WorldStatesmen.org Home
to United States >
to U.S. Government Part 1 >>

 
 

 





 

United States Government

Contents: UN Representative - White House Chiefs  of  Staff - National Security Advisor - Trade Representative (USTR) - American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)  - National Security Agency (NSA) - Director of National Intelligence (DNI) - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - Federal Communications Commission (FCC) - Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) - Federal Reserve System - Federal Trade Commission (FTC) - General Services Administration (GSA) - National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - National Archives and Records Admin. (NARA) - National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) - National Science Foundation (NSF) - Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) - Peace Corps - Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) - Smithsonian Institution Social Security Administration (SSA) - Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) - U.S. Supreme Court - U.S. Senate - House of Representatives - Library of Congress (LOC) - Government Accountability Office (GAO) - Democratic National Committee (DNC) - Republican National Committee (RNC) -
Other Governments: Confederate States of America (1861-1865) - Republic of Texas (1836-1846) - Hawaii (1795-1900)

Independent Agencies, Supreme Court and Congress



U. S. Permanent Representatives to the United Nations

[flag of the U. S.
                Chief of Mission]

U.S. Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York

19 Oct 1945                United Nations Charter signed.
24 Oct 1945                United Nations charter ratified.
28 Apr 1947                The U.S. Mission to the United Nations formally
                             established.

Ambassadors 
21 Dec 1945 -  3 Jun 1946  Edward Reilly Stettinius           (b. 1900 - d. 1949)
 3 Jun 1946 - 13 Jan 1947  Herschel Vespasian Johnson II      (b. 1894 - d. 1966)
                             (acting)
13 Jan 1947 - 22 Jan 1953  Warren Robinson Austin             (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
23 Jan 1953 -  3 Sep 1960  Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.             (b. 1902 - d. 1985)
 8 Sep 1960 - 21 Jan 1961  James Jeremiah Wadsworth           (b. 1905 - d. 1984)
21 Jan 1961 - 14 Jul 1965  Adlai Ewing Stevenson              (b. 1900 - d. 1965)
26 Jul 1965 - 14 May 1968  Arthur Joseph Goldberg             (b. 1908 - d. 1990)
14 May 1968 -  4 Oct 1968  George Wildman Ball                (b. 1909 - d. 1994)
 4 Oct 1968 - 20 Jan 1969  James Russell Wiggins              (b. 1903 - d. 2000)
22 Jan 1969 - 16 Feb 1971  Charles Woodruff Yost              (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
16 Feb 1971 - 18 Jan 1973  George Herbert Walker Bush         (b. 1924)
18 Jan 1973 -  3 Feb 1973  Christopher Hallowell Phillips     (b. 1920 - d. 2008)
                             (acting)
 3 Feb 1973 - 10 Jun 1975  John Alfred Scali                  (b. 1918 - d. 1995)
10 Jun 1975 -  2 Feb 1976  Daniel Patrick Moynihan            (b. 1927 - d. 2003)
 2 Feb 1976 - 15 Mar 1976  William Tapley Bennett, Jr.        (b. 1917 - d. 1994)
                            
(acting)
15 Mar 1976 - 18 Jan 1977  William Warren Scranton            (b. 1917 - d. 2013)

27 Jan 1977 - 23 Sep 1979  Andrew Jackson Young, Jr.          (b. 1927)
23 Sep 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  Donald Franchot McHenry            (b. 1936)
29 Jan 1981 -  1 Apr 1985  Jeane Dwayne Kirkpatrick (f)       (b. 1926 - d. 2006)
 1 Apr 1985 - 28 Apr 1985  Jose S. Sorzano (acting)           (b. 1940)
28 Apr 1985 - 17 May 1985  Joseph Verner Reed (acting)        (b. 1937)
17 May 1985 -  8 Mar 1989  Vernon Anthony Walters             (b. 1917 - d. 2002)

 8 Mar 1989 -  6 Apr 1992  Thomas Reeve Pickering             (b. 1931)
 6 Apr 1992 - 27 Jan 1993  Edward Joseph Perkins              (b. 1928)
27 Jan 1993 - 21 Jan 1997  Madeleine Korbel Albright (f)      (b. 1937)
21 Jan 1997 - 13 Feb 1997  Edward W. "Skip" Gnehm Jr. (acting)(b. 1944)
13 Feb 1997 - 11 Sep 1998  William "Bill" Blame Richardson    (b. 1947)
11 Sep 1998 - 25 Aug 1999  Albert Peter Burleigh (acting)     (b. 1942)
25 Aug 1999 - 20 Jan 2001  Richard Charles Holbrooke          (b. 1941 - d. 2010)
20 Jan 2001 - 18 Sep 2001  James B. Cunningham (1st time)     (b. 1952)
                             (acting)    
18 Sep 2001 - 25 Jun 2004  John Dimitri Negroponte            (b. 1939)
25 Jun 2004 -  1 Jul 2004  James B. Cunningham (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)    

 1 Jul 2004 - 20 Jan 2005  John Claggett Danforth             (b. 1936)
20 Jan 2005 -  1 Aug 2005  Anne W. Patterson (f) (acting)     (b. 1949)
 1 Aug 2005 -  9 Dec 2006  John Bolton                        (b. 1948)
 9 Dec 2006 - 23 Apr 2007  Alejandro D. Wolff (1st time) 
                             (acting)
23 Apr 2007 - 20 Jan 2009  Zalmay Khalilzad                   (b. 1951)
20 Jan 2009 - 26 Jan 2009  Alejandro D. Wolff (2nd time)
                             (acting)
26 Jan 2009 - 26 Jun 2013  Susan E. Rice (f)                  (b. 1964)
26 Jun 2013 -  2 Aug 2013  Rosemary A. DiCarlo (f)(acting)    (b. 1947?)
 2 Aug 2013 -              Samantha Power (f)                 (b. 1970)



Executive Office of the President

White House Chiefs of Staff

[Flag of the President of the
                United States]
   President's Flag Adopted 25 Oct 1945

White House website

Assistants to the President
12 Dec 1946 - 20 Jan 1953  John R. Steelman                   (b. 1900 - d. 1999)
20 Jan 1953 -  7 Oct 1958  Sherman Adams                      (b. 1899 - d. 1986)
 7 Oct 1958 - 20 Jan 1961  Wilton B. Persons                  (b. 1896 - d. 1977)
Chiefs of Staff

18 Jan 1969 - 30 Apr 1973  Henry Robbins Haldeman             (b. 1926 - d. 1993)
 4 May 1973 - 27 Sep 1974  Alexander M. Haig, Jr.             (b. 1924 - d. 2010)
27 Sep 1974 - 11 Nov 1975  Donald Henry Rumsfeld              (b. 1932)
11 Nov 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Richard "Dick" Bruce Cheney        (b. 1941)
20 Jan 1977 - 18 Jul 1979  Vacant
18 Jul 1979 - 11 Jun 1980  Hamilton Jordan                    (b. 1944 - d. 2008)
11 Jun 1980 - 20 Jan 1981  Jack H. Watson, Jr.                (b. 1938)
20 Jan 1981 -  4 Feb 1985  James Addison Baker III (1st time) (b. 1930)
 4 Feb 1985 - 27 Feb 1987  Donald Thomas Regan                (b. 1918 - d. 2003)
27 Feb 1987 -  1 Jul 1988  Howard Henry Baker, Jr.            (b. 1925)
 1 Jul 1988 - 20 Jan 1989  Kenneth "Ken" Duberstein           (b. 1944)
20 Jan 1989 - 16 Dec 1991  John Henry Sununu                  (b. 1939)
16 Dec 1991 - 23 Aug 1992  Samuel Knox Skinner                (b. 1938)
23 Aug 1992 - 20 Jan 1993  James Addison Baker III (2nd time) (s.a.)
20 Jan 1993 - 27 Jun 1994  Mack McLarty                       (b. 1946)
27 Jun 1994 - 20 Jan 1997  Leon Edward Panetta                (b. 1938)
20 Jan 1997 - 30 Oct 1998  Erskine Bowles                     (b. 1946)
30 Oct 1998 - 20 Jan 2001  John Podesta                       (b. 1949)
20 Jan 2001 - 14 Apr 2006  Andrew "Andy" Hill Card, Jr.       (b. 1947)
14 Apr 2006 - 20 Jan 2009  Joshua "Josh" Bolten               (b. 1954)
20 Jan 2009 -  1 Oct 2010  Rahm I. Emanuel                    (b. 1959)
 1 Oct 2010 - 
13 Jan 2011  Pete Rouse                         (b. 1946)
13 Jan 2011 - 
27 Jan 2012  William "Bill" M. Daley            (b. 1948)
27 Jan 2012 - 
25 Jan 2013  Jack Lew                           (b. 1955)
25 Jan 2013 -              Denis McDonough                    (b. 1969)


National Security Advisors

[Flag of the President of the
                United States]

National Security Council (NSC)

23 Mar 1953                Post of Assistant to the President for National Security
                             Affairs (National Security Advisor) created.

