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Macedonia
 
[Ottoman
                                    flag]
                     to 10 Aug 1913
 
[Royal
                                    Yugoslavia (1918-1941)
             1 Dec 1918 - 31 Jan 1946
 
[Federal Peoples' Republic of
                                    Yugoslavia, 1946-1992
                     31 Jan 1946 - 15 Apr 1991
 
[Flag
                                    of SR Macedonia 1946- 1992]
                     15 Apr 1991 - 11 Jul 1992

[Macedonia flag 1992-1995]
                    11 Jul 1992 -  5 Oct 1995

[Flag of
                                    Macedonia]
                       Adopted 5 Oct 1995

 Map of Macedonia
(FMYR)
Hear National Anthem
"Denes Nad Makedonija"
(Today Over Macedonia)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 11 Aug 1992
Constitution
 (20 Nov 1991)
Capital: Skopje
(Üsküp 1371-1912;
Skoplje 1912-1915, 1918-1941;
Skopie 1915-1918, 1941-1944)
Currency: Macedonian Denar
(MKD) (from 26 Apr 1992);
and from 2002 Euro
(EUR)
National Holidays: 18 Sep (1991)
Independence Day
-------------------------------------
2 Aug (1903)
Ilinden Uprising Day
(Saint Elijah's Day)

Population: 2,087,171 (2013)
GDP: $22.4 billion (2013)
Exports: $4.09 billion (2013)
Imports: $6.41 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%,
Turkish 3.8%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serbian 1.8%,
Bosniak 0.8%, Egyptian and other 1.4% (2002) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 8,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, other Christian 0.37%,
Muslim 33.3%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002)
International Organizations/Treaties: APM, BIS, BTWC, CCM (signatory), CE, CEFTA, CEI, CTBT, CWC, DC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESCR, EU (candidate), Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NPT, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PAM, PCA, PFP, SECP, SELEC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Macedonia
Index
Chronology

65 BC                      Part of the Roman Empire.
18 Jan 395 AD              Part of the Byzantine Empire.
883 - 1018                 Part of Bulgaria.
Feb 1018 - 1203            Re-incorporated into Byzantine Empire.
1203 - c.1220              Part of Bulgaria.
c.1202 - Apr 1230          Part of Epirus (Epeiros).
Apr 1230 - 1246            Part of Bulgaria.
1246 - 1282                Part of Byzantine Empire.
1282 - 1346                Part of Serbia.
16 Apr 1346 -  3 Dec 1371  Serbian Empire, capital at Skopje.
 3 Dec 1371 - 1377         Part of Serbia.
1377 - 10 Oct 1394         Serbian rule, part of Kosova under Vuk Branković
                             in Priština)
.

10 Oct 1394                Part of Ottoman Empire; part Eyalet of Rumelia 
                            
(to 1844)(see under Bulgaria) as sanjak of Üsküp.
1564 - 1565                Mariovo-Prilep revolt.
25 Oct 1689 - 20 Dec 1689  Austrian occupation
.
1844 - 1869                Part of separate vilayet of Üsküp (Skopje).
1869 - 1877                Üsküp (Skopje) part of Prizren vilayet (composed of
                             sanjaks of Prizren, Dibra, Skopje and Niš).
1874 - 1912                Manastir (Bitola), Prilep, Kičevo, and Ohrid part
                             of vilayet of Manastir (Monastir).
1877 - 1912               
Üsküp part of vilayet of Kosovo (see under Kosovo).
 4 Aug 1903 - 12 Aug 1903  Rebellion in Kruševo as part of Ilinden uprising,
                             sometimes colloquially called "
Kruševo republic."

20 Oct 1912                Occupied by Serbia.
10 Aug 1913                Treaty of Bucharest partitions historic Macedonia
                             between Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria. Greece
                             annexes Aegean Macedonia (Thessaloniki), Bulgaria
                             annexes the Pirin region and Serbia annexes the
                             Vardar (Skopje) region.
 9 Oct 1915 - 24 Sep 1918  Bulgarian occupation (from 25 Nov 1915, Macedonian
                             Military Inspection Oblast).
28 Sep 1918                Occupied by Serbia.
 1 Dec 1918                Part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and

                             Slovenes (later Yugoslavia).
 4 Oct 1929                Part of Vardarska banovina (Banate of the Vardar)
                             (with parts of
  Kosovo and southern Serbia),
                             within Yugoslavia.

