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Somalia

[Somalia
                      flag]                  Adopted 1 Jul 1960 [Somalia flag variant
                      from 2012]             Variant from 1 Aug 2012
 
Map of Somalia Hear National Anthem
"Qolobaa Calankeed"
(Every Nation Has Its Own Flag)
Adopted 1 Aug 2012
Hear Former Anthem
"Soomaaliya Ha Noolaato"
 (Long Live Somalia)

(1 Jul 1960 - 2000)
-----------------------------------
Hear Former Anthem
"Soomaaliyeey Toosoo"
(Somalia Wake Up)
(2000 - 1 Aug 2012)
Constitution
(1 Aug 2012; provisional)
--------------------------------
Transitional Federal Charter

(Feb 2004 - 1 Aug 2012)
-----------------------------------

Former Constitution

(23 Sep 1979 - 1 Jan 1991)
Capital: Mogadishu
(
Muqdisho)
(Jowhar [Jowhaar] 2005-2006,
Baidoa [Baydhabo] 2006-2007,
Mogadiscio 1893-1960)
Currency: Somali Shilling (SOS);
 1950-1960 Somali Somalo
 (SOIS);
1941-1950 East Africa
Shilling (XEAS);
1936-41 Italian
 East Africa Lira (AOLI);
1925-36
 Italian Lira (XITL);
1920-1925
Italian Somaliland Rupiah (SOIR)

National Holiday: 1 Jul (1960)
Foundation of the Somali Republic
Population: 10,251,568 (2013)
note: current estimate derived
from official 1975 census 
GDP: $5.89 billion (2010)
Exports: $515.8 million (2012)
Imports: $1.26 billion (2010)
Ethnic groups: Somali 92.4%, Arab 2.2%, Afar 1.3%,
other 4.1% (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 62,000 (2011)
(factions and clans maintain independent militias)
African Union AMISOM Force: 3,000 (2008)

Merchant marine: 1 ship (2010)

Religions: Muslim (nearly all Sunni)(official) 99%, other 1% (2005)

International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, APM, Arabsat, AU, BTWC (signatory), CAEU (candidate), CCM (signatory), CEN-SAD, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ITSO, ITU, KP, NAM, NTBT (signatory), OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Somalia Index
Chronology

11.. - 1704                Mogadishu (Muqdisho) sultanate
1704 - c.1726              Mogadishu under Omani suzerainty.
1821                       Barawe (Baraawe) under Omani suzerainty. 
1828 - 1861                Mogadishu
under Omani suzerainty.
1861 - 1893                Mogadishu under
suzerainty of Zanzibar.
17 Oct 1875 - 22 Dec 1875  Kismayu occupied by Egypt under Henry Frederick
                             McKillop Pasha (b. c.1825 - d. 1879) and renamed
                             Pru Ismail (Port Ismail).

 
7 Sep 1877                Somali Coast Convention signed, U.K. recognizes
                             Egyptian jurisdiction over the Somali coast up to
                             Ras Hafun (Egyptian Somalia) under British
                             protection.

20 Jul 1887                British protectorate declared over the Somali Coast
                             from Ras Jiburti to Bunder Ziadeh.

 9 Feb 1889                Italian protectorate over Hobyo (Obbia) sultanate.
 7 Apr 1889                Italian protectorate over Majeerteen (Migiurtinia)
                             sultanate.
31 Aug 1889                Imperial British East Africa Company leases the
                             ports of the southern Benadir (Banadir) Coast

                            
(Barawa, Marka, Mogadishu, and Warsheikh) north
                             of Juba River from Sultan of Zanzibar, which it
                             then sublets to an Italian company.

18 Nov 1889                British East Africa Company transfers deed to
                             the Benadir ports (s.a.) to Italy.
19 Nov 1889                Italian protectorate over part of the East African
                             Coast declared.
 4 Mar 1890                Cession of certain islands and places on Benadir
                             Coast to British East Africa Company by Zanzibar.
12 Aug 1892                Concession to Italy by Sultan of Zanzibar of

                            
Benadir ports of Barawa (Brava), Merca (Merka),
                            
Mogadishu (Mogadiscio) and Warsheikh (Uarscheich)
                             for 50 years in exchange for an annual rent
                             (ratified 16 Jul 1893), effected 1 Sep 1896. 

11 Oct 1893 - 15 Jul 1896  Filonardi & Company (Societą Filonardi e Compagnia)
                             administration over the Benadir Coast. Taking
                             possession of Merca on 11 Oct 1893, Mogadishu on
                             18 Oct 1893 and Warsheikh on 26 Oct 1893.
 3 Sep 1897
                Italy and Ethiopia border agreement.
16 Jul 1896 -  1 May 1898  Direct rule by Italy.
 1 May 1898 - 15 Mar 1905  Benadir Company (Societą Anonima Commerciale
                             Italiana del Benadir)
administration.
13 Jan 1905                Italy purchases sovereignty over the Benadir ports
                             from Zanzibar (effective 8 Jul 1905).
 3 Mar 1905 - 1911         R
evolt of Sayyid Muhammad `Abd Allah al-Hasan
                           
(
= Sayid Maxamad Cabdille Xasan) the "Mad Mullah"
                             in Nugal (Noogal)
.

30 Apr 1908                Italian Somalia (Somalia Italiana) colony.
16 May 1908                Italy and Ethiopia border treaty between Italian
                             Somalia and Ethiopia (ratified 16 Jun 1908)
.
15 Jan 1935                Italian Somalia part of Italian East Africa with 

                             Eritrea (and from 1936 Ethiopia)(see Ethiopia).
 1 Jun 1936                Part of Italian East Africa (province of 
                             Somalia, formed by the merger of the colony
                             and the Ethiopian region of Ogaden; 
                             see Ethiopia).
19 Aug 1940 - 16 Mar 1941  Italian occupation of British Somaliland.
25 Jan 1941                British invasion of Italian Somalia begins (Kismayu
                             occupied 14 Feb 1941, Mogadishu on 25 Feb 1941).
20 Mar 1941 -  1 Apr 1950  British administration of Italian Somalia.
 1 Apr 1950                Italian Somalia becomes United Nations trust
                             territory under Italian administration
                             (Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian
                             administration).
26 Jun 1960                Independence of British Somaliland as the
                             State of Somaliland.
 1 Jul 1960                Unification of Somaliland with Italian Somalia 
                             to form the Somali Republic.
31 Jan 1961                Act of Union of Somaliland and Somalia is passed
                             and signed into law (retroactive to 1 Jul 1960).
21 Oct 1969                Somali Democratic Republic
 1 Jan 1991                Somalia collapses, no single functioning
                             government.
18 May 1991                Secession of former British Somaliland;
                             as Republic of Somaliland which is
                             proclaimed 24 May 1991 (not internationally
                             recognized).
21 Jul 1991                Somali Republic
27 Jul 1992 - 27 Aug 2000  United Nations declares Somalia to be a country 
                             "without a government."
 1 Aug 2012                Federal Republic of Somalia