Assistants to the President for National Security Affairs (National Security Advisors)
23 Mar 1953 -  2 Apr 1955  Robert Cutler (1st time)           (b. 1895 - d. 1974)
 2 Apr 1955 -  1 Sep 1956  Dillon Anderson                    (b. 1906 - d. 1974)
 1 Sep 1956 -  7 Jan 1957  William H. Jackson (acting)        (b. 1901 - d. 1971)
                            
(special assistant for National Security Affairs)
 7 Jan 1957 - 24 Jun 1958  Robert Cutler (2nd time)           (s.a.)
24 Jun 1958 - 13 Jan 1961  Gordon Gray                        (b. 1909 - d. 1982)
20 Jan 1961 - 28 Feb 1966  McGeorge Bundy                     (b. 1919 - d. 1996)
28 Feb 1966 -  1 Apr 1966  Francis M. Bator (acting)          (b. 1925)
                            
(deputy assistant to the President for National Security Affairs)
 1 Apr 1966 - 20 Jan 1969  Walt W. Rostow                     (b. 1916 - d. 2003)
20 Jan 1969 -  3 Nov 1975  Henry Alfred Kissinger             (b. 1923)
 3 Nov 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Brent Scowcroft (1st time)         (b. 1925)
20 Jan 1977 - 21 Jan 1981  Zbigniew Brzezinski                (b. 1928)
21 Jan 1981 -  4 Jan 1982  Richard V. Allen                   (b. 1936)
 4 Jan 1982 - 17 Oct 1983  William P. Clark                   (b. 1931 - d. 2013)
17 Oct 1983 -  4 Dec 1985  Robert "Bud" C. McFarlane          (b. 1937)
 4 Dec 1985 - 25 Nov 1986  John M. Poindexter                 (b. 1936)
 2 Dec 1986 - 23 Nov 1987  Frank Charles Carlucci III         (b. 1930)
23 Nov 1987 - 20 Jan 1989  Colin Luther Powell                (b. 1937)
20 Jan 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Brent Scowcroft (2nd time)         (s.a.)
20 Jan 1993 - 14 Mar 1997  Anthony "Tony" Lake                (b. 1939)
14 Mar 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Sandy Berger                       (b. 1945)
20 Jan 2001 - 26 Jan 2005  Condoleezza "Condi" Rice (f)       (b. 1954)
26 Jan 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Stephen J. Hadley                  (b. 1947)
20 Jan 2009 - 21 Oct 2010  James L. Jones                     (b. 1943)
21 Oct 2010 - 30 Jun 2013  Thomas E. Donilon                  (b. 1955)
 1 Jul 2013 -              Susan E. Rice (f)                  (b. 1964)


Office of the U.S. Trade Representative   (USTR)

[old
                      of Office of U.S. Trade Representative flag]                   Former USTR Flag
[Office of U.S. Trade Representative flag]                    Current USTR Flag

Office of the United States Trade Representative

11 Oct 1962                Special Representative for Trade Negotiations
15 Jan 1963                Part of the Executive Office of the President.
 7 Dec 1979                Office of the U.S. Trade Representative

Ambassadors
10 Dec 1962 - 30 Dec 1966  Christian Archibald Herter         (b. 1895 - d. 1966)
30 Dec 1966 - 20 Jan 1969  William Matson Roth                (b. 1916)
                             (acting to 24 Mar 1967)
20 Jan 1969 - 1969         John B. Rehm
(acting)              (b. 1930)
1969 -  6 Aug 1969         Thomas R. Gates (acting)
 6 Aug 1969 - 21 Sep 1971  Carl J. Gilbert                    (b. 1906 - d. 1983)
12 Nov 1971 - 24 Dec 1974  William D. Eberle                  (b. 1923 - d. 2008)
24 Dec 1974 - 26 Mar 1975  Harald B. Malmgren (acting)        (b. 1935)
26 Mar 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Frederick Baily Dent               (b. 1922)
20 Jan 1977 - 30 Mar 1977  Alan W. Wolff (acting)             (b. 1942)
30 Mar 1977 - 17 Aug 1979  Robert Schwarz Strauss             (b. 1918 - d. 2014)
17 Aug 1979 -  1 Oct 1979  Alonzo L. McDonald, Jr. (acting)   (b. 1928)
 1 Oct 1979 - 31 Dec 1980  Reubin O'Donovan Askew             (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
31 Dec 1980 - 23 Jan 1981  Robert Hormats (acting)            (b. 1943)
23 Jan 1981 - 29 Apr 1985  William Emerson Brock III          (b. 1930)
29 Apr 1985 -  1 Jul 1985  Michael B. Smith (acting)          (b. 1936)
 1 Jul 1985 - 20 Jan 1989  Clayton Keith Yeutter              (b. 1930)
 6 Feb 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Carla Anderson Hills (f)           (b. 1934)
22 Jan 1993 - 12 Apr 1996  Mickey Kantor                      (b. 1939)
12 Apr 1996 - 20 Jan 2001  Charlene Barshefsky (f)            (b. 1949)
                             (acting to 17 Mar 1997)
20 Jan 2001 -  7 Feb 2001  Rita D. Hayes (f)(acting)          (b. 1942)
 7 Feb 2001 - 18 Feb 2005  Robert B. Zoellick                 (b. 1953)
18 Feb 2005 - 29 Apr 2005  Peter F. Allgeier (1st time)       (b. 1947)
                             (acting)                 
29 Apr 2005 -  2 Jun 2006  Rob J. Portman                     (b. 1955)
 2 Jun 2006 - 20 Jan 2009  Susan C. Schwab (f)                (b. 1955)
                             (acting to 9 June 2006)
20 Jan 2009 - 18 Mar 2009 
Peter F. Allgeier (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting) 
18 Mar 2009 - 15 Mar 2013  Ronald "Ron" Kirk                  (b. 1954)
15 Mar 2013 - 23 May 2013  Demetrios J. Marantis (acting)     (b. 1968)
23 May 2013 - 21 Jun 2013  Miriam E. Sapiro (f) (acting)      (b. 1960)
21 Jun 2013 -              Michael B. Froman                  (b. 1962)



Independent agencies

American Battle Monuments Commission

[seal of American Battle
                Monuments Commissionl (ABMC does not have a flag)]
                     ABMC Seal

American Battle Monuments Commission

11 Jun 1921                Battle Monuments Board, within War Department formed.
 4 Mar 1923                American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) established
                             as an 
independent agency.

Chairmen
1921 - 1923                John McAuley Palmer                (b. 1870 - d. 1955)
1923 - 15 Jul 1948         John Joseph Pershing               (b. 1860 - d. 1948)
1949 - 16 Oct 1959         George Catlett Marshall            (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
1960 - 1969                Jacob Louis Devers                 (b. 1887 - d. 1979)
1969 - 17 Apr 1984         Mark Wayne Clark                   (b. 1896 - d. 1984)
1985 - 1990                Andrew J. Goodpaster               (b. 1915 - d. 2005)
1991 - 1994                Paul X. Kelley (1st time)          (b. 1928)
1994 - Aug 2001            Frederick F. Woerner               (b. 1933)
Aug 2001 - 2005            Paul X. Kelley (2nd time)          (s.a.)
2005 - Jan 2009            Frederick "Fred" M. Franks, Jr.    (b. 1936)
2009 - Jun 2009            John W. Nicholson (secretary)

Jun 2009 -  3 Jun 2011     Max Cleland (secretary)
            (b. 1942)
 3 Jun 2011 -              Merrill A. McPeak                  (b. 1936)



Central Intelligence Agency  (CIA)

[Central Intelligence Agency
                (CIA) flag]

CIA website

11 Jul 1941                Coordinator of Information (COI).
13 Jun 1942                Office of Strategic Services (OSS).
 1 Oct 1945                OSS disbanded.
22 Jan 1946                Central Intelligence Group (CIG).
18 Sep 1947                Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Coordinator of Information (from 13 Jun 1942, Director of Strategic Services)
11 Jul 1941 -  1 Oct 1945  William Joseph Donovan             (b. 1883 - d. 1959)
Directors of Central Intelligence
(from 21 Apr 2005, Directors of the Central Intelligence Agency)
23 Jan 1946 - 10 Jun 1946  Sidney William Souers              (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
10 Jun 1946 -  1 May 1947  Hoyt Sanford Vandenberg            (b. 1899 - d. 1954)
 1 May 1947 -  7 Oct 1950  Roscoe Henry Hillenkoetter         (b. 1897 - d. 1982)
 7 Oct 1950 -  9 Feb 1953  Walter Bedell Smith                (b. 1895 - d. 1961)
 9 Feb 1953 - 29 Nov 1961  Allen Welsh Dulles                 (b. 1893 - d. 1969)
                             (acting to 26 Feb 1953)
29 Nov 1961 - 28 Apr 1965  John Alex McCone                   (b. 1902 - d. 1991)
28 Apr 1965 - 30 Jun 1966  William Francis Raborn, Jr.        (b. 1905 - d. 1990)
30 Jun 1966 -  2 Feb 1973  Richard McGarrah Helms             (b. 1913 - d. 2002)
 2 Feb 1973 -  2 Jul 1973  James Rodney Schlesinger           (b. 1929 - d. 2014)
 2 Jul 1973 -  4 Sep 1973  Vernon Anthony Walters (acting)    (b. 1917 - d. 2002)
 4 Sep 1973 - 30 Jan 1976  William Egan Colby                 (b. 1920 - d. 1996)
30 Jan 1976 - 20 Jan 1977  George Herbert Walker Bush         (b. 1924)
20 Jan 1977 -  9 Mar 1977  E. Henry Knoche (acting)           (b. 1925 - d. 2010)
 9 Mar 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Stansfield Turner                  (b. 1923)
28 Jan 1981 - 29 Jan 1987  William Joseph Casey               (b. 1913 - d. 1987)
29 Jan 1987 - 26 May 1987  Robert Michael Gates (1st time)    (b. 1943)
                             (acting)
26 May 1987 - 31 Aug 1991  William Hedycook Webster           (b. 1924)
 1 Sep 1991 -  6 Nov 1991  Richard J. Kerr (acting)           (b. 1935)
 6 Nov 1991 - 20 Jan 1993  Robert Michael Gates (2nd time)    (s.a.)
21 Jan 1993 -  5 Feb 1993  William Oliver Studeman (1st time) (b. 1940)
                             (acting)
 5 Feb 1993 - 10 Jan 1995  R. James Woolsey                   (b. 1941)
11 Jan 1995 -  9 May 1995  William Oliver Studeman (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 9 May 1995 - 15 Dec 1996  John Deutch                        (b. 1938)
15 Dec 1996 - 11 Jul 2004  George Tenet                       (b. 1953)
                             (acting to 11 Jul 1997)
11 Jul 2004 - 24 Sep 2004  John McLaughlin (acting)           (b. 1942)
24 Sep 2004 - 30 May 2006  Porter J. Goss                     (b. 1938)
30 May 2006 - 13 Feb 2009  Michael Vincent Hayden             (b. 1945)
13 Feb 2009 -  1 Jul 2011  Leon Edward Panetta                (b. 1938)
 1 Jul 2011 -  6 Sep 2011  Michael Morell (1st time)(acting)  (b. 1958)
 6 Sep 2011 -  9 Nov 2012  David H. Petraeus                  (b. 1952)
 9 Nov 2012 -
 8 Mar 2013  Michael Morell (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.)
 8 Mar 2013 -              John O. Brennan                    (b. 1955)