  8 Apr 1941 - 19 Apr 1941  German occupation.
19 Apr 1941 -  7 Sep 1944  Bulgarian occupation.
26 Apr 1941 -  7 Sep 1944  Vardar Macedonia annexed to
Bulgaria (from 1 Jun
                             1941 as two oblasts: Bitola and Skopie).
10 Jul 1941 - 20 Oct 1944  Western parts of Macedonia are annexed to Albania
                             by Italy.
15 Jul 1943                Albania/Macedonia demarcation line settled by
                             Bulgaria and Italy agreement.
 
9 Sep 1943 - 12 Nov 1944  German forces occupy Italian annexed areas.
 2 Aug 1944                Declared part of Yugoslavia (Macedonia).
Sep 1944 - 20 Oct 1944     Kumanovo and surroundings in formerly Bulgarian
                             annexed Macedonia are annexed to Albania.
 
6 Sep 1944                German plan of independence for Macedonia as buffer
                             state fails by refusal of the VMRO leadership
                             under
Spiro Kitinchev (b. 1895 - d. 1946).
 7 Sep 1944 - 12 Nov 1944  German occupation.
29 Nov 1945                Part of
Yugoslavia (Macedonia).
31 Jan 1946                People's Republic of Macedonia, within Yugoslavia.
12 Apr 1963                Socialist Republic of Macedonia, within Yugoslavia.
25 Jan 1991                Declaration of sovereignty adopted.
 7 Jun 1991                Republic of Macedonia
17 Sep 1991                Declaration of independence adopted.
 8 Apr 1993                Recognized by the United Nations as the Former 
                             Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYRM).

Yugoslav
Republic of
Macedonia
(1945-1991)
Orthodox Church
of Macedonia
Macedonian
Orthodox Church-
Archbishopric
of Ohrid
Historical Maps
of Macedonia

 
 
 
 
 

Note: dates before 7/20 Dec 1918 are given according to Old Style (Julian) calendar, and after according to New Style (Gregorian) calendar. New Style was formally introduced from 28 Jan 1919.

Emperors¹ (in Skopje)
16 Apr 1346 - 20 Dec 1355  Stefan Dušan                       (b. 1308 - d. 1355)
20 Dec 1355 -  3 Dec 1371  Stefan Uroš IV
"Nejaki" (the Weak) (b. 1337 - d. 1371)
 3 Dec 1371 - 10 Oct 1394  under Serbian rule
10 Oct 1394 - 20 Oct 1912  under Ottoman rule
Austrian Commander

25 Oct 1689 - Dec 1689     Enea Silvio Piccolomini            (b. c.1640 - d. 1689)
Walis (governors) of Üsküp (Skopje)
Sep 1844 - Aug 1845        Osman Pasha
Aug 1845 - Mar 1848        Mehmed Selim Pasha Eneste Haseki   (d. 1872)
Mar 1848 - Sep 1850        Çerkez Hafiz Mehmed Pasha          (d. 1866)
Aug 1850 - Apr 1851        Payasli Ismail Pasha               (d. 1860)
Apr 1851 - Oct 1853        Mustafa Tosun Pasha                (d. 1858)
Nov 1853 - Feb 1854        Ali Riza Mehmed Pasha              (d. 1877)
1857? - 185.               Akif Pashë
Sep 1858 - Aug 1859        Arnavud Mazhar Osman Pasha         (d. 1861) 
Aug 1859 - Mar 1860        Ebubekir Rüstem Pasha              (d. 1865)
Mar 1860 - Jul 1863        Alyanak Mustafa Pasha              (d. 1884)
Jul 1863 - Jan 1864        Mahmud Faiz Pasha
Nov 1865 - Jul 1869        Ismail Hakki Pasha                 (d. 1872)
Walis
(governors) of Manastir (Monastir)

