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Northern Mariana Islands
 
[Flag of Spain
                                    1785-1931]
                  to 16 Nov 1899 
 
[German
                                    Empire 1870-1919 (Germany)]
              16 Nov 1899 - 14 Oct 1914 
 
[Japan]
           14 Oct 1914 - 19 Jun 1944
 
[US
                                    flag]
                      Adopted 19 Jun 1944 
 
[Flag of
                                    UNO]
  18 Jul 1947 - 19 Aug 1965 Pacific Is.Trust Terr.
 
[ Pacific
                                    Is.Trust Terr. -Six Star Flag ]
    19 Aug 1965 - 31 Mar 1972 Pacific Is.Trust Terr.
 
[Flag
                                    of the Northern Mariana Islands
                                    (District Flag to 1976) 1972-1989]
  31 Mar 1972 - 1 Jul 1989 (District Flag to 4 Jul 1976)
 
[Flag of the Northern Mariana
                                    Islands 1989-1991]
                        1 Jul 1989 - 1991
 
[Flag of the Northern Mariana
                                    Islands 1991-1995]
                         1991 - 4 Jul 1995
 
[Flag of
                                    the Northern Mariana Islands]
                         Adopted 4 Jul 1995
 


Map of the Northern
Mariana Islands
Hear National Anthem
 "Star Spangled Banner"
Text of Local Anthem
"Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi"/
"Satil Matawal Pacifico"
(In the Middle of the Sea)

Adopted 3 Oct 1996
Constitution
(1 Jan 1978)
Capital: Saipan
(Garapan 1920-1944)
Currency: US Dollar (USD);
1914-1944 Japanese Yen (JPY)
National Holiday: 4 Jul (1776)
U.S. Independence Day
--------------------------------------
Local  Holiday: 24 Mar (1976)
Commonwealth Covenant Day
Population: 51,170 (2013)
GDP: $701 million (2012)
Exports: $268 million (2012)
Imports: $496 million (2012)
Ethnic groups: Filipino 35.3%, Chamorro 23.9%, Chinese 6.8%,
 
Carolinians 4.6%, Korean 4.2%, Chuukese 2.3%, Palauan 2.2%,
Japanese, and other Asian 3.6%,
other Pacific Islander 1.9%,
 white 2.1%, multi-ethnic 12.7%, other 0.4% (2010)
Total Police Forces: 126 (2005)
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.S.
Merchant marine: None (2010) 
Religions: Roman Catholic 59.6%, Protestant 18.7%,
other Christian 1.4%, other 20.3% (1995)
International Organizations/Treaties:  Interpol (subbureau), PC, PIF (observer), UPU
Northern
Mariana
Islands
Chronology

 6 Mar 1521                Discovered by Ferdinand Magellan and claimed for
                             Spain, named Las Isles de las Velas 
                             Latinas [Islands of the Latine Sails]).
 9 Mar 1521                Renamed Las Islas de los Ladrones (Islands of 
                             the Thieves). 
22 Jan 1565                Island reclaimed as a Spanish possession by
                             Miguel López de Legazpi.
14 Jun 1668                Settlement begins, named Islas de las Marianas
                             (see Guam); subordinated to New Spain (Mexico).
1817                       Subordinated to the Philippines.
21 Jun 1898                Northern Marianas are separated from Guam when
                             Guam becomes a U.S. territory.
12 Feb 1899                Sold to Germany by Spain (Marianen-Inseln)
                             (effective 16 Nov 1899), from 1907 part of German
                             New Guinea ([see Papua New Guinea]; subordinated
                             to district officers in Caroline Islands).
14 Oct 1914                Japanese occupation (see under Marshall Islands;
                             from 28 Dec 1914 see under Palau).
28 Jun 1919                Germany formally renounces claims to the islands.
17 Dec 1920                League of Nations mandate (from 1 Apr 1922 part 

                             of South Seas Agency [see under Palau]).
 9 Jul 1944                U.S. occupation of Saipan (Tinian from 1 Aug 1944, 
                             Rota from 2 Sep 1945)(see under Micronesia).
 9 Jul 1944 -  7 May 1962  Administered by U.S. Navy (briefly by the U.S.
                             Department of Interior 1 Jul 1951 - 1 Jan 1953).
18 Jul 1947                Japanese mandate formally revoked; part of the UN
                             Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (see
                             under Micronesia)(Marianas District [named
                             10 Mar 1955 - 1 Jul 1962 Saipan District] and
                             separate Rota district 10 Mar 1955 - 1 Jul 1962).
 7 May 1962 -  9 Jan 1978  Administered by U.S. Department of Interior.
 9 Nov 1969                Northern Marianas vote for reintegration with Guam,
                             but voters on Guam reject the plan.
 9 Jan 1978                Autonomy.
 4 Nov 1986                Commonwealth status (Commonwealth of the Northern
                             Mariana Islands).
10 Jul 1987                Trust territory effectively dissolved.
22 Dec 1990                Security Council ratifies termination of 
                             trusteeship.