Somalia
(from 1960)
Traditional
States
Italian Somalia
(1889-1960)
Somaliland
(1830-1960,
from 1991)
Jubaland
(1924-1926,
 1998-2001.
from 2013)

Puntland
(1998-)
Southwestern
(2002-2005,
from 2014)
Galmudug
(2006-)
Himan & Heeb
(2008-)
Khaatumo
(2012-)
Maakhir
(2007-2009)

Historical Maps
of Somalia
 

Italian Somaliland
 
[Kingdom of
                            Italy flag]
         11 Oct 1893 - 26 Feb 1941
[Flag of the United Kingdom]
        26 Feb 1941 - 1 Apr 1950 
[Flag of Italy]
         1 Apr 1950 - 12 Oct 1954
[Somalia]
         12 Oct 1954 - 30 Jun 1960

Commissioner
11 Oct 1893 - 15 Jul 1896  Vincenzo Filonardi                 (b. 1853 - d. 1916)
Royal Commissioners
15 Jul
1896 - 16 Sep 1896  Vincenzo Filonardi                 (s.a.)
17 Sep 1896 - 26 Nov 1896  Antonio Cecchi                     (b. 1849 - d. 1896)
26 Nov 1896 - 25 Jan 1897  Emilio Dulio (acting)              (b. 1859 - d. 19..)         
26 Jan 1897 - 20 Nov 1897  Giorgio Sorrentino                 (b. 1847 - d. 19..)
Royal Civil and Military Commissioner
20 Nov 1897 - 30 Apr 1898  Emilio Dulio                       (s.a.)
Royal Commissioner (from 24 Dec 1899, Provisional Consignee)
 1 May 1898 - 30 Jun 1901  Emilio Dulio                       (s.a.)
Governors
 
1 Jul 1901 -  5 Oct 1903  Emilio Dulio                       (s.a.) 
Jul 1901 - Apr 1902        Igino Badolo (acting for Dulio)
 5 Oct 1903 - 11 Nov 1903  Ugo Ferrandi (acting)              (b. 1852 - d. 1928)
12 Nov 1903 -  9 Dec 1903  Eugenio Cappello (acting)
 9 Dec 1903 - 30 Apr 1905  Alessandro Sapelli (1st time)
                             (acting to 15 Apr 1904)
Royal Commissioners
 
1 May 1905 - 24 Jan 1906  Luigi Mercatelli                   (b. 1853 - d. 1922)
25 Jan 1906 -  5 Feb 1906  Alessandro Sapelli (2nd time)
                             (acting)

 5 Feb 1906 - 18 May 1907
  Giovanni Cerrina Feroni (acting)   (b. 1866 - d. 1952)    
Civil Commissioners
18 May 1907 - 31 Aug 1907  Tommaso Carletti                   (b. 1860 - d. 1919)
31 Aug 1907 - 18 Jan 1908  Alberto Corsi (acting)
Governors

18 Jan
1908 - 27 Dec 1908  Tommaso Carletti                   (s.a.)
27 Dec 1908 - 28 Apr 1910  Gino Aroldo Macchioro Vivalba      (b. 1874 - d. 1941)
28 Apr 1910 - 16 Sep 1916  Giacomo De Martino                 (b. 1849 - d. 1921)
16 Sep 1916 - 20 Jun 1920  Giovanni Cerrina Feroni            (s.a.)
21 Jun 1920 -  8 Dec 1923  Carlo Riveri                       (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
 
8 Dec 1923 -  5 Jun 1928  Cesare Maria De Vecchi,            (b. 1884 - d. 1959)
                             (from 3 Jul 1925) conte
                             (from 19 Jul 1925) di Val Cismon
 5
Jun 1928 - 30 Jun 1931  Guido Corni                        (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
 1 Jul 1931 -  7 Mar 1935  Maurizio Rava                      (b. 1878 - d. 1935)
 
7 Mar 1935 - 22 May 1936  Rodolfo Graziani                   (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
 
7 Jan 1936 - 25 May 1936  Angelo De Rubeis                   (b. 1873 - d. 19..)
                            
(acting [for Graziani to 22 May 1936])
25 May 1936 - 15 Dec 1937  Ruggiero Santini                   (b. 1870 - d. 1958)
15 Dec 1937 - 11 Jun 1940  Francesco Saverio Caroselli        (b. 1887 - d. 1967)
11 Jun 1940 - 31 Jan 1941  Gustavo Pesenti (acting)           (b. 1878 - d. 1960)
31 Jan 1941 - 20 Mar 1941  Carlo De Simone (acting)           (b. 1885 - d. 1951)
British General Officer Commanding, East Africa Force 
25 Feb 1941 - 20 Mar 1941  Alan Gordon Cunningham             (b. 1887 - d. 1983)
Chief Administrators
20 Mar 1941 - May 1943     William Eric Halstead Scupham      (b. 1893 - d. 1958)
May 1943 - 1948            Denis Henry Wickham                (b. 1895 - d. 1950)
1948                       Eric Armar Vully de Candole        (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
1948 -  1 Apr 1950         Geoffrey Massey Gamble             (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
Administrators
 
1 Apr 1950 - 1953         Giovanni Fornari                   (b. 1903 - d. 19..)
1953 - 1957                Enrico Martino                     (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
1957 - 24 Jul 1958         Enrico Anzilotti                   (b. 1898 - d. 1983)
24 Jul 1958 - 30 Jun 1960  Mario Di Stefano                   (b. 1900 - d. 1963)

Prime minister
29 Feb 1956 -  1 Jul 1960  Abdullahi Issa Mahamud             (b. 1922 - d. 1988)  SYL
                             (= Cabdillaahi Ciise Maxamuud)


Somalia

Note: Names are given in the English with Somali in parentheses.

