Rep
29 May 1900 - 16 Dec 1901  William Gregory                    (b. 1849 - d. 1901)  Rep
16 Dec 1901 -  3 Jan 1903  Charles D. Kimball                 (b. 1859 - d. 1930)  Rep
 3 Jan 1903 -  3 Jan 1905  Lucius F.C. Garvin                 (b. 1841 - d. 1922)  Dem
 3 Jan 1905 -  1 Jan 1907  George H. Utter                    (b. 1854 - d. 1912)  Rep
 1 Jan 1907 -  5 Jan 1909  James H. Higgins                   (b. 1876 - d. 1927)  Dem
 5 Jan 1909 -  5 Jan 1915  Aram J. Pothier (1st time)         (b. 1854 - d. 1928)  Rep
 5 Jan 1915 -  4 Jan 1921  R. Livingston Beeckman             (b. 1866 - d. 1935)  Rep
 4 Jan 1921 -  2 Jan 1923  Emery J. San Souci                 (b. 1857 - d. 1936)  Rep
 2 Jan 1923 -  6 Jan 1925  William S. Flynn                   (b. 1885 - d. 1966)  Dem
 6 Jan 1925 -  3 Feb 1928  Aram J. Pothier (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Rep
 4 Feb 1928 -  3 Jan 1933  Norman S. Case                     (b. 1888 - d. 1967)  Rep
 3 Jan 1933 -  5 Jan 1937  Theodore F. Green                  (b. 1867 - d. 1966)  Dem
 5 Jan 1937 -  3 Jan 1939  Robert E. Quinn                    (b. 1894 - d. 1975)  Dem
 3 Jan 1939 -  7 Jan 1941  William H. Vanderbilt              (b. 1901 - d. 1981)  Rep
 7 Jan 1941 -  6 Oct 1945  J. Howard McGrath                  (b. 1903 - d. 1966)  Dem
 6 Oct 1945 - 19 Dec 1950  John O. Pastore                    (b. 1907 - d. 2000)  Dem
19 Dec 1950 -  2 Jan 1951  John S. McKiernan                  (b. 1911 - d. 1997)  Dem
 2 Jan 1951 -  6 Jan 1959  Dennis J. Roberts                  (b. 1903 - d. 1994)  Dem
 6 Jan 1959 -  3 Jan 1961  Christopher Del Sesto              (b. 1907 - d. 1973)  Rep
 3 Jan 1961 -  1 Jan 1963  John A. Notte, Jr.                 (b. 1909 - d. 1983)  Dem
 1 Jan 1963 -  7 Jan 1969  John H. Chafee                     (b. 1922 - d. 1999)  Rep
 7 Jan 1969 -  2 Jan 1973  Frank Licht                        (b. 1916 - d. 1987)  Dem
 2 Jan 1973 -  4 Jan 1977  Philip W. Noel                     (b. 1931)            Dem
 4 Jan 1977 -  1 Jan 1985  J. Joseph Garrahy                  (b. 1930 - d. 2012)  Dem
 1 Jan 1985 -  1 Jan 1991  Edward D. DiPrete                  (b. 1934)            Rep
 1 Jan 1991 -  3 Jan 1995  Bruce G. Sundlun                   (b. 1920 - d. 2011)  Dem
 3 Jan 1995 -  7 Jan 2003  Lincoln C. Almond                  (b. 1936)            Rep
 7 Jan 2003 -  4 Jan 2011  Donald "Don" Carcieri              (b. 1942)            Rep
 4 Jan 2011 -  6 Jan 2015  Lincoln D. Chafee                  (b. 1953)        Ind;May 2013 Dem
 6 Jan 2015 -              Gina Raimondo (f)                  (b. 1971)            Dem

[Dorr Rebellion, Rhode
                Island (U.S.) 1842]
      1842 Dorr Rebellion flag








Ben Cahoon