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Bolivia
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                 to 17 Aug 1825 
 
National flag of Bolivia of
                                    1825
    17 Aug 1825 - 25 Jul 1826 State Flag
 
Civil flag
                                  of Bolivia of 1825
    17 Aug 1825 - 25 Jul 1826 Civil Flag
 
Flag
                                    of Bolivia in 1826
            25 Jul 1826 - 5 Nov 1851
  (1836 - 1839 Bolivia State in Peru-Bolivia)
 
[Flag of
                                    the Peruvian-Bolivian
                                    Confederation]
            1 May 1837 - 20 Jan 1839
            Peru-Bolivia Confederation
 
Flag of
                                    Bolivia
        Adopted 5 Nov 1851 Civil Flag
 
 
State
                                    Flag of Bolivia
        Adopted 5 Nov 1851 State Flag
 
[Wiphala flag, National Symbol from
                                2009 (Bolivia)]
National Symbol from 7 Feb 2009

Map of Bolivia Hear National Anthem
  ""Canción Patriótica"
(Patriotic Song)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1852
Constitution
(7 Feb 2009)

-----------------------------------
1967 Constitution

   (2 Feb 1967 - 7 Feb 2009)
Capital: Sucre
(Chuquisaca 1538-1839;
Peru-Bolivia: Tacna

1836-1839)
 
Seat of Government: La Paz
 (de facto since 1898)

Currency: Boliviano (BOB)
National Holiday: 6 Aug (1825)
Independence Day
Population: 10,461,053 (2013)
GDP: $58.34 billion (2013)
Exports: $12.5 billion (2013)
Imports: $8.22 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Amerindian 62% (of which Quechua 31%,
Aymara 25%),
mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian) 28%,
white 10% (of which German 3%) (2001)
Total Armed Forces: 83,200 (2010)
Merchant marine: 18 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 16%,
other Christian 3% (of which Mormon 1.8%),
 other 0.5%, non-religious 2.5% (2001)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACTO, APM, BTWC, CAN, CCM, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, KP, LAES, LAIA, LAP, LU, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SEGIB, UN, UNASUR, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Bolivia Index
Chronology
1538 - 1545                 Spanish colonize area called Charcas, Upper Peru,
                              or Chuquisaca. 
 3 Jan 1548                 Part of Viceroyalty of Peru.
18 Sep 1559                 Audiencia y Cancillería Real de La Plata de
                              los Charcas created to administer Upper Peru.
 8 Aug 1776                 Part of Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata 
                              (see Argentina).
16 Jul 1809 - Nov 1809      Independent state proclaimed in Upper Peru 
                              nominally in the name of Ferdinand VII the
                              Bourbon king of Spain deposed by Napoleon.
1811 - 1816                 Proclaimed a province of Río de la Plata
                              (see Argentina).
1816                        Re-incorporated into Peru.
16 May 1825                 Departments of Upper Peru (Alto Perú) are
                              organized as a territory occupied by the army
                              of Peru (Provincias del Alto Perú).
 6 Aug 1825                 Independence declared (Upper Peru); not 
                              recognized by Peru.
11 Aug 1825                 República Bolívar (Alto Perú and Estado del Alto
                              Perú were also used).
18 May 1826                 Independence of República Boliviana is recognised
                              by a decree issued by Peru and proclaimed at
                              Chuquisaca 14 Jun 1826. 
25 May 1826                 Executive functions transferred from military
                              governor to Constituent Congress
                              (República Boliviana; also Bolivia).
28 Oct 1836 - 20 Feb 1839   Component of Peru-Bolivian Confederation
                              (for North and South Peru components see
                              under Peru).
27 Mar 1867                 Acre granted to Bolivia in the Treaty of 
                              Ayacucho.
 1 Oct 1868                 Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia)(the 
                              old style lingers until 1908).
20 Oct 1883                 Pacific coastline including Antofagasta 
                              annexed by Chile.
 4 Jul 1899 - 25 Apr 1900   Acre independent of Bolivia (see under Brazil).
17 Nov 1903                 Acre purchased by Brazil in the Treaty of
                              Petrópolis.
 7 Feb 2009                 Bolivia
18 Mar 2009                 Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado
                              Plurinacional de Bolivia).
Departments
(from 2006)
Provinces of
Upper Peru
(1783-1825)
Cochabamba
Córdoba
La Paz
Potosí
 
 
 

