World Statesmen.org HOME >

 








 

Portugal
 
[Portuguese flag of 1139-1185]
             1139 - 1185
 
[Portuguese flag of 1185]
             1185 - 1248
 
[Portuguese flag of 1248]
             1248 - 1385
 
[Portuguese flag of 1385 (This
                                    is the first confirmed flag for
                                    Portugal)]
             1385 - 1485
 
[Portuguese flag of 1485]
             1485 - 1495 
 
[1495-1578 flag of Portugal]
                     1495 - 1578
 
[1578-1640 flag of Portugal]
                      1578 - 1640
 
[1640-1667 flag of Portugal]
                     1640 - 1667 
 
[1667-1706 flag of Portugal]
                     1667 - 1706
 
[1706-1816, 1826-1830 flag of
                                    Portugal]
        1706 - 1816, 1826 - 18 Oct 1830
 
[1816-1826 flag of Portugal]
                13 May 1816 - 1826
 
[1830-1910 flag of Portugal]
            18 Oct 1830 - 4 Oct 1910
 
[Portugal]
  29 Nov 1910 - 19 Jun 1911 (provisional);
               Adopted 19 Jun 1911
 

 
 
Map of Portugal
Hear National Anthem
"A Portugesa"
(The Portuguese)
Adopted 5 Oct 1910
(approved 19 Jul 1911)
Former National Anthem
"Hino da Carta Constitucional"
(Hymn to the
Constitutional Charter)

(May 1834 - 5 Oct 1910)
--------------------------------------
Former National Anthem
"Hymno Patriótico"
(Patriotic Anthem)
(13 May 1809-May 1834)
Constitution
(25 Apr 1976)
---------------------------------
Former Constitution
(11 Apr 1933 - 25 Apr 1976)
 
Capital: Lisbon
(Coimbra 1139-1255;
Guimarães 1095-1139;
Oporto 886-1095)
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1911-1 Jan 2002 Portuguese
Escudo (PTE); 1835-1911 Portuguese Mil Reis (PTM);
1730-1835 Portuguese Reis (PTR)
National Holiday: 10 Jun (1580)
Portugal Day
Population: 10,799,270 (2013)
GDP: $243.3 billion (2013)
Exports: $61 billion (2013)
Imports: $59 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Portuguese 91.9%, mixed race people from
Angola, Cape Verde, and Mozambique 1.6%,
Brazilian 1.4%,
Marrano 1.2%, other European 1.2%,
Han Chinese 0.9%,
 other 1.8% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 43,330 (2010)
U.S. Forces in Azores: 1,141 (2012)

Merchant marine: 109 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%,
other 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BIS, BTWC, CCM, CE, CERN, CFE, CPLP, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD (signatory), ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), LU, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT (signatory), OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PA (observer), PAM, PCA, SEGIB, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO (withdrawing), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO,  ZC
Portugal Index
Chronology

714 - 798                  Muslim rule (Coimbra falls in 714, Lisbon in 716).
798 - 808                  Part of Galicia/Asturias kingdom (see under Spain).
808 - 1189                 Muslim rule, from 868 in the south only.
868                        County of Portugal (Condado de Portucale or Condado
                             Portucalense), within Galicia/
León.
878                        Coimbra is retaken (re-occupied by Muslims
                             987 - 9 Jul 1064).

1009 - 1094                Taifa of Badajoz (Ta'ifa al-Batalyaws) rules area
                             between Coimbra and North Alentejo (briefly
                             revived 1144-1151).

24 Jun 1128                At the Battle of São Mamede Portuguese forces led
                             by Afonso Henriques defeat forces led by his
                             mother Countess Teresa and her lover Fernão
                             Peres de Trava.
27 Jul 1139                Kingdom of Portugal (from 16 Feb 1267, frequently
                             in full: Kingdom
of Portugal and of the Algarve).
 5 Oct 1143                Independence recognized by Castile and León by
                             the Treaty of Zamora.
25 Oct 1147                Lisbon re-conquered by Portugal (Santarém taken
                             on 15 Mar 1147)
.
16 Feb 1267                Algarve ceded to Portugal by C
astile and León.
27 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Personal union with Spain.
 
1 Dec 1640                Independence restored; recognized by Spain from
                             13 Feb 1668.
30 Nov 1807 - 15 Sep 1808  Continental Portugal occupied by France; division
                             of Portugal according to 27 Oct 1807 Treaty of
                             Fontainebleau (into Kingdom of Northern
                             Lusitania, Portugal, and Kingdom of Algarve) is
                             not effected.
 
 1 Feb 1808 - 15 Sep 1808  Ruler and dynasty deposed in Portugal (but not in
                             Brazil, etc.), and state governed in the name 
                             of France.
29 Mar 1809 - 12 May 1809  Porto and northern Portugal occupied by France.
 
1 Oct 1810 -  5 Mar 1811  Coimbra and parts of Portugal occupied by France.
 3 Apr 1812 - 24 Apr 1812  Partially re-occupied by France.
16 Dec 1815                United Kingdom of Portugal, and of Brazil, and 
                             Algarves.
26 Feb 1821                United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarve.
 7 Sep 1822                Brazil declares independence.
 2 Jun 1823                United Kingdom of Portugal, and of Brazil, and 
                             Algarves.
13 May 1825                Kingdoms of Portugal and Algarves (separated de
                             jure
from Brazil).
 4 Apr 1838                Portuguese Nation
10 Feb 1842                Kingdom of Portugal
 5 Oct 1910                Portuguese Republic

Azores
Madeira
French & British
Interventions

(1807-1813)
Historical maps
of Portugal
 
 
 
 
 
 

Counts
(Spanish/Portuguese names with Latin in parentheses)

- Counts in Braga -
8.. - 93.                  Gonzalo Betótiz                    (b. 8.. – d. 93.)   
                             (
Gundisalvus Bettotiz)
93. - 959                  Pelayo González                    (b. 8.. – d. 959)
                             (
Pelagius Gundesalviz)
9.. - 950                  Hermenegildo González              (b. 8.. - d. 950)
                             (
Hermenegildus Gundesalvis)
950 - 997                  Gonçalo Mendes (or
Menéndez)       (b. 92. - d. 997)
                             (
Gundisalvus Menendiz)
- Counts in Porto (comes in Porto) - 
8.. – c.923                Lucídio Vimaranes
(Vimaraz)        (b. 86. – d. c.923)
                             (
Lucidius Vimaranis)
c.923 - 94.                Teoderico Lucídez                  (b. 88. – d. 94.)
                             (
Teodericus Lucidiiz)
9.. - 94.                  Rodrigo Lucídez                    (b. 88. – d. 94.)
                             (
Rudericus Lucidiiz)
9.. - 95.                  Alvito Lucídez (
Aloitus Lucidis)   (b. 88. – d. 95.)
95. - af.968               Lucídio Aloítez (
Lucidus Aloitis)  (b. 90. – d. af.968)
af.968 - 98.               Tello Aloítez (
Tellus Aloitis)     (b. 9.. – d. af.985?)
98. - 1008                 Alvito Núñez (
Aloitus Nuniis)      (b. 9.. – d. 1015/16)   
- Counts in Coimbra (comes in Coimbra)
878 -  91.                 Hermenegildo Gutiérrez             (b. 8.. – d. 91.)
                             (
Hermenegildus Gutieriz)
                            
(from c.899, styled Portugalae comes)
91. - c.923                Arias Menéndez (
Arias Menendiz)    (b. 8.. – d. c.923)
c.923 - 933                Gutierre Menéndez (
Gutier Menendiz)(b. 8.. – d. 933)    
933 – c.959                Munius Gutieriz (Munio Gutiérrez)  (b. 8.. – d. c.959)    
11 Mar 934 - 94.           Froila Gutiérrez -Co-ruler         (b. 8.. – d. af.943)
                             (
Froila Gutieriz)
c.959 - 987                Gutierre Muñoz (
Gutier Munioz)     (b. 9.. - d. c.999)
c.959 – Dec 966            Gonzalo Muñoz (
Gundisalvus Munioz) (b. 9.. – d. c.983)
Dec 966 - 978              Rodrigo Velásquez                  (b. 9.. – d. 978)
                             (Rudericus Velasquiz)
- Counts in
Portucale -
868 - 873                  Vimarano Pérez (or Vimara Peres)   (b. 8.. - d. 873)

                            
(Vimarus Petris)
873 - c.922                Lucídio Vimaranes                  (s.a.)

