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Papua New Guinea
 
[Australian
                                    flag]
                    1 Jul 1949 - 12 Mar 1971
 
[Territory of Papua and New
                                    Guinea Customs Service flag
                                    1949-c.1955 (Australia)]
                1 Jul 1949 - c.1955  Customs Flag
 
[Papua
                                    and New Guinea 1965-1970 unofficial
                                    flag (Australia)]
    Nov 1962 - 1970 Unofficial Local Flag 
[Papua
                                    and New Guinea 1970-1971
                                    (Australia)]
                        1970 - 12 Mar 1971
 
[Papua New
                                    Guinea]
            Adopted 12 Mar 1971


 
Map of Papua New Guinea
Hear National Anthem
"O Arise, All You Sons"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1975
Constitution
(16 Sep 1975)
Capital: Port Moresby
Currency: Kina (PGK);
1906-1975 Australian Dollar
(AUD); 1942-1944 Oceania
Gumpyo Pound (XOGP
National Holiday: 16 Sep (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 6,431,902 (2013)
GDP: $19.96 billion (2013)
Exports: $5.39 billion (2013)
Imports: $4.58 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: New Guinea Papuan 84%, New Guinea
Melanesian 15%, Negrito, Micronesian,
Polynesian, other 1% (1983) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 3,100 (2010)
Total Police Force: 5,311 (2012)

Merchant marine: 31 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 27%, Evangelical Lutheran 19.5%,
United Church 11.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%,
 Pentecostal 8.6%, Evangelical Alliance 5.2%, Anglican 3.2%,
Baptist 2.5%, other Protestant 8.9%, Bahai 0.3%,
indigenous beliefs and other 3.3%
(2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, ANT, AOSIS, APEC, APM, ARF, ASEAN (special observer), BTWC, C, CP, CTBT (signatory), CWC, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, PC, PIF, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Papua New
Guinea Index
Chronology

1546                       Spanish sailors discover New Guinea, it is named 
                             Nueva Guinea.
1660                       Dutch East India Company recognizes the 
                             sovereignty of the Sultan of Tidore over the
                             "Papuan islands in general" but with exclusive 
                             Dutch trading rights. 
1793 - Apr 1795            First European settlement, Fort Coronation, 
                             founded at Doreri Bay by Britain.
24 Aug 1828                Western New Guinea claimed as part of Netherlands
                             East Indies (Netherlands New Guinea).
16 Jan 1880 - 1882?        Charles-Marie-Bonaventure du Breuil, marquis
                             de Rays (b. 1840? - d. 18..) establishes a 
                             settlement on New Ireland Island at Port-Breton
                             called Colony of New France; abandoned 25 Aug
                             1880 - 1880, 15 Feb 1881 - 1882?
 3 Apr 1883                Queensland (Australia) annexes the southeastern 
                             coast.
 2 Jul 1883                British colonial office disallows Queensland
                             annexation.
1884                       Partition of New Guinea agreed by Netherlands,
                             U.K., and Germany along the 141st meridian.
 3 Nov 1884                Germany proclaims protectorate over northeastern 
                             New Guinea (Kaiser-Wilhelmsland/German New 
                             Guinea); 17 May 1885 - 1899 administered by 
                             the German New Guinea Company
                             (Deutsche Neu-Guinea Compagnie).
 6 Nov 1884                Britain proclaims protectorate over southeastern 
                             New Guinea (British New Guinea territory).
1886                       British colony of New Guinea.
14 Nov 1899                Germany transfers Choiseul, Santa Isabel, the
                             Shortland and Ontong Java Islands to British
                             Solomon islands, but retains Bougainville 
                             and Buka islands (effective 1900). 
 1 Sep 1906                British New Guinea passed to Australia and
                             renamed Territory of Papua.
26 Sep 1914                Australian occupation of Bismarck Archipelago.
11 Nov 1914                Australian occupation of German New Guinea.
28 Jun 1919                Germany formally renounces claims to the islands.
17 Dec 1920                German New Guinea becomes League of Nations 

                             mandate (under Australia).
21 Jan 1942 - Aug 1944     Japanese occupation of New Guinea (and part of
                             Papua to 22 Jan 1943, named Niyuginia).
10 Apr 1942                Australia begins joint administration of Papua
                             and New Guinea.
1944 - 31 Oct 1945         U.S. military occupation of North East New
                             Guinea; with Australian civil administration.
 8 Dec 1946                UN mandate for North East New Guinea (under 
                             Australia).
 1 Jul 1949                Territory of Papua and New Guinea (formal
                             administrative unification).
 1 Jul 1971                Territory of Papua New Guinea 
 1 Sep 1975 -  9 Aug 1976  Secession of Bougainville.
16 Sep 1975                Independence (Independent State of Papua New
                             Guinea).
17 May 1990 - 22 Jan 1998  Secession of Bougainville.