Presidents of the Audiencia de La Plata de los Charcas
1559 - 1572                Pedro Ramírez de Quiñones
1573 - 1577                Lope Díez Aux de Armendáriz        (d. 1585)
1578 - 1579                Juan de Matienzo (acting)          (b. 1520 - d. 1579)
1579 - 1582                Manuel Barros de San Millán        (b. 1523 - d. 1599)
                             (acting)
1582 - 1600                Juan López de Cepeda

1600 - 1609                Alonso Maldonado de Torres         (d. 1628)
1609 - 1610                Ruiz Bejarano
1610 - 1626                Diego de Portugal
1626 - 1627                Alonso Pérez de Salazar y Rosales  (b. 1561 - d. 1646)
                             (acting)
1627 - 1629                Diego Muñoz de Cuéllar (1st time)
                             (acting)
1629 - 1630                Diego de Egües y Beaumont          (d. 1664)
1630 - 1632                Diego Muñoz de Cuéllar (2nd time)
1632                       Francisco de Alfaro
                             (disputed in some sources)
May 1632 - 1635            Juan de Carvajal y Sande
Mar 1635 - 1642            Juan de Lizárazu y Recain
1642 - 1644                Dionisio Pérez Manrique de Lara,   (b. 1598? - d. 1678)
                             marqués de Santiago
1644 - 1647                Francisco de Sossa
1647 - 1660                Francisco de Nestares Marín
1660                       Andrés Garavito de Léon (acting)
1660 - 1663                Bartolomé de Salazar 
1663 - 1670                Pedro Vázquez de Velasco
1670 - 1671                Luis José Merlo de la Fuente       (d. 1671)
1671 - 1674                José del Corral Calvo de la Banda  (d. 1686)
                             (acting)
1674 - 1687                Bartolomé González y Póveda        (b. 1634 - d. 1692)
1687 - 1694                Diego de Mesia (or Mexia)
1694 - 1699                Antonio Martínez Luján de Vargas
1699 - 1700                Francisco Domínguez
1700 - 1708                Miguel Antonio de Ormaza y Ponce   (d. 1723)
                             de Léon (acting)
1708 - 1717                Francisco Pimentel y Sotomayor
1717 - 1725                Gabriel Antonio de Matienzo
1725 - 1733                Francisco de Herboso y Luza        (d. 1733)
1733 - 1735                José Cipriano de Herrera
1736 - 1737                Igáncio del Castillo (acting)
1737 - 1746                Antonio Hermenegildo de Querejazu  (b. 1711 - d. 1792) 
                             y Mollinedo

1746 - 1754                Domingo de Jáuregui
1754 - 1757                Nicolás Jiménez de Lobatón y Azaña,(b. 1693 - d. 1757)
                             marqués de Rochafuerte
1757 - 1766                Juan Francisco Pestaña y Chumacero (d. 1766)
1766 - 1769                Juan Martínez de Tineo             (b. 1720 - d. 1785)
                             (interim to 1767)
1769 - 1777                Ambrosio de Benavides Medina Liñán (b. 1718 - d. 1787)
                             y Torres

1778                       Jerónimo Manuel de Ruedas (1st time)
1778 -  2 Jul 1780         Agustín Fernando de Pinedo         (d. 1780)
                             Fernández de Valdivieso
1780 - 1782                Jerónimo Manuel de Ruedas (2nd time)
1782 - 1785                Ignacio Flores
1785 - 1790                Vicente de Gálvez y Valenzuela
1790 - 1797                Joaquín del Pino Sánchez de Rosas  (b. 1729 - d. 1804) 
                             Romero y Negrete
1797 - 1805                Ramón García de León y Pizarro     (b. 1770 - d. 1835)
1805 - 12 Jul 1809         José Ramírez de Laredo y Encalada
                             (acting)
President of Junta of Defense of the Rights of the King and the Town
12 Jul 1809 - 30 Sep 1809  Pedro Domingo Murillo              (b. 1756 - d. 1809)
Presidents of the Audiencia
30 Sep 1809 - 13 Nov 1810  Vicente Nieto de las Viñas y       (b. 1769 - d. 1810)
                             García Sánchez de Valencia y 
                             González
13 Nov 1810 - 1811         Juan José Castelli                 (b. 1764 - d. 1812)                                          (revolutionary government)
1811 - 1813                Domingo Tristán y Moscoso
1813                       Francisco Antonio Ortiz de Ocampo  (b. 1771 - d. 1840)
                             (revolutionary government)
1813 - 1814                
Gregorio de Hoyos, marqués de
                             Valde Hoyos

