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Somali Traditional States


Note: Place names and clan names are typically in Somali language, and are recorded in the current official alphabet. Personal "given" names are mostly of Arabic origin, and are given in Somali/Arabic.

Muqdisho/Maqdishu

[Muqdisho/Maqdishu sultanate
                flag]

bf.1331                   Muqdisho/Maqdishu sultanate established (in 20th century
                            often referred to by the Italian version Mogadiscio).
1871 - 1905               Under suzerainty of Zanzibar.
1892                      Leased to Italy.
16 Mar 1905               Annexed by Italy, part of Somalia. 

Sultans
.... - ....               Cumar/`Umar
.... - ....               Axmed I/Ahmad I
.... - ....               Maxamad I/Muhammad I
.... - ....               Axmed II/Ahmad II
.... - ....               Maxamuud/Mahmud
.... - ....               Cali/`Ali
.... - ....               Cismaan/`Uthman
.... - ....               Maxamad II/Muhammad II
1860?                     Axmed III/Ahmad III



Majerteen (Harti)

[Majerteen/Harti sultanate
                flag]

c.1600                     Majerteen or Harti sultanate founded.
 7 Apr 1889                Italian protectorate (renewed 7 Apr 1895).
1927                       Incorporated into Italian colony.

Sultans
.... - 1815                Maxamuud IV/Mahmud IV
1815 - 1842                Cismaan II/`Uthman II
1842 - 1844                Yuusuf IV/Yusuf IV
1844 - 1860                Maxamuud V Yuusuf/Mahmud V ibn Yusuf
1860 - 1927                Cismaan III Maxamuud/`Uthman III ibn Mahmud



Hobyo

1878                       Hobyo sultanate split off from Majerteen.
Dec 1888                   Italian protectorate (renewed 11 Apr 1895).
Oct 1925                   Incorporated into Italian colony (known as Obbia).

Sultans
1878 - 28 Sep 1911         Yuusuf Cali/Yusuf ibn `Ali
1911 - Oct 1925            Cali Yuusuf/`Ali ibn Yusuf



Geledi/Jaladi

 3 Sep 1908                Incorporated into Italian colony.

Sultans
1843? - 1848               Yuusuf Maxamad/Yusuf ibn Muhammad
1848 - 1878                Axmed Yuusuf/Ahmad ibn Yusuf
1878 -  3 Sep 1908         Cismaan Axmed/`Uthman ibn Ahmad



Noogal/Nugal

 3 Mar 1905                The "Mad Mullah" declares himself Mahdi.
1911                       Rule of the Mahdi terminated by Italy.

Mahdi
 3 Mar 1905 - 1911         Sayid Maxamad Cabdille Xasan/        (b. 1864 - d. 1920)
                             Sayyid Muhammad `Abd Allah al-Hasan
                             "the Mad Mullah" 


Warsangeli/Gerad

1298                       Warsangeli (or Gerad) state founded.
1886                       British protectorate.

Rulers (title Gerad)
1655 - 1675                Gerad Mohamud
1675 - 1705                Gerad Naleye
1705 - 1750                Gerad Mohamed
1750 - 1789                Gerad Ali
1789 - 1830                Gerad Mohamud Ali
1830 - 1870                Gerad Aul
1870 - 1897                Gerad Ali Shire
Sultan
1897 - 1960                Mohamud Ali Shire                    (d. 1960)
                             (in Seychelles exile 1920-1927)





Ben Cahoon