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Marshall Islands 
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                 1875 - 22 Oct 1885 
 
[Ralik Islands - Jalui Company
                                    1885-1906]
   22 Oct 1885 - 1 Apr 1906 Jaluit Company flag
 
[German
                                    Empire 1870-1919 (Germany)]
              1 Apr 1906 - 3 Oct 1914 
 
[Japan]
               3 Oct 1914 - Feb 1944 
 
[US
                                    flag]
                     Feb 1944 - 21 Oct 1986
 
[Flag of
                                    UNO]
   18 Jul 1947 - 19 Aug 1965 Pacific Is.Trust Terr.
 
[Pacific
                                    Islands Trust Territory Six Star
                                    Flag ]
   19 Aug 1965 - 1 May 1979 Pacific Is.Trust Terr.
 
[Marshall
                                    Islands]
                       Adopted 1 May 1979
 

Map of the Marshall
Islands
Hear National Anthem
 “Rammon Aelin kein am”
 (Forever Marshall Islands)
 Adopted 1991
Former National Anthem
"Ij Yokwe Lok Aelon Eo Ao"
(My Beloved Homeland,
My Birthright)
(1979-1991)
Constitution
(1 May 1979)
Capital: Majuro
Currency: US Dollar (USD) 
National Holiday: 1 May (1979)
Constitution Day
Population: 69,747 (2013)
GDP: $486 million (2013)
Exports: $50.14 million (2011)
Imports: $118.7 million (2011)
Ethnic groups: Marshallese 92.1%, mixed Marshallese 5.9%,
other 2% (2006)
Total Police Force: 130 (2012)
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.S.
Merchant marine: 1,593 ships (2013)
Religions: Protestant 54.8%, Assembly of God 25.8%,
Roman Catholic 8.4%, Bukot nan Jesus 2.8%, 
Mormon 2.1%, other Christian 3.6%, other 1%, 
none 1.5% (1999) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, CTBT, CWC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IRENA, ISA, ITU, KP, NPT, OPCW, PC, PIF, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, WHO
Marshall
Islands Index
Chronology

21 Aug 1526               Discovered and claimed for Spain by Alonso
                            de Salazar.
 1 Oct 1529               Sighted by Spanish Capt. Antonio Saavedra,
                            named Islas de Los Reyes
30 Jun 1788               Rediscovered by British Capt. John Marshall, named
                            the Marshall Islands.
1816                      First visit by Russian Capt. Otto von Kotzebue.
1859                      Germans establish permanent trading stations.
1874                      Spain reasserts its claim to the islands, but
                            does begin settlement.
22 Oct 1885               Marshall Islands are sold to Germany by Spain;
                            administered by Jaluit Company.
13 Sep 1886               German protectorate formally declared.
                            (Kaiserliches Kommissariat Jaluit; from
                            1893 Landeshauptmannschaft Jaluit). 
 1 Apr 1906               Part of German New Guinea (see Papua New Guinea)
                            (District of Jaluit [from 1911 Jaluit Station,
                            subordinated to district officer in Caroline Is.])
 3 Oct 1914               Japanese occupation.
17 Dec 1920               League of Nations mandate (from 1 Apr 1922, 
                            South Seas Agency; see under Palau).
Jul 1921                  Japanese transfer civil administration from
                             Chuuk to Koror, Palau.
1935                      Japan declares that the mandated islands are an
                            "integral part of the Japanese Empire."
23 Feb 1944               U.S. occupation (see Micronesia)(from 17 Feb 1944
                            on Eniwetok, Kwajalein on 4 Feb 1944, Majuro 
                            on 1 Mar 1944).
18 Jul 1947               Japanese mandate formally revoked; part of the UN
                            Trust Territory of the Pacific  Islands
                            (see Micronesia)(Marshall Islands District).
 1 May 1979               Autonomy (Republic of the Marshall Islands).
21 Oct 1986               Compact of Free Association with the U.S. effective.
10 Jul 1987               Trust territory dissolved.
22 Dec 1990               Final independence (Security Council ratifies

                            termination of trusteeship).

Traditional
states
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Kommissar
1885 - 1886                Gustav von Oertzen                 (b. 1836 - d. 1911)