                             (Lucidius Vimaranis)

c.922 - 950                Menendo I Gonçalves                (s.a.)
                             (= Hermenegildo Gonçalves) 
                             (Menendus/Hermenegildus I Gundisalvuis)

950 - 997                  Gonçalo Mendes (or Menéndez)       (s.a.)       
                            
(Gundisalvus Menendis)
                             (from c.997 styled magnus dux portucalensium)
997 -  6 Oct 1008          Menendo II Gonçalves               (b. 945 - d. 1008)
                            
(Menendus II Gundisalvis)
1008 - 1015                Alvito Núñez (Aloitus Nuniis)      (s.a.)

1015 - 1028                Nuno I Alvitiz (Nunnus I Aloitis)  (b. 9.. - d. 1028)

1028 - 1052                Menendo III Núñez
                 (b. 100. - d. 1052)
                             (Menendus III Nuniis)    
1052 - 18 Jan 1071         Nuno II Menéndez                   (b. 102. - d. 1071)
                            
(Nunnus II Menendis)
18 Jan 1071 - 25 Aug 1091  Sisnando Davidiz                   (b. 104. - d. 1091)
                            
(Sisinandus Davidis)
25 Aug 1091 -  5 May 1093  Martim Moniz (Martinus Monis)      (b. 106. - d. 1094?)
 
5 May 1093 -  1 Oct 1107  Raimundo (Raimundus) (in Galicia)  (b. c.1070 - d. 1107) 
1095 - 24 Apr 1112         Henrique (Henricus)                (b. c.1070 - d. 1112)
                            
(= Henri de Bourgogne)
24 Apr 1112 - 24 Jun 1128  Teresa (Tarasia) -Countess         (b. c.1084 - d. 1130)

                            
(from Nov 1117 styled Regina)
24 Jun 1128 - 27 Jul 1139  Afonso Henriques                   (b. 1109? - d. 1185)

                             (Alfonsus Henriciz)
                             (from c.1137 styled Princeps)

Kings
¹ (Portuguese names with Latin in parentheses until 1296)
27 Jul 1139 -  6 Dec 1185  Afonso I "o Conquistador"          (s.a.)
                             "o Grande" (= Afonso Henriques)
                             (Alfonsus I)
 6 Dec 1185 - 26 Mar 1211  Sancho I "o Povoador"              (b. 1154 - d. 1211) 
                             (Sancius I)
26 Mar 1211 - 25 Mar 1223  Afonso II "o Gordo"                (b. 1185 - d. 1223) 
                             (Alfonsus II)
25 Mar 1223 -  4 Jan 1248  Sancho II "o Capelo"               (b. 1209? - d. 1248) 
                            
(Sancius II)
                             (declared deposed by Pope on 24 Jul 1246)
21 Sep 1245 -  4 Jan 1248  Afonso, conde de Boulogne -Regent  (b. 1210 - d. 1279)
 
4 Jan 1248 - 16 Feb 1279  Afonso III "o Restaurador"         (s.a.)
                             (Alfonsus III)(= conde de Boulogne)
16 Feb 1279 -  7 Jan 1325  Dinis "o Lavrador"                 (b. 1261 - d. 1325) 
                            
(Dionysius)
 7 Jan 1325 - 28 May 1357  Afonso IV "o Bravo"                (b. 1291 - d. 1357)
28 May 1357 - 18 Jan 1367  Pedro I "o Cruel", "o Justiceiro"  (b. 1320 - d. 1367) 
                            
(co-ruler from 5 Aug 1355)
18 Jan 1367 - 22 Oct 1383  Fernando I "o Formoso"             (b. 1345 - d. 1383) 
22 Oct 1383 -  6 Apr 1385  Beatriz -Queen                     (b. 1372 - d. af.1412)
22 Oct 1383 - 13 Jan 1384  Leonor Teles de Meneses (f)-Regent (b. c.1350 - d. 1386)
16 Dec 1383 -  6 Apr 1385  João de Avís -Regent               (b. 1357 - d. 1433)
 6 Apr 1385 - 14 Aug 1433  João I "o de Boa Memória"          (s.a.)
                            
(= João de Avís)
13 Jan 1384 - 14 Aug 1385  Juan de Castile (in rebellion)     (b. 1358 - d. 1390)
14 Aug 1433 -  9 Sep 1438  Duarte "o Eloqüente" (Eduarte)     (b. 1391 - d. 1438)
 9 Sep 1438 - 28 Aug 1481  Afonso V "o Africano"              (b. 1432 - d. 1481)
10 Sep 1438 - 31 Oct 1440  Leonor de Aragão -Regent           (b. 1405 - d. 1445)
 
9 Sep 1438 - 11 Jul 1448  Pedro de Portual, conde de         (b. 1392 - d. 1449)
                             Coimbra -Regent 
28 Aug 1481 - 25 Oct 1495  João II "o Príncipe Perfeito"      (b. 1455 - d. 1495)
25 Oct 1495 - 13 Dec 1521  Manuel I "o Venturoso"             (b. 1469 - d. 1521)
13 Dec 1521 - 11 Jun 1557  João III "o Piedoso"               (b. 1502 - d. 1557)
11 Jun 1557 -  4 Aug 1578  Sebastião "o Desejado"             (b. 1554 - d. 1578)
11 Jun 1557 - 12 Dec 1562  Catarina de Austria (f) -Regent    (b. 1507 - d. 1578)
11 Jun 1557 - 20 Jan 1568  Cardenal Henrique, arcebispo       (b. 1512 - d. 1580)
                             de Lisboa -Regent

 4 Aug 1578 - 24 Aug 1578  Governors of the kingdom 
                           - Jorge de Almeida, arcebispo de   (b. 1531 - d. 1585)
                               Lisboa
                           - Pedro de Alcáçova Carneiro       (b. c.1510 - d. 15..)
                           - Francisco de Sá e Meneses e de   (b. 1523 - d. 1584)
                               Noronha
, senhor de Sever e de
                               Matosinhos
                           - João de Mascarenhas              (b. 151. - d. 1580)
24 Aug 1578 - 31 Jan 1580  Henrique "o Castro"                (s.a.)
                             (= Cardenal Henrique)
                             (governor to 28 Aug 1578)
31 Jan 1580 – 17 Jul 1580  Governors and Defenders of the kingdom 
                           -
Jorge de Almeida, arcebispo de   (s.a.)
                             
 Lisboa
                           - Francisco de Sá e Meneses e de   (s.a.)
                               Noronha, senhor de Sever e de
                               Matosinhos

                           - João Telo
de Meneses
                           - João de Mascarenhas              (s.a.)
                           - Diogo Lopes de Sousa, senhor     (b. 151. - d. 1580)
                               de Oliveira do Bairro 

17 Jul 1580 - 13 Sep 1598  Filipe I (Felipe II of Spain)      (b. 1527 - d. 1589)
19 Jun 1580 - 11 Aug 1583  António I "Prior do Crato"         (b. 1531 - d. 1595)
                             (in dissidence, mostly in the Azores)
13 Sep 1598 - 31 Mar 1621  Filipe II (Felipe III of Spain)    (b. 1578 - d. 1621)
31 Mar 1621 -  1 Dec 1640  Filipe III (Felipe IV of Spain)    (b. 1605 - d. 1665)
 1 Dec 1640 - 15 Dec 1640  Governors of the kingdom 
                           - Rodrigo da Cunha e da Silva,     (b. 1577 - d. 1643)
                               arcebispo de Lisboa 
                           - Sebastião de Matos de Noronha,   (b. 1586 - d. 1641)
                               arcebispo de Braga 
                           - Lourenço de Lima Brito Nogueira, (b. c.1575 - d. 164.)
                               visconde de Vila Nova de Cerveira
15 Dec 1640 -  6 Nov 1656  João IV "o Restaurador"            (b. 1604 - d. 1656)
 6 Nov 1656 - 12 Sep 1683  Afonso VI "o Vitorioso"            (b. 1643 - d. 1683)
 6 Nov 1656 - 23 Jun 1662  Luísa Francisca de                 (b. 1613 - d. 1666)
                             Gusmão (f) -Regent
23 Nov 1667 - 12 Sep 1683  Pedro, duque de Bragança -Regent   (b. 1648 - d. 1706)
12 Sep 1683 -  9 Dec 1706  Pedro II "o Pacífico"              (s.a.)
 9 Dec 1706 - 31 Jul 1750  João V "o Magnânimo"               (b. 1689 - d. 1750)
31 Jul 1750 - 24 Feb 1777  José I "o Reformador"              (b. 1714 - d. 1777)
29 Nov 1776 - 24 Feb 1777  Maria Ana Vitória de               (b. 1718 - d. 1781) 
                             Bourbon (f) -Regent 
24 Feb 1777 - 20 Mar 1816  Maria I "a Piedosa" -Queen         (b. 1734 - d. 1816)
                           (left Portugal 27 Nov 1807; arrived in Brazil 7 Mar 1808)
                           - jointly with -
24 Feb 1777 - 25 May 1786  Pedro III (king-consort)           (b. 1717 - d. 1786)
15 Jul 1799 - 20 Mar 1816  Príncipe João de Bragança -Regent  (b. 1767 - d. 1826)
                            (regent for incapacitated Maria I 15 Jul 1799 - 20 Mar 1816;
                            left Portugal 27 Nov 1807; arrived in Brazil 7 Mar 1808
)

