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Macedonia
 
[Ottoman
                                    flag]
                     to 10 Aug 1913
 
[Krushevo Republic flag 1903]
    2 Aug 1903 - 13 Aug 1903 Krushevo Republic flag
 
Krushevo Republic flag proposal
                                    1903
            2 Aug 1903 - 13 Aug 1903 (Proposal)
 
[Flag
                                    of Independent State of Macedonia,
                                    1944]
    8 Sep 1944 - 13 Nov 1944 Indep. Macedonian State

[Flag
                                    of SR Macedonia]
                    15 Apr 1991 - 11 Jul 1992

Macedonia 1992 flag
                    11 Jul 1992 -  5 Oct 1995

[Flag of
                                    Macedonia]
                       Adopted 5 Oct 1995



 Map of Macedonia
(FMYR)
Hear National Anthem
"Denes Nad Makedonija"
(Today Over Macedonia)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 11 Aug 1992
Constitution
 (20 Nov 1991)
Capital: Skopje
Currency: Macedonian Denar
(MKD); and from 2002 Euro
(EUR)
National Holidays: 18 Sep (1991)
Independence Day
-------------------------------------
2 Aug (1903)
Ilinden Uprising Day
(Saint Elijah's Day)

Population: 2,087,171 (2013)
GDP: $22.4 billion (2013)
Exports: $4.09 billion (2013)
Imports: $6.41 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%,
Turkish 3.8%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serbian 1.8%,
Bosniak 0.8%, Egyptian and other 1.4% (2002) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 8,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, other Christian 0.37%,
Muslim 33.3%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002)
International Organizations/Treaties: APM, BIS, BTWC, CCM (signatory), CE, CEFTA, CEI, CTBT, CWC, DC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESCR, EU (candidate), Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NPT, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PAM, PCA, PFP, SECP, SELEC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Macedonia
Index
Chronology

8th cent. - 168 BC         (Greek) Kingdom of Macedon (Makedonia).
336 - 13 Jun 323 BC        Reign of Alexander III "the Great" (b. 356 -
                             d. 323 BC). 
395                        Part of Byzantine Empire.
997                        Empire of the Macedonia Slavs (in rebellion 
                             from 969).
1018                       Re-incorporated into Byzantine Empire.
1040 - 1041                Empire of the Macedonia Slavs (in rebellion).
1072 - Dec 1072            Empire of the Macedonia Slavs (in rebellion).
1185                       Part of Bulgaria.
1330                       Part of Serbia (Skopje taken 1282).
26 Sep 1371                Part of Ottoman Empire (Skopje taken 1392).
10 Oct 1394                Part of the Ottoman province of Rumelia
                             (see under Bulgaria).
25 Oct 1689 - Nov 1689     Austrian occupation by Engelberto d'Ugo Piccolomini
Oct 1689 - Dec 1689        Principality of Kumanovo proclaimed in rebellion
                             (recognized only by Austria).
1844 - 1863                Part of separate province of Uskub (Skopje).
1846 - 1877                Made into the separate province of Monastir.
1877 -  6 Sep 1911         Part of Kosovo province (see under Kosovo).
17 Oct 1878 - 19 Nov 1878  Rebellion in Greek Macedonia.
 2 Aug 1903 - 13 Aug 1903  Krushevo Republic proclaimed in rebellion.
 1 Jan 1904 - Nov 1911     Allied administration of Turkish police in 
                             Macedonia.
10 Aug 1913                Macedonia (Skopje area) to Serbia, and
                             Macedonia (Salonika area) to Greece;
                             from this point record follows Skopje.
Oct 1915 - 29 Sep 1918     Bulgarian occupation.
 1 Dec 1918                Part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and
                             Slovenes (later Yugoslavia).
 4 Oct 1929 - 17 Apr 1941  Part of the Banovina of Vardar (with parts of
                             Kosovo and southern Serbia).
Apr 1941 -  9 Sep 1944     Vardar Macedonia annexed by Bulgaria.
29 Jun 1941 - Oct 1944     Part of western Macedonia (Kercova, Dibra, Tetovo,
                             and Struga) annexed by Italy to Albania.
 9 Sep 1943 - 19 Nov 1944  German forces occupy Italian areas and
                             from 9 Sep 1944 former Bulgarian areas.
 2 Aug 1944                Declared part of Yugoslavia (Macedonia).
Sep 1944 - 20 Oct 1944     Kumanovo and surroundings in formerly Bulgarian
                             Macedonia are annexed to Albania.
 8 Sep 1944 - 13 Nov 1944  Independent Macedonian State, a German puppet
                             state declared.
29 Nov 1945                Part of Yugoslavia (Macedonia).
31 Jan 1946                People's Republic of Macedonia
 7 Jul 1963                Socialist Republic of Macedonia within
                             Yugoslavia.
25 Jan 1991                Declaration of sovereignty adopted.
 7 Jun 1991                Republic of Macedonia
17 Sep 1991                Declaration of independence adopted.
 8 Apr 1993                Recognized by the United Nations as the Former 
                             Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYRM).