Papua New
Guinea
(since 1945)
Provinces
North East
New Guinea

(1880-1945)
Papua
(1883-1945)
 Bougainville
 
 
 
 
 

North East New Guinea
 
png_nf.GIF
         1870 - 1882?  Nouvelle France 
 
[German New Guinea
                          Company 1885 - 1899 (Germany)]
    1885 - 1899 German New Guinea Company 
 
[German Empire
                            1870-1919 (Germany)]
                     1899 - 29 Sep 1914 
 
[Flag of the United
                            Kingdom]
                     29 Sep 1914 - 9 May 1921 
[Territory of New Guinea 1921-1942,
                          1945-49 (Australia)]
            9 May 1921 - 1942, 1944 - 1 Jul 1949
[Japan]
               21 Jan 1942 - Aug 1944

Map of German New Guinea
Capital: Rabul
(Finschhafen 1885-1891;
Friedrich-Wilhelm-Hafen 1891-99;
Herbertshöhe 1899-1910)

Population: 425,000 (1929)
600,000 (1912)

Commanders (at Port-Breton)
16 Jan 1880 - 25 Aug 1880  McLaughen
1880 - 188.                Le Prévost
188. - 15 Feb 1881         ....
1882?                      Rabardy?
Commissioner
1885 - Jan 1887            Gustav von Oertzen                 (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
Landeshauptleute (of the New Guinea Company)
10 Jun 1886 -  1 Mar 1888  Georg Freiherr von Schleinitz      (b. 1834 - d. 1910)
 1 Mar 1888 - 31 Oct 1889  Reinhold Kraetke                   (b. 1845 - d. 1934)
Commissioner
21 Aug 1889 - 31 Aug 1892  Fritz Rose (acting to 30 Sep 1890) (b. 1855 - d. 1922)
Landeshauptleute (of the New Guinea Company)
 1 Sep 1892 -  3 Mar 1895  Georg Schmiele                     (b. 1855 - d. 1895)
 3 Mar 1895 - 17 Aug 1896  Hugo Rüdiger  
22 Sep 1896 - 13 Aug 1897  Kurt von Hagen                     (b. 1859 - d. 1897)
15 Aug 1897 - 11 Sep 1897  Albert Hahl (acting)               (b. 1868 - d. 1945)
11 Sep 1897 - 31 Mar 1899  Hugo Skopnik
Governors
 1 Apr 1899 - 10 Jul 1901  Rudolf von Bennigsen               (b. 1860 - d. 1912)
10 Jul 1901 - 13 Apr 1914  Albert Hahl                        (s.a.)
                             (acting to 10 Nov 1902)
13 Apr 1914 - 17 Oct 1914  Eduard Haber (acting)              (b. 1866 - d. 1947)
Military Administrators
11 Nov 1914 -  8 Jan 1915  William Holmes                     (b. 1862 - d. 1917)
                            (to 20 Nov 1914, Commander of Australian
                             Naval and Military Expeditionary Force)
 8 Jan 1915 - 21 Oct 1917  Samuel Augustus Pethbridge         (b. 1862 - d. 1918)
21 Oct 1917 - 21 Apr 1918  Seaforth Simpson Mackenzie (acting)(b. 1883 - d. 1955)
21 Apr 1918 -  1 May 1920  George Jameson Johnston            (b. 1869 - d. 1949)
 1 May 1920 - 21 Mar 1921  Thomas Griffiths (1st time)        (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
Administrators
21 Mar 1921 - 13 Jun 1933  Evan Alexander Wisdom              (b. 1869 - d. 1945)
13 Jun 1933 - 12 Sep 1934  Thomas Griffiths (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.) 
12 Sep 1934 - Dec 1942     Walter Ramsay McNicoll             (b. 1877 - d. 1947)
                            (from 14 Dec 1937, Sir Walter Ramsay McNicoll) 
                            (in Australia exile from 21 Jan 1942)
Japanese Commanders of Occupied New Guinea and Papua
21 Jan 1942 - 1942         Tomitaro Horii                     (b. 1890 - d. 1942)
1942                       Hyakutake Seikichi                 (b. 1888 - d. 1947) 
 9 Nov 1942 - 13 Sep 1945  Adachi Hatazo                      (b. 1890 - d. 1947) 
                            (from Aug 1944, in opposition) 
 9 Nov 1942 -  6 Sep 1945  Imamura Hitoshi                    (b. 1886 - d. 1968)
                            (at Rabaul in charge of New Guinea islands) 
U.S. Military Commanders
1943 - 1944                Walter Krueger                     (b. 1881 - d. 1967)
1944                       Robert Lawrence Eichelberger       (b. 1886 - d. 1961) 