U.S. government departments and offices, etc.
National Security Agency

[National Security
                Agency]

NSA website

15 Jul 1949                Armed Forces Security Agency

 4 Nov 1952                National Security Agency (NSA).

Directors
15 Jul 1949 - 15 Jul 1951  Earl E. Stone                      (b. 1895 - d. 1989)
15 Jul 1951 - 23 Nov 1956  Ralph J. Canine                    (b. 1895 - d. 1969)
24 Nov 1956 - 23 Nov 1960  John A. Samford                    (b. 1905 - d. 1968)
24 Nov 1960 - 30 Jun 1962  Laurence H. Frost                  (b. 1902 - d. 1977)
 1 Jul 1962 - 31 May 1965  Gordon A. Blake                    (b. 1910 - d. 1997)
 1 Jun 1965 - 31 Jul 1969  Marshall S. Carter                 (b. 1909 - d. 1993)
 1 Aug 1969 - 31 Jul 1972  Noel Gayler                        (b. 1914 - d. 2011)
 1 Aug 1972 - 14 Aug 1973  Samuel C. Phillips                 (b. 1921 - d. 1990)
15 Aug 1973 -  4 Jul 1977  Lew Allen, Jr.                     (b. 1925 - d. 2010)
 5 Jul 1977 - 31 Mar 1981  Bobby Ray Inman                    (b. 1931)
 1 Apr 1981 - 27 Mar 1985  Lincoln D. Faurer                  (b. 1928)
27 Mar 1985 -  5 May 1985  Robert E. Rich (acting)            (b. 1926)
 5 May 1985 - 31 Jul 1988  William E. Odom                    (b. 1932 - d. 2008)

 1 Aug 1988 -  8 Apr 1992  William O. Studeman                (b. 1940)
 8 Apr 1992 - 22 May 1992  Robert L. Prestel (acting)         (b. 1936)
22 May 1992 - 22 Feb 1996  J. Michael McConnell               (b. 1943)

23 Feb 1996 - 15 Mar 1999  Kenneth A. Minihan                 (b. 1943)
25 Mar 1999 - May 2005     Michael V. Hayden                  (b. 1945)
May 2005 - 31 Jul 2005     William B. Black, Jr. (acting)     (b. 1936)
 1 Aug 2005 -              Keith B. Alexander                 (b. 1951)



Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)

[Flag of Office of the
                Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)]
                     Adopted Aug 2005

ODNI website

17 Dec 2004                Office of Director of National Intelligence created.

Directors
21 Apr 2005 - 20 Feb 2007  John D. Negroponte                 (b. 1939) 
20 Feb 2007 - 27 Jan 2009  J. Michael "Mike" McConnell
        (b. 1943)
27 Jan 2009 - 29 Jan 2009  Ronald L. Burgess, Jr. (acting)    (b. 1952)
29 Jan 2009 - 28 May 2010  Dennis C. Blair                    (b. 1947)
28 May 2010 -  9 Aug 2010  David C. Gompert (acting)          (b. 1945)
 9 Aug 2010 -              James R. Clapper, Jr.              (b. 1941)



Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA)

[Environmental Protection
                Agency (EPA] flag]

EPA website

 2 Dec 1970                Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established.

Administrators
 4 Dec 1970 - 30 Apr 1973  William Doyle Ruckelshaus          (b. 1932)
                             (1st time)
30 Apr 1973 - 12 Sep 1973  Robert W. Fri (acting)             (b. 1935)
13 Sep 1973 - 20 Jan 1977  Russell E. Train                   (b. 1920 - d. 2012)
21 Jan 1977 -  6 Mar 1977  John Quarles, Jr. (acting)         (b. 1935 - d. 2012)
 7 Mar 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Douglas M. Costle                  (b. 1939)
21 Jan 1981 - 25 Jan 1981  Steven D. Jellinek (acting)        (b. 1940)
26 Jan 1981 - 19 May 1981  Walter C. Barber, Jr. (acting)
20 May 1981 -  9 Mar 1983  Anne M. Gorsuch (f)                (b. 1942 - d. 2004)
10 Mar 1983 - 17 May 1983  Lee Verstandig (acting)            (b. 1937)
18 May 1983 -  4 Jan 1985  William Doyle Ruckelshaus          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
 4 Jan 1985 - 20 Jan 1989  Lee M. Thomas                      (b. 1944)
                             (acting to 8 Feb 1985)
21 Jan 1989 -  5 Feb 1989  John Moore (acting)
 6 Feb 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  William K. Reilly                  (b. 1940)
21 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001  Carol M. Browner (f)               (b. 1955)
20 Jan 2001 - 31 Jan 2001  W. Michael McCabe (acting)         (b. 1952)
31 Jan 2001 - 27 Jun 2003  Christie Todd Whitman (f)          (b. 1946)
28 Jun 2003 - 11 Jul 2003  Linda J. Fisher (f) (acting)       (b. 1952)
12 Jul 2003 -  6 Nov 2003  Marianne Lamont Horinko (f)        (b. 1961)
                             (acting)
 6 Nov 2003 - 26 Jan 2005  Michael "Mike" Leavitt             (b. 1951)
26 Jan 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Stephen L. Johnson                 (b. 1951)
                             (acting to 2 May 2005)
20 Jan 2009 - 26 Jan 2009  Michael H. Shapiro (acting)        (b. 1948?)
26 Jan 2009 - 14 Feb 2013  Lisa P. Jackson (f)                (b. 1962)
15 Feb 2013 - 19 Jul 2013  Bob Perciasepe (acting)            (b. 1951)
19 Jul 2013 -              Regina "Gina" McCarthy (f)         (b. 1954)


Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

[seal of Federal
                Communications Commission (FCC) (FCC does not have a
                flag]
                            FCC Seal

FCC website

23 Feb 1927                Federal Radio Commission (FRC)
19 Jun 1934               
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

Chairmen
15 Mar 1927 - 24 Nov 1927  William H.G. Bullard               (b. 1866 - d. 1927)  Ind
31 Mar 1928 - 15 Jan 1932  Ira E. Robinson                    (b. 1869 - d. 1951)  Rep
28 Mar 1932 - 19 Jun 1934  Thad H. Brown                      (b. 1887 - d. 1941)  Rep
11 Jul 1934 -  8 Mar 1935  Eugene O. Sykes                    (b. 1876 - d. 1935)  Dem
 9 Mar 1935 - 23 Jul 1937  Anning S. Prall                    (b. 1870 - d. 1937)  Dem
 1 Oct 1937 - 31 Aug 1939  Frank McNinch                      (b. 1873 - d. 1950)  Dem
 1 Sep 1939 - 13 Nov 1944  James Lawrence Fly                 (b. 1898 - d. 1966)  Dem  
16 Nov 1944 - 20 Dec 1944  Ewell K. Jett (interim)            (b. 1893 - d. 1965)  Ind
21 Dec 1944 - 25 Feb 1946  Paul A. Porter                     (b. 1904 - d. 1975)  Dem
26 Feb 1946 - 31 Oct 1947  Charles R. Denny, Jr.              (b. 1912 - d. 2000)  Dem
                             (acting to 4 Dec 1946)
 3 Nov 1947 - 28 Dec 1947  Paul A. Walker (1st time)
(acting)  (b. 1881 - d. 1965)  Dem
29 Dec 1947 - 21 Feb 1952  Wayne Coy                          (b. 1903 - d. 1957)  Dem
28 Feb 1952 - 17 Apr 1953  Paul A. Walker (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Dem
18 Apr 1953 -  3 Oct 1954  Rosel H. Hyde (1st time)           (b. 1900 - d. 1992)  Rep
                             (acting from 19 Apr 1954)
 4 Oct 1954 - 30 Jun 1957  George McConnaughey                (b. 1896 - d. 1966)  Rep
 1 Jul 1957 - 10 Mar 1960  John C. Doerfer                    (b. 1904 - d. 1992)  Rep
15 Mar 1960 -  1 Mar 1961  Frederick W. Ford                  (b. 1909 - d. 1986)  Rep
 2 Mar 1961 -  1 Jun 1963  Newton N. Minow                    (b. 1926)            Dem
 2 Jun 1962 -  1 May 1966  E. William Henry                   (b. 1929)            Dem
 1 May 1966 - 31 Oct 1969  Rosel H. Hyde (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Rep
                             (acting to 27 Jun 1966)
31 Oct 1969 -  8 Mar 1974  Dean Burch                         (b. 1927 - d. 1991)  Rep
 8 Mar 1974 - 13 Oct 1977  Richard E. Wiley                   (b. 1934)            Rep
17 Oct 1977 -  4 Feb 1981  Charles D. Ferris                  (b. 1933)            Dem
 5 Feb 1981 - 18 May 1981  Robert E. Lee                      (b. 1912 - d. 1993)  Rep
                             (interim to 13 Apr 1981)
18 May 1981 - 17 Apr 1987  Mark S. Fowler                     (b. 1941)            Rep
18 Apr 1987 -  7 Aug 1989  Dennis R. Patrick                  (b. 1951)            Rep
 8 Aug 1989 - 19 Jan 1993  Alfred C. Sikes                    (b. 1939)            Rep
 5 Feb 1993 - 28 Nov 1993  James H. Quello                    (b. 1914 - d. 2010)  Dem
29 Nov 1993 -  3 Nov 1997  Reed E. Hundt                      (b. 1948)            Dem
 3 Nov 1997 - 19 Jan 2001  William E. Kennard                 (b. 1957)            Dem
22 Jan 2001 - 17 Mar 2005  Michael K. Powell                  (b. 1963)            Rep
18 Mar 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Kevin J. Martin                    (b. 1966)            Rep
22 Jan 2009 - 29 Jun 2009  Michael J. Copps (acting)          (b. 1940)            Dem
29 Jun 2009 - 20 May 2013  Julius Genachowski                 (b. 1962)            Dem
20 May 2013 -  4 Nov 2013  Mignon L. Clyburn (f) (acting)     (b. 1962)            Dem