 Rota
(1955-1978)

 Saipan Mayors
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Governors 
16 Jun 1668 - 21 Jun 1898  the governors of Mariana Islands 
                            (see Guam)
21 Jun 1898 -  9 May 1899  ....
 9 May 1899 - 16 Nov 1899  Eugenio Blanco y Leison             (b. 18.. - d. 1925)
16 Nov 1899 - 14 Oct 1914  the governors of German New Guinea
 1 Apr 1922 -  2 Feb 1944  the Administrators of South
                           Seas Agency (see Palau)
Bezirksamtmann (District commissioners)
16 Nov 1899 - Apr 1907     Georg Fritz (on Saipan)             (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
1904 - 1907                Volker Reichel (on Rota)
Stationsleiter (Station chiefs)
Apr 1907 - 1910            Karl Kirn (acting to 1908)
1910 - May 1911            Otto Paulisch (acting)
May 1911 - May 1914        Georg von Heynitz 
May 1914 - 14 Oct 1914     Walter Boehme (acting)
Military Governors
(the Commanders of U.S. Naval Forces Mariana Islands)
1944 - 1945                Chester W. Nimitz                   (b. 1885 - d. 1966)
1945 - Aug 1945            John Howard Hoover                  (b. 1887 - d. 1970)
Aug 1945 - 1946            George Dominic Murray               (b. 1889 - d. 1956)
1946 - 
18 Jul 1947         Charles A. Pownall                  (b. 1887 - d. 1975)
Deputy High Commissioners
of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

(resident in Saipan, Northern Marianas)

18 Jul 1947 - Jan 1948     Carleton H. Wright                  (b. 1892 - d. 1970)
Jan 1948 - Jul 1948        Dewitt C. Ramsey                    (b. 1888 - d. 1961)
24 Jul 1948 - 31 May 1951  Leon S. Fiske
 1 Jun 1951 - 23 Apr 1954  James A. McConnell

15 Aug 1954 -
26 Nov 1956  Delmas Henry Nucker                 (b. 1907 - d. 1985)
Feb 1957 - Oct 1958        Eugene R. Gilmartin                 (d. 1961)
Oct 1958 - May 1961        Joseph C. Putnam

May 1961 - Feb 1964
       Jose "Pepe" A. Benitez              (d. 1975)  
10 Apr 1964 - 31 Jan 1966  Richard F. Taitano                  (b. 1921 - d. 1997)
31 Jan 1966 -  6 Dec 1966  Vacant
 6 Dec 1966 - 1969
        Martin P. Mangan                    (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
1969 - 1977                Peter Tali Coleman                  (b. 1919 - d. 1997)  
 3 Feb 1978 - 1981         Juan A. Sablan                      (d. 1996)
Mariana Islands
(1955-1962, Saipan) District Administrators

(1947-1951,
Civil Administrators)
1945 - 1947                L. Gordon Findley
Sep 1947 - Dec 1948        Ralph A. Wilhelm
Mar 1949 - Sep 1949        Fletcher L. Sheffield, Jr.
Dec 1949 - Mar 1950        James R. Gray
Jun 1950 - Sep 1950        William R. Lowades
Dec 1950 - Jun 1951        James B. Johnson
 1 Jul 1951 -  1 Jan 1953  H
enry M. Hedges                     (b. 1901 – d. 1969)
Jan 1953 - Aug 1954        ....
30 Aug 1954 - 1956?        Charles E. Miller
bf.Jul 1958 - af.Feb 1959  David N. Morey
1959?                      E.C. Shy
1959 - 1960                Ralph H. Mortensen
1960 - Sep 1960            Leroy Hippe (acting)
1960 - Jun 1962            Paul W. Bridwell
                    (b. 1916 - d. 1996)
 1 Jul 1962 - 1963        
Francis B. Mahoney                  (b. 1922 - d. 1981)
May 1963 - 1965            Roy Trent Gallemore                 (b. 1895 – d. 1977)  
1965 - 1969                Peter Tali Coleman                  (s.a.)  
1969 - 1976                Francisco "Frank" C. Ada            (b. 1934 - d. 2010)
Resident Commissioner

 1 Apr 1976 -  9 Jan 1978  Erwin Dain Canham                   (b. 1904 - d. 1982)
Governors
 9 Jan 1978 - 11 Jan 1982  Carlos Sablan Camacho               (b. 1937)            Dem
11 Jan 1982 -  8 Jan 1990  Pedro Pangelinan Tenorio (1st time) (b. 1934)            Rep
 8 Jan 1990 - 10 Jan 1994  Lorenzo I. De Leon Guerrero         (b. 1935 - d. 2006)  Rep
10 Jan 1994 - 12 Jan 1998  Froilan Cruz Tenorio                (b. 1939)            Dem
12 Jan 1998 - 14 Jan 2002  Pedro Pangelinan Tenorio (2nd time) (s.a.)               Rep
14 Jan 2002 -  9 Jan 2006  Juan Nekai Babauta                  (b. 1953)            Rep
 9 Jan 2006 - 20 Feb 2013  Benigno "Ben" Repeki Fitial         (b. 1945)          CP;2011 Rep
 4 Oct 2006 - 23 Dec 2006  Timothy Pangelinan Villagomez       (b. 1962)            CP
                             (acting for Fitial)
20 Feb 2013 -              Eloy Songao Inos                    (b. 1949)         CP;9-2013 Rep

Party abbreviations: CP = Covenant Party (CNMI regionalist, populist, conservative, est.2001); Dem = Democratic Party (liberal, center-left, est.1829); Rep = Republican Party (conservative, center-right, est.1854)



Rota

10 Mar 1955                Rota separated from Saipan as a district of
the Trust
                             Territory of the Pacific
Islands.
 1 Jul 1962                Rota reunited with Saipan as Mariana Islands District.

Rota District Administrators

1955 - af.Nov 1956         Edward N. Kobayashi (acting)        (b. 1924 - d. 1993) 

195. - 1958               
Robert W. Wion                      (b. 1921 – d. 1966)
1958 - 1959                Albert L. Warner
1959 - 1961                Raymond J. McKay (acting to 1960)
1961 - 1962                Prudencio T. Manglona               (b. 1934 - d. 2014)




©  Ben Cahoon