Heads of New Guinea Administrative Unit 
14 Feb 1942 - 15 Feb 1942  George Wilfred Lambert Townsend    (b. 1896 - d. 1962)
15 Feb 1942 -  9 Apr 1942  Kenneth Carlyle McMullen           (b. 1904 - d. ....)
Head of Australian New Guinea Administrative Unit
10 Apr 1942 - 194.         Kenneth Carlyle McMullen           (s.a.)


Papua
 
[Portectorate of
                          New Guinea 1884 - 1888 (Papua New Guinea)]
                         6 Nov 1884 - 1888
 
[British New
                          Guinea 1888-1906 (Papua New Guinea)]
                           1888 - 1 Sep 1906
 
[Territory of Papua
                          1906-1949]
           1 Sep 1906 - 1942, 1944 - 1 Jul 1949
 
Capital: Port Moresby
Population: 276,400 (1929)

Magistrate (Queensland representative in New Guinea)
 3 Apr 1883 -  2 Jul 1883  Henry Majoribanks Chester          (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
Special Commissioners
 6 Nov 1884 -  2 Dec 1885  Peter Henry Scratchley             (b. 1835 - d. 1885)
                             (from 6 Jun 1885, Sir Peter Henry Scratchley)
 2 Dec 1885 - 1886         Hugh Hastings Romilly (acting)     (b. 1856 - d. 1892)
1886 - 1887                John Douglas                       (b. 1828 - d. 1904)
1887 -  4 Sep 1888         William MacGregor                  (b. 1846 - d. 1919)
Administrator
 4 Sep 1888 - Mar 1895     William MacGregor                  (s.a.)
                             (from 24 May 1889, Sir William MacGregor) 
Lieutenant governors
Mar 1895 - Sep 1898        Sir William MacGregor              (s.a.)
Nov 1898 - Mar 1899        Sir Francis Pratt Winter (acting)  (b. 1848 - d. 1919)
Mar 1899 - Jun 1903        George Ruthven Le Hunte            (b. 1852 - d. 1925)
 9 Jun 1903 - 20 Jun 1904  Christopher Stansfield Robinson    (b. 1871 - d. 1904)
                             (acting)
20 Jun 1904 - Apr 1907     Francis Rickman Barton (acting)    (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
Apr 1907 - 27 Feb 1940     John Hubert Plunkett Murray        (b. 1861 - d. 1940)
                             (from 1 Jan 1925, Sir John Hubert Plunkett Murray) 
                             (acting to Jan 1909)
Feb 1940 - 12 Feb 1942     Hubert Leonard Murray (acting)     (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
Military Administrator
12 Feb 1942 - 31 Oct 1945  Basil Moorhouse Morris             (b. 1888 - d. 1975)

Head of Papuan Civil Administrative Unit (in Port Moresby)
14 Feb 1942 - 19 Apr 1942  Sydney Elliott-Smith               (b. 1900 - d. 1974)