Secretary-general of the Somalia Revolutionary Socialist Party of Somalia (SRSP)
 1 Jul 1976 - 27 Jan 1991  Mohamed Siad Barre                 (b. 1919 - d. 1995)
                             (= Maxamed Siyaad Barre)

Presidents
 1 Jul 1960 - 10 Jun 1967  Aden Abdullah Osman Dar            (b. 1908 - d. 2007)  SYL
                             (= Aadan Cabdulle Cusmaan Daar)
                             (acting to 6 Jul 1961)
10 Jun 1967 - 15 Oct 1969  Abdirashid Ali Shermarke           (b. 1919 - d. 1969)  SYL
                            
(= Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke)
15 Oct 1969 - 21 Oct 1969  Sheikh Moktar Mohamed Hussein      (b. 1912 - d. 2012)  SYL
                             (= Sheekh Mukhtaar Maxamed Xuseen)
                             (acting)
21 Oct 1969 - 27 Jan 1991  Mohamed Siad Barre                 (s.a.)             Mil;1976 SRSP
                             (= Maxamed Siyaad Barre)
                             (president of Supreme Revolutionary Council to 1 Jul 1976)

29 Jan 1991 -  4 Apr 1997¹ Ali Mahdi Mohamed                  (b. c.1939)          USC/SSA
                             (= Cali Mahdi Maxamed)
                             (interim to 21 Jul 1991) 

15 Jun 1995 -  1 Aug 1996¹ Mohamed Farrah Hassan Aydid        (b. 1936 - d. 1996)  USC/SNA
                             (= Maxamed Faarax Xasan Caydiid)
                             (interim, in opposition) 

 4 Aug 1996 - 20 Mar 1998¹ Hussein Mohamed Farrah Aydid       (b. 1962)            USC/SNA
                             (= Xuseen Maxamed Faarax Caydiid)
                             (interim, in opposition)
 
4 Apr 1997 -(27 Aug 2000) Co-Chairmen of National Salvation Council
                           Ali Mahdi Mohamed                  (s.a.)               USC/SSA
                           + Osman Hassan Ali "Ato"           (b. 1940 - d. 2013)  USC/SNA
                             (= Cusmaan Xasan Cali "Caato")
                           + Abdulkadir Mohamed Aden "Zobe"   (b. 1919 - d. 2002)  SDM
                             (= Cabdiqaadir Maxamed Aadan "Soobe")
                           + Abdullahi Yussuf Ahmad           (b. 1934 - d. 2012)  SSDF
                             (= Cabdillaahi Yuusuf Axmed)
                           + Aden Abdullahi Nur "Gabyow"      (b. 192. - d. 2002)  SPM

                             (= Aadan Cabdillaahi Nuur "Gabyow")
27 Aug 2000 - 14 Oct 2004  Abdiqasim Salad Hassan             (b. 1941)            Non-party
                             (= Cabdiqaasim Salaad Xasan)
                             (in Arta, Djibouti exile to 14 Oct 2000; 
                             then largely confined to the Mogadishu area)
14 Oct 2004 - 29 Dec 2008  Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed              (s.a.)               SSDF
                             (= Cabdillaahi Yuusuf Axmed)
                             (in Nairobi exile to 13 Jun 2005, from 26 Jul 2005 in 
                             Jowhar, from 26 Feb 2006 in Baidoa, from 8 Jan 2007
                             in Mogadishu

 5 Jun 2006 - 28 Dec 2006  Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed         (b. 1964)            UIC
                             (= Sheekh Shariif Sheekh Axmed)
                             (chairman of the Union of Islamic Courts;
                             from 24 Jun 2006, 
chairman of executive
                             council of the Islamic Courts in Somalia;
                            
controlling Mogadishu and parts of southern Somalia)
29 Dec 2008 - 31 Jan 2009  Sheikh Aden Mohamed Nuur "Madobe"  
(b. 1955?)           Non-party
                             (= Sheekh Aadan Maxamed Nuur "Madoobe")
                             (acting;
in Baidoa, from Jan 2009 in Djibouti exile)
31 Jan 2009 - 16 Sep 2012  Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed         (s.a.)               Non-party

16 Sep 2012 -              Hassan Sheikh M
ahamud              (b. 1955)            PDP
                             (= Xasan Sheekh Maxamuud)

Prime ministers
 1 Jul 1960 - 13 Jul 1960  Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal          (b. 1928 - d. 2002)  SNL
                             (= Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal)
                             (1st time) 
13 Jul 1960 - 14 Jun 1964  Abdirashid Ali Shermarke           (s.a.)               SYL
                            
(= Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke)
14 Jun 1964 - 15 Jul 1967  Abdirizak Haji Hussein             (b. 1924 - d. 2014)  SYL
                             (= Cabdirisaaq Xaaji Xuseen)
                             (acting to 27 Sep 1964) 
15 Jul 1967 -  1 Nov 1969  Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal          (s.a.)               SYL
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Nov 1969 -  1 Feb 1987  Post abolished
 1 Feb 1987 -  3 Sep 1990  Mohamed Ali Samatar                (b. 1931)            SRSP 
                             (= Maxamed Cali Samatar)
 3 Sep 1990 - 24 Jan 1991  Mohamed Hawadle Madar              (b. 1939 - d. 2005)  SRSP

                             (= Maxamed Xawaadle Madar)
24 Jan 1991 - May 1993¹    Omar Arteh Ghalib                  (b. 1930)            USC
                             (= Cumar Carte Qaalib)
                             (de facto to 3 Jan 1997) 

May 1993 -  8 Oct 2000     Vacant¹ 
 8 Oct 2000 - 28 Oct 2001  Ali Khalif Galaydh                 (b. 1941)            Non-party
                             (= Cali Khaliif Galaydh)
                             (in Djibouti exile to 13 Oct 2000) 
28 Oct 2001 - 12 Nov 2001  Osman Jama Ali (acting)            (b. 1941)            Non-party
                            
(= Cusmaan Jaamac Cali)
12 Nov 2001 -  8 Dec 2003  Hassan Abshir Farah                (b. 1945)            Non-party
                            
(= Xasan Abshir Faarax)
 8 Dec 2003 - 23 Dec 2004  Mohamed Abdi Yusuf                 (b. 1941)            Non-party
                            
(= Maxamed Cabdi Yuusuf)
23 Dec 2004 - 30 Oct 2007  Ali Mohamed Ghedi                  (b. 1952)            Non-party
                             (= Cali Maxamed Geedi)
                             (in Nairobi exile to 18 Jun 2005, then in Jowhar,
                             from 26 Feb 2006 in Baidoa, from 28 Dec 2006 in Mogadishu)
30 Oct 2007 - 24 Nov 2007  Salim Aliyow Ibrow (acting)        (b. 194.)            Non-party
                             (= Saalim Caliyoow Ibroow)
24 Nov 2007 - 14 Feb 2009  Nur Hassan Hussein "Adde"          (b. 1938)
            Non-party
                             (= Nuur Xasan Xuseen "Cadde")
                             (
in Mogadishu to Dec 2008, then in Baidoa,
                             from Jan 2009 in
Djibouti exile)
14 Feb 2009 -
24 Sep 2010  Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke      (b. 1960)            Non-party
                             (= Cumar Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke)
                             (1st time)
24 Sep 2010 -  1 Nov 2010  Abdiwahid Ilmi Omar Gonjeh (acting)
                    Non-party
                            
(= Cabdiwaaxid Cilmi Cumar "Goonjeex")
 1 Nov 2010
 - 19 Jun 2011  Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed          (b. 1962)            Non-party
                             "Farmajo"
                             (= Maxamed Cabdillaahi Maxamed "Farmaajo")
19 Jun 2011 - 17
Oct 2012  Abdiweli Mohamed Ali               (b. 1965)            Non-party
                             (= Abdiweli Maxamed Cali)
                             (acting to 28 Jun 2011)
        