1815                       Martín Rodríguez                   (b. 1771 - d. 1845)
1815                       Juan Antonio Fernán­dez
                             (revolutionary government)
1816 - 1818                Jos
é Pascual de Vivero y           (b. 1762 - d. 1834)
                             Salavarria (interim)
22 Feb 1818 - 1824         Rafael Maroto Yserns               (b. 1783 - d. 1853)
1824 - 1825                Pedro Antonio de Olañete           (b. 1770 - d. 1825)
1825                       José Antonio Vigil Manrique de     (b. 1782 - d. 1872)
                             Lara 
Military governor
16 May 1825 - 18 Aug 1825  Antonio José Francisco de Sucre    (b. 1795 - d. 1830)  Mil 
                             y Alcalá
                            (Commander-in-chief of the Army of Liberation) 
Liberator, invested with the Supreme Executive Power
18 Aug 1825 - 29 Dec 1825  Simón José de la Santísima         (b. 1783 - d. 1830)  Mil
                             Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios 
Military governor
29 Dec 1825 - 25 May 1826  Antonio José Francisco de Sucre    (s.a.)               Mil
                             y Alcalá 
                            (commander-in-chief of Army of Liberation, 
                             in charge of the departments)
President of the General Constituent Congress
25 May 1826 - 28 May 1826  José Joaquín Casimiro Olañeta y    (b. 1796 - d. 1860)
                             Güemes
Presidents
28 May 1826 - 12 Aug 1828  Antonio José Francisco de Sucre    (s.a.)               Mil
                             y Alcalá 
                             (Commander-in-chief of the Liberation 
                              Army, in charge of the Supreme Command
                              of Bolivia to 19 Jun 1826) 
18 Apr 1828 - 12 Aug 1828  José María Pérez de Urdininea y    (b. 1784 - d. 1865)  Mil
                             Gurruchaga (acting for Sucre)
12 Aug 1828 - 18 Dec 1828  José Miguel de Velasco Franco      (b. 1795 - d. 1859)  Mil
                             (1st time)(acting for José Andrés
                             de Santa Cruz who did not take office) 
18 Dec 1828 - 31 Dec 1828  Pedro Blanco Soto (provisional)    (b. 1795 - d. 1829)  Mil
18 Dec 1828 - 26 Dec 1828  José Ramón de Loayza Pacheco       (b. 1751 - d. 1839)
                             Salgado (acting for Blanco)
 1 Jan 1829 - 24 May 1829  José Miguel de Velasco Franco      (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)(acting; from 31 Jan 
                             1829 for José Andrés de Santa Cruz)
31 Jan 1829 - 20 Feb 1839  José Andrés de Santa Cruz          (b. 1792 - d. 1865)  Mil
                             y Villavicencio y Calumana 
                            (provisional to 15 Aug 1831; also Supreme Protector of the 
                             Peru-Bolivian Confederation 28 Oct 1836 - 20 Feb 1839)
18 Jul 1838 - 22 Feb 1839  Mariano Enrique Calvo Cuéllar      (b. 1782 - d. 1842)  
                             (1st time)(acting [for absent Santa Cruz to 20 Feb 1839])
22 Feb 1839 - 10 Jun 1841  José Miguel de Velasco Franco      (s.a.)               Mil
                            (3rd time) 
                            (Provisional Supreme Chief to 16 Jun 1839, 
                             then provisional to 15 Aug 1840)
10 Jun 1841 -  9 Jul 1841  Sebastián de Ágreda                (b. 1795 - d. 1875)  Mil
                             (Provisional Chief [from 1 Jul 1841 acting 
                             for José Andrés Santa Cruz who did not take office])
 9 Jul 1841 - 22 Sep 1841  Mariano Enrique Calvo Cuéllar      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting [for José Andrés 
                             Santa Cruz who did not take office])
22 Sep 1841 - 27 Sep 1841  Vacant
27 Sep 1841 - 23 Dec 1847  José Ballivián Segurola            (b. 1805 - d. 1852)  Mil
                             (provisional to 15 Aug 1844)
23 Dec 1847 -  2 Jan 1848  Eusebio Guilarte Mole (interim)    (b. 1799 - d. 1849)  Mil
 2 Jan 1848 -  6 Jan 1848  Vacant
 6 Jan 1848 - 18 Jan 1848  Manuel Isidoro Belzu Humérez       (b. 1808 - d. 1865)  PP
                             (1st time)(interim) 
18 Jan 1848 -  6 Dec 1848  José Miguel de Velasco Franco      (s.a.)               Mil