Presidents of the Regency of the Kingdom
27 Nov 1807 -  1 Feb 1808  Pedro de Lencastre de Silveira     (b. 1762 - d. 1828)
                             Castelo Branco Sá de Meneses,
                             marquês de Abrantes
 
1 Feb 1808 - 15 Sep 1808  Jean-Andoche Junot, duc            (b. 1771 - d. 1813)  Mil
                             d'Abrantès
                            (Agent Exercising French Authority²)
 8 Jun 1808 - 12 Sep 1814  António de São José e Castro,      (b. 1745 - d. 1814)
                             bispo de Porto
                            (president of provisional Supreme Governing Junta of
                             Kingdom [in opposition to French to 15 Sep 1808])
12 Sep 1814 - 1817        
Francisco da Cunha de Mendonça     (b. 1761 - d. 1821)
                             e Meneses, marquês de Olhão
1817 - 15 Sep 1820         Fernando Maria de Sousa Coutinho   (b. 1776 - d. 1834)
                             Castelo Branco e Meneses,
                            
marquês de Borba
King¹
20 Mar 1816 - 10 Mar 1826  João VI "o Clemente"               (s.a.)
                            (ruling from Brazil to 4 Jun 1821; 13 May 1825, 
                             resigns rights to Brazilian throne) 
24 Aug 1820 -  1 Oct 1820  António da Silveira Pinto da       (b. 1770 - d. 1858)  Lib
                             Fonseca Coelho, visconde de
                             Canelas -Regent
(in rebellion in Porto)
                            (
president of Provisional Supreme Governing Junta of Kingdom)
27 Sep 1820 - 30 Jan 1821  Gomes Freire de Andrade e
         (b. 1761 - d. 1831)  Lib
                             Forjaz -Regent
                            
(president of the Interim Government to 1 Oct 1820,
                             then president of Provisional Governing Junta of Kingdom)

30 Jan 1820 -  4 Jul 1821  Afonso Vasconcelos e Sousa,        (b. 1783 - d. 1827)  Lib
                             marquês de Castelo Melhor -Regent
                            (president of the Council of Regency)

10 Mar 1826 - 26 Feb 1828  Isabel Maria de Bragança e         (b. 1801 - d. 1876)
                             Bourbon (f) -Regent    
                            (president of the Council of Regency)
10 Mar 1826 -  3 Mar 1828  Pedro IV "o Libertador"            (b. 1798 - d. 1834)
                            (regent for Maria II 26 Feb - 7 Jul 1828 
                             and 15 Mar 1830 - 20 Sep 1834)
Queen¹ 
26 Feb 1828 -  7 Jul 1828  Maria II da Glória (1st time)      (b. 1819 - d. 1853)
19 May 1828 - 20 May 1828  Duarte Guilherme Ferreri de Gusmão (b. 1778 - d. 1844)  Mil
                             (president of the Military Council)
20 May 1828 -  1 Jul 1828  António Hipólito da Costa e        (b. 1756 - d. 1839)  Mil
                             Macahdo, visconde de Alhos Vedros
                            (c
hairmen of the Provisional Junta [in rebellion in Porto])
King¹
  7 Jul 1828 - 26 May 1834  Miguel I "o Rei Absoluto"          (b. 1802 - d. 1866)
                            (regent for Pedro IV 26 Feb 1828 - 3 Mar 1828 
                             and for Maria II 3 - 7 Jul 1828)
15 Mar 1830 -  3 Mar 1832  Pedro de Sousa Holstein, marquês   (b. 1781 - d. 1850)  Lib
                             e conde de Palmela 
                            (president of Council of Regency [in rebellion in Azores])
Queen
¹ 

26 May 1834 - 15 Nov 1853  Maria II da Glória (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                            (beginning in rebellion in the Azores
                             and parts of Portugal 15 Mar 1830)
Kings¹
15 Nov 1853 - 11 Nov 1861  Pedro V "o Esperançoso"            (b. 1837 - d. 1861)
19 Dec 1853 - 16 Sep 1855  Fernando II                        (b. 1816 - d. 1885)
                            (titular king, regent for Pedro V)
11 Nov 1861 - 19 Oct 1889  Luís I "o Popular"                 (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
19 Oct 1889 -  1 Feb 1908³ Carlos I "o Diplomata"             (b. 1863 - d. 1908)
 1 Feb 1908 -  5 Oct 1910  Manuel II "o Patriota"             (b. 1889 - d. 1932)
Presidents
 5 Oct 1910 - 24 Aug 1911  Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga    (b. 1843 - d. 1924)  PRP
                             (1st time)
                             (president of Provisional Government)
24 Aug 1911 - 29 May 1915  Manuel José de Arriaga Brum da     (b. 1840 - d. 1917)  PRP
                             Silveira
29 May 1915 -  5 Oct 1915  Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga    (s.a.)               PRP
                             (2nd time) 
 5 Oct 1915 - 11 Dec 1917  Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães  (b. 1851 - d. 1944)  PRP
                             (1st time)
11 Dec 1917 - 14 Dec 1918  Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da      (b. 1872 - d. 1918) Mil;12-12-17
                             Silva Pais                                            PNR
                            (president of Revolutionary Junta 8-27 Dec 1917;
                             acting president 27 Dec 1917 - 9 May 1918)
15 Dec 1918 -  5 Oct 1919  João de Canto e Castro Silva       (b. 1862 - d. 1934)  PNR
                             Antunes (acting to 16 Dec 1918)
19 Jan 1919 - 13 Feb 1919  Henrique Mitchell de Paiva         (b. 1861 - d. 1944)  Mil/Mon
                             Couceiro 
                             (chairman of the Provisional Junta of the Kingdom of Portugal
                             [in the name of Manuel II], in Porto and much of the North)
 5 Oct 1919 -  5 Oct 1923  António José de Almeida            (b. 1866 - d. 1929)  PRE
 5 Oct 1923 - 11 Dec 1925  Manuel Teixeira Gomes              (b. 1860 - d. 1941)  PRP
11 Dec 1925 - 31 May 1926  Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães  (s.a.)               PRP
                             (2nd time) 
31 May 1926 - 17 Jun 1926  José Mendes Cabeçadas Júnior       (b. 1883 - d. 1965)  Mil
                             (acting)
17 Jun 1926 -  9 Jul 1926  Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa  (b. 1863 - d. 1929)  Mil
                             (acting)
 9 Jul 1926 - 15 Apr 1935  António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona   (b. 1869 - d. 1951)  Mil;1930 UN
                             (1st time)(interim to 15 Apr 1928)
 3 Feb 1927 -  7 Feb 1927  Gastão de Sousa Dias               (b. 1864 - d. 1934)  Mil
                             (chairman of the Junta; in rebellion in Oporto)
15 Apr 1935 - 26 Apr 1935  António de Oliveira Salazar        (b. 1889 - d. 1970)  UN
                             (1st time) (acting) 
26 Apr 1935 - 18 Apr 1951  António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona   (s.a.)               UN
                             (2nd time)
18 Apr 1951 -  9 Aug 1951  António de Oliveira Salazar        (s.a.)               UN 
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 9 Aug 1951 -  9 Aug 1958  Francisco Higino Craveiro Lópes    (b. 1894 - d. 1964)  UN
 9 Aug 1958 - 25 Apr 1974  Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás    (b. 1894 - d. 1987)  UN;1970 ANP
25 Apr 1974 - 30 Sep 1974  António Sebastião Ribeiro de       (b. 1910 - d. 1996)  Mil/MFA
                             Spínola 
                             (presidentof Junta of National Salvation to 15 May 1974) 
30 Sep 1974 - 14 Jul 1976  Francisco da Costa Gomes           (b. 1914 - d. 2001)  Mil/MFA
14 Jul 1976 -  9 Mar 1986  António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes   (b. 1935)            Non-party
 9 Mar 1986 -  9 Mar 1996  Mário Alberto Nobre Lópes Soares   (b. 1924)            PS
 9 Mar 1996 -  9 Mar 2006  Jorge Fernando Branco de Sampaio   (b. 1939)            PS
 9 Mar 2006 -              Aníbal António Cavaco Silva        (b. 1939)            PSD
 