17 Oct 2012 - 21 Dec 2013  Abdi Farah Shirdon                 (b. 1958)            Non-party
                             (= Cabdi Faarax Shirdoon)
21 Dec 2013 - 24 Dec 2014  Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed              (b. 1959)            Non-party
                            
(= Cabdiweli Sheekh Axmed)
24 Dec 2014 -            
  Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke      (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)

 

Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council (SSRC) (counter-government, at Baidoa)

[Somalia]

Chairmen (rotating monthly)
26 Mar 2001 - 200.²        Hussein Mohamed Farrah Aydid       (s.a.)               USC/SNA
                           + Hilowle Iman Omar                (b. 1938? - d. 2010) USC

                             (= Hilowle Iimaan Cumar)
                           + Aden Abdullahi Nur "Gabyow"      (s.a.)               SPM/SSA

                           + Hassan Mohammed Nur "Shatigadud" (b. 1946 - d. 2013)  RRA

                             (= Xasan Maxamed Nuur "Shaatigaduud")
                           + Abdullahi Sheikh Ismail                               SSNM
                             (=
Cabdillaahi Sheekh Ismaaciil)

Secretaries-general
26 Mar 2001 - Dec 2001?    Mowlid Ma'ane Mohamud              (b. 19.. - d. 2012)  SAMO
                            
(= Mowliid Maane Maxamuud)
Aug? 2002 - 200.           Mohamed Omar Dalha
                             (=
Maxamed Cumar Dalxa)



Commanders of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM)
14 Feb 2007 -  3 Mar 2008  Levi Karuhanga (Uganda)            (b. 1956)
 3 Mar 2008 -  7 Jul 2009  Francis Okello (Uganda) 
 7 Jul 2009 - 15 Jun 2011  Nathan Mugisha (Uganda) 
15 Jun 2011 -  2 Mar 2012  Fredrick Mugisha (Uganda)          (b. 1963) 
 2 May 2012 - 16 Dec 2013  Andrew Gutti (Uganda) 
16 Dec 2013 - 15 Dec 2014  Silas Ntigurirwa (Burundi)         (b. 1968)
15 Dec 2014 -              Jonathan Kipkemoi Rono (Kenya)
                             (acting to Apr 2015)

  ¹From Nov 1991 there was no effective and/or recognized national government; parts of the country were controlled by different warlords, significant among them Mohamed Farrah Hassan Aydid (s.a.), who claimed to be president from 15 Jun 1995 to his death 1 Aug 1996, followed by his son Hussein Mohamed Farrah Aydid (s.a.) 4 Aug 1996 - 20 Mar 1998. De facto the state was in anarchy without any central governmental structures. 

 ²As of Nov 2004, Aydid, Shatigadud, and Ismail were members of Prime Minister Ali Mohamed Ghedi's government. 

Territorial Disputes: Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in Jan. 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera to landlocked Ethiopia and have established commercial ties with other regional states; "Puntland" and "Somaliland" "governments" seek international support in their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists.

Party abbreviations: PDP = Xisbiga Nabadda Iyo Horumarka (Peace and Development Party, social democratic, est.2011); RRA = Rahanweyn Resistance Army (Raxanweyn clan based, allied with the SDM, fights Aideed controlled militia in the Bakool/Bay regions, est.1995); SAMO = Somali African Muki Organization (represents Bantu minority in the lower Juba Valley, est.1984); SDM = Somali Democratic Movement (Digil/Rahanweyn clan, split 1992 into 2 factions: pro-Ali Mahdi/SSA faction led by bdulkadir Muhammad Aden, and pro-Aydid/SNA faction led by Adam Uthman Abdi and Yasin Ma'alim Abdullahi); SNA = Somali National Alliance (coalition created by M. Aydid from his faction of USC, an SDM faction, Omar Jess' SPM faction and SSNM [withdrew 1993], there is a Gedo based faction led by Col. Isak Bihi, est.1992); SNF = Somali National Front (Siyad Barre personalist, seeks restoration of SRSP government, est.1991); SSA = Somali Salvation Alliance (grouping of 12 anti-Aydid factions, led by Ali Mahdi: USC/SSA, SAMO, SNU, USF, SDA, SDM, SPM, SSDF, SNDU, SNF, SSNM and the Ali Ato faction of the USC/SNA, est.1992); SSIC = Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga (Somali Supreme Islamic Courts Council, Islamist, to 24 Jun 2006 UIC); SPM = Somali Patriotic Movement (founded by Omar Jess; Ogaden clan based, divided into 2 factions, one led by Aden Abdullahi Nur "Gabyow" and allied with Morgan, and member of SSA; the other led by Gedi Ugas Madhar allied with USC in SNA, est.1989); SSDF = Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed (Somalia Salvation Democratic Front, founded as Democratic Front for Salvation of Somalia, est.1978); SSNM = Somali Salvation National Movement (southern coast based, mainly Bimal/Dir clan, set up under Aydid sponsorship to support Omar Jess' SPM against SNF, part of SNA 1992-93, allied with Ali Mahdi from 1993, member of SSA); UIC = Union of Islamic Courts (Midowga Maxaakiimta Islaamiga, islamist, est.6 Jun 2006); USC-SNA = United Somali Congress-Somali National Alliance (est.1995); USC/SNA-d = United Somali Congress/Somali National Alliance-dissidents; USC/SSA = United Somali Congress-Somali Salvation Alliance; USRP = Unity for the Somali Republic Party (est.1999); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties: SNL = Somali National League (Isaaq clan dissidents, pro-British Somaliland independence, pan-Somalism, 1951-1962); SRSP = Xisbiga Hantiwadaagga Kacaanka Soomaaliyeed (Somalia Revolutionary Socialist Party, combined socialism and Islamic tenets with marxism, Jul 1976-91 only legal party, 1976-1991); SYL = Ururka Dhalinyarada Soomaaliyeed (Somalia Youth League, pro-independence, Somalia nationalist, 1943-1969); USC = United Somali Congress (anti-Siad Barre, Hawiye clan based, subsequently divided into factions, 1987-1992)



British Somaliland and Somaliland
 
[Flag of the
                                  United Kingdom]
                        Feb 1884 - 2 Dec 1904
 
[British Somaliland colonial flag
                                  1904-1950]
                    2 Dec 1904 - 18 Dec 1950
 
[British Somaliland colonial flag
                                  1950-1960]
                  18 Dec 1950 - 25 Jun 1960
 