 4 Nov 2013 -              Tom Wheeler                        (b. c.1946)          Dem

Party abbreviations: Dem = Democratic Party; Ind = Independent; Rep = Republican Party



Federal  Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

[Federal Deposit Insurance
                Corporation (FDIC) flag]

FDIC website

16 Jun 1933                Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) created.

Chairmen
11 Sep 1933 –  1 Feb 1934  Walter J. Cummings                 (b. 1916 – d. 1999)
 1 Feb 1934 – 15 Oct 1945  Leo T. Crowley                     (b. 1889 – d. 1972)
15 Oct 1945 -  5 Jan 1946  Preston Delano (acting
)            (b. 1886 - d. 1961)
 5 May 1946 – 10 May 1953  Maple T. Harl                      (b. 1893 – d. 1957)
10 May 1953 –  6 Sep 1957  H. Earl Cook                       (b. 1886 - d. 1971)
 6 Sep 1957 – 17 Sep 1957  Ray M. Gidney (acting)
             (b. 1887 - d. 1978)
17 Sep 1957 – 20 Jan 1961  Jesse Paine Wolcott                (b. 1893 – d. 1969)
20 Jan 1961 –  4 Aug 1963  Erle Cocke, Sr.                    (b. 1895 - d. 1977)
 4 Aug 1963 – 22 Jan 1964  James J. Saxon (acting)            (b. 1914 - d. 1980)
22 Jan 1964 – 10 Mar 1964  Joseph W. Barr                     (b. 1918 – d. 1996)
21 Apr 1965 –  9 Mar 1970  Kenneth A. Randall                 (b. 1927)
 9 Mar 1970 –  1 Apr 1970  William B. Camp (acting)
           (b. 1913 - d. 1975)
 1 Apr 1970 – 16 Mar 1976  Frank Wille                        (b. 1931 - d. 1988)
16 Mar 1976 – 18 Mar 1976  James E. Smith (acting)
18 Mar 1976 –  1 Jun 1977  Robert E. Barnett                  (b. 1935)
 1 Jun 1977 – 16 Aug 1978  George A. LeMaistre                (b. 1911 - d. 1994)
16 Aug 1978 –  7 Feb 1979  John G. Heimann (acting)           (b. 1929)
 7 Jul 1979 –  2 Aug 1981  Irvine H. Sprague                  (b. 1921 - d. 2004)
 3 Aug 1981 – 21 Oct 1985  William M. Isaac                   (b. 1943)
21 Oct 1985 – 16 Oct 1991  L. William Seidman                 (b. 1921 - d. 2009)
16 Oct 1991 – 25 Oct 1991  Andrew "Skip" C. Hove, Jr.         (b. 1934)
                             (1st time)(acting)
25 Oct 1991 – 21 Aug 1992  William Taylor                     (b. 1939 - d. 1992)
21 Aug 1992 –  7 Oct 1994  Andrew "Skip" C. Hove, Jr.         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 7 Oct 1994 –  1 Jun 1997  Ricki R. Tigert Helfer (f)         (b. 1945)
 1 Jun 1997 – 26 May 1998  Andrew "Skip" C. Hove, Jr.         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting)
26 May 1998 – 11 Jul 2001  Donna A. Tanoue (f)                (b. 1954)
11 Jul 2001 – 29 Aug 2001  John M. Reich (acting)             (b. 1939)
29 Aug 2001 – 15 Nov 2005  Donald "Don" E. Powell             (b. 1941)
15 Nov 2005 – 26 Jun 2006  Martin J. Gruenberg (1st time)     (b. 1953)
                             (acting)
26 Jun 2006 -  8 Jul 2011  Sheila C. Bair (f)                 (b. 1954)
 8 Jul 2011 -
             Martin J. Gruenberg (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting to 15 Nov 2012)



Federal Reserve System

[Flag of Board of Governors of
                Federal Reserve System]

Federal Reserve website

23 Dec 1913                Federal Reserve System created.

Governors
10 Aug 1914 -  9 Aug 1916  Charles S. Hamlin                  (b. 1861 - d. 1938)
10 Aug 1916 -  9 Aug 1922  William Proctor G. Harding         (b. 1864 - d. 1930)
 9 Aug 1922 -  1 May 1923  Edmund Platt (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
 1 May 1923 - 15 Sep 1927  Daniel Richard Crissinger          (b. 1860 - d. 1942)
16 Sep 1927 -  3 Oct 1927  Edmund Platt (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
 4 Oct 1927 - 31 Aug 1930  Roy Archibald Young                (b. 1882 - d. 1960)
16 Sep 1930 - 10 May 1933  Eugene Isaac Meyer                 (b. 1875 - d. 1959)
19 May 1933 - 15 Aug 1934  Eugene R. Black                    (b. 1898 - d. 1992)
21 Aug 1934 - 14 Nov 1934  John Jacob Thomas (acting)         (b. 1869 - d. 1952)
15 Nov 1934 - 23 Aug 1935  Marriner Stoddard Eccles           (b. 1890 - d. 1977)
Chairmen of the Board of Governors
23 Aug 1935 - 15 Apr 1948  Marriner Stoddard Eccles           (s.a.)
15 Apr 1948 - 31 Mar 1951  Thomas B. McCabe                   (b. 1893 - d. 1982)
 2 Apr 1951 - 31 Jan 1970  William McChesney Martin           (b. 1906 - d. 1998)
 1 Feb 1970 - 31 Jan 1978  Arthur F. Burns                    (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
 1 Feb 1978 -  8 Mar 1978  Stephen S. Gardner (acting)        (b. 1921 - d. 1978)
 8 Mar 1978 -  6 Aug 1979  G. William Miller                  (b. 1925 - d. 2006)
 6 Aug 1979 - 11 Aug 1987  Paul A. Volcker                    (b. 1927)
11 Aug 1987 - 31 Jan 2006  Alan C. Greenspan                  (b. 1926)
 1 Feb 2006 - 31 Jan 2014  Benjamin "Ben" S. Bernanke         (b. 1953)
 1 Feb 2014 -              Janet L. Yellen (f)                (b. 1946)


Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

[Federal Trade Commission
                (FTC) flag]

FTC website

14 Feb 1903                U.S. Bureau of Corporations, within the Department of Commerce
                             and Labor (from 4 Mar 1913, Department of Commerce).
16 Mar 1915                Federal Trade Commission (FTC), an independent agency.

