World Statesmen.org HOME >

 

 




 

Brazil
 
[1816 flag of
                            Portugal]
                    to 18 Sep 1822
 
First flag of
                            Brazilian Empire 1822
            18 Sep 1822 - 1 Dec 1822 
 
Second flag of
                            Brazilian Empire 1822-1889  
             1 Dec 1822 - 15 Nov 1889
 
[First Flag of
                            the Republic of Brazil]
          15 Nov 1889 - 19 Nov 1889 
 
[Variant
                            First Flag of the Republic (Brazil)
    15 Nov 1889 - 19 Nov 1889 (variant)
 
[Second Flag of
                            the Republic of Brazil]
     19 Nov 1889 - Jun 1960 (21 stars)
 
[Flag of Brazil
                            of 1960]
     Jun 1960 - 28 May 1968 (22 stars)
 
[Flag of Brazil
                            of 1968]
    28 May 1968 - 11 May 1992 (23 stars)
 
[Brazil]
       Adopted 11 May 1992 (27 stars)
 
Map of Brazil
Hear National Anthem
 "Hino Nacional Brasileiro"
(Brazilian National Hymn)
Adopted 20 Jan 1890
Former National Anthem
"Hino da Independência"
(Anthem of Independence)
  13 Apr 1831-1889
Constitution
(5 Oct 1988)
Capital: Brasilia
(Rio de Janeiro 1763-1960;
Salvador da Bahía 1549-1763;
Porto Seguro 1500- 1549)
Currency: Real (BRL) 
National Holiday:  7 Sep  (1822)
Independence Day
Population: 201,009,622 (2013)
GDP: $2.42 trillion (2013)
Exports: $244.8 billion (2013)
Imports: $241.4 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: white 47.3%, mulatto and mestizo 43.1%,
black and black/Amerindian 7.6%, Asian 1.09%,
Amerindian 0.40%
(2010) 
Total Armed Forces: 327,710 (2010)
Merchant marine: 109 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%,
Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of
God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal
Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian
0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), ACTO, AfDB (nonregional), AL (observer), ANT, APM, BIS, BRICS, BTWC, CAN (associate), CDB (nonregional signatory), CELAC, CPLP, CTBT, CWC, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAIA, LAP, LU, Mercosur, MIGA, MTCR, NAM (observer), NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS, OECD (partner), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SEGIB, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Brazil Index
Chronology
 
23 Apr 1500                Claimed for Portugal, named Ilha de Santa Cruz, 
                             later Terra de Vera Cruz, by Pedro Álvares Cabral
1530                       Portuguese colony (Brasil).
10 Nov 1555 - 17 Mar 1560  French settlement at modern Rio de Janeiro 
                            at Fort Coligny called France Antarctique
1572 - 1578                Divided into two governor-generalships, at Bahia
                             in the north, and Rio de Janeiro in the south.
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Brazil along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
1608 - 1612                Again divided into two governor-generalships.
1626                       Portuguese colonies (Estado do Brasil
                             administered by the governors-general of Bahia,
                             except the Estado do Maranhão which remained
                             separately administered).
 3 Mar 1630 - 26 Jan 1654  Dutch occupation of northeaster Brazil (Nieuw 
                             Holland)(Dutch Brazil).
13 Jul 1714                Viceroyalty of Brazil
27 Jan 1763                Seat of viceroy moved from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro
22 Jan 1808 -  7 Sep 1822  Portuguese royal family rule from Brazil during
                             and after the Napoleonic wars.
16 Dec 1815                Kingdom of Brazil (part of the United Kingdom 
                             of Portugal, and of Brazil, and Algarves).
26 Feb 1821                Kingdom of Brazil (part of the United Kingdom of
                             Portugal, Brazil, and Algarve).
18 Jul 1821 - 25 Aug 1825  Banda Oriental (Uruguay) annexed.
 7 Sep 1822                Independence of Kingdom of Brazil proclaimed
                             (13 May 1825 recognized by Portugal).
12 Oct 1822                Empire of Brazil 
15 Nov 1889                Republic of the United States of Brazil
25 Feb 1904                Annexation of Acre
15 Mar 1967                Federative Republic of Brazil
States
A-M and P-T
Provinces
(1535-1821)
France Antarctique
(1555-1560)
Dutch Brazil
(1630-1654)
Pernambucco
(1817)
 Confederation
of the Equator

(1824)
 Cabanagem
Revolution

(1835-1836)
Sabinada
(1837-1838)
Rio Grande
Republic

(1836-1845)
Catarina Republic
(1839)
Acre Republic
(1899-1904)
Counani
(Republic of
Independent
Guiana)