[Somalia]
            26 Jun 1960 - 1 Jul 1960
 
[Somaliland flag, 1991-1996]
                   18 May 1991 - 14 Oct 1996
 
[Somaliland flag]
                   Adopted 14 Oct 1996
 
Map of Somaliland
Hear National Anthem
"Samo ku Waar"
(Long Life with Peace)
Adopted 1997
Former National Anthem
"Kaana Siib Kanna Saar"
(The Somaliland Flag)
(26 June - 1 July 1960)
Constitution
(31 May 2001)
Capital: Hargeisa (Hargeysa)
(Berbera 1870 - Apr 1941)
Currency: Somaliland Shilling
 (SQS); 1991-94
Somali Shilling
(SOS); 1941-60 East African
 Shilling (XEAS); 1884-1940
 Indian Rupee (INR)
National Holiday: 26 Jun (1960)
Independence Day
Population: 6,500,000 (2010 est.)
347,400 (1936)
153,018 (1905)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $176.6 million (1998)
Imports: $200 million (1998)
Ethnic groups: Somali (mainly Issaq clan, but also
Gadabuursi, Ciise, Dhulbahante, and Warsanglei) (1996)
Total Armed Forces: 15,350 (2010)
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Muslim (Sunni) 99.63%, Christian 0.24%,
Hindu 0.08% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: None (1960);  from 1991: UNPO

1546                       Ottoman occupation.
1546 - 1548                Rule of the Adal Imams. 
1548                       Zayla (Zeila)(Saylac) part of the Ottoman Empire.
1630 - 1830                Under the Grand Sharifs of Mecca.

1830                       Under de facto hereditary governors.
1870                       Egypt occupies Berbera and Zayla.
1873                       Subordinated to Red Sea province of Egyptian Sudan.
 7 Sep 1877                Somali Coast Convention signed, U.K. recognizes Egyptian
                             jurisdiction over the Somali Coast up to Ras Hafun under

                             under British protection
(not ratified by Ottoman Empire).
1884                       Abandonment by Egypt of the the Somali Coast.
1884                       British take over Egyptian administration
(Somali Coast).
27 Jan 1886                British protectorate treaties signed with Somali clans (Warsangali
                             on 27 Jan 1886 [ratified 16 May 1886], Habr Awal on 15 Mar 1886
                             [ratified 15 Sep 1886]).

20 Jul 1887                British protectorate over the Somali Coast from Ras Jibuti to
                             Bunder Ziadeh proclaimed (subordinated to British India until
                             1 Oct 1898)
(Somali Coast).
2/9 Feb 1888               Anglo-French agreement on spheres of influence over Somali Coast.
5/25 May 1894              Anglo-Italian agreement on spheres of influence over Somali Coast
.
 
1 Oct 1898                British Protectorate of the Somali Coast
16 Mar 1900                (British) Somaliland Protectorate
18 Mar 1902                (British) Somali Coast Protectorate
 1 Apr 1905                (British) Somaliland Protectorate
 3 Mar 1905 - 1911         Revolt of
Sayyid Muhammad `Abd Allah al-Hasan "Mad Mullah" in
                             Nugal (Noogal).
1932                      
British Somaliland border with Ethiopia demarcated.
 
3 Aug 1940                Italian invasion begins (Hargeisa occupied 5 Aug, Berbera 19 Aug).
19 Aug 1940 - 16 Mar 1941  Occupied by Italy.

16 Mar 1941                British re-occupation of Berbera and Hargeisa on 20 Mar 1941.
26 Jun 1960                Independence of British Somaliland as State of Somaliland.

 1 Jul 1960                Unification with Italian Somalia to form Somali Republic.
31 Jan 1961                Act of Union of Somaliland and Somalia is passed
                             and signed into law (retroactive to 1 Jul 1960).
18 May 1991                Secession of former British Somaliland (regions of Awdal, 
                             Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag and Sool) from Somalia
                             (not internationally recognized).
24 May 1991                Republic of Somaliland proclaimed (not internationally 
                             recognized).

Governors
1630 - 1830                the Grand Sharifs of Mecca (see Saudi Arabia)
1830 - 1841                Sayyid Muhammad al-Barr
1841 - 1855                Haji Shermarki bin Ali Salil       (d. 1861)
                             (1st time)    

1855 - 1857                Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad (1st time)
1857 - 1861                Haji Shermarki bin Ali Salil       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1861 - 1874                Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad (2nd time)
Egyptian commander
1869 - 1870?               Ahmad Rashid Husni Pasha           (b. 1834 - d. 1905)
Egyptian governors

1870 - 1874?               Abdirahman Bey

1874 - 1878               
Muhammad Ra'uf Pasha               (b. 1832 - d. c.1888)
1878 - 1880                Radhwan (Raduan) Pasha
1880 - Dec 1882            Muhammad Nadi Pasha                (b. 1836 - d. ....) 
Dec 1882 - 1884            Rida Pasha 
British Political Agents

Feb 1884 - Feb 1889        Frederick Mercer Hunter            (b. 1844 - d. 1898)
Aug 1884 - Feb 1889        Langton Prendergast Walsh          (b. 1856 - d. 1827)
                            
(acting for for Hunter)
Feb 1889 - Aug 1893        Edward Vincent Stace               (b. 1841 - d. 1903)

                            
(acting to 18..)
Aug 1893 - 18 Nov 1896     Charles William Henry Sealy        (b. 1846 - d. 19..)

Mar 1895 - 18 Nov 1895     William Butler Ferris              (b. 1851 - d. 19..)
                            
(acting for Sealy)
18 Nov 1896 - 12 Feb 1897  William Butler Ferris              (s.a.)

Feb 1897 -  1 Oct 1898     James Hayes Sadler                 (b. 1851 - d. 1922)
Consuls-general
 
1 Oct 1898 - 11 Sep 1901  James Hayes Sadler                 (s.a.)
11 Sep 1901 - 18 Mar 1902  Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux      (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
 
                           (acting)
Commissioner and Consul-general
18
Mar 1902 - Apr 1905     Eric John Eagles Swayne            (b. 1863 - d. 1929)
Commissioners
 
1 Apr 1905 - Mar 1906     Eric John Eagles Swayne            (s.a.)
Mar 1906 - Jul 1907        Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux      (s.a.)

                            
(1st time)
Jul 1907 - Jan 1908        W. Malcolm Jones (acting)
Jan 1908 - Jan 1910
        Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux      (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)
Jan 1910 - Jun 1910        Sir William Henry Manning          (b. 1863 - d. 1932)

Jun 1910 - May 1917        Horace Archer Byatt                (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
Feb 1911 - Aug 1911        Robert Edward Salkeld              (b. 1873 - d. 1927)
                             (acting for Byatt)
Jul 1912 - Oct 1912        Geoffrey Francis Archer            (b. 1882 - d. 1964)
                             (acting for Byatt)
Jun 1913 - Oct 1913        Geoffrey Francis Archer            (s.a.)
                             (acting for Byatt)
22 May 1914 - 1915         Geoffrey Francis Archer (1st time) (s.a.)