Spanish Viceroys (vice-reis de Portugal)
18 Jul 1580 - 11 Dec 1582  Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y       (b. 1507 - d. 1582)
                             Pimentel, duque d'Alba
11 Feb 1583 -  5 Jul 1593  Alberto de Áustria,                (b. 1559 - d. 1621)
                             Arquiduque de Áustria
 5 Jul 1593 - 1598         Government Junta
                           - Miguel de Castro, arcebispo de   (b. 1536 - d. 1625)
                               Lisboa (chairman of the Junta)
                           - João da Silva, conde de
                               Portalegre
                           - Francisco Mascarenhas, conde     (b. c.1530 - d. 1608)
                               de Vila da Horta 
                           - Duarte de Castelo Branco,
                               conde de Sabugal
                           - Miguel de Moura                  (b. 1538 - d. 1600)
1598 - 29 Jan 1600         Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y      (b. 1553 - d. 1625)
                             Rojas, marqués de Denia y
                             duque de Lerma
29 Jan 1600 - 1603         Cristóvão de Moura e Távora,       (b. 1538 - d. 1613)
                             marqués de Castelo Rodrigo
                             (1st time)
1603                       Afonso de Castelo Branco, bispo    (b. 1522 - d. 1615)
                             de Coimbra e conde de Arganil
                             (1st time)(acting)
1603                       Cristóvão de Moura e Távora,       (s.a.)
                             marqués de Castelo Rodrigo
                             (2nd time)
1603 - 24 May 1605         Afonso de Castelo Branco, bispo    (s.a.)
                             de Coimbra e conde de Arganil
                             (2nd time)(acting)
24 May 1605 - Feb 1608     Pedro de Castilho, bispo de        (d. 1613)
                             Leiria (1st time)
Feb 1608 - 1612            Cristóvão de Moura e Távora,       (s.a.)
                             marqués de Castel Rodrigo
                             (3rd time)
1612                       Pedro de Castilho, bispo de        (s.a.)
                             Leiria (2nd time)
1612 - 1615                Frei Aleixo de Meneses,            (b. 1559 - d. 1617)
                             arcebispo de Braga
1615 - 10 May 1619         Miguel de Castro, arcebispo        (s.a.)
                             de Lisboa 
10 May 1619 -  1 Sep 1621  Diogo de Silva e Mendonça,         (b. 1654 - d. 1630)
                             conde de Salinas, marqués de
                             Alenquer 
 1 Sep 1621 - 30 Aug 1623  Government Junta
                           - Martim Alonso de Mexia,          (d. 1623)
                               bispo de Coimbra 
                               (President of the Junta)
                           - Diogo de Castro, conde de Basto
                           - Nuno Álvares Pereira Colon y     (d. 1622)
                               Portugal, duque de Veragua    
                               (to 1622)
30 Aug 1623 - 1631         Government Junta
                           - Diogo de Castro, conde de Basto
                               (President of the Junta)
                           - Afonso Furtado de Mendonça,      (b. 1561 - d. 1630)
                               bispo de Coimbra e conde de
                               Arganil
                           - Diogo da Silva, conde de         (d. 1640)
                               Portalegre
1631 - Mar 1632            Government Junta
                           - António de Ataíde, conde da      (b. c.1567 - d. 1647)
                               Castanheira e conde de Castro
                               Daire
(President of the Junta) 
                           - Nuno de Mendonça, conde de Vale  (b. c.1560 - d. 1632?) 
                               de Reis
Mar 1632 - 12 May 1633     Nuno de Mendonça, conde de Vale    (s.a.) 
                             de Reis
12 May 1633 -  4 Jul 1633  João Manuel de Ataíde, arcebispo   (b. 1570 - d. 1633)
                             de Lisboa                       
1633 - 1634                Diogo de Castro, conde de Basto    (b. c.1560 - d. 16..) 
23 Dec 1634 -  1 Dec 1640  Margarida de Sabóia, duquesa       (b. 1589 - d. 1656)
                             de Mântua e Montferrat (f)
Secretaries of State (title Secretário de Estado)
1635 -  1 Dec 1640         Miguel de Vasconcelos              (b. 1600 - d. 1640)
1640 - 1642                Francisco de Lucena                (b. c.1578 - d. 1643)
1642 - 1656                Pedro Vieira da Silva
1656 - 1662                Gaspar de Faria Severim
12 Jul 1662 -  9 Sep 1667  Luís de Vasconcelos e Sousa,       (b. 1636 - d. 1720)
                             conde de Castelo Melhor
1677 - 24 Jun 1706         Roque Monteiro Paim                (b. 1643 - d. 1706)
24 Jun 1706 -  9 May 1736  Diogo de Mendonça Côrte Real
       (b. 1658 - d. 1736)
                             (acting to 27 Apr 1707)
 9 May 1736 - 28 Jul 1736  João da Motta e Silva Cardeal da   (b. 1685 - d. 1747)
                             Motta (acting)  
Principal ministers
(title Ministro e Secretário de Estado dos Negócios do Reino)
28 Jul 1736 - 11 Sep 1755  Pedro da Motta e Silva             (b. 1681? - d. 1755)

11 Nov 1755 -  4 Mar 1777  Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo  (b. 1699 - d. 1782)
                             conde de Oeiras, marquês de Pombal
                             (acting to 5 May 1756)
11 Nov 1755 -  5 May 1756  Diogo de Mendonça Côrte Real       (b. 1696? - d. 17..)
                             (acting for
marquês de Pombal)
 4 Mar 1777 - 14 Mar 1777  Pedro José de Noronha e de Meneses,(b. 1716 - d. 1788)
                             m
arquês de Angeja
14 Mar 1777
- 15 Dec 1788  Tomás Xavier Teles da Silva,       (b. 1727 - d. 1800)
                             visconde de Vila Nova de Cerveira
15 Dec 1788 -  6 Jan 1801  José Seabra da Silva               (b. 1732 - d. 1813)
 
6 Jan 1801 - 14 Apr 1804  Luís Pinto de Sousa Coutinho e de  (b. 1735 - d. 1804)
                             Sá Coutinho, visconde de Balsemão
15 Apr 1804 - 18 Nov 1806  Diogo José António de Noronha,     (b. 1747 - d. 1806)
                             conde de Vila Verde
18 Nov 1806 - 26 Nov 1807  António d'Araújo e Azevedo,        (b. 1754 - d. 1817)
                             conde da Barca 
26 Nov 1807 - 20 Sep 1808  Miguel Pereira Forjaz Coutinho     (b. 1769 - d. 1827)
                             Barreto de Sá e Resende,
                             
conde de Feira (acting)
26 Sep 1808 - 25 Oct 1810  Cipriano Ribeiro Freire (acting)   (b. 1749 - d. 1824)
Principal ministers (title Ministro e Secretário de Estado dos Negócios do Reino)

(in Rio de Janeiro, B
razil until 23 Dec 1820)
10 Mar 1808 - 24 Jan 1817  Fernando José de Portugal e        (b. 1752 - d. 1817) 
                             Castro, (from 17 Dec 1808) conde  
                             (from 17 Dec 1813 e marquês) de
                             Aguiar
24 Jan 1817 - 21 Jun 1817  António de Araújo de Azevedo,      (b. 1754 - d. 1817)
                             conde da Barca 
23 Jun 1817 - 29 Nov 1817  João Paulo Bezerra de Seixas       (b. 1756 - d. 1817) 
29 Nov 1817 - 26 Feb 1821  Tomás António de Vila-Nova Portugal(b. 1755 - d. 1839)  Con
Principal ministers (title Ministro e Secretário de Estado dos Negócios do Reino
26 Feb 1821 -  5 Jul 1821  Inácio da Costa Quintela           (b. 1763 - d. 1838)  Mil
 5 Jul 1821 -  7 Sep 1821  Silvestre Pinheiro Ferreira        (b. 1769 - d. 1846)  Lib
 7 Sep 1821 - 29 May 1823  Filippe Ferreira de Araújo e Castro(b. 1771 - d. 1849)  Lib
29 May 1823 -  1 Jun 1823  José António Faria de Carvalho     (b. 177. - d. 1840)  Con
 