(1886-1911)
Historical Maps
of Brazil
 

Governors 
1516 – 1526                Pedro Capico
1526 – 26 Oct 1528         Cristóvão Jacques                  (b. c.1480 - d. 1530)
26 Oct 1528 – 1532         Antonio Ribeiro
1532 – 1534                Martim Affonso de Sousa            (b. c.1500 - d. 1571)
1534 - 1549                divided into captaincies  
 7 Jan 1549 - 13 Jul 1553  Tomé de Sousa                      (b. 1503 - d. 1579)
13 Jul 1553 -  3 Jan 1558  Duarte da Costa                    (b. c.1505 - d. 1560) 
 3 Jan 1558 -  2 Mar 1572  Mem de Sá                          (b. 1500 - d. 1572)
 2 Mar 1772 – May 1573     Fernão da Silva (acting) 
May 1573 - 12 Apr 1578     Luís de Brito e Almeida 
                            (governor at Bahia) 
1574 - 1577                António de Salema                  (b. 152. - d. 1586)
                            (governor at Rio de Janeiro) 
Governors-general 
12 Apr 1578 - 17 Jun 1581  Lourenço da Veiga                  (b. 1530 - d. 1581)
17 Jun 1581 – 11 May 1583  Junta
                           - Cosme Rangel de Macedo 
                           - Antonio Moniz Barreiros          (b. 1549 - d. 1600) 
11 May 1582 - 10 Aug 1587  Manuel Teles Barreto               (b. c.1520 - d. 1588)
10 Aug 1587 -  9 Jun 1591  Junta
                           - Antonio Moniz Barreiros          (s.a.)
                           - Cristóvão Cardoso de Barros
                           - António Coelho de Aguiar
 9 Jun 1590 - 12 May 1602  Francisco de Sousa, marquês        (b. c.1540 - d. 1611)
                             das Minas (1st time)
12 May 1602 – Oct 1602     Álvaro de Carvalho
Oct 1602 -  7 Jan 1608     Diogo Botelho                      (b. c.1550 - d. 16..)
 7 Jan 1608 - 1613         Diogo de Menezes e Siqueira,       (b. c.1570 - d. 16..)
                             conde de Ericeria (at Bahaia) 
1613 – May 1613            Governing Junta
                           (at Bahia)
                           - Rui Mendes de Abreu              (b. c.1560 - d. 16..)
                           - Sebastião Borges
                           - Baltazar de Aragão de Souza      (b. 1564 - d. 1615) 
22 Aug 1609 - 11 Jun 1611  Francisco de Sousa, marquês        (s.a.)
                             das Minas (2nd time)
                             (at Rio de Janeiro)
11 Jun 1611 – 24 Apr 1613  Luis de Sousa Henriques            (d. bf.1635)
                             (at Rio de Janeiro)
1613 -  1 Jan 1617         Gaspar de Sousa                    (b. c.1550 - d. c.1627)
 1 Jan 1617 - 12 Oct 1621  Luís de Sousa, conde do Prado      (b. c.1580 - d. 1643)
11 Oct 1621 - 10 May 1624  Diogo de Mendonça Furtado          (b. c.1590 - d. 16..)
10 May 1624 – 15 May 1624  Antão de Mesquita e Oliveira       (d. 1637)
15 May 1624 – 16 Jul 1624  Marcos Teixeira de Mendonça        (b. c.1539 – d. 1624)
16 Jul 1624 – 24 Sep 1624  Matias de Albuquerque Coelho,
                             conde de Alegrete                (b. 1595 - d. 1647) 
24 Sep 1624 –  3 Dec 1624  Francisco Nunes Marinho de Sá 
 3 Dec 1624 - 28 Dec 1626  Francisco de Moura Rolim           (b. 1580 - d. 1657)
28 Dec 1626 – 11 Dec 1635  Diogo Luís de Oliveira,
                             conde de Miranda   
11 Dec 1635 - 20 Jan 1639  Pedro da Silva, conde de São       (b. 1572 - d. 1649)
                             Lourenço
20 Jan 1639 - 21 Oct 1639  Fernando Jose de Mascarenhas,      (b. c.1610 - d. 1651)
                             conde de Torre 
21 Oct 1639 - 26 May 1640  Vasco de Mascarenhas, conde        (b. c.1605 - d. 1678)
                             de Óbidos (1st time)
26 May 1640 - 16 Apr 1641  Jorge de Mascarenhas, marquês      (b. 1597 - d. 1652)
                             de Montalvão -Viceroy
16 Apr 1641 - 26 Aug 1642  Provisional Government Junta
                           - Pedro da Silva e Sampaio         (b. 1572 - d. 1649)
                           - Luís Barbalho Bezerra            (b. c.1584 - d. 1644)
                           - Lourenço de Brito Correia
26 Aug 1642 - 22 Dec 1647  António Teles da Silva             (b. c.1590 - d. 1650)
22 Dec 1647 - 10 Mar 1650  António Teles de Menezes, conde    (b. c.1600 - d. 1657)
                             de Vila Pouca de Aguiar
10 Mar 1650 -  6 Jan 1654  João Rodrigues de Vasconcelos e    (b. 1593 - d. 1658)
                             Sousa, conde de Castelo Melhor 
 6 Jan 1654 - 20 Jun 1657  Jerónimo de Ataíde, conde de       (b. c.1610 - d. 1665)
                             Atouguia 
20 Jun 1657 - 24 Jun 1663  Francisco Barreto de Meneses       (b. 1618 - d. 1668)
24 Jun 1663 - 13 Jun 1667  Vasco de Mascarenhas, conde        (s.a.)
                             de Óbidos -Viceroy (2nd time)
13 Jun 1667 -  8 May 1671  Alexandre de Sousa Freire          (b. c.1615 - d. 16..)
 8 May 1671 - 26 Nov 1675  Afonso Furtado de Castro do Rio    (b. c.1610 - d. 1675)
                             de Mendonça, visconde de Barbacena 
26 Nov 1675 - 15 Mar 1678  Provisional Government Junta
                           - Agostinho de Azevedo Monteiro    (d. 1677)
                              (to 1677)
                           - Álvaro de Azevedo Cordeiro       (d. 1690)
                           - António Guedes de Brito          (b. 1627 - d. 1694)
                           - Cristóvão de Burgos e Contreiras (b. 1615/18 - d. ....)
                              (from 1677)