1915  - May 1918           Thomas Astley Cubitt               (b. 1871 - d. 1939)
                             (acting for Archer)
May 1916
- Mar 1916        Geoffrey Francis Archer (2nd time) (s.a.)
Mar 1916 - Jun 1916       
Gerald Henry Summers (1st time)    (b. 1885 - d. 1925)
                             (acting)
Jun 1916 - Jan 1918
       Geoffrey Francis Archer (3rd  time)(s.a.)
Jan 1918 - May 1918        G
erald Henry Summers (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
May 1918 - Jun 1919
       Geoffrey Francis Archer (4th time) (s.a.)
Jun 1919 - 1919            Gerald Henry Summers (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
1919 - Oct 1919            Geoffrey Francis Archer (5th time) (s.a.) 
Governors

Oct 1919 - 17 Aug 1922     Geoffrey Francis Archer            (s.a.) 
                             (from 5 Jun 1920, Sir Geoffrey Francis Archer)
 6 Sep
1922 - 29 Nov 1925  Gerald Henry Summers               (s.a.)
                            
(from 23 Jun 1925, Sir Gerald Henry Summers)
29 Nov 1925
- 18 Jun 1932  Harold Baxter Kittermaster         (b. 1879 - d. 1939)

                             (from 4 Jun 1928, Sir Harold Baxter Kittermaster)
                            
(acting to 26 Jan 1926)
Commissioner
21 Jun 1932 - 10 May 1935  Arthur Salisbury Lawrance          (b. 1880 - d. 1965)

                             (from 1 Jan 1934, Arthur Salisbury Lawrance)
Governors
10 May 1935 -  2 Mar 1939  Sir Arthur Salisbury Lawrance      (s.a.)
 
2 Mar 1939 - 18 Aug 1940  Vincent Goncalves Glenday          (b. 1891 - d. 1970)

Italian Military governors
19
Aug 1940 - 27 Aug 1940  Guglielmo Nasi                     (b. 1879 - d. 1971)
                           
(commanding officer Eastern Sector)
27 Aug 1940 - 16 Mar 1941  Carlo De Simone                    (b. 1885 - d. 1951)
                            (general officer commanding Somaliland Army)
British Military governors

16 Mar 1941 - 23 Mar 1941  George Ranald Macfarlane Reid      (b. 1893 - d. 1991)
                            (air officer commanding
British Forces Aden)
23 Mar 1941 -  8 Apr 1941  Ferdinand Lindley Augustus         (b. 1888 - d. 1967)
                            
Buchanan (acting)
                           
(
general officer commanding 2nd South African Infantry Brigade)
 8 Apr 1941 -  3 Mar 1943  Arthur Reginald Chater             (b. 1896 - d. 1979)
 3 Mar 1943 -  7 Apr 1948  Gerald Thomas Fisher               (b. 1887 - d. 1965)
 7 Apr 1948 - 15 Jun 1948  Edward Barry (acting)              (b. 1896 - d. 1952)  
15 Jun 1948 - 14 Nov 1948 
Gerald Reece                       (b. 1897 - d. 1985)
Governors
15 Nov 1948 -  5 Feb 1954  Gerald Reece                       (s.a.)

                             (from 8 Jun 1950, Sir Gerald Reece) 
 
5 Feb 1954 - 24 Jun 1959  Sir Theodore Ouseley Pike          (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
                             (from 2 Jun 1956, Sir Theodore Ouseley Pike) 
24 Jun 1959 - 11 Jul 1959  Philip Carrel (acting)             (b. 1915 - d. 2000)
13 Jul 1959 - 25 Jun 1960  Sir Douglas Basil Hall             (b. 1909 - d. 2004)

Prime minister (de facto head of state)
26 Jun 1960 -  1 Jul 1960  Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal          (b. 1928 - d. 2002)  SNL
                            
(= Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal)
Presidents

28 May 1991 - 16 May 1993  Abdurahman Ahmad Ali "Tuur"        (b. 1931 - d. 2003)  SNM
                            
(= Cabdiraxmaan Axmed Cali "Tuur")
16 May 1993 -  3 May 2002  Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal          (s.a.)             SNM;2001 UDUB

 3 May 2002 - 27 Jul 2010  Dahir Riyale Kahin                 (b. 1952)            UDUB

                            
(= Daahir Rayaale Kaahin)
27 Jul 2010 -              Ahmed Mohamed Mohamud
"Silanyo"    (b. 1936)            KNM
                             (= Axmed Maxamed Maxamuud "Siilaanyo")

Territorial Disputes: Internationally recognized as part of Somalia; territorial dispute with Puntland over eastern Sanaag and Sool provinces; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities to land-locked Ethiopia and establish commercial ties with regional states; "Puntland" secessionists clash with "Somaliland" secessionists to establish territorial limits and clan loyalties, each seeking support from neighboring states.

Party abbreviations: KNM = Kulmiye Nabad, Midnimo iyo Horumar (Peace, Unity and Development Party, social democratic, left-wing); UDUB = Ururka Dimuqraadiga Ummadda Bahawday (United People's Democratic Party, est.2001);
- Former parties:
SNM = Somali National Movement (Isaaq clan-family, Somaliland separatist to 1994, anti-Siad Barre, est.1981); SNL = Somali National League (Isaaq clan dissidents, pro-British Somaliland independence, pan-Somalism, 1951-1962)



Jubaland

[Kingdom of Italy Flag]               15 Jul 1924 - 1 Jul 1926

[Jubaland flag 1998-1999
                      (Somalia)]                   1998 - 11 Jun 1999

[Jubaland flag 1999-2001
                      (Somalia)]                  1999 - 18 Jun 2001

[Jubaland state flag 2013
                      (Somalia)]                  Adopted 15 May 2013
 
Map of Jubaland Capital: Bu'ala (Bu'aale)
 (from 15 May 2013)

(Kismayo [
Kismaayo]
1925-1926,1993-2001
)
Population: 953,045
(2005 est.)

1836 - 1861                Coastal area ruled by Oman.
1861                       Coastal area ruled Zanzibar.
17 Oct 1875 - 22 Dec 1875  Kismayu occupied by Egypt under Henry Frederick
                             McKillop Pasha (b. c.1825 - d. 1879) and renamed
                             Pru Ismail (Port Ismail).

24 May 1887                Sultan of
Zanzibar leases coastal areas to the British 
                             East Africa Association (from 3 Sep 1888, Imperial British
                             East Africa Company),
effective 15 Oct 1888 (see under Kenya).
 
1 Jul 1895                Hinterland part of the (British) East Africa Colony
                            
(see Kenya), while the coastal domains of Zanzibar are under 
                            
U.K. protectorate are part
(British) East Africa Protectorate.
15 Jul 1924                Jubaland (or Trans-Juba) ceded to Italy by Anglo-Italian
                             convention
(ratified 1 May 1925), effected by take 29 Jun 1925.
10 Jul 1925 - 30 Jun 1926 
Briefly organized as
the Commissariat General of Trans-Juba
                            
(Commissariato generale dell'Oltregiuba
).
10 Jun 1926                Annexed to Italian Somalia (published 5 Jul 1925). 
 