Sep 1844 - Aug 1845        Osman Pasha
Aug 1845 - Mar 1848        Mehmed Selim Pasha Eneste Haseki   (s.a.)
Mar 1848 - May 1850        Çerkez Hafiz Mehmed Pasha          (s.a.)
May 1850 - Apr 1851        Payasli Ismail Pasha               (s.a.)
Apr 1851 - Oct 1853        Mustafa Tosun Pasha                (s.a.)
Nov 1853 - Feb 1854        Ali Riza Mehmed Pasha              (s.a.)
Sep 1858 - Aug 1859        Arnavud Mazhar Osman Pasha         (s.a.)
Aug 1859 - Mar 1860        Ebubekir Rüstem Pasha              (s.a.)
Mar 1860 - Jul 1863        Alyanak Mustafa Pasha              (s.a.)
Jul 1863 - Jan 1864        Mahmud Pasha
Nov 1865 - Jul 1869        Ismail Hakki Pasha                 (s.a.)
Jul 1869 - Jul 1874        ....
Jul 1874 - Jan 1875        Gürcü Ali Saib Pasha (1st time)
Jan 1875 - Jun 1875        Baytar Mehmed Refet Pasha
Jun 1875 - Sep 1875        Bursali Mehmed Redif Pasha
Sep 1875 - May 1876        Gürcü Ali Saib Pasha (2nd time)
May 1876 - Dec 1876        Lofçali Ibrahim Dervish Pasha
Dec 1876 - Apr 1877        Çerkes Abdi Pasha
Apr 1877 - Mar 1879        Asaf Pasha
Mar 1879 - Aug 1880        Ahmed Muhtar Pasha                 (b. 1839 - d. 1919)
Aug 1880 - Oct 1884        Ahmed Eyüb Pasha (1st time)        (b. 1833 - d. 1893)
Oct 1884 - Aug 1887        Söylemezoglu Ali Kemali Pasha      (b. 1818 - d. 1898)
Aug 1887 - Jun 1889        Halil Rifat Pasha                  (b. 1827 - d. 1901)
Jun 1889 - Oct 1889        Ahmed Eyüb Pasha (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Oct 1889 - Apr 1895        Selanikli Mehmed Faik Pasha        (b. 1838 - d. 1908)
Apr 1895 - Dec 1901        Bursali Abdulerim Pasha            (b. 1839 - d. 1912)
Dec 1901 - Feb 1903        Hasan Edip Pasha                   (b. 1834 - d. 1904)
Feb 1903 - Aug 1903        Ali Riza Pasha
Aug 1903 - Dec 1906        Ebubekir Hazim Bey Tepeyran        (b. 1864 - d. 1947)
Dec 1906 - Feb 1907        Ahmed Reshid Bey
Nov 1908 - Oct 1909        Fahri Pasha                        (b. 1882 - d. 1914)
Oct 1909 - Nov 1910        Mehmed Reshid Pasha
Nov 1910 - Jan 1912        ....
Jan 1912 - Aug 1912        Ali Münif Bey                      (b. 1874 - d. 1951)
Aug 1912                   Behçet Yusuf Bey                   (b. 1848 - d. 1936)
Bulgarian Commander of the 2nd Army   
 9 Oct 1915 -  8 Dec 1915  Georgi Stojanov Todorov            (b. 1858 - d. 1934)
Chiefs of the Macedonian Military Inspection Oblast
(in Skopie)
 8 Dec 1915 - 1918         Racho Petrov Stojanov              (b. 1861 - d. 1942)  
1918 - 24 Sep 1918         Stefan Toshev Toshev               (b. 1859 - d. 1924)
Bans of the Vardar

 9 Oct 1929 - 1932         Živojin Lazić                      (b. 1876 - d. 19..)
1932 - 1933                Dobrica Matković                   (b. 1887 - d. 1973)
1933 - 16 Sep 1935         Dragoslav Ğorđević (Djordjević)    
16 Sep 1935 - 1936         Ranko Trifunović
1936                       Dušan Filipović (acting)
20 Aug 1936 - 1937         Dragić Paunović
28 Jul 1937 - 1939         Marko Novaković
25 Feb 1939 -  6 Sep 1939  Vladimir Hajdukveljković           (b. 1892 - d. 1939)
Sep 1939 - 1939            Aleksandar Cvetković (acting)
Sep 1939 - 1940            Aleksandar Andrejević              (b. 1877 - d. 19..)
Jul 1940 - 1941            Živojin Rafajlović                 (b. 1871 - d. 1953)
German Commanding General of the 30th Panzer Corps
 8 Apr 1941 - 19 Apr 1941  Georg Stumme                       (b. 1886 - d. 1942)
Bulgarian Commander of the 5th Army
(in Skopie)
19 Apr 1941 - 26 Apr 1941  Nikola Mihov Mikhailov             (b. 1891 - d. 1945)
Directors of Skopie Oblast
26 Apr 1941 - 1942         Anton Kozarov
 1 Jan 1942 - 1944         Dimităr Raev
10 Jan 1944 - 1944         Toma Petrov
Directors of Bitola Oblast

1941 - 194.                Todor Pavlov
194. - 194.                Hristo Guzov
194. - 194.                Anton Kozarov
194. - 194.                Hristo Miladinov
194. - 1944                Sotir Nanev
German Military Commander in Macedonia
(in Skopje)
 7 Sep 1944 - 25 Oct 1944  Heinz Scheurlen                    (b. 1895 - d. 1971) 
German Commanding General of the 12th Mountain Army Corps (in Skopje)
26 Oct 1944 - 12 Nov 1944  Karl Hubert Lanz                   (b. 1896 - d. 1982)
Presidents