15 Mar 1678 -  3 May 1682  Roque da Costa Barreto             (b. c.1610 - d. 1699)
 3 May 1682 -  4 Jun 1684  António de Sousa de Meneses        (b. c.1650 - d. 1684)
 4 Jun 1684 -  4 Jun 1687  António Luís de Sousa Tello de     (b. 1644 - d. 1721)
                             Meneses, marquês das Minas 
 4 Jun 1687 - 24 Oct 1688  Matias da Cunha                    (d. 1688)
24 Oct 1688 - 11 Oct 1690  Manuel da Ressurreição             (d. 1691)
                            (president of the provisional junta)
11 Oct 1690 - 22 May 1694  António Luís Gonçalves da Câmara   (b. 1638 - d. 1702) 
                             Coutinho 
22 May 1694 -  3 Jul 1702  João de Lencastre, duque de Aveiro (b. 1646 - d. 1707)
 3 Jul 1702 -  8 Sep 1708  Rodrigo da Costa                   (b. 1657 - d. 1722)
 8 Sep 1708 -  3 May 1710  Luís César de Meneses              (b. 1653 - d. 1720)
 3 May 1710 - 14 Oct 1711  Lourenço de Almada                 (b. 1645 - d. 1729)
14 Oct 1711 - 13 Jul 1714  Pedro de Vasconcellos e Sousa,     (b. 1664 - d. 1732)
                             conde de Castelo Melhor
Viceroys
13 Jul 1714 - 21 Aug 1718  Pedro Antonio de Noronha           (b. 1661 - d. 1731)
                             Albuquerque e Sousa, conde de 
                             Villa Verde, marquês de Angeja 
21 Aug 1718 - 13 Oct 1719  Sancho de Faro e Sousa, conde      (b. 1659 - d. 1719)
                             de Vimieiro -Governor-general  
14 Oct 1719 - 23 Nov 1720  Provisional Government Junta
                           - Sebastião Monteiro da Vide       (b. 1673 - d. 1722)
                           - Caetano de Brito e Figueiredo    (b. 1671 - d. 1732)
                           - João de Araújo e Azevedo
23 Nov 1720 - 11 May 1735  Vasco Fernandes César de Meneses,  (b. 1673 - d. 1743)
                             conde de Sabugosa 
11 May 1735 - 17 Dec 1749  André de Melo e Castro, conde      (b. 1668 - d. 1753)
                             das Galveias 
17 Dec 1749 - 17 Aug 1754  Luís Pedro Peregrino de Carvalho   (b. 1700 - d. 1758)
                             de Meneses e Ataíde, conde de
                             Atouguia 
17 Aug 1754 - 23 Dec 1755  Provisional Government Junta
                           - José Botelho de Matos            (b. 1678 - d. 1761)
                           - Manuel António da Cunha Souto
                               Maior
                           - Lourenço Monteiro                (b. c.1670 – d. 1755)
                               (to 29 Apr 1755)
23 Dec 1755 -  9 Jan 1760  Marcos José de Noronha e Brito,    (b. 1712 - d. 1768)
                             conde dos Arcos 
 9 Jan 1760 -  8 Jul 1760  António de Almeida Soares e        (b. 1699 - d. 1760)
                             Portugal de Alarcão Eça e Melo,
                             marquês de Lavradio 
 8 Jul 1760 – 21 Jun 1761  Thomaz Rubi de Barros Barreto do   (b. 1712 - d. ....)
                             Rego (acting) 
21 Jun 1761 - 27 Jun 1763  Provisional Government Junta
                           - Manoel de Santa Ignez            (b. 1704 - d. 1771)
                           - José Carvalho de Andrada
                           - Gonçalo Xavier de Barros e Alvim
27 Jun 1763 - 31 Aug 1767  António Álvares da Cunha,          (b. c.1700 - d. 1791)
                             conde da Cunha 
17 Nov 1767 -  4 Nov 1769  António Rolim de Moura Tavares,    (b. 1709 - d. 1782)
                             conde de Azambuja 
 4 Nov 1769 - 30 Apr 1778  Luís de Almeida Portugal Soares,   (b. 1729 - d. 1790)
                             conde e marquês de Lavradio 
30 Apr 1778 -  9 May 1790  Luís de Vasconcellos e Sousa,      (b. 1742 - d. 1809)
                             conde de Figueiró
 9 May 1790 - 14 Oct 1801  José Luís de Castro, conde de      (b. 1744 - d. 1819) 
                             Resende 
14 Oct 1801 - 21 Aug 1806  José Fernandes de Portugal e       (b. 1752 - d. 1817)
                             Castro, conde e marquês de Aguiar 
14 Oct 1806 - 22 Jan 1808  Marcos de Noronha e Brito,         (b. 1769 - d. 1828)
                             conde dos Arcos 
22 Jan 1808 - 16 Dec 1815  Prince João de Bragança            (b. 1767 - d. 1826)
Queen¹
16 Dec 1815 - 20 Mar 1816  Maria I                            (b. 1734 - d. 1816)
                            (since 22 Jan 1808, in refunge in Brazil)
16 Dec 1815 - 20 Mar 1816  Prince João de Bragança -Regent    (s.a.)
                            (regent for incapacitated Maria I)
King¹
20 Mar 1816 -  7 Sep 1822  João VI                            (s.a.)
22 Apr 1821 - 12 Oct 1822  Prince Pedro de Bragança -Regent   (b. 1798 - d. 1834)
Emperors¹
12 Oct 1822 -  7 Apr 1831  Pedro I                            (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1831 - 15 Nov 1889  Pedro II                           (b. 1825 - d. 1891)
 7 Apr 1831 - 18 Jun 1831  Provisional Regency
                           - José Joaquim Carneiro de Campos, (b. 1768 - d. 1836)  Res
                               visconde e marquês de
                           - Nicolau Pereira de Campos        (b. 1778 - d. 1859)  LM
                               Vergueiro (president)
                           - Francisco de Lima e Silva        (b. 1785 - d. 1853)  Mil
18 Jun 1831 - 12 Oct 1835  Regency
                           - Francisco de Lima e Silva        (s.a.)               Mil
                              (president)
                           - José da Costa Carvalho           (b. 1796 - d. 1860)  LM
                           - João Bráulio Muniz               (b. 1796 - d. 1835)  LM
                              (to 20 Sep 1835)
12 Oct 1835 - 19 Sep 1837  Diogo António Feijó -Regent        (b. 1784 - d. 1843)  PL
19 Sep 1837 - 23 Jul 1840  Pedro de Araújo Lima -Regent       (b. 1793 - d. 1870)  PC
                             (provisional to 7 Oct 1838)
25 May 1871 - 30 Mar 1872  Princess Isabel (f) -Regent        (b. 1846 - d. 1921)
                             (1st time) 
26 Mar 1876 - 26 Sep 1877  Princess Isabel (f) -Regent        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
30 Jun 1887 - 22 Aug 1888  Princess Isabel (f) -Regent        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
Presidents
15 Nov 1889 - 23 Nov 1891  Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca          (b. 1827 - d. 1892)  Mil/Rep
                             (head of Provisional Government to 26 Feb 1891)
23 Nov 1891 - 15 Nov 1894  Floriano Vieira de Araújo Peixoto  (b. 1842 - d. 1895)  Mil/Rep
                             (acting) 
15 Nov 1894 - 15 Nov 1898  Prudente José de Morais Barros     (b. 1841 - d. 1902)  PRP
10 Nov 1896 -  4 Mar 1897  Manuel Vitorino Pereira            (b. 1853 - d. 1902)  PRP
                             (acting for Morais)
15 Nov 1898 - 15 Nov 1902  Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales      (b. 1841 - d. 1913)  PRP
15 Nov 1902 - 15 Nov 1906  Francisco de Paula Rodrigues       (b. 1848 - d. 1919)  PRP
                             Alves (1st time)
15 Nov 1906 - 14 Jun 1909  Afonso Augusto Moreira Pena        (b. 1847 - d. 1909)  PRM
14 Jun 1909 - 15 Nov 1910  Nilo Procópio Peçanha              (b. 1857 - d. 1926)  PRF
15 Nov 1910 - 15 Nov 1914  Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca        (b. 1855 - d. 1923)  Mil
15 Nov 1914 - 15 Nov 1918  Venceslau Brás Pereira Gomes       (b. 1868 - d. 1966)  PRM
15 Nov 1918 - 16 Jan 1919  Francisco de Paula Rodrigues       (s.a.)               PRP
                             Alves (2nd time) 
15 Nov 1918 - 28 Jul 1919  Delfim Moreira da Costa Ribeiro    (b. 1868 - d. 1920)  PRM
                             (acting [for Alves to 16 Jan 1919])
28 Jul 1919 - 15 Nov 1922  Epitâcio Lindolfo da Silva Pessoa  (b. 1865 - d. 1942)  PRM
15 Nov 1922 - 15 Nov 1926  Artur da Silva Bernardes           (b. 1875 - d. 1955)  PRM
15 Nov 1926 - 24 Oct 1930  Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa   (b. 1869 - d. 1957)  PRP
24 Oct 1930 -  3 Nov 1930  Augusto Tasso Fragoso              (b. 1869 - d. 1945)  Mil
                             (president of Government Junta)
 3 Nov 1930 - 30 Oct 1945  Getúlio Dorneles Vargas (1st time) (b. 1882 - d. 1954)  Non-party
                             (head of Provisional Government to 20 Jul 1934)
30 Oct 1945 - 31 Jan 1946  José Linhares                      (b. 1886 - d. 1957)  Non-party
31 Jan 1946 - 31 Jan 1951  Eurico Gaspar Dutra                (b. 1883 - d. 1974)  Mil/PSD
31 Jan 1951 - 24 Aug 1954  Getúlio Dorneles Vargas (2nd time) (s.a.)               PTB
24 Aug 1954 - 31 Jan 1956  João Fernandes de Campos Café      (b. 1899 - d. 1970)  PTB
                             Filho
 8 Nov 1955 - 11 Nov 1955  Carlos Coimbra da Luz              (b. 1894 - d. 1961)  PSD
                             (acting for Café)
11 Nov 1955 - 31 Jan 1956  Nereu de Oliveira Ramos            (b. 1889 - d. 1958)  PSD
                             (acting for Café)
31 Jan 1956 - 31 Jan 1961  Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira   (b. 1902 - d. 1976)  PSD
31 Jan 1961 - 25 Aug 1961  Jânio da Silva Quadros             (b. 1917 - d. 1992)  Non-party
25 Aug 1961 -  7 Sep 1961  Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli           (b. 1910 - d. 1975)  PSD
                             (1st time) (acting) 
 7 Sep 1961 -  2 Apr 1964  João Belchior Marques Goulart      (b. 1919 - d. 1976)  PTB
 2 Apr 1964 - 15 Apr 1964  Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli           (s.a.)               PSD
                             (2nd time) (acting)
15 Apr 1964 - 15 Mar 1967  Humberto de Alencar Castelo        (b. 1900 - d. 1967)  Mil
                             Branco
15 Mar 1967 - 14 Oct 1969  Artur da Costa e Silva             (b. 1902 - d. 1969)  Mil
14 Oct 1969 - 30 Oct 1969  Military Junta
                           (ministers of navy, army, and military aeronautics)
                           (acting for incapacitated Costa e Silva from 31 Aug 1969)
                           - Augusto Hamann Rademaker         (b. 1905 - d. 1985)  Mil
                               Grünewald 
                           - Aurélio de Lira Tavares          (b. 1905 - d. 1998)  Mil
                           - Márcio de Sousa e Mello          (b. 1906 - d. 1991)  Mil
30 Oct 1969 - 15 Mar 1974  Emílio Garrastazu Médici           (b. 1905 - d. 1985)  Mil/ARENA
15 Mar 1974 - 15 Mar 1979  Ernesto Beckmann Geisel            (b. 1907 - d. 1996)  Mil/ARENA
15 Mar 1979 - 15 Mar 1985  João Baptista de Oliveira          (b. 1918 - d. 1999)  Mil/ARENA
                             Figueiredo 
23 Sep 1981 - 12 Nov 1981  António Aureliano Chaves de        (b. 1929 - d. 2003)  ARENA
                             Mendonça (1st time)
                             (acting for Figueiredo)
14 Jul 1983 - 26 Aug 1983  António Aureliano Chaves de        (s.a.)               ARENA
                             Mendonça (2nd time)(acting for Figueiredo)
15 Mar 1985 - 21 Apr 1985  Tancredo de Almeida Neves          (b. 1910 - d. 1985)  PMDB
                             (did not take office)
15 Mar 1985 - 15 Mar 1990  José Sarney Costa                  (b. 1930)            PMDB
                             (vice president acting to 21 Apr 1985)
15 Mar 1990 - 29 Dec 1992  Fernando Alfonso Collor de Mello   (b. 1949)            PRN
 2 Oct 1992 -  1 Jan 1995  Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco     (b. 1930 - d. 2011)  Non-party
                             (acting for suspended Collor to 29 Dec 1992)
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 2002  Fernando Henrique Silva Cardoso    (b. 1931)            PSDB
 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2010  Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva          (b. 1945)            PT
 1 Jan 2011 -              Dilma Vana Rousseff (f)            (b. 1947)            PT