3 Sep 1998                Somali National Front
and the elders of the Digil and
                             Rahanwein clans plan to establish a
State of Jubaland.
11 Jun 1999                Leader ousted from regional capital Kismayo by the Allied
                             Somali Forces (ASM)(later called Juba Valley Alliance).
18 Jun 2001                Juba Valley Alliance installs a new administration
                             supporting the Mogadishu government.
24 Sep 2006                Kismayo taken by troops of the Supreme Islamic Council of
                             Somalia.
 1 Jan 2007                Kismayo taken by forces of the central government.
 3 Apr 2011                Azania Region is proclaimed with Mohamed Abdi Mohamed "Gandhi" as 
                             president, however it remains largely based in Kenya.
15 May 2013                Jubland State of Somalia established at Bu'ale.
27 Aug 2013                Agreement between the federal government of Somalia and Juba
                             delegation to create a Juba interim administration.
20 Jan 2014               
Interim Administration of Juba established as recognized by Somali
                             government
.

High Commissioner

10 Jul 1925 - 31 Dec 1926  Corrado Zoli                       (b. 1877 - d. 1951)
Chairmen of the Somali National Front
22 Feb 1993 - 11 Jun 1999  Mohamed Siad Hersi "Morgan"        (b. 1949)             Mil/SPM
                             (= Maxamed Siciid Xirsi "Moorgan")
                             (briefly recaptures Kismayo 6-7 Aug 2001) 

11 Jun 1999 - 18 Jun 2001  Ahmed Warsame Mohamed                                    ASM/JVA
                             (= Axmed Warsame Maxamed)
President

15 May 2013 - 20 Jan 2014  Sheikh Ahmed Mohamed Islam "Madobe"(b. 1961)             RM
                            
(= Sheekh Axmed Maxamed Islaam Madoobe)
Chairman of the Executive
Council of Interim Administration of Juba
20 Jan 2014 -              Sheikh Ahmed Mohamed Islam "Madobe"(s.a.)                RM


Party abbreviations: ASM = Allied Somali Forces (Marehan, Ogadeni, and Habr Geduir factions, and SNF, pro-Somali transitional government, 1999-2001, renamed JVA); JVA = Juba Valley Alliance (pro-Somali transitional government, grouping of Marehan, Ogadeni and Habr Gedir factions, est.2001); RM = Raskamboni Movement (est.2009);  Mil = Military


Puntland

[Somalia
                      flag]              23 Jul 1998 - 22 Dec 2009 [Puntland state flag
                      (Somalia)]                Adopted 22 Dec 2009 

Map of Puntland Hear National Anthem
"Soomaaliyeey Toosoo"
(Somalia Wake Up)
Text of Anthem
Adopted 2000
Constitution
(May 2012)
---------------------------

Transitional Constitution

(1 Jul 2001 - May 2012)
Capital: Garowe
(
Garoowe)
Currency: Somali Shilling (SOS) 
National Holiday: 1 Jul (1960)
Foundation of the Somali Republic
Population: 5,00,000 (2015 est.)
GDP: C$6.62 billion (2015)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Somali  (mainly Darod clan)
Total Security Forces: 10,000 (2012)
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Muslim (nearly all Sunni)
International Organizations/Treaties: None

 1 Aug 1998                Part of northeastern Somalia (regions of Bari and Nugaal 
                             [claims Sool and eastern Sanaag]) declared autonomous 
                             as Regional State of Puntland by Darod clans (not recognized).
 1 Jul 2001                Regional State of Puntland of Somalia
18 Feb 2012                Recognized as an autonomous state within Somalia by Garowe II
                             conference.
18 Jun 2012                Puntland State of Somalia

Chairmen of the Somali Salvation Democratic Front
1991 - 22 Aug 1994         Mohamed Abshir Muse                (b. 1926)            SSDF  
                            
(= Maxamed Abshir Muuse)
22 Aug 1994
-  1 Aug 1998  Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed              (b. 1934 - d. 2012)  SSDF
                             (= Cabdillaahi Yuusuf Axmed)
State President

 1 Aug 1998 - 30 Jun 2001  Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (1st time)   (s.a.)               SSDF
                             (continues in rebellion) 
Presidents
 
1 Jul 2001 - 14 Nov 2001  Yusuf Haji Nur (acting)                                 Non-party

                            
(= Yuusuf Xaaji Nuur)
14 Nov 2001 - 21
Nov 2001  Jama Ali Jama                                           Non-party
                             (= Jaamac Cali Jaamac)
                             (continues in rebellion to 8 May 2002)

21 Nov 2001 - 14 Oct 2004  Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
14 Oct 2004 - Jan 2005     Mohamed Abdi Hashi (acting)                             Non-party
                            
(= Maxamed Cabdi Xaashi)
Jan 2005 - 11 Jan 2009     Mohamud Muse Hersi "Adde"                               Non-party

                            
(= Maxamuud Muuse Xirsi "Cadde")
11 Jan 2009 - 14 Jan 2014  Abdirahman Mohamud "Farole"        (b. 1945) 
          Non-party;
                            
(= Cabdiraxmaan Maxamed "Faroole")                    2012 UH
14 Jan 2014 -              Abdiweli Mohamed Ali               (b. 1965)            UDAD
                             (= Cabdiweli Maxamed Cali)

Territorial Disputes: Internationally recognized as part of Somalia; territorial dispute with Somaliland over eastern Sanaag and Sool provinces; "Puntland" secessionists clash with "Somaliland" secessionists to establish territorial limits and clan loyalties, each seeking support from neighboring states.

Party abbreviations (Political parties are banned in Puntland since Aug 1998): SSDF = Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed (Somalia Salvation Democratic Front, founded as Democratic Front for Salvation of Somalia, divided into two factions- Mohamed Abshir Muse and Abdullahi Yussuf Ahmed, est.1978); UDAD = Ururka Dadka Puntland; UH = Ururka Horseed (est.14 Nov 2012)


Khaatumo

[Khaatumo State flag 2012 (Somalia)]                      2012 - 2013

[Khaatumo State flag
                      (Somalia)]                           Adopted 2013

Map of Khaatumo
Capital: Taleh (Taleex)
(temporary)
Population: N/A

12 Jan 2012                Part of northeastern Somalia (in western Sool province
                             between Somaliland and Puntland) declares itself autonomous
                             from Somaliland as Somali Regional Administration of Khaatumo
                            (not recognized by Puntland, Somalia or Somaliland), established
                             mainly by the Dhulbahante sub-clan of the Harti Darod clan and
                             claiming all of Sool, Sanaag, and Cayn provinces.