27 Jan 1991 - 19 Nov 1999  Kiro Blagoev Gligorov              (b. 1917 - d. 2012)  Non-party
 4 Oct 1995 - 17 Nov 1995  Stojan Andov                       (b. 1935)            LP
                             (acting for Gligorov) 
19 Nov 1999 - 15 Dec 1999  Savo Klimovski (acting)            (b. 1947)            DA
15 Dec 1999 - 26 Feb 2004  Boris Kirilov Trajkovski           (b. 1956 - d. 2004)  VMRO-DPMNE
26 Feb 2004 - 12 May 2004  Ljupčo Jordanovski (acting)        (b. 1953 - d. 2010)  SDSM + ZMZ
12 May 2004 - 12 May 2009  Branko Crvenkovski                 (b. 1962)            SDSM + ZMZ
12 May 2009 -              Gjorge Ivanov                      (b. 1960)            VMRO-DPMNE


Prime ministers

20 Mar 1991 -  4 Sep 1992  Nikola Kljusev                     (b. 1927 - d. 2008)  Non-party
 4 Sep 1992 - 30 Nov 1998  Branko Crvenkovski (1st time)      (s.a.)               SDSM
30 Nov 1998 -  1 Nov 2002  Ljupčo Georgievski                 (b. 1966 - d. 2010)  VMRO-DPMNE
 1 Nov 2002 - 12 May 2004  Branko Crvenkovski (2nd time)      (s.a.)               SDSM + ZMZ
12 May 2004 -  2 Jun 2004  Radmila Šekerinska (f) (1st time)  (b. 1972)            SDSM + ZMZ
                             (acting)
 2 Jun 2004 - 18 Nov 2004  Hari Kostov                        (b. 1959)            Non-party
18 Nov 2004 - 17 Dec 2004  Radmila Šekerinska (f) (2nd time)  (s.a.)               SDSM + ZMZ
                             (acting)
17 Dec 2004 - 27 Aug 2006  Vlado Bučkovski                    (b. 1962)            SDSM + ZMZ
27 Aug 2006 -              Nikola Gruevski                    (b. 1970)            VMRO-DPMNE
 

 ¹Style of the rulers 16 Apr 1346 - 3 Dec 1371: Cari Sr'blem i Grkom ("Emperors of the Serbs
and Greeks").

Territorial Disputes: Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in Sep 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia.

Party abbreviations: DA = Demokratska Alternativa (Democratic Alternative, centrist, est.1998); SDSM = Socijaldemokratski Sojuz na Makedonija (Social Democratic Union of Macedonia, social democratic, former SKM, est.1991); SPM = Socijalistička Partija na Makedonija (Socialist Party of Macedonia, socialist, est.1990); VMRO-DPMNE = Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija – Demokratska Partija za Makedonsko Nacionalno Edinstvo (Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party of Macedonian National Unity, conservative, nationalist, est.1990);
- Former parties: LP = Liberalna Partija (Liberal Party, liberal, 1990-1999); VMRO = Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija (Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, originally a secret revolutionary society, pro-autonomy for Macedonia region in Ottoman Empire, predominantly ethnic Bulgarian, 1893-1936, 1941-1944); ZMZ = Za Makedonija Zaedno (For Macedonia Together, 18 member multi-ethnic SDSM coalition, 2002-2006)



Socialist Republic of Macedonia
 
[Macedonia SR]
                    31 Dec 1946 - 11 Jul 1992
[Flag of SR
                          Macedonia variant]
               31 Dec 1946 - 11 Jul 1992  Variant

 2 Aug 1944                Macedonia (also in official use: Federal Macedonia,
                             or Democratic Federal Macedonia).
31 Jan 1946                People's Republic of Macedonia
12 Apr 1963                Socialist Republic of Macedonia

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Macedonia
(from Apr 1952, League of Communists of Macedonia)
Oct 1941 - Jul 1963        Lazar Koliševski                   (b. 1914 - d. 2000)
Jul 1963 - Mar 1969        Krste Crvenkovski                  (b. 1921 - d. 2001)
Mar 1969 - May 1982        Angel Čemerski                     (b. 1923 - d. 2005)
May 1982 -  5 May 1984     Krste Markovski                    (b. 1925)
 5 May 1984 - Jun 1986     Milan Pančevski                    (b. 1935)
Jun 1986 - 1989            Jakov Lazarovski                   (b. 1936)
1989 - 21 Apr 1991         Petar Gošev                        (b. 1948)