Principal ministers (title Ministro e Secretário de Estado dos Negócios do Reino;
from 12 Oct 1822, Ministro e Secretário de Estado dos Negócios do Império)
10 Mar 1808 - 30 Dec 1816  Fernando José de Portugal e        (b. 1752 - d. 1817) 
                             Castro, (from Dec 1808) conde e
                             (from 1813) marquês de Aguiar 
30 Dec 1816 - 23 Jun 1817  António de Araújo de Azevedo,      (b. 1754 - d. 1817)
                             conde da Barca 
23 Jun 1817 - 29 Nov 1817  João Paulo Bezerra de Seixas,      (b. 1756 - d. 1817)
                             barão de Itaguaí
29 Nov 1817 - 26 Feb 1821  Tomás António de Vila-Nova         (b. 1755 - d. 1839)
                             Portugal
26 Feb 1821 - 22 Apr 1821  Manuel Inácio da Costa Quintella   (b. 1763 - d. 1838)
22 Apr 1821 -  5 Jun 1821  Marcos de Noronha e Brito, conde   (b. 1771 - d. 1828)
                             dos Arcos de Vildevez 
 5 Jun 1821 –  4 Oct 1821  Pedro Álvares Diniz
 4 Oct 1821 – 16 Jan 1822  Francisco José Vieira  
16 Jan 1822 - 28 Oct 1822  José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva  (b. 1763 - d. 1838)
                             (1st time)
28 Oct 1822 - 30 Oct 1822  Jose Egídio Alvares de Almeida,    (b. 1767 - d. 1832)
                             marquês de Santo Amaro 
30 Oct 1822 - 17 Jul 1823  José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
17 Jul 1823 - 10 Nov 1823  José Joaquim Carneiro de Campos    (b. 1786 - d. 1836)
                             (1st time)
10 Nov 1823 - 14 Nov 1823  Francisco Vilela Barbosa           (b. 1769 - d. 1846)
14 Nov 1823 - 17 Nov 1823  Pedro de Araújo Lima (1st time)    (s.a.)
17 Nov 1823 - 14 Oct 1824  João Severiano Maciel da Costa     (b. 1769 - d. 1833)
14 Oct 1824 -  9 Nov 1825  Estêvão Ribeiro de Resende         (b. 1777 - d. 1856)
 9 Nov 1825 - 20 Jan 1826  Felisberto Caldeira Brant Pontes   (b. 1772 - d. 1842)
                             Oliveira e Horta, (from Oct 1825,
                             visconde de Barbacena) 
20 Jan 1826 - 23 Jan 1826  João Vieira de Carvalho, barão,    (b. 1781 - d. 1847)
                             conde e marquês de Lajes
23 Jan 1826 - 13 Nov 1826  José Feliciano Fernandes Pinheiro  (b. 17744 - d. 1847)
13 Nov 1826 - 20 Nov 1827  José Joaquim Carneiro de Campos,   (s.a.)
                             visconde (from 1826 e marquês)
                             de Caravelas (2nd time)
20 Nov 1827 - 15 Jun 1828  Pedro de Araújo Lima (2nd time)    (s.a.)
15 Jun 1828 -  4 Nov 1829  José Clemente Pereira              (b. 1787 - d. 1854)
 4 Nov 1829 - 12 Aug 1830  José Joaquim Carneiro de Campos,   (s.a.)
                             visconde e marquês de Caravelas
                             (3rd time)
12 Aug 1830 -  4 Oct 1830  João Inácio da Cunha, barão e      (b. 1781 - d. 1834)
                             visconde de Alcântara (1st time)
 4 Oct 1830 - 24 Dec 1830  José António da Silva Maia         (b. 1789 - d. 1853) 
                             (1st time)
24 Dec 1830 – 18 Mar 1831  João Inácio da Cunha, barão e      (s.a.)
                             visconde de Alcântara (2nd time)  
18
Mar 1831 -  5 Apr 1831  Bernardo José da Gama, barão e     (b. 1782 - d. 1854)
                             visconde de Goiana (1st time)
 5 Apr 1831 -  6 Apr 1831  António Luís Pereira da Cunha,     (b. 1760 - d. 1837)
                             visconde e marquês de Inhambupe 
                             de Cima
 6 Apr 1831 -  7 Apr 1831  Bernardo José da Gama, barão e     (s.a.)
                             visconde de Goiana (2nd time)
 7 Apr 1831 - 26 Apr 1831  Bernardo José da Gama, barão e     (s.a.)
                             visconde de Goiana (3rd time)
26 Apr 1831 - 16 Jul 1831  Manuel José de Sousa França        (b. 1780 - d. 1856)
16 Jul 1831 -  3 Jan 1832  José Lino dos Santos Coutinho      (b. 1784 - d. 1835)
 3 Jan 1832 -  3 Aug 1832  Diogo Antônio Feijó                (s.a.)
 3 Aug 1832 - 13 Sep 1832  António Francisco de Paula Holanda (b. 1797 - d. 1863)
                             Cavalcânti e Albuquerque 
13 Sep 1832 - 23 May 1833  Nicolau Pereira de Campos          (s.a.)
                             Vergueiro 
23 May 1833 - 10 Oct 1833  Aureliano de Sousa e Oliveira      (b. 1800 - d. 1855)
                             Coutinho 
10 Oct 1833 - 16 Jan 1835  António Pinto Chichorro da Gama    (b. 1800 - d. 1887)
16 Jan 1835 - 20 Jan 1835  Manuel do Nascimento Castro e      (b. 1788 - d. 1846)
                             Silva 
20 Jan 1835 - 14 Oct 1835  Joaquim Vieira da Silva e Sousa    (b. 1800 - d. 1864)
14 Oct 1835 -  5 Feb 1836  António Paulino Limpo de Abreu     (b. 1798 - d. 1883) 
                             (1st time)(acting)
 5 Feb 1836 -  7 Jun 1836  José Inácio Borges                 (b. 1780 - d. 1838)
 7 Jun 1836 - 29 Sep 1836  António Paulino Limpo de Abreu     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time(acting)
29 Sep 1836 -  1 Nov 1836  Gustavo Adolfo de Aguilar Pantoja  (b. 1798 - d. 1867)
 1 Nov 1836 - 18 Mar 1837  Manuel da Fonseca Lima e Silva     (b. 1793 - d. 1869)
18 Mar 1837 - 16 May 1837  António Paulino Limpo de Abreu     (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time)(acting)
16 May 1837 - 19 Sep 1837  Manuel Alves Branco (1st time)     (b. 1797 - d. 1855) 
18 Sep 1837 - 19 Sep 1837  Pedro de Araújo Lima (3rd time)    (s.a.)
19 Sep 1837 - 16 Apr 1839  Bernardo Pereira de Vasconcelos    (b. 1795 - d. 1850)
                             (1st time)(acting) 
16 Apr 1839 -  1 Sep 1839  Francisco de Paula Almeida e       (b. 1795 - d. 1868) 
                             Albuquerque (acting)
 1 Sep 1839 -  2 May 1840  Manuel António Galvão              (b. 1791 - d. 1850)
 2 May 1840 - 18 May 1840  Francisco Ramiro de Assis Coelho   (d. 1849)
18 May 1840 - 23 May 1840  Caetano Maria Lopes Gama (acting)  (b. 1795 - d. 1864)
23 May 1840 – 22 Jul 1840  Joaquim José Rodrigues Torres,     (b. 1802 - d. 1872)  PC
                             visconde de Itaboraí
22 Jul 1840  (9 hours)     Bernardo Pereira de Vasconcelos    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
22 Jul 1840 - 24 Jul 1840  Joaquim José Rodrigues Torres      (b. 1802 - d. 1872)  PC
                             (acting)
24 Jul 1840 - 27 Mar 1841  António Carlos Ribeiro de Andrada  (b. 1773 - d. 1845)  PL
                             Machado e Silva 
27 Mar 1841 - 20 Jan 1843  Cândido José de Araújo Viana       (b. 1793 - d. 1875)  PC
20 Jan 1843 -  2 Feb 1844  José Antônio da Silva Maia         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 2 Feb 1844 -  2 May 1846  José Carlos de Almeida Torres,     (b. 1799 - d. 1850)  PL
                             visconde de Macaé 