Commissioners of Bureau of Corporations

1903 - 1907                James Rudolph Garfield             (b. 1865 – d. 1950)
1907 - 18 Jul 1912         Herbert Knox Smith                 (b. 1869 - d. 1931)
 7 Aug 1912 – 15 Apr 1913  Luther Conant, Jr.                 (b. 1872 - d. 1971)  
27 May 1913 – 16 Mar 1915  Joseph E. Davies                   (b. 1876 – d. 1958)
Chairmen of the Federal Trade Commission
16 Mar 1915 – 30 Jun 1916  Joseph E. Davies                   (s.a.)               Dem
 1 Jul 1916 – 31 Jan 1917  Edward N. Hurley                   (b. 1864 – d. 1933)  Dem
 1 Feb 1917 -  6 May 1918  William J. Harris                  (b. 1868 - d. 1932)  Dem
 7 May 1918 - 30 Jun 1919  William B. Colver                  (b. 1870 - d. 1926)  Dem
 1 Jul 1919 – 30 Nov 1919  John. R. Fort                      
(b. 1852 - d. 1920)  Rep
 1 Dec 1919 – 30 Nov 1920  Victor Murdock (1st time)          (b. 1871 – d. 1945)  Prog
 1 Dec 1920 – 30 Nov 1921  S. Huston Thompson (1st time)      (b. 1875 - d. 1966)  Dem
 1 Dec 1921 - 30 Nov 1922  Nelson B. Gaskill                  (b. 1875 - d. 1964)  Rep
 1 Dec 1922 – 30 Nov 1923  Victor Murdock (2nd time)          (s.a.)               
Prog
 1 Dec 1923 – 30 Nov 1924  S. Huston Thompson (2nd  time)     (s.a.)               Dem
 1 Dec 1924 - 30 Nov 1925  Vernon Wick Van Fleet              (b. 1866 - d. 1932)  Rep
 1 Dec 1925 – 30 Nov 1926  John F. Nugent                     (b. 1868 - d. 1931)  Dem
 1 Dec 1926 – 30 Nov 1927  Charles W. Hunt (1st time)         (b. 1864 - d. 1938?)
Rep
 1 Dec 1927 – 30 Nov 1928  William E. Humphrey (1st time)     (b. 1862 – d. 1934)  Rep
 1 Dec 1928 – 15 Jan 1929  Abram F. Myers                     (b. 1889 - d. 19..)  Rep
18 Jan 1929 – 30 Nov 1929  Edgar A. McCulloch                 (b. 1861 - d. 1933)  Dem
 1 Jan 1930 – 30 Dec 1930  Garland S. Ferguson, Jr. (1st time)(b. 1878 - d. 1963) 
Dem
 1 Jan 1931 – 31 Dec 1931  Charles W. Hunt (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Rep
 1 Feb 1932 – 31 Dec 1932  William E. Humphrey (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Rep
 1 Jan 1933 – 31 Dec 1933  Charles H. March (1st time)        (b. 1870 - d. 1945)  Rep
 1 Jan 1934 – 31 Dec 1934  Garland S. Ferguson, Jr. (2nd time)(s.a.)               Dem
 1 Jan 1935 – 31 Dec 1935  Ewin L. Davis (1st time)           (b. 1876 – d. 1949)  Dem
 1 Jan 1936 – 31 Dec 1936  Charles H. March (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Rep
 1 Jan 1937 – 31 Dec 1937  William A. Ayres (1st time)        (b. 1867 - d. 1952)  Dem
 1 Jan 1938 – 31 Dec 1938  Garland S. Ferguson, Jr. (3rd time)(s.a.)               Dem
 1 Jan 1939 – 31 Dec 1939  Robert E. Freer (1st time)         (b. 1896 - d. 1963)  Rep
 1 Jan 1940 – 31 Dec 1940  Ewin L. Davis (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Dem
 1 Jan 1941 – 31 Dec 1941  Charles H. March (3rd time)        (s.a.)               Rep
 1 Jan 1942 – 31 Dec 1942  William A. Ayres (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Dem
 1 Jan 1943 – 31 Dec 1943  Garland S. Ferguson, Jr. (4th time)(s.a.)               Dem
 1 Jan 1944 – 31 Dec 1944  Robert E. Freer (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Rep
 1 Jan 1945 – 31 Dec 1945  Ewin L. Davis (3rd time)           (s.a.)               Dem
 1 Jan 1946 – 31 Dec 1946  William A. Ayres (3rd time)        (s.a.)               Dem
 1 Jan 1947 – 31 Dec 1947  Garland S. Ferguson, Jr. (5th time)(s.a.)               Dem
 1 Jan 1948 – 31 Dec 1948  Robert E. Freer (3rd time)         (s.a.)               Rep
 1 Jan 1949 – 23 May 1950  Lowell B. Mason                    (b. 1893 - d. 1983)  Rep
24 May 1950 – 31 Mar 1953  James M. Mead                      (b. 1885 – d. 1964)  Dem
 1 Apr 1953 – 12 Sep 1955  Edward F. Howrey                   (b. 1903 - d. 1996)  Rep
12 Sep 1955 – 31 May 1959  John W. Gwynne                     (b. 1889 – d. 1972)  Rep
11 Jun 1959 – 20 Mar 1961  Earl W. Kinter                     (b. 1912 - d. 1991)  Rep
21 Mar 1961 – 31 Dec 1969  Paul Rand Dixon (1st time)         (b. 1916 - d. 1996) 
Dem
 1 Jan 1970 -  6 Aug 1970  Caspar W. Weinberger               (b. 1917 – d. 2006)  Rep
 8 Aug 1970 – 14 Sep 1970  Everette MacIntyre (acting)        (b. 1901 - d. 1997)  Dem
15 Sep 1970 – 20 Feb 1973  Miles W. Kirkpatrick               (b. 1918 - d. 1998)  Rep
21 Feb 1973 - 31 Dec 1975  Lewis A. Engman                    (b. 1936 - d. 1995)  Rep
 1 Jan 1976 – 25 Mar 1976  Paul Rand Dixon (2nd time)
(acting) (s.a.)               Dem
25 Mar 1976 – 20 Apr 1977  Calvin J. Collier                  (b. 1942?)           Rep
21 Apr 1977 -  3 Mar 1981  Michael Pertschuk                  (b. 1933)            Dem
 4 Mar 1981 – 25 Sep 1981  David A. Clanton (acting)                               Rep
26 Sep 1981 -  4 Oct 1985  James C. Miller III                (b. 1942)            Rep
 7 Oct 1985 – 20 Apr 1986  Terry Calvani (acting)             (b. 1947)            Rep
21 Apr 1986 – 10 Aug 1989  Daniel Oliver                      (b. 1939)            Rep
11 Aug 1989 – 11 Apr 1995  J
anet Dempsey Steiger (f)          (b. 1939 - d. 2004)  Rep
12 Apr 1995 – 31 May 2001  Robert F. Pitofsky                 (b. 1929)            Dem
 4 Jun 2001 – 15 Aug 2004  Timothy J. Muris                   (b. 1949)            Rep

16 Aug 2004 - 30 Mar 2008  Deborah Platt Majoras (f)          (b. 1963)            Rep
30 Mar 2008 -  2 Mar 2009  William E. Kovacic                 (b. 1952)            Rep
 2 Mar 2009 - 15 Feb 2013  Jonathan "Jon" D. Leibowitz 
      (b. 1958)            Dem
 4 Mar 2013 -              Edith Ramirez (f)                  (b. 1968)            Dem

Party abbreviations: Dem = Democratic Party; Prog = Progressive Party; Rep = Republican Party



General Services Administration (GSA)

[flag of General Services
                Administration (GSA)]

GSA website

 1 Jul 1949                General Services Administration (GSA), an independent agency.

Administrators
 3 Jul 1949 - 29 Jan 1953  Jess Larson                        (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
10 Feb 1953 -  1 May 1953  Russell Forbe (acting)
 2 May 1953 - 29 Feb 1956  Edmund F. Mansure                  (b. 1901 - d. 1992)
29 Feb 1956 - 20 Jan 1961  Franklin G. Floete                 (b. 1889 - d. 1973)
                             (acting to 3 May 1956)
 7 Feb 1961 - 25 Nov 1961  John L. Moore                      (b. 1903? - d. ....)
25 Nov 1961 - 30 Nov 1964  Bernard "Bernie" L. Boutin         (b. 1923 - d. 2011)
                             (acting to 27 Nov 1961)
30 Nov 1964 - 
28 Feb 1969  Lawson B. Knott, Jr.               (b. 1912 - d. 1998)
                             (acting to 12 Jan 1965)
17 Mar 1969 - 14 Jan 1972  Robert L. Kunzig                   (b. 1918 - d. 1982)
17 Jan 1972 -  1 Jun 1972  Rod Kreger (acting)
 2 Jun 1972 - 15 Oct 1975  Arthur F. Sampson                  (b. 1926 - d. 1988)
15 Oct 1975 - 21 Nov 1975  
Dwight A. Ink (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1922)
21 Nov 1975 - 11 Feb 1977  Jack M. Eckerd                     (b. 1916 - d. 2004)
15 Feb 1977 - 29 Apr 1977  Robert T. Griffin (acting)         (b. 1919? - d. 2008)
30 Apr 1977 - 31 Mar 1979  Joel "Jay" W. Solomon              (b. 1921 - d. 1984)
 1 Apr 1979 - 29 Jun 1979  Paul E. Goulding (acting)          (b. 1934 - d. 2011)
 2 Jul 1979 - 14 Jan 1981  Rowland G. Freeman III             (b. 1922)
15 Jan 1981 - 25 May 1981  Ray A. Kline (1st time)(acting)    (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
26 May 1981 - 29 Feb 1984  Gerald Posner Carmen               (b. 1930)
 1 Mar 1984 -  3 Mar 1985
 Ray A. Kline (2nd time)(acting)    (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1985 - 28 Jun 1985  Dwight A. Ink (2nd time)(acting)   (s.a.)
29 Jun 1985 - 18 Mar 1988  Terence C. Golden                  (b. 1944)
19 Mar 1988 - 31 Mar 1988  Paul K. Trause (acting)
 1 Apr 1988 - 26 Sep 1988  John Alderson (acting)             (b. 1933)
27 Sep 1988 - 19 Jan 1993  Richard G. Austin                  (b. 1948)
                             (acting to 30 May 1990)
20 Jan 1993 -  3 Feb 1993  Robert Jones (acting)
 4 Feb 1993 - 13 Jun 1993  Dennis J. Fischer (acting)         (b. c.1939)
13 Jun 1993 -  7 Jul 1993  Julia M. Stasch (f)(acting)        (b. 1947?)
 8 Jul 1993 - 29 Feb 1996  Roger Johnson                      (b. 1934 - d. 2005)
 4 Mar 1996 - 15 Dec 2000  David J. Barram                    (b. 1943)
16 Dec 2000 - 30 May 2001  Thurman M. Davis, Sr. (acting)     (b. 1936)
31 May 2001 - 31 Oct 2005  Stephen A. Perry                   (b. 1945)
 1 Nov 2005 - 30 May 2006  David L. Bibb (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1948)
31 May 2006 - 30 Apr 2008  Lurita A. Doan (f)                 (b. 1958)
 1 May 2008 - 29 Aug 2008
 David L. Bibb (2nd time)(acting)   (s.a.)
30 Aug 2008 - 20 Jan 2009  James A. Williams (acting)         (b. 1955?)

21 Jan 2009 - 22 Dec 2009  Paul F. Prouty (acting)
           (b. 1948)
22 Dec 2009 -  7 Feb 2010  Stephen R. Leeds (acting)
 7 Feb 2010 -  2 Apr 2012  Martha N. Johnson (f)              (b. 1953)
 3 Apr 2012 -              Daniel M. Tangherlini              (b. 1967)
                             (acting to 5 Jul 2013)


Federal Works Agency

 1 Jul 1939                Federal Works Agency (FWA), an independent agency.
30 Jun 1949                Abolished, units transferred to General Services Administration.

Administrators
 1 Jul 1939 - 1941         John M. Carmody                    (b. 1881 - d. 1963)
10 Dec 1941 - Jun 1949     Philip B. Fleming                  (b. 1887 - d. 1955)


Works Progress Administration

12 May 1933                Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) an independent
                             agency.
 6 May 1935                Works Progress Administration (WPA).
 1 Jul 1939                Transferred to the Federal Works Agency, renamed
                             Works Project Administration.
 1 Jul 1943                Dissolved.

Director
12 May 1933 -  6 May 1935  Harry L. Hopkins                   (b. 1890 - d. 1946)
Administrators
 6 May 1935 - 23 Dec 1938  Harry L. Hopkins                   (s.a.)
24 Dec 1938 - 30 Jun 1939  Francis Clarke Harrington          (b. 1887 - d. 1940)
Commissioners
 1 Jul 1939 - 30 Sep 1940  Francis Clarke Harrington          (s.a.)
30 Sep 1940 - 30 Jun 1943  Howard Owen Hunter                 (b. 1896 - d. 1964)
                             (acting to 10 Oct 1941)


National Aeronautics and Space Administration  (NASA)

[National Aeronautics and
                Space Administration (NASA) flag]

NASA website

 1 Oct 1958                National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
                             established.