President of Initiatory Committee for Anti-Fascist Assembly of 
People's Liberation of Macedonia
 1 Oct 1943 -  2 Aug 1944  Metodi Andonov Čento               (b. 1902 - d. 1957)  Non-party 
Chairman of the Presidium of the Anti-Fascist Assembly of People's Liberation
 2 Aug 1944 - 15 Apr 1945  Metodi Andonov Čento               (s.a.)               Non-party
Presidents of the Presidium of the National Assembly
15 Apr 1945 - 15 Mar 1946  Metodi Andonov Čento               (s.a.)               Non-party
15 Mar 1946 - 17 Apr 1946  Dimitar Nestorov (acting)          (b. 1890 - d. 1968)  KPM
17 Apr 1946 -  4 Jan 1951  Bogoja Fotev                       (b. 1900 - d. 1993)  KPM
 4 Jan 1951 - 15 Oct 1951  Vidoe Smilevski                    (b. 1915 - d. 1979)  KPM 
15 Oct 1951 -  2 Feb 1953  Strahil Gigov                      (b. 1909 - d. 1999) KPM;1952 SKM
Presidents of the People's Assembly
 
3 Feb 1953 - 19 Dec 1953  Dimitar "Dimče" Stojanov "Mire"    (b. 1910 - d. 1991)  SKM
19 Dec 1953 - 26 Jun 1962  Lazar Koliševski                   (s.a.)               SKM
26 Jun 1962 - 24 Jun 1963  Ljupčo Arsov                       (b. 1910 - d. 1986)  SKM
25 Jun 1963 - 12 May 1967  Vidoe Smilevski                    (s.a.)               SKM
12 May 1967 -  1 Aug 1968  Mito Hadži Vasilev                 (b. 1922 - d. 1968)  SKM
 1 Aug 1968 - 23 Sep 1968  Zlatko Biljanovski (acting)        (b. 1920 - d. 2009)  SKM
23 Sep 1968 -  8 May 1974  Nikola Minčev                      (b. 1915 - d. 1997)  SKM
Presidents of the Presidency
 8 May 1974 -  9 Sep 1979  Vidoe Smilevski                    (s.a.)               SKM
 9 Sep 1979 - 28 Apr 1982  Ljupčo Arsov                       (s.a.)               SKM
                             (acting to 31 Oct 1979)   
28 Apr 1982 -  4 May 1983  Angel Čemerski                     (s.a.)               SKM
 4 May 1983 -  3 May 1984  Blagoja Taleski                    (b. 1924 - d. 2001)  SKM
 3 May 1984 - 26 Apr 1985  Tome Bukleski                      (b. 1921)            SKM
26 Apr 1985 - 28 Apr 1986  Vančo Apostolski                   (b. 1925 - d. 2008)  SKM
28 Apr 1986 - 30 Apr 1986  Mateja Matevski (acting)           (b. 1929)            SKM
30 Apr 1986 - 28 Apr 1988  Dragoljub Stavrev                  (b. 1932 - d. 2003)  SKM
28 Apr 1988 -  4 May 1990  Jezdimir Bogdanski                 (b. 1930 - d. 2007)  SKM
 
4 May 1990 - 27 Jan 1991  Vladimir Mitkov                    (b. 1931)            SKM

Minister for Macedonia (part of Yugoslav government)
 7 Mar 1945 - 16 Apr 1945  Emanuel Čučkov                     (b. 1901 - d. 1967)  Non-party
Prime minister
16 Apr 1945 -  3 Feb 1953  Lazar Koliševski                   (s.a.)              KPM;1952 SKM
Chairmen of the Executive Council
 3 Feb 1953 - 19 Dec 1953  Lazar Koliševski                   (s.a.)               SKM
19 Dec 1953 - 22 Dec 1960  Ljupčo Arsov                       (s.a.)               SKM
22 Dec 1960 - 11 May 1965  Aleksandar Grličkov                (b. 1923 - d. 1989)  SKM
11 May 1965 - 23 Sep 1968  Nikola Minčev                      (s.a.)               SKM
23 Sep 1968 -  8 May 1974  Ksente Bogoev                      (b. 1913 - d. 2008)  SKM
 8 May 1974 - 28 Apr 1982  Blagoj Popov                       (b. 1920 - d. 1992)  SKM
28 Apr 1982 - 28 Apr 1986  Dragoljub Stavrev                  (s.a.)               SKM
28 Apr 1986 - 20 Mar 1991  Gligorie Gogovski                  (b. 1943)            SKM

Party abbreviations: SKM = Sojuz na Komunisti na Makedonija (League of Communists of Macedonia, former KMP, 1952-1991, then SSDM);
- Former parties: KPM = Komunistička Partija na Makedonija (Communist Party of Macedonia, communist, 1943-1952, renamed SKM)









© Ben Cahoon