29 Sep 1845 -  2 May 1846  Manuel Alves Branco (1st time)     (s.a.)               PL
                             (acting for Torres, who is absent from the capital)
 2 May 1846 - 22 May 1847  Joaquim Marcelino de Brito         (b. 1799 - d. 1879)  PL
22 May 1847 - 20 Jul 1847  Manuel Alves Branco (2nd time)     (s.a.)               PL
                             (acting)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)
20 Jul 1847 – 28 Aug 1847  Francisco de Paula Sousa e Melo    (b. 1791 - d. 1851)  PL
                             (1st time)
28 Aug 1847 – 20 Oct 1847  Manuel Alves Branco, visconde      (s.a.)               PL
                             de Caravelas
20 Oct 1847 – 18 Nov 1847  Nicolau Pereira de Campos
         (b. 1778 - d. 1859)  PL
                             Vergueiro              
18 Nov 1847 -  7 Mar 1848  Manuel Alves Branco                (s.a.)               PL
 8 Mar 1848 - 31 May 1848  José Carlos Pereira de Almeida     (s.a.)               PL
                             Torres, visconde de Macaé 
31 May 1848 - 18 Aug 1848  Francisco de Paula Sousa e Melo    (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
18 Aug 1848 – 29 Sep 1848  Bernardo de Sousa Franco,         
(b. 1805 - d. 1875)  PL
                             visconde de Sousa Franco
29 Sep 1848 -  6 Oct 1849  Pedro de Araújo Lima,              (s.a.)               PC
                             visconde de Olinda (1st time)
 6 Oct 1848 –  8 Oct 1849  Joaquim José Rodrigues Torres,     (s.a.)               PC
                              visconde de Itaboraí (1st time)    
 8 Oct 1849 - 11 May 1852  José da Costa Carvalho, barão e    (s.a.)               PC
                             visconde de Monte Alegre
11 May 1852 -  6 Sep 1853  Joaquim José Rodrigues Torres,     (s.a.)               PC
                             visconde de Itaboraí (2nd time)
12 Feb 1853 –  6 Mar 1853  Manuel Felizardo de Sousa e Melo   (b. 1796 - d. 1866)  Mil
                             (acting for Torres)
 6 Sep 1853 -  3 Sep 1856  Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão,     (b. 1801 - d. 1856)  PC
                             visconde e (from 1854)
12 Jan 1855 – 28 Jan 1855  Lu
ís Pedreira do Couto Ferraz,     (b. 1818 - d. 1886)  PC
                             visconde do Bom Retiro
                             (acting for Leão)
 3 Sep 1856 -  4 May 1857  Luís Alves de Lima e Silva,        (b. 1803 - d. 1880)  PC
                             barão, conde e marquês de 
                             Caxias (1st time)
 4 May 1857 - 12 Dec 1858  Pedro de Araújo Lima,              (s.a.)               PC
                             visconde e marquês de Olinda
                             (2nd time)
12 Dec 1858 - 10 Aug 1859  António Paulino Limpo de Abreu,    (s.a.)               PL
                             visconde de Abaeté
10 Aug 1859 -  2 Mar 1861  Ângelo Muniz da Silva Ferraz       (b. 1812 - d. 1867)  PC
 2 Mar 1861 - 24 May 1862  Luís Alves de Lima e Silva,        (s.a.)               PC
                             barão, conde e marquês de 
                             Caxias (2nd time)
24 May 1862 - 30 May 1862  Zacarias de Góis e Vasconcelos     (b. 1815 - d. 1877)  PL
                             (1st time)
30 May 1862 - 15 Jan 1864  Pedro de Araújo Lima,              (s.a.)               PC
                             visconde e marquês de Olinda
                             (3rd time)
 8 Oct 1862 - 18 Nov 1862  Miguel Calmon du Pin e Almeida,    (b. 1794 - d. 1865)  PL
                             visconde e marquês de Abrantes
                             (acting for Olinda)
15 Jan 1864 - 31 Aug 1864  Zacarias de Góis e Vasconcelos     (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
31 Aug 1864 - 12 May 1865  Francisco José Furtado             (b. 1818 - d. 1870)  PL
12 May 1865 -  3 Aug 1866  Pedro de Araújo Lima,              (s.a.)               PL
                             visconde e marquês de Olinda
                             (4th time)
 3 Aug 1866 - 16 Jul 1868  Zacarias de Góis e Vasconcelos     (s.a.)               PL
                             (3rd time)
16 Jul 1868 - 29 Sep 1870  Joaquim José Rodrigues Torres,     (s.a.)               PC
                             visconde de Itaboraí (2nd time)
29 Sep 1870 -  7 Mar 1871  José Antônio Pimenta Bueno,        (b. 1803 - d. 1878)  PC
                             visconde de São Vicente
 7 Mar 1871 - 25 Jun 1875  José Maria da Silva Paranhos,      (b. 1819 - d. 1880)  PC 
                             visconde de Rio Branco 
25 Jun 1875 -  5 Jan 1878  Luís Alves de Lima e Silva,        (s.a.)               PC
                             barão, conde, marquês e duque
                             de Caxias (3rd time) 
23 Feb 1876 – 22 May 1876  João Maurício Wanderley,           (b. 1815 - d. 1889)  PC
                             barão de Cotegipe    
                             (acting for Caxias)
 5 Jan 1878 - 28 Mar 1880  João Lins Vieira Cansação de       (b. 1810 - d. 1907)  PL
                             Sinimbú, visconde de Sinimbú 
28 Mar 1880 - 21 Jan 1882  José Antônio Saraiva dito          (b. 1823 - d. 1895)  PL
                             o conselheiro (1st time)
21 Jan 1880 -  3 Jul 1882  Martinho Álvares da Silva Campos   (b. 1816 - d. 1887)  PL
 3 Jul 1882 - 24 May 1883  João Lustosa da Cunha Paranaguá,   (b. 1821 - d. 1912)  PL
                             visconde e marquês de Paranaguá
24 May 1883 -  6 Jun 1884  Lafayette Rodrigues Pereira        (b. 1834 - d. 1917)  PL
 6 Jun 1884 -  6 May 1885  Manuel Pinto de Sousa Dantas       (b. 1831 - d. 1894)  PL
 6 May 1885 - 20 Aug 1885  José Antônio Saraiva dito          (s.a.)               PL
                             o conselheiro (2nd time) 
20 Aug 1885 - 10 Mar 1888  João Maurício Wanderley,           (s.a.)               PC
                             barão de Cotegipe 
10 Mar 1888 -  7 Jun 1889  João Alfredo Correia de Oliveira   (b. 1835 - d. 1919)  PC
 7 Jun 1889 - 15 Nov 1889  Alfonso Celso de Assis Figueiredo, (b. 1836 - d. 1912)  PL
                             visconde de Ouro Preto 
20 Jul 1889 – 27 Jul 1889  Candido Luis Maria de Oliveira     (b. 1845 - d. 1919)  PL
                             (acting for Ouro Preto)  
15 Nov 1889 -  8 Sep 1961  Post Abolished
Prime ministers (presidents of the council ministers)
 8 Sep 1961 -  3 Jul 1962  Tancredo de Almeida Neves          (b. 1910 - d. 1985)  PSD
 3 Jul 1962 - 10 Jul 1962  Auro Soares de Moura Andrade       (b. 1915 - d. 1982)  PSD
10 Jul 1962 - 18 Sep 1962  Francisco de Paula Brochado da     (b. 1910 - d. 1962)  PSD
                             Rocha
18 Sep 1962 - 24 Jan 1963  Hermes Lima                        (b. 1902 - d. 1978)  PSB
 