Administrators
 1 Oct 1958 - 20 Jan 1961  Thomas Keith Glennan               (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
20 Jan 1961 - 14 Feb 1961  Hugh Latimer Dryden (acting)       (b. 1898 - d. 1965)
14 Feb 1961 -  7 Oct 1968  James Edwin Webb                   (b. 1906 - d. 1992)
 7 Oct 1968 - 15 Sep 1970  Thomas O. Paine                    (b. 1921 - d. 1992)
                             (acting to 21 Mar 1969)
15 Sep 1970 - 27 Apr 1971  George Michael Low (acting)        (b. 1926 - d. 1984)
27 Apr 1971 -  1 May 1977  James C. Fletcher (1st time)       (b. 1919 - d. 1991)
 1 May 1977 - 21 Jun 1977  Alan M. Lovelace (1st time)(acting)(b. 1929)
21 Jun 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Robert A. Frosch                   (b. 1928)
20 Jan 1981 - 10 Jul 1981  Alan M. Lovelace (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)
10 Jul 1981 -  4 Dec 1985  James M. Beggs                     (b. 1926)
 4 Dec 1985 - 12 May 1986  William R. Graham (acting)         (b. 1937)
12 May 1986 -  8 Apr 1989  James C. Fletcher (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 8 Apr 1989 - 13 May 1989  Dale D. Myers (acting)             (b. 1922)
14 May 1989 - 31 Mar 1992  Richard H. Truly                   (b. 1937)
 1 Apr 1992 - 17 Nov 2001  Daniel S. Goldin                   (b. 1940)
19 Nov 2001 - 21 Dec 2001  Daniel R. Mulville (acting)        (b. 1939)
21 Dec 2001 - 18 Feb 2005  Sean O'Keefe                       (b. 1956)
18 Feb 2005 - 14 Apr 2005  Frederick D. Gregory (acting)      (b. 1941)
14 Apr 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Michael D. Griffin                 (b. 1949)
20 Jan 2009 - 17 Jul 2009  Christopher J. Scolese (acting)    (b. 1956)
17 Jul 2009 -              Charles F. Bolden, Jr.             (b. 1946) 



National Archives and Records Administration

[National Archives and Records Administration
                      flag]               NARA Flag from 1985
[National Archives and
                      Records Administration flag]                          Variant

NARA website

1884                       American Historical Association founded
                             (incorporated by Congress on 4 Jan 1889).
19 Jun 1934                National Archives Establishment set up.
 1 Jul 1949 -  1 Apr 1985  Part of the General Services Administration (GSA).
 1 Jul 1949                National Archives and Records Service (NARS).
 1 Apr 1985                National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).

Presidents of the American Historical Association
1884 - 1885                Andrew Dickinson White             (b. 1832 - d. 1918)
1885 - 1886                George Bancroft                    (b. 1800 - d. 1891)
1886 - 1887                Justin Winsor                      (b. 1831 - d. 1897)
1887 - 1888                William Frederick Poole            (b. 1821 - d. 1894)
1889                       Charles Kendall Adams              (b. 1835 - d. 1902)
1890                       John Jay                           (b. 1817 - d. 1894)
1891                       William Wirth Henry                (b. 1831 - d. 1900)
1892                       James B. Angell                    (b. 1829 - d. 1916)
1893 - 1894                Henry Adams                        (b. 1838 - d. 1918)
1895                       George Fisbee Hoar                 (b. 1826 - d. 1904)
1896                       Richard Salter Storrs              (b. 1821 - d. 1900)
1897                       James Schouler                     (b. 1839 - d. 1920)
1898                       George Park Fisher                 (b. 1827 - d. 1909)
1899                       James Frod Rhodes                  (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
1900                       Edward Eggleston                   (b. 1837 - d. 1902)
1901                       Charles Francis Adams              (b. 1835 - d. 1915)
1902                       Alfred Thayer Mahan                (b. 1840 - d. 1914)
1903                       Henry Charles Lea                  (b. 1825 - d. 1909)
1904                       Goldwin Smith                      (b. 1823 - d. 1910)
1905                       John Bach McMaster                 (b. 1852 - d. 1932)
1906                       Simeon Eben Baldwin                (b. 1840 - d. 1927)
1907                       John Franklin Jameson              (b. 1859 - d. 1937)
1908                       George Burton Adams                (b. 1851 - d. 1925)
1909                       Albert Burton Hart                 (b. 1854 - d. 1943)
1910                       Frederick Jackson Turner           (b. 1861 - d. 1932)
1911                       William Milligan Sloane            (b. 1850 - d. 1928)
1912                       Theodore Roosevelt                 (b. 1858 - d. 1919)
1913                       William Archibald Dunning          (b. 1857 - d. 1922)
1914                       Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin       (b. 1861 - d. 1947)
1915                       Henry Morse Stephens               (b. 1857 - d. 1919)
1916                       George Lincoln Burr                (b. 1857 - d. 1938)
1917                       Worthington Chauncey Ford          (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
1918 - 1919                William Roscoe Thayer              (b. 1859 - d. 1923)
1920                       Edward Channing                    (b. 1856 - d. 1931)
1921                       Jean Jules Jusserand               (b. 1855 - d. 1932)
1922                       Charles Homer Haskins              (b. 1870 - d. 1937)
1923                       Edward Potts Cheyney               (b. 1861 - d. 1947)
1924 -  3 Feb 1924         Woodrow Thomas Wilson              (b. 1856 - d. 1924)
1924 - 1925                Charles Maclean Andrews            (b. 1863 - d. 1943)
1926                       Dana Carleton Munro                (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
1927                       Henry Osborn Taylor                (b. 1856 - d. 1941)
1928                       James Henry Breasted               (b. 1865 - d. 1935)
1929                       James Harvey Robinson              (b. 1863 - d. 1936)
1930                       Evarts Boutell Greene              (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
1931                       Carl Lotus Becker                  (b. 1873 - d. 1945)
1932                       Herbert Eugene Bolton              (b. 1870 - d. 1953)
1933                       Charles Austin Beard               (b. 1874 - d. 1948)
1934                       William Edward Dodd                (b. 1869 - d. 1940)
Archivists of the United States
10 Oct 1934 - 15 Sep 1941  Robert Diggs Wimberley Connor      (b. 1878 - d. 1950)
18 Sep 1941 - 31 May 1948  Solon Justus Buck                  (b. 1884 - d. 1962)
 2 Jun 1948 -  6 Nov 1965  Wayne Grover                       (b. 1906 - d. 1970)
 7 Nov 1965 -  9 Mar 1968  Robert H. Bahmer                   (b. 1904 - d. 1990)
                             (acting to 16 Jan 1966)
10 Mar 1968 - 31 Aug 1979  James B. Rhoads                    (b. 1928)
                             (acting to 2 May 1968)
31 Aug 1979 - 15 Jul 1980  James E. O'Neill (acting)          (b. 1929 - d. 1987)
15 Jul 1980 - 15 Apr 1985  Robert M. Warner                   (b. 1927 - d. 2007)
16 Apr 1985 -  4 Dec 1987  Frank G. Burke (acting)            (b. 1927)
 4 Dec 1987 - 24 Mar 1993  Don Wilson                         (b. 1942)
25 Mar 1993 - 29 May 1995  Trudy Huskamp Peterson (f)         (b. 1945)
                             (acting)
30 May 1995 - 15 Feb 2005  John W. Carlin                     (b. 1940)
16 Feb 2005 - 19 Dec 2008  Allen Weinstein                    (b. 1937)
19 Dec 2008 - 13 Nov 2009  Adrienne C. Thomas (f)(acting)
13 Nov 2009 -
             David S. Ferriero                  (b. 1946)



National Endowment for the Arts (NEA)

[National Endowment for the
                Arts flag]

National Endowment for the Arts

29 Sep 1965                National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) created.

Chairmen
29 Sep 1965 - 11 Mar 1969  Roger L. Stevens                   (b. 1910 - d. 1998)
 6 Oct 1969 -  2 Oct 1977  Nancy Hanks (f)                    (b. 1927 - d. 1983)
 7 Nov 1977 - Nov 1981     Livingston L. Biddle, Jr.          (b. 1918 - d. 2002)
Nov 1981 - Feb 1989        Frank Hodsoll                      (b. 1938)
Feb 1989 - Jul 1989        Hugh Southern (acting)             (b. 1932)
Jul 1989 -  1 May 1992     John E. Frohnmayer                 (b. 1942)
 1 May 1992 - Oct 1993     Anne-Imelda Radice (f)(acting)     (b. 1948)
Oct 1993 - Oct 1997        Jane Alexander (f)                 (b. 1939)
Oct 1997 - 28 May 1998     Scott Shanklin-Peterson (f)(acting)
28 May 1998 - 30 Sep 2001  Bill Ivey                          (b. 1944)
30 Sep 2001 - 22 Jan 2002  Robert Sidney Martin (acting)      (b. 1949)
22 Jan 2002 - 29 Jan 2002  Michael P. Hammond                 (b. 1932 - d. 2002)
30 Jan 2002 - 13 Feb 2003  Eileen B. Mason (f) (1st time)     (b. 1943)
                             (acting)
13 Feb 2003 - 22 Jan 2009  Michael Dana Gioia                 (b. 1950)
22 Jan 2009 -
29 Jan 2009  Eileen B. Mason (f) (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
29 Jan 2009 - 11 Aug 2009  Patrice Walker Powell (f)(acting)
11 Aug 2009 -
26 Dec 2012  Rocco Landesman                    (b. 1947)
26 Dec 2012 -              Joan A. Shigekawa (f)(acting)      (b. 1936)    


National Science Foundation (NSF)

[National
                      Science Foundation (NSF) flag]                           NSF Flag
[National
                      Science Foundation (NSF) flag Variant]                             Variant
[U.S.
                      NSF Antarctic Program flag]         NSF U.S. Antarctic Program Flag

National Science Foundation (NSF)

10 May 1950                National Science Foundation (NSF) created.
 4 Aug 1958                U.S. Antarctic Program established within the NSF.