1 Jun 1823 - 19 Mar 1824  Joaquim Pedro Gomes de Oliveira    (b. 1762 - d. 1833)  Con
19 Mar 1824 - 14 May 1824  José António de Oliveira Leite de  (b. 1749 - d. 1833)  Con
                             Barros e do Valle
14 May 1824 - 15 Jan 1825  Pedro de Sousa Holstein, marquês   (s.a.)               Lib 
                             e conde de Palmela 
15 Jan 1825 -  1 Aug 1826  José Joaquim de Almeida Araújo e  
                             Correia de Lacerda
 1 Aug 1826 -  6 Dec 1826  Francisco Manuel Trigoso de        (b. 1777 - d. 1838)  Lib 
                             Aragão e Morato 
 6 Dec 1826 - 16 Dec 1826  Luís Manuel de Moura Cabral        (b. 1763 - d. 1846)  Lib
                            
(interim)
16 Dec 1826 -  8 Jun 1827  Francisco Alexandre Lobo,          (b. 1763 - d. 1844)  Lib
                             bispo de Viseu 
 8 Jun 1827 -  7 Sep 1827  Manuel Francisco de Barros da      (b. 1791 - d. 1856)  Lib
                             Mesquita de Macedo Leitão
                             e Xavier Procille, visconde
                             de Santarém
 7 Sep 1827 - 26 Feb 1828  Carlos Honório de Gouveia Durão    (b. 1766 - d. 1846)  Lib

Pricipal ministers (
title Ministro Assistente ao Despacho)(Miguelist regime)
26 Feb 1828 -  1 Jul 1831  Nuno Caetano Álvares Pereira de    (b. 1799 - d. 1837)  Con
                             Melo e de Montmorency-Luxembourg,
                             duque de Cadaval 
 1 Jul 1831 -  4 Aug 1833  José António de Oliveira Leite de  (s.a.)               Con
                             Barros e do Valle, conde de Basto 
 
4 Aug 1833 - 26 May 1834  António José Guião                                      Con
Pricipal ministers (title Ministro e Secretário de Estado dos Negócios do Reino)
(Liberal regime in Azores exile until 24 Jul 1833)
20 May 1828 -  1 Jul 1828  António Hipólito da Costa e        (s.a.)               Mil
                             Machado, visconde de Alhos Vedros 
                             (chairman of the Provisional Junta
                             [in rebellion in Porto])
15 Jun 1829 - 15 Mar 1830  
Pedro de Sousa Holstein, marquês e (s.a.)               Lib
                             conde de Palmela (1st time) 
15 Mar 1830 -  2 Jul 1831  Luís da Silva Mouzinho de          (b. 1792 - d. 1846)  Lib
                             Albuquerque (1st time)
 2 Jul 1831 - 10 Oct 1831  José António Ferreira Brak-Lamy    (b. 1781 - d. 1847)  Lib
10 Oct 1831 -  3 Mar 1832  José Dionísio da Serra             (b. 1772 - d. 1836)  Lib
 3 Mar 1832 - 29 Jul 1832  
Pedro de Sousa Holstein, marquês e (s.a.)               Lib
                             conde de Palmela (2nd time) 
29 Jul 1832 - 25 Sep 1832  Luís da Silva Mouzinho de  (s.a.)                       Lib
                             Albuquerqu
e (2nd time)
25 Sep 1832 - 10 Nov 1832  Pedro de Sousa Holstein, marquês e (s.a.)               Lib
                             conde de Palmela (3rd time) 
10 Nov 1832 - 18 Nov 1832  Luís da Silva Mouzinho de          (s.a.)               Lib
                             Albuquerque (3rd time)
18 Nov 1832 - 12 Jan 1833  Bernardo da Sá Nogueira de         (b. 1795 - d. 1876)  Rad
                             Figueiredo, barão de Sá da 
                             Bandeira
(interim)
12 Jan 1833 - 26 Mar 1833  Cândido José Xavier Dias da        (b. 1769 - d. 1833)  Lib
                             Silva (1st time)
26 Mar 1833 - 21 Apr 1833  Luís da Silva Mouzinho d
e          (s.a.)               Lib
                             Albuquerque (4th time)
21 Apr 1833 - 15 Oct 1833  Cândido José Xavier Dias da        (s.a.)               Lib
                             Silva (2nd time)
15 Oct 1833 - 23 Apr 1834  Joaquim António de Aguiar e Ribeiro(b. 1792 - d. 1874)  Lib
23 Apr 1834 - 24 Sep 1834  Bento Pereira do Carmo e da Costa  (b. 1776 - d. 1845)  Lib
Prime ministers (title President of the Ministry; 11 Apr 1933 - 15 May 1974, President
of the Council of Ministers; from 15 May 1974, Prime minister)

24 Sep 1834 -  4 May 1835  Pedro de Sousa Holstein, duque,    (s.a.)               Lib
                             marquês e conde de Palmela
                             (1st time)

 4 May
1835 - 27 May 1835  Victório de Sousa Coutinho,        (b. 1790 - d. 1857)  Lib
                             conde de Linhares
27 May 1835 - 18 Nov 1835  João Carlos Gregório Domingues     (b. 1790 - d. 1876)  Lib
                             Vicente Francisco de Saldanha
                             Oliveira e Daun, marquês e 
                             conde de Saldanha (1st time) 
18 Nov 1835 - 20 Apr 1836  José Jorge Loureiro                (b. 1791 - d. 1860)  Lib
20 Apr 1836 - 10 Sep 1836  António José de Sousa Manuel e     (b. 1792 - d. 1860)  Lib
                             Meneses Severim de Noronha, duque
                             de Terceira, marquês e 
                             conde de Vila-Flor (1st time)
10 Sep 1836 -  4 Nov 1836  José Manuel Ignácio da Cunha e     (b. 1788 - d. 1849)  Rad
                             Meneses Portugal da Gama e  
                             Vascondelos Carneiro de Sousa
                             e Faro, conde de Lumiares
 4 Nov 1836 -  5 Nov 1836  José Bernardino de Portugal e      (b. 1780 - d. 1840)  Lib
                             Castro e Teles da Silva, marquês
                             de Valença,
conde de Vimioso 
 5 Nov 1836 -  1 Jun 1837  Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de         (b. 1795 - d. 1876)  Rad
                             Figueiredo, visconde e barão de 
                             Sá da Bandeira (1st time)
 