Yugoslav
Republic of
Macedonia
(1945-1991)
Orthodox Church
of Macedonia
Macedonian
Orthodox Church-
Archbishopric
of Ohrid
Historical Maps
of Macedonia

 
 
 
 
 

Princes
969 - 976                  Aron                               (d. 976) 
                           - jointly with following - 
969 - ...                  Mojsije 
                           - jointly with - 
969 - 993                  David                              (d. 993) 
                           - jointly with - 
969 - 997                  Samuilo                            (d. 1014) 
Tsars
997 -  6 Oct 1014          Samuilo                            (s.a.) 
 6 Oct 1014 - Sep 1015     Radomir Gavril                     (b. 970 - d. 1015) 
Sep 1015 - Feb 1018        Jovan Vladislav                    (d. 1018) 
1040 - 1041                Petar Deljan                       (b. 988 - d. 1041) 
1072 - Oct 1072            Djordje Vojteh -Regent
Oct 1072 - Dec 1072        Petar (Konstantin Bodin of Zeta)   (d. 1101) 
Prince
Oct 1689 - Dec 1689        Karpos (Karposh)                   (d. 1689) 
Walis of Uskib (Skopje)
Sep 1844 - Aug 1845        Osman Pasha
Aug 1845 - Mar 1848        Eneste Mehmed Selim Pasha
Mar 1848 - Sep 1850        Çerkez Hafiz Mehmed Pasha
Aug 1850 - Apr 1851        Payasli Ismail Pasha
Apr 1851 - Oct 1853        Mustafa Tosun Pasha
Nov 1853 - Feb 1854        Ali Riza Mehmed Pasha
1857? - 185.               Akif Pashë
Sep 1858 - Aug 1859        Arnavud Mazhar Osman Pasha 
Aug 1859 - Mar 1860        Ebubekir Rüstem Pasha
Mar 1860 - Jul 1863        Alyanak Mustafa Pasha
Jul 1863 - Jan 1864        Mahmud Faiz Pasha
Nov 1865 - Jul 1869        Sehsuvarzade Ismail Hakki Pasha
1863                       incorporated into Janina
Walis
of Monastir