Presidents
12 Jan 2012 -  1 Sep 2014  Co-Presidents
                           (rotating every 6 months)
                           - Ahmed Ilmi Osman "Karash"
                             (= Axmed Cilmi Cusmaan "Karaash")
                             (to ... 2013)

                           - Abdi Nur Ilmi Qaje "Binde"
                             (= Cabdi Nuur Cilmi Qaaje "Biindhe")
                             (to ... 2013)

                           - Mohamed Yusuf Jama "Indhasheel"
                            
(= Maxamed Yuusuf Jaamac "Indhosheel")
 1 Sep 2014 -              Ali Khalif Galaydh                 (b. 1941)           Non-party
                             (= Cali Khaliif Galaydh)


Maakhir

[Maakhir state flag 2007-2008 (Somalia)]                 1 Jul 2007 - 2008

[Maakhir state flag
                      2008-2009 (Somalia)]                    2008 - 11 Jan 2009

Map of Maakhir State
Capital: Badhan  Population: 700,000 (2006 est.)

 1 Jul 2007                Part of northeastern Somalia (in western Sanaag province
                             between Puntland and Somaliland) declares itself autonomous
                             from Somaliland as Maakhir State of Somalia (not recognized by
                             Puntland, Somalia or Somaliland),
established by the Warsangeli
                             sub-clan of Darood.

25 - 26 Feb 2008           Somaliland aligned force lays siege to Hadaaftimo and Badhan.
 9 Jul 2008 (hours)        Somaliland occupies the port of Laas Qoray (Las Khorey).
11 Jan 2009                Incorporated into Puntland.


President
 1 Jul 2007 - 11 Jan 2009  Jibrel Ali Salad                   (b. 1939)
                             (= Jibriil Cali Salaad)
                             (in exile from Apr 2008?)
Apr 2008 - 11 Jan 2009     Abdullahi Ahmed Jama "Ilkajir"     (b. 1951)           Mil
                             (= Cabdillaahi Axmed Jaamac "Ilkajiir")
                             (de facto)



Southwestern Somalia

[Southwest Somalia State flag, 2002-2006
                      (Somalia)]                      2002 - c.2006
[Southwestern State flag,
                      2014 (Somalia)]                           2014
[Southwestern State flag
                      (Somalia)]                      Adopted 2014
Map of Southwestern State
Capital: Barawe (Baraawe)
 (from 8 Nov 2014)
(Baidoa [Baydhabo] 2002-2014)
Population: N/A (2014)

 1 Apr 2002                State of Southwestern Somalia is proclaimed
                             by Rahanwein Resistance Army (not recognized).
10 Feb 2006                Baidoa taken by forces of the central government.
 3 Mar 2014                A new Southwestern State formed
.           

Presidents
 1 Apr 2002 - 200.         Hassan Mohamed Nur "Shatigadud"    (b. 1946 - d. 2013) Mil/RRA
                             (= Xasan Maxamed Nuur "Shaatigaduud")
                             (loses control of Baidoa 3 Oct 2002¹)

 3 Mar 2014 -  3 Dec 2014 
Madobe Nunow Mohamed               (b. 1949?)          Non-party
                             (= Madoobe Nuunow Maxamed)
 3 Dec 2014 -              Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden          (b. 1946?)          Non-party
                             (= Shariif Xasan Sheekh Aadan)

 ¹From 3 Oct 2002 (except 14-16 Dec 2002) Baidoa was controlled by Sheikh Adan Mohamed Nur "Madobe" (= Sheekh Aadan Maxamed Nuur "Madoobe")(b. 1955?) officially reconciled with Shatigadud since 23 Sep 2003) and Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade (= Maxamed Ibraahim Xaabsade)(b. 1952 - d. 2015). From Mar 2005 Habsade controlled the city after driving off Shatigadud and Madobe (who were both ministers in the central government of Prime Minister Ali Mohamed Ghedi = Cali Maxamed Geedi). In Aug 2006 Habsade himself became a minister in Ghedi's government.

Party abbreviations
: RRA = Rahanweyn Resistance Army (Raxanweyn clan based, allied
with the SDM, fights Aydid controlled militia in the Bakool/Bay regions, est.1995); Mil = Military


Galmudug

[Somalia
                      flag]                14 Aug 2006 - 200.

[Galmudug state flag to
                      2010 (Somalia)]                   200. - 8 Jul 2010
 
[Galmudug state flag
                      (Somalia)]                  Adopted 8 Jul 2010

Map of Galmudug State
Capital: (South) Galcayo
(Gaalkacyo)
Population: 2,500,000
 (2013 est.)
Constitution

14 Aug 2006                Part of north central Somalia (regions of Galgadud and Mudug)
                             declared autonomous as Galmudug State of Somalia.
Nov 2006 - 25 Dec 2006     Partly occupied by troops of Supreme Islamic Council of
                             Somalia.
18 Feb 2012                Proclaimed as an autonomous state within Somalia by Garowe II
                             conference.
30 Jul 2014                Federal Government of Somalia officially endorses a new Central
                             Regions State, following a signed agreement in Mogadishu between
                             representatives from Galmudug, Himan and Heeb
.


Presidents
14 Aug 2006 - 14 Aug 2009  Mohamed Warsame Ali "Kimiko"       (b. 1937?)
                             (= Maxamed Warsame Cali "Kiimiko")
14 Aug 2009 - 14 Aug 2012  Mohamed Ahmed Alin
                             (= Maxamed Axmed Calin)
14 Aug 2012 - 23 Jul 2015  Abdi Hasan Awale "Qeybdid"         (b. 1948)
                             (= Cabdi Xasan Cawaale "Qeybdiid")
23 Jul 2015 -              Abdi Karim Hussein "Guled"         (b. 1967)           PDP
                             (= Cabdi Kariim Xuseen "Guuleed")


Party abbreviation
:
PDP = Xisbiga Nabadda Iyo Horumarka (Peace and Development Party, social democratic, est.2011)



Himan and Heeb

[Somalia
                      flag]               12 Jun 2008 - c.2010

[Himan and Heeb (Ximan and Xeeb) Somalia]                         Adopted c.2010

Map of Himan and Heeb
Capital: Adado
(Cadaado)

12 Jun 2008                Himan and Heeb (Ximan iyo Xeeb) autonomous state declared by
                             Saleebaan sub-clan of the Habr Gidr Hawiye around Adado
                            (not recognized).
30 Jul 2014                Federal Government of Somalia officially endorses a new Central
                             Regions State, following a signed agreement in Mogadishu between
                             representatives from Galmudug, Himan and Heeb.

Presidents

12 Jun 2008 - 13 Jun 2013  Mohamed Abdullahi Aden "Ticey"
                             (= Maxamed Cabdillaahi Aadan "Tiiceey")
13 Jun 2013 -              Abdullahi Ali Mohamed "Barleh"
                             (= Cabdillaahi Cali Maxamed "Baarleex")




© Ben Cahoon