1 Jun 1837 - 10 Aug 1837  António Dias de Oliveira           (b. 1804 - d. 1863)  Rad
10 Aug 1837 - 17 Apr 1839  Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de         (s.a.)               Rad
                             Figueiredo, visconde e barão de 
                             Sá da Bandeira (2nd time) 
17 Apr 1839 - 26 Nov 1839  Rodrigo Pinto Pimentel de Almeida  (b. 1788 - d. 1841)  Rad
                             Carvalhaes e da Nóbrega Cão
                             Pizarro, barão da Ribeira de
                             Sabrosa 
26 Nov 1839 -  9 Jun 1841  José Lúcio Trávassos Valdez,       (b. 1787 - d. 1862)  Rad
                             conde e barão de Bonfim 
 9 Jun 1841 -  7 Feb 1842  Joaquim António de Aguiar e Ribero (b. 1792 - d. 1884)  Rad
                             (1st time) 
 7 Feb 1842 -  9 Feb 1842  Pedro de Sousa Holstein, duque,    (s.a.)               Lib
                             marquês e conde de Palmela
                             (2nd time) 
 9 Feb 1842 - 20 May 1846  António José de Sousa Manuel e     (s.a.)               Lib
                             Meneses Severim de Noronha, duque
                             de Terceira, marquês e 
                             conde de Vila-Flor (2nd time)
20 May 1846 -  6 Oct 1846  Pedro de Sousa Holstein, duque,    (s.a.)               Lib
                             marquês e conde de Palmela
                             (3rd time)
 6 Oct 1846 - 18 Jun 1849  João Carlos Gregório Domingues     (s.a.)               Lib
                             Vicente Francisco de Saldanha
                             Oliveira e Daun, duque (from 4 Nov
                             1847), marquês e conde de Saldanha
                             (2nd time)
18 Jun 1849 - 26 Apr 1851  António Bernardo da Costa Cabral,  (b. 1803 - d. 1889)  Lib
                             conde de Tomar 
26 Apr 1851 -  1 May 1851  António José de Sousa Manuel e     (s.a.)               Lib
                             Meneses Severim de Noronha, duque
                             de Terceira, marquês e conde 
                             de Vila-Flor (3rd time) 
 1 May 1851 -  6 Jun 1856  João Carlos Gregório Domingues     (s.a.)               PR
                             Vicente Francisco de Saldanha
                             Oliveira e Daun, duque, marquês
                             e conde de Saldanha (3rd time)
 6 Jun 1856 - 17 Mar 1859  Nuno José Severo de Mendoça Rolim  (b. 1804 - d. 1875)  Hist
                             de Moura Barreto, marquês de Loulé,
                             conde de Vale de Reis (1st time)
17 Mar 1859 - 26 Apr 1860  António José de Sousa Manuel e     (s.a.)               PR
                             Meneses Severim de Noronha, duque
                             de Terceira, marquês e conde
                             de Vila-Flor (4th time)
26 Apr 1860 -  1 May 1860  António Maria de Fontes Pereira    (b. 1819 - d. 1887)  PR
                             de Melo (1st time)(acting)  
 1 May 1860 -  4 Jul 1860  Joaquim António de Aguiar e Ribero (s.a.)               PR
                             (2nd time) 
 4 Jul 1860 - 17 Apr 1865  Nuno José Severo de Mendoça Rolim  (s.a.)               Hist
                             de Moura Barreto, duque (from
                             3 Oct 1862) e marquês de Loulé,
                             conde de Vale de Reis (2nd time)
17 Apr 1865 -  4 Sep 1865  Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de         (s.a.)               Hist
                             Figueiredo, visconde e barão de 
                             Sá da Bandeira (3rd time)
 4 Sep 1865 -  4 Jan 1868  Joaquim António de Aguiar          (s.a.)               PR
                             (3rd time) 
 4 Jan 1868 - 22 Jul 1868  António José de Ávila,             (b. 1806 - d. 1881)  Ref
                             conde de Ávila (1st time) 
22 Jul 1868 - 11 Aug 1869  Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de         (s.a.)               Ref
                             Figueiredo, visconde e barão de
                             Sá da Bandeira (4th time) 
11 Aug 1869 - 26 May 1870  Nuno José Severo de Mendoça Rolim  (s.a.)               Hist
                             de Moura Barreto, duque e marquês
                             de Loulé, conde de Vale de Reis
                             (3rd time) 
26 May 1870 - 30 Aug 1870  João Carlos Gregório Domingues     (s.a.)               PR
                             Vicente Francisco de Saldanha
                             Oliveira e Daun, duque, marquês
                             e conde de Saldanha (4th time) 
30 Aug 1870 - 31 Oct 1870  Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de         (s.a.)               Ref
                             Figueiredo, visconde e barão de
                             Sá da Bandeira (5th time) 
31 Oct 1870 - 13 Sep 1871  António José de Ávila,             (s.a.)               Ref
                             marquês de Ávila e Bolama, 
                             conde de Ávila (2nd time) 
13 Sep 1871 -  5 Mar 1877  António Maria de Fontes Pereira    (s.a.)               PR
                             de Melo (2nd time) 
 5 Mar 1877 - 29 Jan 1878  António José de Ávila,             (s.a.)               Ref
                             marquês de Ávila e Bolama,
                             conde de Ávila (3rd time) 
29 Jan 1878 -  1 Jun 1879  António Maria de Fontes Pereira    (s.a.)               PR
                             de Melo (3rd time) 
 
1 Jun 1879 - 25 Mar 1881  Anselmo José Braamcamp e Almeida   (b. 1819 - d. 1885)  PP
                            
Castello Branco
25 Mar 1881 - 14 Nov 1881  António Rodrigues Sampaio e de     (b. 1806 - d. 1882)  PR
                            
Amorim
14 Nov 1881 - 20 Feb 1886  António Maria de Fontes Pereira    (s.a.)               PR
                             de Melo (3rd time)
20 Feb 1886 - 14 Jan 1890  José Luciano de Castro Pereira     (b. 1834 - d. 1914)  PP
                             Côrte-Real (1st time) 
14 Jan 1890 - 13 Oct 1890  António de Serpa Pimentel          (b. 1825 - d. 1900)  PR
13 Oct 1890 - 17 Jan 1892  João Crisóstomo de Abreu e Sousa   (b. 1811 - d. 1895)  Mil
17 Jan 1892 - 22 Feb 1893  José Dias Ferreira                 (b. 1837 - d. 1909)  Non-party
22 Feb 1893 -  7 Feb 1897  Ernesto Rodolfo Hintze Ribeiro     (b. 1849 - d. 1907)  PR
                             (1st time)
 7 Feb 1897 - 24 Jun 1900  José Luciano de Castro Pereira     (s.a.)               PP
                             Côrte-Real (2nd time)
24 Jun 1900 - 19 Oct 1904  Ernesto Rodolfo Hintze Ribeiro     (s.a.)               PR
                             (2nd time) 
19 Oct 1904 - 20 Mar 1906  José Luciano de Castro Pereira     (s.a.)               PP
                             Côrte-Real (3rd time)
20 Mar 1906 - 19 May 1906  Ernesto Rodolfo Hintze Ribeiro     (s.a.)               PR
                             (3rd time) 
19 May 1906 -  4 Feb 1908  João Franco Ferreira e Pinto       (b. 1855 - d. 1929)  PRL
                             Castelo Branco 
 4 Feb 1908 - 25 Dec 1908  Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do      (b. 1844 - d. 1923)  Mil
                             Amaral
25 Dec 1908 - 11 Apr 1909  Artur Alberto de Campos Henriques  (b. 1853 - d. 1922)  PR
11 Apr 1909 - 13 May 1909  Sebastião Custódio de Sousa Teles  (b. 1847 - d. 1921)  Mil
13 May 1909 - 22 Dec 1909  Wenceslau de Sousa Pereira de Lima (b. 1858 - d. 1919)  PR
24 Dec 1909 - 26 Jun 1910  Francisco António de Veiga Beirão  (b. 1841 - d. 1916)  PP
26 Jun 1910 -  5 Oct 1910  António Teixeira de Sousa          (b. 1857 - d. 1917)  PR
 5 Oct 1910 -  3 Sep 1911  Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga    (s.a.)               PRP
                             (president of Provisional Government)
 3 Sep 1911 - 12 Nov 1911  João Pinheiro Chagas (1st time)    (b. 1863 - d. 1925)  PRP
12 Nov 1911 - 16 Jun 1912  Augusto César de Almeida           (b. 1867 - d. 1951)  PRP
                             Vasconcelos Correia
16 Jun 1912 -  9 Jan 1913  Duarte Leite Pereira da Silva      (b. 1864 - d. 1950)  PRP
 9 Jan 1913 -  9 Feb 1914  Afonso Augusto da Costa (1st time) (b. 1871 - d. 1937)  PRP
 9 Feb 1914 - 12 Dec 1914  Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães  (s.a.)               PRP
                             (1st time)
12 Dec 1914 - 25 Jan 1915  Vítor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho     (b. 1871 - d. 1955)  PRP
25 Jan 1915 - 14 May 1915  Joaquim Pereira Pimenta de Castro  (b. 1846 - d. 1918)  Mil
14 May 1915 - 17 May 1915  Constitutional Junta
                           - José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton (b. 1867 - d. 1955)  PRP
                               de Matos
                           - António Maria da Silva           (b. 1872 - d. 1950)  PRP
                           - José de Freitas Ribeiro          (b. 1868 - d. 1929)  PRP
                           - Alfredo Ernesto de Sá Cardoso    (b. 1864 - d. 1950)  PRP
                           - Álvaro Xavier de Castro          (b. 1878 - d. 1929)  PRP?
17 May 1915 - 29 May 1915  João Pinheiro Chagas (2nd time)    (s.a.)               PRP
17 May 1915 - 29 Nov 1915  José Augusto Soares Ribeiro de     (b. 1848 - d. 1929)  PRP 
                            
Castro (acting for Chagas to 29 May 1915)
29 Nov 1915 - 15 Mar 1916  Afonso Augusto da Costa (2nd time) (s.a.)               PRP