                             (4th time)(provisional)
 6 Dec 1848 - 15 Aug 1855  Manuel Isidoro Belzu Humérez       (s.a.)               Mil/Rojo
                             (2nd time)(provisional [in 
                             rebellion from 13 Oct 1848] to 15 Aug 1850)
15 Aug 1855 - 21 Oct 1857  Jorge Córdova                      (b. 1822 - d. 1861)  Rojo
21 Oct 1857 - 14 Jan 1861  José María de Linares y de Lizarazu(b. 1810 - d. 1861)  Rojo
                             Beaumont y Navarra 
                            (provisional [in rebellion from 9 Sep 1857])
14 Jan 1861 -  4 May 1861  Governing Junta
                           - Ruperto Fernández                (d. 1877)            Mil
                           - José María de Achá Valiente      (b. 1810 - d. 1868)  Mil
                           - Manuel Antonio Sánchez           (b. 1810 - d. 1861)  Mil
                              (to 9 Apr 1861)
 4 May 1861 - 28 Dec 1864  José María de Achá Valiente        (s.a.)               Mil
                             (provisional to 15 Aug 1862)
28 Dec 1864 - 15 Jan 1871  Manuel Mariano Melgarejo           (b. 1818 - d. 1871)  Mil
                             (provisional to 15 Aug 1870)
15 Jan 1871 - 27 Nov 1872  Pedro Agustín Morales Hernández    (b. 1808 - d. 1872)  PL
                            (Supreme Chief of the Revolution [in rebellion from 
                             26 Nov 1870] to 21 Jan 1871; provisional to 25 Aug 1872)
27 Nov 1872 - 28 Nov 1872  Juan de Dios Bosque y Ventura      (b. 1829 - d. 1890)  Non-party
                             Farfán (acting)
28 Nov 1872 -  9 May 1873  Tomás Francisco Frías Ametller     (b. 1804 - d. 1884)  PL
                             (1st time)
 9 May 1873 - 14 Feb 1874  Adolfo Ballivián Coll              (b. 1831 - d. 1873)  Mil
14 Feb 1874 -  4 May 1876  Tomás Francisco Frías Ametller     (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
 4 May 1876 - 28 Dec 1879  Hilarión Daza (provisional)        (b. 1840 - d. 1893)  Mil
28 Dec 1879 - 17 Jan 1880  Uladislao Silva                                         Mil
                             (President of Junta)
19 Jan 1880 - 31 May 1880  José Narciso Campero Leyes         (b. 1813 - d. 1896)  PC
                             (1st time) (provisional)
 1 Jun 1880 - 19 Jun 1880  Aniceto Arce y Ruiz de Mendoza     (b. 1824 - d. 1906)  PC
                             (1st time) (acting) 
19 Jun 1880 -  4 Sep 1884  José Narciso Campero Leyes         (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time)
 4 Sep 1884 - 15 Aug 1888  José Gregorio Pacheco Leyes        (b. 1823 - d. 1899)  PC
15 Aug 1888 - 11 Aug 1892  Aniceto Arce y Ruiz de Mendoza     (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time)
11 Aug 1892 - 19 Aug 1896  José Mariano Baptista Caserta      (b. 1832 - d. 1907)  PC
19 Aug 1896 - 12 Apr 1899  Severo Fernández Alonso Caballero  (b. 1848 - d. 1925)  PC
12 Dec 1898 - 25 Oct 1899  Federal Government Junta (in rebellion)
                           - Serapio Reyes Ortiz Aguilar      (b. 1822 - d. 1900)  PL
                           - Macario Pinilla Vargas           (b. 1855 - d. 1927)
                           - Juan José Manuel Inocencio Pando (b. 1849 - d. 1917)  PL 
                              Solares
25 Oct 1899 - 14 Aug 1904  Jaun José Manuel Inocencio Pando   (s.a.)               PL
                             Solares 
14 Aug 1904 - 12 Aug 1909  Ismael Montes Gamboa (1st time)    (b. 1861 - d. 1933)  PL
12 Aug 1909 - 14 Aug 1913  Eliodoro Villazón Montaño          (b. 1848 - d. 1939)  PL
14 Aug 1913 - 15 Aug 1917  Ismael Montes Gamboa (2nd time)    (s.a.)               PL
15 Aug 1917 - 12 Jul 1920  José Manuel Justiniano Gutiérrez   (b. 1869 - d. 1920)  PL
                             Guerra             
12 Jul 1920 - 13 Jul 1920  Rosa Bautista Saavedra Mallea      (b. 1870 - d. 1939)  PR
                             (1st time)("Superior Political Chief") 
13 Jul 1920 - 28 Jan 1921  Government Junta
                           - José María Escalier Villegas     (b. 1863 - d. 1934)  PR
                           - Rosa Bautista Saavedra Mallea    (s.a.)               PR
                           - José Manuel Ramírez Martínez     (b. 1868 - d. 1934)
28 Jan 1921 -  3 Sep 1925  Rosa Bautista Saavedra Mallea      (s.a.)               PRS