 ¹Full style of the ruler was:
(a) 16 Dec 1815 - 20 Mar 1816: Por graça de Deus, Rainha do Reino Unido de Portugal, e do Brasil, e Algarves de aquém e de além-mar, em África de Guiné, e da Conquista, Navegação, e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia ("by the grace of God, Queen of United Kingdom of Portugal, and of Brazi, and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lady of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and of India");
(b) 20 Mar 1816 - 12 Oct 1822: Rei do Reino Unido de Portugal, e do Brasil, e Algarves ("King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, and of Brazil, and the Algarves");
(c) 12 Oct 1822 - 15 Nov 1889: Por graça de Deus e unânime aclamação dos povos, Imperador Constitucional e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil ("by the grace of God and unanimous acclamation of the people, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil").

Noble titles: senhor/senhora = lord/lady; barão = baron; marquês/marquêsa = marquis/marquessa; conde/condesa = count/countess; visconde = viscount; duque/duquesa = duke/duchess; príncipe/princesa = prince/princess; rei/rainha = king/queen; imperador/imperatriz = emperor/
empress.

Territorial Disputes: Uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela; dispute between Bolivia and Brazil over sovereignty of Isla Suárez/Ilha de Guajará-Mirim, a fluvial island on the Río Mamoré. 

Party abbreviations: PMDB = Partido do Movimento Democrético Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, center-left, est.1980); PSB = Partido Socialista Brasileiro (Brazilian Socialist Party, socialist, 1947-65, re-est.1985); PSDB = Partido da Social Democracia Brasileiro (Party of the Brazil Social-Democracy, social-democratic, est.1988); PT = Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party, center-left, est.1980); PTB = Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party, center-left, 1945-65, re-est.1980); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ARENA = Alliança Renovadora Nacional (National Renewal Alliance, military government-controlled party, conservative, 1966-1979); LM = Liberal-Moderata (Moderate Liberal, 19th cent.); PC = Partido Conservador (Conservative Party, conservative, 1837-1889); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, center-right, 1837-1889); PDC = Partido Democrético Cristão (Christian Democratic Party, 1985-1993); PPB = Partido Progressista Brasileiro (Brazilian Progressive Party, conservative, 1995-2003); PRF = Partido Republicano Fluminense (Fluminense Republican Party, republican, Rio de Janeiro agrarian, 1888-1937); PRM = Partido Republicano Mineiro (Republican Party of Minas Gerais, republican, 1888-1937); PRN = Partido da Reconstrução Nacional (Party of National Reconstruction, christian-conservative, 1989-2001); PRP = Partido Republicano Paulista (Republican Party of São Paulo, also called Partido Republicano Paulista, liberal, republican, 1873-1930); PSD = Partido Socialista Democrético (Social Democratic Party, 1945-1965, 1987-2002); Rep = Partido Republicano (Republican Party, republican, 1870-1889, also PR); Res = Partido Restaurador (Restoration Party, also called Caramuru Party, 1831-1834)


France Antarctique (Fort Coligny)

10 Nov 1555                French settlement at modern Rio de Janeiro, Fort
                             Coligny also called Antarctic France (France Antarctique).
17 Mar 1560                Portuguese take control (French colonists remain until
                             20 Jan 1567).