Papua New Guinea
 

Administrators
31 Oct 1945 - Jun 1952     Jack Keith Murray                  (b. 1889 - d. 1979)
Jul 1952 - Dec 1966        Donald Mackinnon Cleland           (b. 1901 - d. 1975)
                             (from 10 Jun 1961, Sir Donald Mackinnon Cleland) 
 9 Jan 1967 - 1970         David Osborne Hay                  (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
1970 - 1973                Leslie Wilson Johnson              (b. 1916 - d. 2000)
High Commissioners
1973 - Mar 1974            Leslie Wilson Johnson              (s.a.)
Mar 1974 - 16 Sep 1975     Thomas Kingston Critchley          (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
Queen¹
16 Sep 1975 -              the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
16 Sep 1975 -  1 Mar 1977  Sir John Douglas Guise             (b. 1914 - d. 1991)
 1 Mar 1977 -  1 Mar 1983  Sir Tore Lokoloko                  (b. 1930 - d. 2013)
 1 Mar 1983 -  1 Mar 1989  Sir Kingsford Dibela               (b. 1932 - d. 2002)
 1 Mar 1989 - 31 Dec 1989  Sir Ignatius Kilage                (b. 1941 - d. 1989)
 1 Jan 1990 - 27 Feb 1990  Dennis Charles Young (1st time)    (b. 1938)
                             (acting)
27 Feb 1990 -  4 Oct 1991  Sir Vincent Serei Eri              (b. 1936 - d. 1993)
 4 Oct 1991 - 18 Nov 1991  Dennis Charles Young (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
18 Nov 1991 - 20 Nov 1997  Wiwa Korowi                        (b. 1948)
                             (from 10 Dec 1991, Sir Wiwa Korowi)
20 Nov 1997 - 20 Nov 2003  Silas Atopare                      (b. 1951)
                             (from 29 Jan 1998, Sir Silas Atopare) 
21 Nov 2003 - 28 May 2004  Wiliam "Bill" Jack Skate (acting)  (b. 1953 - d. 2006)
28 May 2004 - 29 Jun 2004  Jeffery Nape (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1964)
29 Jun 2004 - 13 Dec 2010  Paulias Nguna Matane               (b. 1931)
                             (from 30 Mar 2005, Sir Paulias Nguna Matane)
13 Dec 2010 - 20 Dec 2010  Jeffery Nape (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
20 Dec 2010 -              Michael Ogio                       (b. 1942)
                             (from 26 Apr 2011, Sir Michael Ogio)   
                             (acting to 25 Feb 2011)
                             (suspended by O'Neil 14-19 Dec 2011)
14 Dec 2011 - 19 Dec 2011  Jeffery Nape (3nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
                             (in opposition, appointed by O'Neil)


Chief minister

27 Apr 1972 - 16 Sep 1975  Michael Thomas Somare              (b. 1936)            PGU 
Prime ministers
16 Sep 1975 - 11 Mar 1980  Michael Thomas Somare (1st time)   (s.a.)               PGU
11 Mar 1980 -  2 Aug 1982  Sir Julius Chan (1st time)         (b. 1939)            PPP 
 2 Aug 1982 - 21 Nov 1985  Michael Thomas Somare (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PGU
21 Nov 1985 -  4 Jul 1988  Paias Wingti (1st time)            (b. 1951)            PDM 
 4 Jul 1988 - 17 Jul 1992  Rabbie Namaliu                     (b. 1947)            PGU
17 Jul 1992 - 30 Aug 1994  Paias Wingti (2nd time)            (s.a.)               PDM 
30 Aug 1994 - 22 Jul 1997  Sir Julius Chan (2nd time)         (s.a.)               PPP
27 Mar 1997 -  2 Jun 1997  John Giheno (acting for Chan)      (b. 1950)            PPP 
22 Jul 1997 - 14 Jul 1999  Wiliam "Bill" Jack Skate           (s.a.)               PNC
14 Jul 1999 -  5 Aug 2002  Sir Mekere Morauta                 (b. 1946)            PDM 
 5 Aug 2002 -  2 Aug 2011  Sir Michael Thomas Somare          (s.a.)               NAP
                             (3rd time)
13 Dec 2010 - 17 Jan 2011  Sam Abal (1st time)                                     NAP
                             (acting for Somare)
 4 Apr 2011 -  2 Aug 2011  Sam Abal (2nd time)                                     NAP
                             (acting for Somare)
 2 Aug 2011 -              Peter O'Neil                       (b. 1965)            PNC
                             (acting 25-30 May 2012)
14 Dec 2011 -  3 Aug 2012  Sir Michael Thomas Somare          (s.a.)               NAP
                             (4th time)(in opposition)

  ¹Full style from 16 Sep 1975: "Queen of Papua New Guinea and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Dispute: Relies on assistance from Australia to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, and squatters and secessionists.

Party abbreviations: NAP = National Alliance Party (est.1995); PDM = People's Democratic Movement (conservative, split from PGU, est.1985); PNC = People's National Congress Party (est.1972); PGUPapua and Niugini Union Pati (Papua New Guinea Union Party, centrist, est.1967); PPP = People's Progress Party (conservative, est.1968)



Bougainville Island

[Bougainville Island (former
                North Solomons Province) (Papua New Guinea)]
  1 Sep 1975 - 9 Aug 1976; From 17 May 1990;
               Re-adopted 15 Jun 2005 
 
Map of Bougainville
Hear Local Anthem
"Bougainville Anthem"
Text of Local Anthem
Adopted 1990-1998,
15 Jun 2005
Region Constitution
(21 Dec 2004)
Capital: Buka (interim)
(Arawa 1976-1997;
Kieta 1975-1976;
Sohano to 1975)
Currency: Papua New
Guinea
Kina (PGK)
Local Holiday: 17 May (1990)
Independence Day
Population: 249,2358 (2011)
GDP: $N/A
included in PNG statistics
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
included in PNG statistics
Ethnic groups: Melanesian, Papuan, other
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Religions: Christian 94.03%, traditional beliefs 3.83%,
Buddhist 0.28% (2000)
International Organizations: None