                             (2nd time)
 3 Sep 1925 - 10 Jan 1926  Felipe Segundo Guzmán (provisional)(b. 1879 - d. 1932)  PRS
10 Jan 1926 - 28 May 1930  Mariano Hernando Siles Reyes       (b. 1882 - d. 1942)  PRS
28 May 1930 - 25 Jun 1930  Council of Ministers (acting)
                           - Alberto Diez de Medina Lértora   (b. 1877 - d. 1932)
                           - Germán Antelo Arauz
                             (to 17 Jun 1930)
                           - Franklin Mercado                 (b. 1891 - d. 19..)
                           - José David Toro Ruilova          (b. 1898 - d. 1977)  Mil
                           - José Aguirre Achá                (b. 1877 - d. 1941)
                           - Fidel Vega                       (d. 1939)
                           - Carlos Banzer Aliaga             (b. 1888 - d. bf.1972)
                           - Ezequiel Romecín Calderón 
                             (from 17 Jun 1930)
28 Jun 1930 -  5 Mar 1931  Carlos Blanco Galindo              (b. 1882 - d. 1943)  Mil
                             (president of the council of ministers 
                             of the Military Government Junta) 
 5 Mar 1931 - 27 Nov 1934  Daniel Domingo Salamanca Urey      (b. 1869 - d. 1935)  PRG
28 Nov 1934 - 17 May 1936  José Luis Tejada Sorzano           (b. 1882 - d. 1938)  PL
17 May 1936 - 20 May 1936  Germán Busch Becerra (1st time)    (b. 1903 - d. 1939)  Mil
                             (provisional chairman Government Junta)
20 May 1936 - 13 Jul 1937  José David Toro Ruilova            (s.a.)               Mil
                             (chairman Government Junta)
13 Jul 1937 - 23 Aug 1939  Germán Busch Becerra (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Mil
                             (chairman Government Junta to 28 May 1938)
23 Aug 1939 - 15 Apr 1940  Carlos Quintanilla Quiroga         (b. 1888 - d. 1964)  Mil
                             (provisional)
15 Apr 1940 - 20 Dec 1943  Enrique Peñaranda del Castillo     (b. 1892 - d. 1969)  Mil+Conc
20 Dec 1943 - 21 Jul 1946  Gualberto Villarroel López         (b. 1908 - d. 1946)  Mil; 1944
                            (chairman Government Junta to 5 Apr 1944;              Radepa+MNR
                             provisional president 5 Apr - 6 Aug 1944)
21 Jul 1946 - 15 Aug 1946  Néstor Guillén Olmos               (b. 1890 - d. 1966)  Non-party
                             (Senior Judge to 22 Jul 1946, then 
                             chairman Provisional Government Junta)
15 Aug 1946 - 10 Mar 1947  Tomás Monje Gutiérrez              (b. 1884 - d. 1954)  Non-party
                             (chairman Provisional Government Junta)
10 Mar 1947 - 22 Oct 1949  José Enrique Hertzog Garaizábal    (b. 1897 - d. 1980)  PURS
22 Oct 1949 - 16 May 1951  Mamerto Urriolagoitia Harriague¹   (b. 1895 - d. 1974)  PURS
                             (acting [for Hertzog from 7 May 1949] to 24 Oct 1949)
16 May 1951 - 11 Apr 1952  Hugo Ballivián Rojas               (b. 1901 - d. 1993)  Mil
                             (chairman military junta)
11 Apr 1952 - 16 Apr 1952  Hernán Siles Zuazo (1st time)      (b. 1914 - d. 1996)  MNR
                             (provisional to 12 Apr 1952, then acting) 
16 Apr 1952 -  6 Aug 1956  Ángel Víctor Paz Estenssoro        (b. 1907 - d. 2001)  MNR
                             (1st time) 
 6 Aug 1956 -  6 Aug 1960  Hernán Siles Zuazo (2nd time)      (s.a.)               MNR
 6 Aug 1960 -  4 Nov 1964  Ángel Víctor Paz Estenssoro        (s.a.)               MNR
                             (2nd time) 
Chairmen of the Military Junta
 4 Nov 1964 -  5 Nov 1964  Alfredo Ovando Candía (1st time)   (b. 1918 - d. 1982)  Mil
 5 Nov 1964  (hours)       Alfredo Ovando Candía (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Mil
                           + René Barrientos Ortuño (1st time)(b. 1919 - d. 1969)  Mil
                           (co-chairmen) 
 5 Nov 1964 - 26 May 1965  René Barrientos Ortuño (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Mil
26 May 1965 -  4 Jan 1966  René Barrientos Ortuño (3rd time)  (s.a.)               Mil/MPC
                           + Alfredo Ovando Candía (3rd time) (s.a.)               Mil
                           (co-chairmen) 
 4 Jan 1966 -  6 Aug 1966  Alfredo Ovando Candía (4th time)   (s.a.)               Mil