Directors
 6 Apr 1951 - Jun 1963     Alan T. Waterman                   (b. 1892 - d. 1967)
Jul 1963 - Jun 1969        Leland J. Haworth                  (b. 1904 - d. 1979)
 1 Jul 1969 - 14 Jul 1969  Louis Levin (acting)
14 Jul 1969 - Jan 1972     William D. McElroy                 (b. 1917 - d. 1999)
Feb 1972 - Aug 1976        H. Guyford Stever                  (b. 1916 - d. 2010)
Aug 1976 - Jun 1980        Richard C. Atkinson                (b. 1929)
                             (acting to May 1977)
Jul 1980 - Dec 1980        Donald N. Langenberg (acting)      (b. 1932)
Dec 1980 - Oct 1982        John B. Slaughter                  (b. 1934)
Nov 1982 - Aug 1984        Edward Alan Knapp                  (b. 1932 - d. 2009)
Sep 1984 - Aug 1990        Erich Bloch                        (b. 1925)
Sep 1990 - Mar 1991        Frederick M. Bernthal              (b. 1943)
                             (1st time)(acting)
Mar 1991 - Apr 1993        Walter E. Massey                   (b. 1938)
Apr 1993 - Oct 1993        Frederick M. Bernthal              (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
Oct 1993 - Aug 1998        Neal F. Lane                       (b. 1938)
 4 Aug 1998 - 22 Feb 2004  Rita R. Colwell (f)                (b. 1934)
22 Feb 2004 - May 2010     Arden L. Bement, Jr.               (b. 1932)
                             (acting to 24 Nov 2004)
 1 Jun 2010 - 18 Oct 2010  Cora Bagley Marrett (f)(1st time)  (b. 1942)
                             (acting)
18 Oct 2010 - 22 Mar 2013  Subra Suresh                       (b. 1956)
22 Mar 2013 - 31 Mar 2014  Cora Bagley Marrett (f)(2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
31 Mar 2014 -              France A. Cσrdova (f)              (b. 1947)


Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

[flag of Nuclear Regulatory
                Commission (NRC)]

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

19 Jan 1975                Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Chairmen

19 Jan 1975 – 20 Apr 1976  William Alison Anders              (b. 1933)  
21 Apr 1976 -  9 Aug 1977  Marcus A. Rowden                   (b. 1928)  
 9 Aug 1977 -  7 Dec 1979  Joseph M. Hendrie (1st time)       (b. 1925)  
 7 Dec 1979 -  3 Mar 1981  John F. Ahearne                    (b. 1934)
 3 Mar 1981 -  1 Jul 1981  Joseph M. Hendrie (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1981 – 30 Jun 1986  Nunzio J. Palladino                (b. 1916 – d. 1999)  
 1 Jul 1986 – 30 Jun 1989  Lando W. Zech, Jr.                 (b. 1923 - d. 2011)
 1 Jul 1989 – 30 Jun 1991  Kenneth M. Carr                    (b. 1925)
 1 Jul 1991 – 30 Jun 1995  Ivan Selin                         (b. 1937)
 1 Jul 1995 – 30 Jun 1999  Shirley Ann Jackson (f)            (b. 1946)
 1 Jul 1999 – 29 Oct 1999  Greta Joy Dicus (f)                (b. 1939 - d. 2006)
29 Oct 1999 – 31 Mar 2003  Richard A. Meserve                 (b. 1944)
 1 Apr 2003 - 30 Jun 2006  Nils J. Diaz                       (b. 1938)  
 1 Jul 2006 - 13 May 2009  Dale E. Klein                      (b. c.1948)
13 May 2009 -  9 Jul 2012  Gregory B. Jaczko                  (b. 1970)

 9 Jul 2012 -              Allison M. Macfarlane (f)          (b. c.1964)



Peace Corps

[Peace Corps flag]

Peace Corps

 1 Mar 1961                Peace Corps established within the State Department.
 
1 Jul 1971 - 29 Dec 1981  Component of the National Voluntary Action Program (ACTION)
                            
(from 16 May 1979, a separate agency within ACTION).
29 Dec 1981                Becomes an independent agency.

Directors
22 Mar 1961 - 28 Feb 1966  R. Sargent Shriver                 (b. 1915 - d. 2011)
 1 Mar 1966 - 30 Apr 1969  Jack H. Vaughn                     (b. 1920 - d. 2012)
 1 May 1969 -  1 Jul 1971  Joseph H. Blatchford               (b. 1934)
 1 Jul 1971 - 11 Aug 1972  Kevin O'Donnell                    (b. 1925 - d. 2012)
11 Aug 1972 - 30 Sep 1973  Donald K. Hess                     (b. 1930 - d. 2013)
 1 Oct 1973 -  1 Sep 1974  Nicholas W. Craw                   (b. 1936)
 1 Sep 1974 - 28 Apr 1975  Alfredo Perez (acting)
28 Apr 1975 - 13 May 1977  John R. Dellenback                 (b. 1918 - d. 2002)
13 May 1977 - 11 Oct 1977  Gretchen M. Handwerger (f)(acting)
11 Oct 1977 - 18 Dec 1978  Carolyn R. Payton (f)              (b. 1925 - d. 2001)
18 Dec 1978 - 27 Apr 1979  Mary F. Leyland (f) (acting)       (b. 1936)
27 Apr 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  Richard F. Celeste                 (b. 1937)
20 Jan 1981 -  6 May 1981  William G. Sykes (acting)          (b. 1926)
 6 May 1981 - 20 Apr 1989  Loret Miller Ruppe (f)             (b. 1936 - d. 1996)
20 Apr 1989 -  1 Oct 1991  Paul D. Coverdell                  (b. 1939 - d. 2000)
 8 Oct 1991 - 13 Nov 1992  Elaine Chao (f)                    (b. 1953)
13 Nov 1992 -  9 Feb 1993  Barbara Zartman (f) (acting)       (b. 1943 - d. 2010)
 9 Feb 1993 -  7 Oct 1993  John F. "Jack" Hogan (acting)
 7 Oct 1993 -  1 May 1995  Carol Bellamy (f)                  (b. 1942)
 1 May 1995 - 11 Aug 1995  Charles R. Baquet III (1st time)   (b. 1941)
                             (acting)
11 Aug 1995 - 11 Aug 1999  Mark D. Gearan                     (b. 1956)
11 Aug 1999 - 23 Dec 1999  Charles R. Baquet III (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
23 Dec 1999 - 20 Jan 2001  Mark L. Schneider                  (b. 1941)
20 Jan 2001 - 15 Feb 2002  Charles R. Baquet III (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
15 Feb 2002 - 26 Sep 2006  Gaddi H. Vasquez                   (b. 1955)
26 Sep 2006 - 16 Jan 2009  Ronald "Ron" A. Tschetter          (b. 1941)
16 Jan 2009 - 24 Aug 2009  Josephine "Jody" K. Olsen (f)
                             (acting)
24 Aug 2009 - 17 Sep 2012  Aaron S. Williams                  (b. 1947)
17 Sep 2012 -              Carrie Hessler-Radelet (f) (acting)(b. 1957?)



Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

[Flag of Securities and
                Exchange Commission]

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

 6 Jun 1934                U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission 

Chairmen
 2 Jul 1934 - 23 Sep 1935  Joseph "Joe" Patrick Kennedy, Sr.  (b. 1888 - d. 1969)
23 Sep 1935 - 15 Sep 1937  James McCaule Landis               (b. 1899 - d. 1964)
21 Sep 1937 - 16 Mar 1939  William Orville Douglas            (b. 1898 - d. 1980)
28 Apr 1939 -  9 Mar 1941  Jerome N. Frank                    (b. 1889 - d. 1957)
 9 Mar 1941 - 20 Dec 1942  Edward C. Eicher                   (b. 1878 - d. 1944)
20 Dec 1942 - 30 Jun 1946  Ganson Purcell                     (b. 1905 - d. 1967)
23 Jul 1946 - 31 Dec 1947  James J. Caffrey                   (b. 1897 - d. 1961)
 1 Jan 1948 -  3 Nov 1949  Edmond M. Hanrahan                 (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
 4 Nov 1949 - 25 Jan 1952  Harry A. McDonald                  (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
26 Jan 1952 - 17 Jun 1953  Donald C. Cook                     (b. 1909 - d. 1981)
17 Jun 1953 - 25 Apr 1955  Ralph H. Demmler                   (b. 1904 - d. 1995)
25 Apr 1955 - 27 Jun 1957  James Sinclair Armstrong           (b. 1915 - d. 2000)
27 Jun 1957 - 20 Aug 1957  Andrew Downey Orrick (acting)      (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
20 Aug 1957 - 26 Feb 1961  Edward N. Gadsby                   (b. 1900 - d. 1973)
27 Feb 1961 - 20 Aug 1964  William L. Cary                    (b. 1910 - d. 1983)
20 Aug 1964 - 22 Jan 1969  Manuel F. Cohen                    (b. 1912 - d. 1977)
22 Jan 1969 -  2 Jan 1971  Hamer H. Budge                     (b. 1910 - d. 2003)
 2 Jan 1971 - 14 Mar 1972  Hugh F. Owens (1st time)(acting)   (b. 1909 - d. 1990)
14 Mar 1971 -  2 Jan 1973  William Joseph Casey               (b. 1913 - d. 1987)
 3 Feb 1973 - 16 Apr 1973  G. Bradford "Brad" Cook            (b. 1937)
16 Apr 1973 -  6 Aug 1973  Hugh F. Owens (2nd time)(acting)   (s.a.)
 6 Aug 1973 - 28 Oct 1975  Ray Garrett, Jr.                   (b. 1920 - d. 180)
28 Oct 1975 - 10 Mar 1977  Roderick M. Hills                  (b. 1931)
18 Mar 1977 -  1 Feb 1981  Harold M. Williams                 (b. 1928)
 1 Feb 1981 -  6 Apr 1981  Philip Albert Loomis, Jr. (acting) (b. 1915 - d. 1996)
 6 Apr 1981 - 18 Jun 1987  John S.R. Shad                     (b. 1923 - d. 1999) 
 7 Aug 1987 - 30 Sep 1989  David Sturtevant Ruder             (b. 1929)
11 Oct 1989 -  7 Apr 1993  Richard C. Breeden                 (b. 1949)
 7 Apr 1993 - 27 Jul 1993  Mary L. Schapiro (f)(1st time)     (b. 1955)
                             (acting)
27 Jul 1993 -  9 Feb 2001  Arthur Levitt, Jr.                 (b. 1931)
12 Feb 2001 -  3 Aug 2001  Laura Simone Unger (f)(acting)     (b. 1961)
 3 Aug 2001 - 17 Jan 2003  Harvey Pitt                        (b. 1945)
18 Jan 2003 - 30 Jun 2005  William Henry Donaldson            (b. 1931)
30 Jun 2005 -  3 Aug 2005  Cynthia A. Glassman (f) (acting)   (b. 1947)
 3 Aug 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Christopher "Chris" Cox            (b. 1952)
20 Jan 2009 - 27 Jan 2009  Elisse B. Walter (f)(1st time)     (b. 1950)
                             (acting)
27 Jan 2009 - 14 Dec 2012  Mary L. Schapiro (f)(2nd time)     (s.a.)
14 Dec 2012 - 10 Apr 2013  Elisse B. Walter (f)(2nd time)     (s.a.)
10 Apr 2013 -              Mary Jo White (f)                  (b. 1947)