Governors
10 Nov 1555 - 1559         Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon      (b. c.1510 - d. 1571)
1559 - 17 Mar 1560         Legendre de Boissy, seigneur de
                             Bois-le-Comte


Dutch Brazil (New Holland)
 
[National flag of the
                  Netherlands]
   16 Feb 1630 - 28 Jan 1654
   
16 Feb 1630 - 28 Jan 1654  Dutch occupation of northeastern Brazil (Nieuw Holland)
                            (in Salvador 10 May 1624 – 30 Apr 1625; Olinda 16 Feb 1630 – Nov
                             1631, 163. – 1648; Recife 3 Mar 1630 – 28 Jan 1654; Itamaraca 
                             Jun 1633 – 13 Dec 1647; Paraiba Dec 1634 – 1654; Sergipe de Rei
                             Nov 1637 – Dec 1637 and 1641 – Sep 1645; San Luis do Maranhao Nov
                             1641 – 1643; Fort Reis Magos/Fort Ceulen Dec 1633 – 1654; Fort 
                             Cabedello 19 Dec 1634 – 1654; Penedo Mar 1637 – 18 Sep 1645, Nov
                             1646 – Apr 1647; Porto Calvo Mar 1635 – Jul 1635, 24 Jul 1635 –
                             Jan 1636,  Mar 1637 – 17 Sep 1645; Itaparica Feb 1647 - 14 Dec
                             1647).
28 Jan 1654                Portuguese re-take Recife ending New Holland.
 6 Aug 1661                By Treaty of The Hague, the Dutch recognize Portuguese sovereignty
                             over former New Holland in exchange for an indemnity.

Governors
16 Feb 1630 –  5 May 1630  Hendrik Corneliszoon Loncq         (b. 1558 - d. 1634) 
 5 May 1630 - 1632         Diederik van Waerdenburch
1632 –  1 Sep 1634         Councillors
                           - Mathias Jansen van Ceulen        (b. 1601 - d. 1648)
                           - Johann Gijsselingh
                           - Johannes de Bruyne
                           - Horatius Calandrini              (b. 1598 - d. 163.)
                           - Paulus Jansz. Serooskerken
        
 1 Sep 1634 - 23 Jan 1637  Sigismund van Schkoppe             (b. 1600 - d. 1670)
                           - Crestofle d'Artischau
                               Arciszewski (to 1656)          (b. 1592 - d. 1656)

                           - Willem Schotte

                           - Jacob Stachouwer
                           - Ippo Eyssens                     (d. 1636)

                           - Balthazar Wijntges 
                           - Servaes Carpentier (from 1656)   (b. 1599 - d. 1646)

23 Jan 1637 -  6 May 1644  Councillors
                           - Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen  (b. 1604 - d. 1679)
                             (president)
                           - Mathias Jansen van Ceulen
                           - Johann Gijsselingh
                           - Adriaen Jacobszoon van der Dussen(b. 1585 - d. 1642)    
 6 May 1644 - 18 Nov 1645  Councillors
                           - Hendrik Hamel                    (b. 1630 - d. 1692) 
                           - Pieter Jansen Bas 
                               (from 1644)
                           - Dirk Kodd van der Burgh          (d. 1644)

                               (to 1644)
                           - Adriaen van Bullestrate 
18 Nov 1645 - 28 Jan 1654  Councillors
                           - Walter van Schonenborch 
                              (president)
                           - Michiel van Goch (to 1653)       (b. 1603 - d. 1668)

                           - Simon van Beaumont               (b. 1574 - d. 1654)
                               (to 1649)
                           - Abraham Trouwels                 (d. 1646)
                               (to 1646)
                           - Hendrik Haecxs


Revolutionary and Secessionist Polities  1817 - 1904

Pernambuco
 

[Flag of the
                    Pernambucan Revolution (1817)]
     21 Mar 1817 - 20 May 1817
 

 7 Mar 1817                Republic of Pernambuco (sometimes called Pernambucan Republic)
                             proclaimed.
20 May 1817                Secession ended by military intervention of royal forces.

Governors
 7 Mar 1817 - 18 May 1817  Provisional government
                           - João Ribeiro Pessoa de Melo      (b. 1766 - d. 1817)
                               Montenegro 
                           - Domingos Teotônio Jorge Martins  (b. 1752 - d. 1817)
                               Pessoa 
                           - José Luís de Mendonça            (b. 1765 - d. 1817)
                           - Manuel Correia de Araújo
                           - Domingos José Martins            (b. 1781 - d. 1817)
Military and Civil Governors
18 May 1817 - 20 May 1817  Domingos Teotônio Jorge Martins    (s.a.)
                             Pessôa
20 May 1817 –  1 Jul 1817  Rodrigo José Ferreira Lobo         (b. 1782 - d. 1843)  



Confederação do Equador  (Confederation of the Equator)
 
[Flag of the
                    Equatorial Confederation]
            Jul 1824 - 29 Nov 1824
 
Note: This is an ambiguous enterprise. It is a reaction to the emperor's dissolving the Constituent Assembly of the Empire, and purports to have the "North" of Brazil rule itself. The declaration of "autonomy" or "secession" (interpretation is ambiguous) does not use the term Confederação do Equador, but this term does come into official use. The ambiguity is explicit in the draft Constitution, which does not mention Empire or emperor, and does mention a Secretary of the Interior and of Foreign Affairs, as well as the appointment of diplomatic representatives - a prime characteristic of sovereignty- yet does call the executive Supremo Govêrno Provincial [sic] da Confederação do Equador. The ambiguity of this and other dissidences is compounded by the fact that under the Empire the head of the government of each province is styled president. The entity was proclaimed 2 Jul 1824 by the president of the province of Pernambuco, Manuel de Carvalho Pais de Andrade (s.b.), who then headed the entire entity, which incorporated neighboring states in varying configuration. The armed forces of the Confederação capitulated to the imperial army on 29 Nov 1824.

 2 Jul 1824                Confederation of the Equator (Confederação do Equador)(at various
                             times including Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco,
                             and southern Ceara provinces) proclaimed.
29 Nov 1824                Armed forces of the Confederação capitulate to the 
                             imperial army.

President (styled Supremo Govêrno Provincial)
 2 Jul 1824 - 29 Nov 1824  Manuel de Carvalho Pais de Andrade (b. 1780 - d. 1855)



Revolucão do Cabanagem (Cabano Revolution)

Note: Local agitators in several Northern states in the 1830's were called cabanos. The term Cabanagem refers to one particular severe uprising in the province of Pará. It was definitely in defiance of the imperial government, but while it superseded the president of Pará province with a succession of cabanos (see below), that was the purported extent of its dissidence. The record does not suggest that the intent was to have Pará secede from the empire.

 7 Jan 1835                "Revolucao da Cabanagem" rebellion against imperial rule in
                             Pará province.
28 Jul 1835 - 1836         Imperial Authority Re-established.
1836                       Cabangem revolutionaries regain control of the province.
30 Oct 1836                Imperial Authority Re-established.