Presidents
 6 Aug 1966 - 27 Apr 1969  René Barrientos Ortuño             (s.a.)               FRB 
27 Apr 1969 - 26 Sep 1969  Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas          (b. 1925 - d. 2005)  PSD+FRB 
26 Sep 1969 -  6 Oct 1970  Alfredo Ovando Candía              (s.a.)               Mil
 6 Oct 1970 -  7 Oct 1970  Military Junta
                           - Efraín Guachalla Ibáñez                               Mil
                           - Fernando Sattori Ribera          (b. 1927 - d. 2005)  Mil
                           - Alberto Albarracín Crespo        (b. 1922 - d. 2006)  Mil
 7 Oct 1970 - 21 Aug 1971  Juan José Torres González          (b. 1921 - d. 1976)  Mil
21 Aug 1971 - 22 Aug 1971  Jaime Florentino Mendieta Vargas   (b. 1922)            Mil
                           + Hugo Banzer Suárez               (b. 1926 - d. 2002)  Mil
                           + Andrés Selich Chop               (b. 1927? - d. 1973) Mil
                           (junta chairmen)
22 Aug 1971 - 21 Jul 1978  Hugo Banzer Suárez (1st time)      (s.a.)               Mil
21 Jul 1978  (hours)       Víctor González Fuentes                                 Mil
                             (chairman military junta)
21 Jul 1978 - 24 Nov 1978  Juan Pereda Asbún                  (b. 1931 - d. 2012)  Mil
24 Nov 1978 -  8 Aug 1979  David Padilla Arancibia            (b. 1927)            Mil
                             (chairman military junta)
 8 Aug 1979 -  1 Nov 1979  Wálter Guevara Arze                (b. 1912 - d. 1996)  MNRA
                             (continues in dissidence to 17 Nov 1979)
 1 Nov 1979 - 16 Nov 1979  Alberto Natusch Busch              (b. 1939 - d. 1994)  Mil
17 Nov 1979 - 18 Jul 1980  Lidia Gueiler Tejada (f)(acting)   (b. 1921 - d. 2011)  PRIN
18 Jul 1980  (hours)       Junta of Commanders
                           - Luis García Meza Tejada          (b. 1929)            Mil
                              (1st time) 
                           - Waldo Bernal Pereira (1st time)  (b. 1931)            Mil
                           - Ramiro Terrazas Rodríguez        (d. 1991)            Mil
18 Jul 1980 -  4 Aug 1981  Luis García Meza Tejada (2nd time) (s.a.)               Mil
 4 Aug 1981 -  4 Sep 1981  Junta of Commanders
                           - Waldo Bernal Pereira (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Mil
                           - Celsto Torrelio Villa            (b. 1933 - d. 1999)  Mil
                           - Óscar Jaime Pammo Rodríguez      (b. 1934)            Mil
                              (1st time) 
 4 Sep 1981 - 19 Jul 1982  Celso Torrelio Villa               (s.a.)               Mil
19 Jul 1982 - 21 Jul 1982  Junta of Commanders
                           - Natalio Morales Mosquera         (b. 1936-d. bf.1998) Mil
                           - Óscar Jaime Pammo Rodríguez      (s.a.)               Mil
                              (2nd time) 
                           - Ángel Mariscal Gómez             (b. 1935?)           Mil
21 Jul 1982 - 10 Oct 1982  Guido Vildoso Calderón             (b. 1937)            Mil
10 Oct 1982 -  6 Aug 1985  Hernán Siles Zuazo (3rd time)      (s.a.)               MNRI
 6 Aug 1985 -  6 Aug 1989  Víctor Paz Estenssoro (3rd time)   (s.a.)               MNR 
 6 Aug 1989 -  6 Aug 1993  Jaime Paz Zamora                   (b. 1939)            MIR
 6 Aug 1993 -  6 Aug 1997  Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada          (b. 1930)            MNR 
                             Sánchez Bustamante (1st time)
 6 Aug 1997 -  7 Aug 2001  Hugo Banzer Suárez (2nd time)      (s.a.)               ADN
 7 Aug 2001 -  6 Aug 2002  Jorge Fernando Quiroga Ramírez     (b. 1960)            ADN
                             (acting for Banzer 1 Jul - 7 Aug 2001)
 6 Aug 2002 - 17 Oct 2003  Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada          (s.a.)               MNR 
                             Sánchez Bustamante (2nd time)
17 Oct 2003 -  9 Jun 2005  Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert          (b. 1953)            Non-party
 9 Jun 2005 - 22 Jan 2006  Enrique Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé   (b. 1956)            Non-party
22 Jan 2006 -              Juan Evo Morales Ayama             (b. 1959)            MAS