 3 Jul 1768                Discovered by Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, named
                             Bougainville Island.
Apr 1885                   German protectorate over northern Solomon Islands
                             (Buka, Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Isabel,
                             and Ontong Java islands)(Deutschen Salomon
                             Inseln).
14 Nov 1899                Germany transfers Choiseul, Santa Isabel, the
                             Shortland, and Ontong Java islands to British
                             Solomon Islands (effective 1900), but retains Bougainville 
                             and Buka Islands as part of German New Guinea, 
                             from 1914 North East New Guinea.
31 Mar 1942 -  1 Nov 1943  Japanese occupation (Japanese forces surrender 8 Sep 1945).
20 Nov 1950                Kieta district renamed Bougainville district.
 1 Sep 1975 -  9 Aug 1976  Secession as Republic of the North Solomons
                             (not recognized).
 9 Aug 1976                Re-incorporated into Papua New Guinea with autonomy
                             (province of North Solomons).
1989                       Autonomy abrogated by Papua New Guinea.
17 May 1990 - 24 Jul 2005  Bougainville declares independence as Independent Republic of
                             Me'ekamui (from 17 May 2005, Royal Kingdom of Me'ekamui)
                             (not recognized).
10 Apr 1995                Bougainville Transitional Government established.
 1 Jan 1999                Replaced by Bougainville Reconciliation Government. 
27 Mar 2002                Autonomy granted by Papua New Guinea.
15 Jun 2005                Autonomous Region of Bougainville established.

Japanese Military Commanders
 5 May 1942 -  1 Apr 1945  Hyakutake Seikichi                 (b. 1888 - d. 1947)
 1 Apr 1945 -  8 Sep 1945  Kanda Masatane                     (b. 1890 - d. 1983) 
U.S. Military Commander
 1 Nov 1943 - 21 Nov 1944  Oscar Woolverton Griswold          (b. 1886 - d. 1959) 
Australian Military Commander
21 Nov 1944 - 1945         Sir Stanley George Savige          (b. 1890 - d. 1954)
Premiers
 1 Sep 1975 - 1980         Alexis Holyweek Sarei (1st time)   (b. 1934 - d. 2014)
1980 - 1984                Leo Joseph Hannett                 (b. 1941)            PDM
1984 - 1987                Alexis Holyweek Sarei (2nd time)   (s.a.)               MAP
1987 - 29 Aug 1990         Joseph C. Kabui                    (b. 1954 - d. 2008)
Administrator
Aug 1990 - 10 Apr 1995     Sam Tulo                           (b. 1946)
President 
17 May 1990 - 17 May 2005  Francis Ona (in rebellion)         (b. 1953 - d. 2005)  BRA
King
17 May 1990 - 24 Jul 2005  Francis Dominic Dateransy Domanaa  (s.a.)               BRA
                             (Francis Ona) (in rebellion) 
Premiers (in Buka)
10 Apr 1995 - 12 Oct 1996  Theodore Miriung                   (b. 1945 - d. 1996)
18 Nov 1996 - 31 Dec 1998  Gerard Sinato
Co-chairmen of the Bougainville Constituent Assembly
15 Jan 1999 -  9 Dec 1999  Gerard Sinato 
                           + Joseph C. Kabui                  (s.a.)               BRA 
Governors
 9 Dec 1999 - 20 Apr 2005  John Momis                         (b. 1942)            NAP
20 Apr 2005 - 15 Jun 2005  Gerard Sinato (acting)
Presidents
15 Jun 2005 -  7 Jun 2008  Joseph C. Kabui                    (s.a.)               BPC 
 7 Jun 2008 -  6 Jan 2009  John Tabinaman (acting)            (b. 1951?)
 6 Jan 2009 - 10 Jun 2010  James Tanis                        (b. 1965?)           BPC
10 Jun 2010 -              John Momis                         (s.a.)               NBP

Party abbreviations: BPCBougainville People's Congress (est.2005); MAP = Melanesian Alliance Party (Bougainville-based, pro-autonomy, center-left, est.1970s); NAP = National Alliance Party (est.1995); NBP = New Bougainville Party (est.2005); PDM = People's Democratic Movement (conservative, est.1991);
- Former parties: BRA = Bougainville Revolutionary Army (militant, separatist, 1989-2001)







© Ben Cahoon