Cabanos
 7 Jan 1835 - 21 Feb 1835  Félix Antônio Clemente Malcher     (b. 1782 - d. 1835)
21 Feb 1835 - 28 Jul 1835  Francisco Pedro Vinagre            (b. 1793 - d. 1873)
28 Jul 1835 - 1836         Imperial authority reestablished
1836 - 30 Oct 1836         Eduardo Francisco Nogueira         (b. 1814 - d. 1882)
                             dito Angelim
30 Oct 1836                Imperial authority reestablished



Sabinada

[Sabinada Revolt,
                      1837-38 (Brazil)]
              Nov 1837 - 15 Mar 1838

 7 Nov 1837                  Unconditional independence of the province of Bahia
                               proclaimed.
 9 Nov 1837                  The proclamation is slightly modified by the adding of "until 
                               the majority of the Emperor" (the revolt being against 
                               the regency).
14 Mar 1838                  Bahia taken by Imperial troops.
15 Mar 1838                  Last rebels surrender.

Acting President
 7 Nov 1837 - 14 Mar 1838  João Carneiro da Silva Rego

Secretary of State (leader of the revolt)
 7 Nov 1837 - 14 Mar 1838  Francisco Sabino Álvares da Rocha  (b. 1796 - d. 1846)
                             Vieira 
                            (from 19 Jan 1838, Minister of Home and Foreign Affairs)



Rio Grande Republic
 
[Rio Grande
                    Republic, 1836-1846 (Brazil)]
            6 Nov 1836 - 28 Feb 1845
 
Map of Rio Grande Republic
Hear National Anthem
"Hino da República Rio-Grandense"
(A
nthem of the Republic
of
Rio Grande)
National Anthem Text
(1839-1845)
Constitution
(8 Feb 1843)
CapitalAlegrete
(Piratini 1836-1839; Caçapava do Sul 1839-1842; Alegrete 1842-1845)
Currency:
Rio Grande Real
(a.k.a. Piratini Real)
National Holiday:
6 Nov (1839)

Population: 260,000 (1851)

 6 Nov 1836                Rio Grande Republic (República Riograndense)(also called
                             the Republic of Piratini).
28 Feb 1845                Re-incorporation into Brazil.

Presidents
 6 Nov 1836 - 16 Dec 1837  José Gomes de Vasconcelos Jardim   (b. 1773 - d. 1854)
                             (1st time) 
16 Dec 1837 -  4 Aug 1843  Bento Gonçalves da Silva Pinto     (b. 1788 - d. 1847)
 4 Aug 1843 - 28 Feb 1845  José Gomes de Vasconcelos Jardim   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 



Santa Catarina

Catarina Republic,
                      1839-40 (Brazil)
           10 Sep 1839 - 15 Nov 1839
 
Capital: Laguna
Population: N/A

29 Jul 1839                Catarinan Republic (also called República Farroupilha and
                             República Juliana).
15 Nov 1839                Re-incorporation into Brazil.

President of the Municipal Chamber of São Antônio dos Anjos da Laguna
29 Jul 1839 - 28 Aug 1839  Vicente Francisco de Oliveira
Provisional Vice-President of the Republic
28 Aug 1839 - 15 Nov 1839  Vicente Ferreira dos Santos Cordeiro (b. 1782 - d. 1860)



Acre
 
Flag of the
                              Independent State of Acre, 1899-1900
                15 Jul 1899 - 25 Apr 1900
Flag of the
                              Third Acrean Republic, 1902-1903
                 7 Aug 1902 - 25 Feb 1904
Map of Acre Capital: Porto Acre Population: 65,000 (1908)

27 Mar 1867                Acre granted to Bolivia in the Treaty of Ayacucho.
14 Jul 1899                Independent State of Acre
                            (informally styled Republic of Acre).
25 Apr 1900                Re-incorporated into Bolivia.
 7 Aug 1902/15 Jan 1903    Independent State of Acre
13 May 1903                Occupied by Brazil.
31 Aug 1903                Independent State of Acre
17 Nov 1903                Acre purchased from Bolivia for two million pounds 
                             in the Treaty of Petrópolis (border demarcated 8 Sep 1909).
25 Feb 1904                Incorporated into Brazil.

Presidents of the Provisional Government
(colloquially styled President of the Republic)
14 Jul 1899 - 28 Dec 1899  Luís Galvez Rodrigues de Arias     (b. 1859 - d. 1946)
                             (1st time)
28 Dec 1899 - 28 Jan 1900  Antônio de Sousa Braga
28 Jan 1900 - 15 Mar 1900  Luís Galvez Rodrigues de Arias     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
15 Mar 1900 - 25 Apr 1900  Joaquim Vítor da Silva (acting)
15 Mar 1900 –  2 Dec 1900  Bolivian occupation 
 2 Dec 1900 – 24 Dec 1900  Rodrigo de Carvalho                (b. 1862 - d. 19..)
24 Dec 1900 – 26 Jan 1903  Bolivian occupation
Commander-in-Chief of the Acrean Army
 7 Aug 1902 - 15 Jan 1903  José Plácido de Castro             (b. 1873 - d. 1908)
Governors
15 Jan 1903 - 13 May 1903  José Plácido de Castro (1st time)  (s.a.)
13 May 1903 - 31 Aug 1903  Antonio Olympio da Silveira        (b. 1839 - d. 19..)
31 Aug 1903 - 25 Feb 1904  José Plácido de Castro (2nd time)  (s.a.)



Counani

[First Flag
                              of "Independent Guiana,"
                              1886-1887]
                 23 Oct 1886 - 1887

[Second Flag of
                              "Independent Guiana,"
                              1887-1891]
                       1887 - 1904

[Free State
                              of Counani, 1904-1912]
             1904 - 1912
 
Map of Counani Area Pro-French Capital: Counani
Pro-Brazilian Capital: Amapá
Population: N/A

18 Dec 1841                A region disputed between Brazil and French Guiana (present
                             Amapá state) is temporarily neutralized.
23 Jul 1886                The pro-French Republic of Independent Guiana proclaimed
                             (also called Republic of Counani).
 2 Sep 1887                Following Brazilian protests against this intrusion in the
                             neutral territory, French authorities terminate the republic.
10 Dec 1894                The pro-Brazilian Independent Territory of Amapá proclaimed
                             (also called Republic of Counani).
1895                       Following major military clash with the French the 
                             government of Independent Territory of Amapá disbanded.
 1 Dec 1900                Brazil and France having decided to submit the problem to
                             the president of Switzerland, the latter decides the area
                             belongs to Brazil.
25 Feb 1901                Incorporated into Brazil, part of the state of Pará; already
                             claimed by the state government since 21 Jan 1901.

Pro-French republic

Chief of the Captaincy
23 Jul 1886 - 1886         Trajano Benitez
Presidents (from 2 Sep 1887 in name only)
1886 - 1891                Jules Gros                         (b. 1829 - d. 1891)
1892 - 1894                Adolphe Brézet (1st time)
1894 - 1901                Albert Franken
1901 - 1911                Adolphe Brézet (2nd time)
                             (= Uayana Assu)
1911 - 19..                Jules Gros, Jr.

President of the Council of Ministers
1886 -  2 Sep 1887         Jean Ferréol Guigues               (b. 1838 - d. ....)

Pro-Brazilian territory

Chairmen of the Junta
10 Dec 1894 - 19 Feb 1895  Domingos Dias Maltez
19 Feb 1895 - 1895         Francisco Xavier da Veiga Cabral   (b. 1861 - d. 1905)
                             "O Cabralzino"

Chairman of the Provisional Government
10 Dec 1894 - 26 Dec 1894  Desidério Antônio Coelho  







© Ben Cahoon