Territorial Dispute: Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Argentina.
 
Party abbreviationsMAS = Movimiento al Socialismo-Instrumento Político por la Soberanía de los Pueblos (Movement for Socialism-Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples, socialist, left-wing nationalist, indigenism, est.1995
); MIR = Movimiento Izquierda Revolucionaria (Movement of Revolutionary Left, social-democratic, est.1971); MNR = Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (Revolutionary Nationalist Movement, nationalist, populist, centrist, est.1942); PODEMOS = Poder Democrático y Social (Social and Democratic Power, 'We Can', conservative, former ADN, est.2005); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ADN = Alianza Democrática Nacionalista (Nationalist Democratic Alliance, authoritarian populist, 1979-2005, renamed PODEMOS); Conc = Concordancia (The Concordance, rightist alliance of PL, PRG & PRS, 1939-1943); FRB = Frente de la Revolución Boliviana (Bolivian Revolutionary Front, coalition of MPC, PSD, Partido de la Izquierda Revolucionaria and Partido Revolucionario Auténtico, 1966-1970's); MNRA = Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario Auténtico (Authentic Nationalist Revolutionary Movement, reformist, nationalist, split from MNR, 1960-1964); MNRI = Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario de Izquierda (Nationalist Revolutionary Movement of the Left, leftist, split from MNR, 1971-1985); MPC = Movimiento Popular Cristiano (Popular Christian Movement, pro-R.B. Barrientos, 1966-1969); PC = Partido Conservador (Conservative Party, conservative, 1880-c.1899); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, liberal, 1883-1978); PRIN = Partido Revolucionario de la Izquierda Nacionalista (Revolutionary Party of the National Left, left-wing nationalist, split from MNR, 1963-1980's); PR = Partido Republicano (Republican Party, conservative, split from PL, 1914-1921); PRG = Partido Republicano Genuino (Genuine Republican Party, split from PR, 1921-1946); PRS = Partido Republicano Socialista (Socialist Republican Party, "Saavedristas", reformist, populist, split from PR, 1921-1946); PSD = Partido Social Democrática (Social Democratic Party, conservative, elitist, 1944-c.1970); PURS = Partido de la Unión Republicana Socialista (Republican Socialist Unity Party, right of center, merger of PRS, PRG, Partido Socialista Independiente and Partido Socialista Unificado, 1946-1978); Radepa = Razón de Patria (Reason for the Fatherland [Fatherland's Cause], military group, nationalist, allied to MNR, 1934-1946); Rojo = Partido Rojo (Red Party, populist, c.1848-c.1861)