Sep 1844 - Aug 1845        Osman Pasha
Aug 1845 - Mar 1848        Mehmed Selim Pasha Eneste Haseki   (d. 1872)
Mar 1848 - May 1850        Hafiz Mehmed Pasha Cherkes         (d. 1866)
May 1850 - Apr 1851        Ismail Pasha Payasli               (d. 1860)
Apr 1851 - Oct 1853        Mustafa Tosun Pasha                (d. 1858)
Nov 1853 - Feb 1854        Ali Riza Mehmed Pasha              (d. 1877)
Sep 1858 - Aug 1859        Mazhar Osman Pasha Arnavud         (d. 1861)
Aug 1859 - Mar 1860        Ebubekir Rüstem Pasha              (d. 1865)
Mar 1860 - Jul 1863        Mustafa Pasha Alyanak              (d. 1884)
Jul 1863 - Jan 1864        Mahmud Pasha
Nov 1865 - Jul 1869        Ismail Hakki Pasha Shehsüvarzade   (d. 1872)
                             Leskovikli
Jul 1869 - Jul 1874        ....
Jul 1874 - Jan 1875        Gürcü Ali Saib Pasha
Jan 1875 - Jun 1875        Baytar Mehmed Refet Pasha
Jun 1875 - Sep 1875        Bursali Mehmed Redif Pasha
Sep 1875 - May 1876        Gürcü Ali Saib Pasha
May 1876 - Dec 1876        Lofçali Ibrahim Dervish Pasha
Dec 1876 - Apr 1877        Çerkes Abdi Pasha
Apr 1877 - Mar 1879        Asaf Pasha
Mar 1879 - Aug 1880        Katircioglu Ahmed Muhtar Pasha
Aug 1880 - Oct 1884        Ahmed Eyyub Pasha
Oct 1884 - Aug 1887        Söylemezoglu  Ali Kemali Pasha
Aug 1887 - Jun 1889        Halil Rifat Pasha
Jun 1889 - Oct 1889        Ahmed Eyyub Pasha
Oct 1889 - Apr 1895        Selanikli Mehmed Faik Pasha
Apr 1895 - Dec 1901        Bursali Abdulerim Pasha            (b. 1839 - d. 1912)
Dec 1901 - Feb 1903        Hasan Edip Pasha
Feb 1903 - Aug 1903        Ali Riza Pasha
Aug 1903 - Dec 1906        Ebubekir Hazim Bey Tepeyran
Dec 1906 - Feb 1907        Ahmed Reshid Bey
Nov 1908 - Oct 1909        Fahri Pasha                        (b. 1882 - d. 1914)
Oct 1909 - Nov 1910        Mektubizade Mehmed Reshid Pasha
Nov 1910 - Jan 1912        ....
Jan 1912 - Aug 1912        Yegenaga Ali Münif Bey
Aug 1912                   Behcet Yusuf Bey                   (b. 1848 - d. 1936)
Head of Provisional Government of the district of Elimea (Kozani and Kastoria)
1878                       Ioannis Koventaros (in rebellion)
Head of Provisional Government of Macedonia (Litochoro of Olympus)
1878                       Evangelos Korovagos (in rebellion)
President of the Krushevo Republic
 3 Aug 1903 - 13 Aug 1903  Nikola Karev (in rebellion)        (b. 1877 - d. 1905)  VMRO
Allied Superior Commandants of Macedonian Gendarmerie
 1 Jan 1904 - Nov 1908     Giovan Battista Emilio de Giorgis  (b. 1844 - d. 1908)
                             (Italy)
Nov 1908 - Nov 1911        Mario Nicolis de Robilant          (b. 1855 - d. 1943)
                             (Italy)
Bans of Vardar
 9 Oc 1929 - 1932          Zivojin Lazic                      (b. 1876 - d. 19..)
1932 - 1933                Dobrica Matkovic                   (b. 1887 - d. 1973)
1933 - 16 Sep 1935         Dragoslav Djordjevic    
16 Sep 1935 - 1936         Ranko Trifunovic
1936                       Dusan Filipovic (acting)
20 Aug 1936 - 1937         Dragic Paunovic
28 Jul 1937 - 1939         Marko Novakovic
25 Feb 1939 -  6 Sep 1939  Vladimir Hajdukveljkovic           (b. 1892 - d. 1939)
Sep 1939 - 1939            Aleksandar Cvetkovic (acting)
Sep 1939 - 1940            Aleksandar Andrejevic              (b. 1877 - d. 19..)
Jul 1940 - 1941            Zivojin Rafajlovic                 (b. 1871 - d. 1953)
Bulgarian occupation commanders
18 Apr 1941 - Aug 1941     Nikola Mikhaylov Mikhov            (b. 1891 - d. 1945)
1941 - May 1944            Vasil Tenev Boydev                 (b. 1893 - d. 1983)
1944 - Sep 1944            Hristofor Stoyanov Serafimov       (b. 1893 - d. 19..)
Sep 1944                   Todorov (acting)
German military commandant

11 Sep 1944 - 10 Dec 1944  Heinz Scheurlen                    (b. 1895 - d. 1971)  Mil
Presidents
27 Jan 1991 - 19 Nov 1999  Kiro Blagoje Gligorov              (b. 1917 - d. 2012)  Non-party
 4 Oct 1995 - 17 Nov 1995  Stojan Andov                       (b. 1935)            RFM-LP
                             (acting for Gligorov) 
19 Nov 1999 - 15 Dec 1999  Savo Klimovski (acting)            (b. 1947)            DA
15 Dec 1999 - 26 Feb 2004  Boris Kiril Trajkovski             (b. 1956 - d. 2004)  VMRO-DPMNE
26 Feb 2004 - 12 May 2004  Ljupco R. Jordanovski (acting)     (b. 1953 - d. 2010)  SDSM + ZMZ
12 May 2004 - 12 May 2009  Branko Crvenkovski                 (b. 1962)            SDSM + ZMZ
12 May 2009 -              Gjorge Ivanov                      (b. 1960)            VMRO-DPMNE