15 Mar 1916 - 25 Apr 1917  António José de Almeida            (s.a.)               PRE
25 Apr 1917 -  7 Dec 1917  Afonso Augusto da Costa (3rd time) (s.a.)               PRP
 7 Oct 1917 - 25 Oct 1917  José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton   (s.a.)               PRP
                             de Matos (acting for da Costa)
17 Nov 1917 -  7 Dec 1917  José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton   (s.a.)               PRP
                             de Matos (acting for da Costa)
 7 Dec 1917 - 14 Dec 1918  Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da      (s.a.)          Mil;12-12-17 PNR
                             Silva Pais 
                            (president of the Revolutionary Junta to 12 Dec 1917)
15 Dec 1918 - 23 Dec 1918  João de Canto e Castro Silva       (s.a.)               PNR
                             Antunes
23 Dec 1918 - 27 Jan 1919  João Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa    (
b. 1883 - d. 1948)  PNR
19 Jan 1919 - 13 Feb 1919  Henrique Mitchell de Paiva         (s.a.)               Mil/Mon
                             Couceiro
                             (chairman of Provisional Junta of the Kingdom of Portugal
                             [in the name of Manuel II], in Porto and much of the North)
27 Jan 1919 - 30 Mar 1919  José Carlos de Mascarenhas Relvas  (b. 1858 - d. 1929)  PRP
30 Mar 1919 - 29 Jun 1919  Domingos Leite Pereira (1st time)  (b. 1882 - d. 1956)  PRP
29 Jun 1919 -  2 Feb 1920  Alfredo Ernesto de Sá Cardoso      (s.a.)               PRP
 
2 Feb 1920 -  8 Mar 1920  Domingos Leite Pereira (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PRP
 8 Mar 1920 -  6 Jun 1920  António Maria Baptista             (b. 1866 - d. 1920)  PRP
 6 Jun 1920 - 26 Jun 1920  José Ramos Preto (acting)          (b. 1871 - d. 1949)  PRP
26 Jun 1920 - 19 Jul 1920  António Maria da Silva (1st time)  (s.a.)               PRP
19 Jul 1920 - 20 Nov 1920  António Joaquim Granjo (1st time)  (b. 1881 - d. 1921)  PRL
20 Nov 1920 - 30 Nov 1920  Álvaro Xavier de Castro (1st time) (s.a.)               PRRN
30 Nov 1920 -  2 Mar 1921  Liberato Damião Ribeiro Pinto      (b. 1880 - d. 1949)  PRP
 2 Mar 1921 - 23 May 1921  Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães  (s.a.)               PRP
                             (2nd time)
23 May 1921 - 30 Aug 1921  Tomé José de Barros Queirós        (b. 1872 - d. 1926)  PLR
30 Aug 1921 - 19 Oct 1921  António Joaquim Granjo (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PLR
19 Oct 1921 -  5 Nov 1921  António Manuel Maria Coelho        (b. 1857 - d. 1943)  PNR
 5 Nov 1921 - 16 Dec 1921  Carlos Henrique da Silva Maia      (b. 1866 - d. 1932)  Mil
                             Pinto 
16 Dec 1921 -  6 Feb 1922  Francisco Pinto da Cunha Leal      (b. 1888 - d. 1970)  Non-party
 
6 Feb 1922 - 15 Nov 1923  António Maria da Silva (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PRP
15 Nov 1923 - 17 Dec 1923  António Ginestal Machado           (b. 1874 - d. 1940)  PRN
18 Dec 1923 -  6 Jul 1924  Álvaro Xavier de Castro (2nd time) (s.a.)               PRN
 
6 Jul 1924 - 22 Nov 1924  Alfredo Rodrigues Gaspar           (b. 1865 - d. 1938)  PRP
22 Nov 1924 - 15 Feb 1925  José Domingues dos Santos          (b. 1885 - d. 1958)  PRED
15 Feb 1925 -  1 Jul 1925  Vitorino Máximo de Carvalho        (b. 1876 - d. 1957)  PRP
                             Guimarães
 1 Jul 1925 -  1 Aug 1925  António Maria da Silva (3rd time)  (s.a.)               PRP
 1 Aug 1925 - 17 Dec 1925  Domingos Leite Pereira (3rd time)  (s.a.)               PRP
17 Dec 1925 - 30 May 1926  António Maria da Silva (4th time)  (s.a.)               PRP
30 May 1926 - 17 Jun 1926  José Mendes Cabeçadas Júnior       (s.a.)               Mil
17 Jun 1926 -  9 Jul 1926  Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa  (s.a.)               Mil
 9 Jul 1926 - 18 Apr 1928  António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona   (s.a.)               Mil
 3 Feb 1927 -  7 Feb 1927  Jaime Zuzarte Cortesão             (b. 1884 - d. 1960)
                             (head of the civil government; in rebellion in Porto)
18 Apr 1928 -  8 Jul 1929  José Vicente de Freitas            (b. 1869 - d. 1952)  Mil
 8 Jul 1929 -  2 Feb 1930  Artur Ivens Ferraz                 (b. 1870 - d. 1933)  Mil
 
2 Feb 1930 -  5 Jul 1932  Domingos Augusto Alves da Costa    (b. 1873 - d. 1957)  UN
                             e Oliveira 
 5 Jul 1932 - 25 Sep 1968  António de Oliveira Salazar        (b. 1889 - d. 1970)  UN
25 Sep 1968 - 25 Apr 1974  Marcelo das Neves Alves Caetano    (b. 1906 - d. 1980)  UN;1970 ANP
16 May 1974 - 18 Jul 1974  Adelino da Palma Carlos            (b. 1905 - d. 1992)  Non-party 
18 Jul 1974 - 19 Sep 1975  Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves         (b. 1921 - d. 2005)  Mil/MFA
19 Sep 1975 - 23 Jul 1976  José Baptista Pinheiro de Azevedo  (b. 1917 - d. 1983)  Mil/MFA
24 Jun 1976 - 23 Jul 1976  Vasco Almeida e Costa              (b. 1932 - d. 2010)  Mil/MFA
                             (acting for Azevedo)
23 Jul 1976 - 28 Aug 1978  Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares   (s.a.)               PS
                             (1st time)
28 Aug 1978 - 22 Nov 1978  Alfredo Nobre da Costa             (b. 1923 - d. 1996)  Non-party 
22 Nov 1978 -  1 Aug 1979  Carlos da Mota Pinto               (b. 1936 - d. 1985)  Non-party
 1 Aug 1979 -  3 Jan 1980  Maria de Lurdes Pintasilgo (f)     (b. 1930 - d. 2004)  Non-party 
 3 Jan 1980 -  4 Dec 1980  Francisco Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro (b. 1934 - d. 1980)  CDS
 4 Dec 1980 -  9 Jan 1981  Diogo Freitas do Amaral (acting)   (b. 1941)            CDS
 9 Jan 1981 -  9 Jun 1983  Francisco Pinto Balsemão           (b. 1937)            PSD 
 9 Jun 1983 -  6 Nov 1985  Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares   (s.a.)               PS
                             (2nd time) 
 6 Nov 1985 - 30 Oct 1995  Aníbal António Cavaco Silva        (s.a.)               PSD 
30 Oct 1995 -  6 Apr 2002  António Manuel de Oliveira         (b. 1949)            PS
                             Guterres
 6 Apr 2002 - 17 Jul 2004  José Manuel Durão Barroso          (b. 1956)            PSD
17 Jul 2004 - 12 Mar 2005  Pedro Miguel Santana Lopes         (b. 1956)            PSD
12 Mar 2005 - 21 Jun 2011  José Sócrates Carvalho Pinto de    (b. 1957)            PS
                             Sousa
21 Jun 2011 -              Pedro Passos Coelho                (b. 1964)            PSD