Provinces of Upper Peru

Cochabamba

28 Jan 1782                Intendencia of Cochabamba (part of Río de la Plata).
1810                       End of Spanish rule.
11 Aug 1825                Part of Bolivia.

Governors
1776 - 1780                Francisco de Viedma y Narváez         (b. 1737 - d. 1809)
1780 - 1783                Félix José Villalobos 
Governor-Intendants

1783 - 1784                Félix José Villalobos 

1784 - ....                Martín de Mendoza
.... - 1809                Francisco de Viedma y Narváez
         (b. 1737 - d. 1809)
1809 - 1810                José González de Amada

1810 - 1811                Francisco del Rivero
1811                       Antonio Allende
1811 - 1812                Joaquín Mariano de Antezana           (b. 1771 - d. 1812)
1812 - 1813                Jerónimo Marrón de Lombera            (b. c.1760 - d. 1814)
1813                       Miguel José de Cabrera
1813                       Juan Antonio Álvarez de Arenales      (b. 1770 - d. 1831)

                             (1st time)
1813 - 1814                Martín de Jáuregui

1814 - 1815                Antonio de Goyburu
1815 - 1816                Juan Antonio Álvarez de Arenales
     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1816 - 1817                Military
Tribunal of Purification
1817 - 1823                José de Mendizábal e Imas
1823 - 1824                José Miguel de Velasco Franco         (b. 1795 - d. 1859)
1824 - 1825                Martín Ru
íz de Somocurcio             (d. 1825)
1825                       Pedro Antonio de Assúa



Córdoba

28 Jan 1782 - 1810         Intendencia of Córdoba (part of Río de la Plata).

Governor-Intendants
1784 - 1797                Rafael de Sobremonte Núñez Castillo   (b. 1745 - d. 1827)
                             Angulo y Bullón Ramírez de 
                             Arellano, marqués de Sobremonte
1797 - 1803                Nicolás Pérez del Viso
1803 - 1805                José González
1805 - 1807                Victoriano Rodríguez
1807 - 1810                Juan Gutiérrez de la Concha           (b. 1760 - d. 1810)



La Paz

28 Jan 1782                Intendencia of La Paz (part of Río de la Plata).
1811                       Annexed to Peru.
12 Jul 1809 - 30 Sep 1809  Under the Revolutionary Junta.
Jan 1811 - Jul 1811        Argentine occupation.
11 Aug 1825                Part of Bolivia.

Governor-Intendants
 1 Jan 1784 - 1789         José Sebastián de Segurota y
                             Machain

1789 - 1790                José Pablo Conti
1790 - 1791                Augustín de Goyoneta (acting)
1791 - 1793                Juan Manuel Álvarez
1793                       Pedro Nolasco Crespo
1793 - 1795                Francisco Antonio Dionisio Cuéllar

                             Artucho Carrillo de los Ríos 
                             Ronsvi Valdés
1795 - 1796                Fernando de la Sota Agüero         (b. 1759 - d ....)
                             (interim)

1797 - 1805                Antonio de Burgunyó y Juan
1805 - 12 Jul 1809         Tadeo Dávila                       (d. 1814)
12 Jul 1809 - 30 Sep 1809  Pedro Domingo Murillo              (b. 1756 - d. 1809)
                            (President of Junta of Defense of
                             the Rights of the King and the Town
)
30 Sep 1809 - Jan 1810     Juan Ramíerz Orosco                (b. 1764 - d. 1852)
Jul 1810                   Juan José Castelli                 (b. 1764 - d. 1812)
                            
(revolutionary government)
Jul 1810 - 1813            Domingo Tristán y Moscoso
         (b. 1768 - d. 1847)
1813 - 1814                Gregorio de Hoyos de Miranda García 
                             de Llano, marqués de Valde Hoyos
24 Sep 1814 -  4 Nov 1814  José Santos Astete
                             (revolutionary government)
 5 Nov 1814 - 26 Oct 1816  José María Landaberi (interim)

26 Oct 1816 -  1 Feb 1817  Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca  (b. 1776 - d. 1846)
 1 Feb 1817 - 1822         Juan Sánchez Lima

1822 - 1823                Francisco Huarte y Jáuregui        (b. c.1745 - d. 18..)  

1823                       Jos
é Ramón de Loayza Pacheco
                             Salgado (revolutionary government)
1823 - 29 Jan 1825         José de Mendizábal e Imaz


Potosí
28 Jan 1782                Intendencia of Potosí (part of Río de la Plata).
1811                       Annexed to Peru.
25 Nov 1811 - 20 Sep 1811  Argentine occupation.
May 1813 - Dec 1813        Argentine occupation.
May 1815 - Dec 1815        Argentine occupation.
11 Aug 1825                Part of Bolivia.

Governor-Intendants
1783 - 1789                Juan del Pino Manrique de Lara     (b. 17.. - d. 1814)
1789 - 1810                Francisco de Paula Sanz            (b. 1745 - d. 1810)
25 Nov 1810 - 1811         Juan José Castelli                 (b. 1764 - d. 1812)

1811 - 20 Sep 1811         Juan Martín de Pueyrredón          (b. 1777 - d. 1850)
20 Sep 1811 - May 1813     José Manuel de Goyeneche y Barreda (b. 1776 - d. 1846)

May 1813 - Dec 1813        Manual Belgrano                    (b. 1770 - d. 1820)
Dec 1813 - Apr 1815        Joaquín de la Pezuela,             (b. 1761 - d. 1830) 
                             marqués de Viluma
Apr 1815 - Jul 1815        Juan Rondeau                       (b. 1775 - d. 1844)




© Ben Cahoon