President of the Administration of the Independent Macedonian State

 8 Sep 1944 - 13 Nov 1944  Spiro Kitinchev                    (b. 1895 - d. 1946)  VMRO
Prime ministers

27 Jan 1991 - 17 Aug 1992  Nikola Kljusev                     (b. 1927 - d. 2008)  Non-party
17 Aug 1992 - 30 Nov 1998  Branko Crvenkovski (1st time)      (s.a.)               SDSM
30 Nov 1998 -  1 Nov 2002  Ljupco R. Georgievski              (b. 1966 - d. 2010)  VMRO-DPMNE
 1 Nov 2002 - 12 May 2004  Branko Crvenkovski (2nd time)      (s.a.)               SDSM + ZMZ
12 May 2004 -  2 Jun 2004  Radmila Sekerinska (f) (1st time)  (b. 1972)            SDSM + ZMZ
                             (acting)
 2 Jun 2004 - 18 Nov 2004  Hari Kostov                        (b. 1959)            SDSM + ZMZ
18 Nov 2004 - 17 Dec 2004  Radmila Sekerinska (f) (2nd time)  (s.a.)               SDSM + ZMZ
                             (acting)
17 Dec 2004 - 27 Aug 2006  Vlado Buckovski                    (b. 1962)            SDSM + ZMZ
27 Aug 2006 -              Nikola Gruevski                    (b. 1970)            VMRO-DPMNE
 

Territorial Disputes: Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in Sep 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia.

Party abbreviations: DA = Demokratska Aleternativa (Democratic Alternative, centrist, est.1998); SDSM = Socijaldemokratski Sojuz na Makedonija (Social Democratic Union of Macedonia, social-democratic, former SKP-PDP, est.1991); SPM = Socijalisticka Partija na Makedonija (Socialist Party of Macedonia, socialist, est.1990); VMRO-DPMNE = Vnatresno Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija – Demokratska Partija za Makedonsko Nacionalno Edinstvo (Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party of Macedonian National Unity, conservative, est.1990);
- Former parties: RFM-LP = Reformskite Sili na Makedonija - Liberalna Partija (Reformist Forces of Macedonia-Liberal Party of Macedonia, 1990-1997); VMRO = Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyutsionna Organizatsiya (Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, initially aim was to gain autonomy for Macedonia and Adrianople regions in Ottoman Empire, but later it became an agent serving Bulgarian interests in Balkan politics, 1893-1945); ZMZ = Za Makedonija Zaedno (Together for Macedonia, 18 member multi-ethnic coalition of the SDSM, 2002-2006)



Socialist Republic of Macedonia
 
[Macedonia SR]
                    31 Dec 1946 - 11 Jul 1992
[Flag of SR
                          Macedonia variant]
               31 Dec 1946 - 11 Jul 1992  Variant

 2 Aug 1944                Macedonia (also in official use: Federal Macedonia,
                             or Democratic Federal Macedonia).
31 Jan 1946                People's Republic of Macedonia
 7 Jul 1963                Socialist Republic of Macedonia

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Macedonia
(from Apr 1952, League of Communists of Macedonia)
Oct 1941 - Jul 1963        Lazar Kolisevski                   (b. 1914 - d. 2000)
Jul 1963 - Mar 1969        Krste Crvenkovski                  (b. 1921 - d. 2001)
Mar 1969 - May 1982        Angel Cemerski                     (b. 1923 - d. 2005)
May 1982 -  5 May 1984     Krste Markovski                    (b. 1925)
 5 May 1984 - Jun 1986     Milan Pancevski                    (b. 1935)
Jun 1986 - 1989            Jakov Lazarovski                   (b. 1936)
1989 - 21 Apr 1991         Petar Gosev                        (b. 1948)