Kaiserlicher Kommissare (Imperial Commissioners)
1886 -  5 Oct 1887         Wilhelm Knappe                     (b. 1855 - d. 1910)
 5 Oct 1887 - 29 Mar 1889  Franz Leopold Sonnenschein         (b. 1857 - d. 1897)
                             (acting to 14 Apr 1888)
29 Mar 1889 - 14 Apr 1890  Eugen Brandeis (1st time)(acting)  (b. 1846 - d. 1919) 
14 Apr 1890 - Feb 1892     Friedrich Louis Max Biermann       (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
Feb 1892 - 1893            Eugen Brandeis (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.) 
1893 - 1894                Ernst Schmidt-Dargitz              (b. 1859 - d. 1924)
Landeshauptleute
11 May 1894 - Mar 1898     Georg Irmer                        (b. 1853 - d. 1931)
24 Mar 1898 - 18 Jan 1906  Eugen Brandeis                     (s.a.) 
                             (acting to 22 Feb 1900)
18 Mar 1902 - 1903         von Bunsen (acting for Brandeis)
1903                       Seppert
(acting for Brandeis)
18 Jan 1906 - May 1906     Ludwig Kaiser (acting)             (b. 1862 - d. 1906)
 1 Apr 1906 -  3 Oct 1914  the governors of German New Guinea
Bezirksamtmann (District commissioners)
1906 - 30 Apr 1907         Victor Berg                        (b. 1861 - d. 1907)
1907                       Joseph Siegwanz (acting)
1908 - Nov 1909            Wilhelm Stuckhardt                 (b. 18.. - d. 1909)
Nov 1909 - 1910            Erich Berghausen (interim)
1910 - 1911                Georg Merz
Stationsleiter (Station chief)
1911 -  3 Oct 1914         Georg Merz
                             (deported by Japanese 31 May 1915)

Commanders of Japanese South Seas Squadrons
 3 Oct 1914 - 28 Dec 1914  Tanin Yamaya                       (b. 1866 - d. 1940) 
                           (in occupation of Central and eastern
                            Caroline [from 3 Oct 1914] and Marshall islands)
 7 Oct 1914 - 28 Dec 1914  Tatsuo Matsumura                   (b. 1868 - d. 1932)
                           (in occupation of western Caroline, the
                            Northern Marianas [from 14 Oct 1914]
                            and Palau [from 8 Oct 1914] islands)
Governors
28 Dec 1914 -  1 Apr 1922  the commanders of Interim Southern
                           Islands Defense Unit (see Palau)
 1 Apr 1922 -  2 Feb 1944  the Administrators of South
                           Seas Agency (see Palau)
Military Commanders of the 6th Base Force Kwajalein 
Jun 1941 -  1 Feb 1942     Sukeyoshi Yatsushiro               (b. 1890 - d. 1942)
 5 Feb 1942 - 29 Nov 1943  Koso Abe                           (b. 1892 - d. 1947)
Nov 1943 -  2 Feb 1944     Akiyama Monzo                      (b. 1891 - d. 1944)
Military Governors
1944 - 18 Jul 1947         the Commanders U.S. Naval Forces
                           Mariana Islands

Marshall Islands District Administrators
(Distad)
Sep 1947 - Sep 1948        Chester E. Herrick
Dec 1948 - Dec 1949        Edward F. Ferguson
Mar 1950 - Sep 1950        Roland W. Kenney
Dec 1950 - Jun 1951        Frank W. Avila
1951 - 1954                Donald W. Gilfillan                (b. 1904 - d. 1979)
1954 - 1960                Maynard 
Neas                       (b. 1906 – d. 1979)            
1960 - 1961                William E. Finale                  (b. 1924 – d. 2006)
27 May 1961 - 1965         
Peter Tali Coleman                 (b. 1919 - d. 1997)  
15 Oct 1965 - 1969         Dwight Heine                       (b. 1919 - d. 1984) 
1969 - 1970                Robert D. Law                      (b. 1917 - d. 1982)
1970 - 1979                Oscar DeBrum                       (b. 1929 - d. 2002)
Presidents

 1 May 1979 - 21 Dec 1996  Amata Kabua                        (b. 1928 - d. 1996)  Non-party
                             (acting to 17 Nov 1979)
21 Dec 1996 - 17 Jan 1997  Kunio D. Lemari (acting)           (b. 1942 - d. 2008)  Non-party
17 Jan 1997 - 10 Jan 2000  Imata Jabro Kabua                  (b. 1943)            UDP
10 Jan 2000 -  7 Jan 2008  Kessai H. Note                     (b. 1950)            UDP
 7 Jan 2008 - 21 Oct 2009  Litokwa Tomeing                    (b. 1939)            AKA
21 Oct 2009 -  2 Nov 2009  Ruben R. Zackhras (acting)         (b. 1947)            UDP
 2 Nov 2009 - 10 Jan 2012  Jurelang Zedkaia                   (b. 1950)            UDP
10 Jan 2012 -              Christopher J. Loeak               (b. 1952)            Non-party


Territorial Dispute
: Claims U.S. territory of Wake Island.

Party abbreviations (political parties are unofficial groupings): AKA = Aelon Kein Ad (Our Islands, also called the "Kabua Party", supported by traditional chiefs, est. c.2003); UDP = United Democratic Party (reformist, est. c.1997); UPP = United People's Party 







© Ben Cahoon