  ¹The style of the ruler:
(a) 27 Jul 1139 - 26 Mar 1211: Portugalensium/Portugalensis Rex; (in Portuguese): Rei dos Portugueses ("King of the Portuguese");
(b) 26 Mar 1211 - 16 Feb 1267:
Rex Portugaliae; (in Portuguese): Rei de Portugal ("King of Portugal");
(c) 16 Feb 1267 - 28 Aug 1471:
Rei/Rainha de Portugal e do Algarve; (in Latin): Rex Portugaliae & Algarbii ("King of Portugal and of the Algarve");
(d) 22 Aug 1415 - 23 Oct 1458: Por graça de Deus Rei/Rainha de Portugal e do Algarve, Senhor/Senhora de Ceuta ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of Portugal and of the Algarve, Lord/Lady of Ceuta");
(e) 23 Oct 1458 - 28 Aug 1471: Por graça de Deus Rei/Rainha de Portugal e do Algarve, Senhor/Senhora de Ceuta e de Alcácer em África ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of Portugal and of the Algarve, Lord/Lady of Ceuta and of Alcácer in Africa");
(f) 28 Aug 1471 - 18 Sep 1499: Por graça de Deus Rei/Rainha de Portugal e dos Algarves, d’Aquém e d'Além-mar em África ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of Portugal and of the Algarves, on this side of the Sea and Beyond it, in Africa");
(g) 18 Sep 1499 - 16 Dec 1815, 10 Mar 1826 - 10 Sep 1836, 10 Feb 1842 - 5 Oct 1910: Por graça de Deus, Rei/Rainha de Portugal e dos Algarves de aquém e de além-mar em África, Senhor/Senhora da Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord/Lady of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and of India");
(h) 16 Dec 1815 - 26 Feb 1821, 3 Jun 1823 - 15 Nov 1825: Por graça de Deus, Rei/Rainha do Reino Unido de Portugal, e do Brasil, e Algarves de aquém e de além mar em África, Senhor/Senhora da Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of United Kingdom of Portugal, and of Brazi, and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord/Lady of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and of India");
(i) 26 Feb 1821 - 3 Jun 1823
: Por graça de Deus e pela constituição da monarquia, Rei do Reino-Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarve de aquém e de além-mar em África, Senhor da Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia ("by the grace of God and the people constitutional monarch, King of United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazi and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and of India");
(j) 15 Nov 1825 - 10 Mar 1826: Por graça de Deus, Imperador do Brasil e Rei de Portugal e Algarves
de aquém e de além mar em África, Senhor da Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia ("by the grace of God, Emperor of Brazil and  King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and of India");
(k) 10 Sep 1836 - 10 Feb 1842: Por graça de Deus e pela constituição da monarquia, Rei/Rainha de Portugal e Algarves de aquém e de além-mar em África, Senhor/Senhora da Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia ("by the grace of God and the people constitutional monarch, King/Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord/Lady of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and of India").

 ²The immediate agent of French authority (as president of the Regency of the Kingdom) was Jean-Andoche Junot (s.a.), titled duc d'Abrantès (duque de Abrantes).

 ³The heir apparent, Prince Luís Filipe (b. 1887 - d. 1908), assassinated with Carlos I on 
1 Feb 1908, outlived Carlos I by minutes, but was neither proclaimed nor recorded as king.

Noble titles: marquês/marquesa = marquis/marquesa; conde/condessa = count/countess; 
visconde/viscondessa = viscount/viscountess; duque/duquesa = duke/duchess;
príncipe/princesa = prince/princess; barão/baronesa = baron/baroness; senhor/senhora = lord/lady; rei/rainha = king/queen

Ecclesiastical titles: arcebispo = archbishop; cardenal = cardinal; bispo = bishop

Territorial Dispute: Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza (Olivença) based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz. In official Portuguese maps the border is unmarked in that region (left bank of Guadiana river south of Badajoz), and until recently Portuguese was the local language. Although the annexation is still unrecognized, the question is far from being a major problem between both countries.

Party abbreviations: CDS = Partido do Centro Democrático Social (Social Democratic Center Party, est.1974); PS = Partido Socialista (Socialist Party, social-democratic, est.1973); PSD = Partido Social Democrata (Social Democrat Party, center-right, est.1974 as PPD [Partido Popular Democrático], renamed PSD 1976); Mil = Military;
- Former Parties: ANP = Acção Nacional Popular (National People’s Action, authoritarian, nationalist, former UN, government party, Feb 1970-25 Apr 1974); Con = Conservador (Conservative, conservative grouping, Cartismo, Cabralismo, 19th century); Hist = Partido Histórico (Historical Party, liberal progressive grouping, opposed PR, 1854-1876, then PP); Lib = Liberal (liberal grouping, constitutionalist, 19th century); MFA = Movimento das Forças Armadas (Movement of Armed Forces, organization of lower-ranked left-leaning military officers, 1973-1976); Mon = Monarquista (Monarchist, anti-republic, supported restoration of Braganza dynasty, c.1918/1925); PLR = Partido Liberal Republicano (Liberal Republican Party, conservative, merger of PRE and Partio Unionista, 1919-1923, then PRN); PNR = Partido Nacional Republicano (National Republican Party, Sidónio Pais personalist, informally called Partido Sidonista, 1918-1923, then PRN); PRD = Partido Renovador Democrático (Democratic Renewal Party, centrist, populist, 1985-2000); PRE = Partido Republicano Evolucionista (Evolutionist Republican Party, center-right, 1912-1919, then PLR); PRED = Partido Republicano da Esquerda Democrática (Republican Party of the Democratic Left, leftist, split from PRP, 1925-1926); PRN = Partido Republicano Nacionalista (Nationalist Republican Party, conservative, merger of PLR, PNR and PRRN, 1923-1926); PP = Partido Progressista (Progressive Party, liberal, merger of Hist and Ref, opposed PR, 1876-1910); PR = Partido Regenerador (Regenerator Party, constitutional monarchist, conservative, opposed by PH & PP, 1851-1910); PRL = Partido Regenerador Liberal (Regenerator Liberal Party, liberal, also called Centro Regenerador Liberal, split from PR, 1901-1910); PRP = Partido Repúblicano Português (Portuguese Republican Party, republican, anti-monarchist, after 1910 unofficially called Partido Democrático [Democratic Party], 1870-1929); PRRN = Partido Republicano da Reconstituição Nacional (Republican Party of National Reconstruction, center-right, also called Partido Reconstituinte, split from PLR, 1920-1923, then PRN); Rad = Radical (Radical liberal grouping, Setembrismo, constitutional monarchists, supported 1822 constitution, 1832-1842); Ref = Partido Reformista (Reformist Party, liberal reformist, split from Hist, 1867-1876, merged into PP); ULR = União Liberal Republicana (Liberal Republican Union, conservative, nationalist, split from PRN, 1926-1933); UN = União Nacional (National Union, authoritarian, nationalist, corporatist, integralist, political organization of the Estado Novo, est.1930, government party 11 Apr 1933-Feb 1970, renamed ANP)


French and British Occupations

30 Nov 1807 - 15 Sep 1808  Continental Portugal occupied by France; division
                             of Portugal according to 27 Oct 1807 Treaty of
                             Fontainebleau (into Kingdom of Northern
                             Lusitania, Portugal, and Kingdom of Algarve) is
                             not effected.
 1 Aug 1808                British intervention begins.
29 Mar 1809 - 12 May 1809  Porto and northern Portugal occupied by France.
 1 Oct 1810 -  5 Mar 1811  Coimbra and parts of Portugal occupied by France.
 3 Apr 1812 - 24 Apr 1812  Partially re-occupied by France. 

French Commanders
30 Nov 1807 - 15 Sep 1808  Jean-Andoche Junot,                (s.a.)
                             duc d'Abrantès 
29 Mar 1809 - 12 May 1809  Nicholas Jean-de-Dieu Soult,       (b. 1769 - d. 1851)
                             duc de Dalmatie 
 1 Oct 1810 -  5 Mar 1811  André Masséna, duc de Rivioli,     (b. 1758 - d. 1817)
                             prince d'Essling
 
3 Apr 1812 - 24 Apr 1812  Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de   (b. 1774 - d. 1852)
                             Marmont, duc de Raguse 

British Commanders

 
1 Aug 1808 - 21 Aug 1808  Sir Arthur Wellesley (1st time)    (b. 1769 - d. 1852)
21 Aug 1808 - 22 Aug 1808  Sir Harry Burrard                  (b. 1755 - d. 1813)
22 Aug 1808 - 27 Oct 1808  Hew Dalrymple                      (b. 1750 - d. 1830)
27 Oct 1808 - 16 Jan 1809  Sir John Moore                     (b. 1761 - d. 1809)

1
6 Jan 1809 - 26 Apr 1809  William Carr Beresford,            (b. 1768 - d. 1854)
                             Viscount Beresford
26 Apr 1809 - Oct 1813     Sir Arthur Wellesley,              (s.a.)
                            (from 26 Aug 1809) Baron Douro of
                            
Wellesley and Viscount Wellington
                             of Talavera,
and of Wellington in
                             the County of Somerset (2nd time) 





© Ben Cahoon