President of Initiatory Committee for Anti-Fascist Assembly of 
People's Liberation of Macedonia
 1 Oct 1943 -  2 Aug 1944  Metodi Andonov-Cento               (b. 1902 - d. 1957)  KMP 
Chairman of the Anti-Fascist Assembly of People's Liberation
 2 Aug 1944 - 15 Apr 1945  Metodi Andonov-Cento               (s.a.)               KMP
Presidents of the Presidium of the People's Assembly
15 Apr 1945 - 15 Mar 1946  Metodi Andonov-Cento               (s.a.)               KMP
15 Mar 1946 - 17 Apr 1946  Dimitar Nestorov (acting)          (b. 1890 - d. 1968)  KMP
17 Apr 1946 -  4 Jan 1951  Bogoja Fotev                       (b. 1900 - d. 1993)  KMP
 4 Jan 1951 - 15 Oct 1951  Vidoe Smilevski                    (b. 1915 - d. 1979)  KMP 
15 Oct 1951 -  2 Feb 1953  Strahil Gigov                      (b. 1909 - d. 1999) KMP;1952 SKM
Presidents of the People's Assembly
 2 Feb 1953 - 19 Dec 1953  Dimce "Mire" Stojanov              (b. 1910 - d. 1991)  SKM
19 Dec 1953 - 26 Jun 1962  Lazar Kolisevski                   (s.a.)               SKM
26 Jun 1962 - 24 Jun 1963  Ljupco Arsov                       (b. 1910 - d. 1986)  SKM
25 Jun 1963 - 12 May 1967  Vidoe Smilevski                    (s.a.)               SKM
12 May 1967 -  1 Aug 1968  Mito Hadzivasilev                  (b. 1921 - d. 1968)  SKM
 1 Aug 1968 - 23 Sep 1968  Zlate Biljanovski (acting)         (b. 1920 - d. 2009)  SKM
23 Dec 1968 -  8 May 1974  Nikola Mincev                      (b. 1915 - d. 1997)  SKM
Presidents of the Presidency
 8 May 1974 -  9 Sep 1979  Vidoe Smilevski                    (s.a.)               SKM
 9 Sep 1979 - 28 Apr 1982  Ljupco Arsov                       (s.a.)               SKM
                             (acting to 31 Oct 1979)   
28 Apr 1982 -  4 May 1983  Angel Cemerski                     (s.a.)               SKM
 4 May 1983 -  3 May 1984  Blagoja Taleski                    (b. 1924 - d. 2001)  SKM
 3 May 1984 - 26 Apr 1985  Tome Bukleski                      (b. 1921)            SKM
26 Apr 1985 - 28 Apr 1986  Vanco Apostolski                   (b. 1925 - d. 2008)  SKM
28 Apr 1986 - 30 Apr 1986  Mateja Matevski (acting]           (b. 1929)            SKM
30 Apr 1986 - 28 Apr 1988  Dragoljub Stavrev                  (b. 1932 - d. 2003)  SKM
28 Apr 1988 - 28 Apr 1990  Jezdimir Bogdanski                 (b. 1930 - d. 2007)  SKM
28 Apr 1990 - 27 Jan 1991  Vladimir Mitkov                    (b. 1931)            SKM

Minister for Macedonia (part of Yugoslav government)
 7 Mar 1945 - 1945         Emanuel Cuckov                     (b. 1901 - d. 1967)  KMP
Prime minister
16 Apr 1945 -  3 Feb 1953  Lazar Kolisevski                   (s.a.)               KMP
Chairmen of the Executive Council
 3 Feb 1953 - 19 Dec 1953  Lazar Kolisevski                   (s.a.)              KMP;1952 SKM
19 Dec 1953 - 21 Dec 1960  Ljupco Arsov                       (s.a.)               SKM
21 Dec 1960 - 11 May 1965  Aleksandar Grlickov                (b. 1923 - d. 1989)  SKM
11 May 1965 - 23 Sep 1968  Nikola Mincev                      (s.a.)               SKM
23 Sep 1968 -  8 May 1974  Ksente Bogoev                      (b. 1913 - d. 2008)  SKM
 8 May 1974 - 28 Apr 1982  Blagoja Popov                      (b. 1920 - d. 1992)  SKM
28 Apr 1982 - 28 Apr 1986  Dragoljub Stavrev                  (s.a.)               SKM
28 Apr 1986 - 27 Jan 1991  Gligorie Gogovski                  (b. 1943)            SKM

Party abbreviations: SKM = Sojuz na Komunisti na Makedonija (League of Communists of Macedonia, to 1952 KMP); SKM-PDP = Sojuz na Komunisti na Makedonija - Partija za Demokratska Preobrazba (League of Communists of Macedonia - Party for Democratic Change, to Apr 1991 SKM, from Apr 1995 SDSM);
- Former parties: KMP = Komunisticka Partija na Makedonija (Communist Party of Macedonia, from 1952 renamed SKM)









© Ben Cahoon