Smithsonian Institution

[Smithsonian Institution flag 1965/71 -
                      1996]                 1965/71 - 1996
[Smithsonian Institution former flag]                1996 Former Flag
[Smithsonian Institution flag]                         Current Flag

Smithsonian Institution

10 Aug 1846                Smithsonian Institution established.

Chancellors
10 Aug 1846 -              the Chief Justices of the U.S.
Secretaries
1846 - 13 May 1878         Joseph Henry                       (b. 1797 - d. 1878)
1878 - 19 Aug 1887         Spencer Fullerton Baird            (b. 1823 - d. 1887)
1887 - 27 Feb 1906         Samuel Pierpoint Langley           (b. 1834 - d. 1906)
1907 -  9 Feb 1927         Charles Doolittle Walcott          (b. 1850 - d. 1927)
1928 - 29 Jun 1944         Charles Greeley Abbot              (b. 1872 - d. 1973)
1945 - Dec 1952            Alexander Wetmore                  (b. 1886 - d. 1978)
 2 Jan 1953 - 31 Jan 1964  Leonard B. Carmichael              (b. 1898 - d. 1973)
 1 Feb 1964 - Sep 1984     S. Dillon Ripley                   (b. 1913 - d. 2001)
17 Sep 1984 - 1994         Robert McCormick Adams             (b. 1926)
19 Sep 1994 - Dec 1999     I. Michael Heyman                  (b. 1930 - d. 2011)
24 Jan 2000 - 26 Mar 2007  Lawrence M. Small                  (b. 1941)
26 Mar 2007 -  1 Jul 2008  Cristi
αn Samper (acting)           (b. 1965)
 1 Jul 2008 -              G. Wayne Clough                    (b. 1941)



Social Security Administration

[Social Security
                Administration flag]
              Adopted 31 Mar 1995

Social Security Administration

14 Aug 1935                Social Security Board
25 Apr 1939                Under the Federal Security Agency.
16 Jul 1946                Social Security Administration (SSA).
11 Apr 1953               
Under the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
                             (from
1980, Department of Health and Human Services).
31 Mar 1995                Made an independent agency.  

Chairmen
23 Aug 1935 - 19 Feb 1937  John Gilbert Winant                (b. 1889 - d. 1947)
19 Feb 1937 - 16 Aug 1946  Arthur Joseph Altmeyer             (b. 1891 - d. 1972)
                            (acting from 30 Sep 1936)
Commissioners
16 Jul 1946 - 10 Apr 1953  Arthur Joseph Altmeyer             (s.a.)
11 Apr 1953 - 23 Nov 1953  William L. Mitchell (1st time)     (b. 1900 - d. 1983)
                             (acting)
24 Nov 1953 - 31 Jul 1954  John W. Tramburg                   (b. 1913 - d. 1963)
23 Aug 1954 - 31 Dec 1958  Charles I. Schottland              (b. 1906 - d. 1995)
 4 Feb 1959 -  3 Apr 1962  William L. Mitchell (2nd time)     (s.a.)
17 Apr 1962 - 17 Mar 1973  Robert M. Ball                     (b. 1914 - d. 2008)
18 Mar 1973 - 24 Oct 1973  Arthur E. Hess (acting)            (b. 1916 - d. 2005)
25 Oct 1973 - 12 Dec 1977  James B. Cardwell                  (b. 1922 - d. 2012)
13 Dec 1977 -  4 Oct 1978  Don I. Wortman (acting)
 5 Oct 1978 - 31 Dec 1979  Stanford G. Ross                   (b. 1931)
 1 Jan 1980 -  2 Jan 1980  Herbert R. Doggette, Jr.           (b. 1933)
                             (1st time) (acting)
 3 Jan 1980 - 19 Jan 1981  William J. Driver                  (b. 1918 - d. 1985)
20 Jan 1981 -  5 May 1981  Herbert R. Doggette, Jr.           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting) 
 6 May 1981 - 12 Sep 1983  John A. Svahn                      (b. 1943)
14 Sep 1983 - 25 Jun 1986  Martha A. McSteen (f) (acting)     (b. 1923)
26 Jun 1986 - 31 Jul 1989  Dorcas R. Hardy (f)                (b. 1946)
 1 Aug 1989 - 30 Sep 1992  Gwendolyn S. King (f)              (b. 1941)
 1 Oct 1992 - 18 Jul 1993  Louis D. Enoff (acting)            (b. 1942)
19 Jul 1993 -  7 Oct 1993  Lawrence H. Thompson (acting)      (b. 1943)
 8 Oct 1993 - 28 Feb 1997  Shirley S. Chater (f)              (b. 1932)
 1 Mar 1997 - 29 Sep 1997  John J. Callahan (acting)          (b. 1944)
29 Sep 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Kenneth S. Apfel                   (b. 1948)
21 Jan 2001 - 28 Mar 2001  William A. Halter (acting)         (b. 1960)
29 Mar 2001 -  9 Nov 2001  Larry G. Massanari (acting)
 9 Nov 2001 - 12 Feb 2007  Jo Anne B. Barnhart (f)            (b. 1950)
12 Feb 2007 - 
13 Feb 2013  Michael J. Astrue                  (b. 1956) 
14 Feb 2013 -              Carolyn W. Colvin (f) (acting)     (b. 1942)



Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

[former Tennessee Valley
                      Authority (TVA) flag]                    Former TVA Flag
[Tennessee Valley Authority
                      (TVA) flag]                   Current TVA Flag

Tennessee Valley Authority

18 May 1933                Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) established.

Chairmen
 1 Jun 1933 - 23 Mar 1938  Arthur Ernest Morgan               (b. 1878 - d. 1975)
23 Mar 1938 - 15 Sep 1941  Harcourt Alexander Morgan          (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
15 Sep 1941 - 28 Oct 1946  David Eli Lilienthal               (b. 1899 - d. 1981)
 4 Nov 1946 - 18 May 1954  Gordon R. Clapp                    (b. 1905 - d. 1963)
18 May 1954 -  1 Sep 1954  Harry A. Curtis (acting)           (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
 1 Sep 1954 - 30 Jun 1962  Herbert D. Vogel                   (b. 1900 - d. 1984)
 1 Jul 1962 - 18 May 1978  Aubrey J. Wagner                   (b. 1912 - d. 1990)
19 May 1978 - 22 Jun 1981  S. David Freeman                   (b. 1926)
22 Jun 1981 - 25 Jan 1988  Charles Dean                       (b. 1925 - d. 1995)
25 Jan 1988 -  6 Jul 1992  Marvin T. Runyon                   (b. 1924 - d. 2004)
 6 Jul 1992 - 18 May 1993  John B. Waters, Jr.                (b. 1929)
18 May 1993 - 14 Jul 1993  Vacant
14 Jul 1993 - 16 Apr 2001  Craven Crowell                     (b. 1943)
16 Apr 2001 - 23 Jul 2001  Vacant
23 Jul 2001 - 18 May 2005  Glenn L. McCullough, Jr.           (b. 1954)
18 May 2005 -
31 Mar 2006  William "Bill" W. Baxter           (b. 1953?)
                             (acting to 17 Jun 2005)
31 Mar 2006 - 18 May 2009  William "Bill" B. Sansom
(1st time)(b. 1941)
18 May 2009 - 
18 May 2010  Mike Duncan                        (b. 1951)
18 May 2010 -  3 Jan 2012
  Dennis "Denny" C. Bottorff         (b. 1944)
 3 Jan 2012 -             
William "Bill" B. Sansom (2nd time)(s.a.)

Chief Executive Officers
31 Mar 2006 - 31 Dec 2012  Tom D. Kilgore                     (b. 1948?)
                             (acting to 13 Oct 2006)
 1 Jan 2013 -              William D. Johnson                 (b. 1954)



U.S. Supreme Court

[U.S. flag]

Supreme Court of the United States

 4 Mar 1789                Supreme Court of the United States established
                             (enabled by the Judiciary Act of 24 Sep 1789). 

Chief JusticesΉ
26 Sep 1789 - 29 Jun 1795  John Jay                           (b. 1745 - d. 1829)
29 Jun 1795 - 12 Aug 1795  Vacant
12 Aug 1795 - 15 Dec 1795  John Rutledge (interim)            (b. 1739 - d. 1800)
 8 Mar 1796 - 15 Dec 1800  Oliver Ellsworth                   (b. 1745 - d. 1807)
 4 Feb 1801 -  6 Jul 1835  John Marshall                      (b. 1755 - d. 1835)
28 Mar 1836 - 12 Oct 1864  Roger Brooke Taney                 (b. 1777 - d. 1864)
15 Dec 1864 -  7 May 1873  Salmon Portland Chase              (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
 4 Mar 1874 - 23 Mar 1888  Morrison Remick Waite              (b. 1816 - d. 1888)
 8 Oct 1888 -  4 Jul 1910  Melville Weston Fuller             (b. 1833 - d. 1910)
19 Dec 1910 - 19 May 1921  Edward Douglas White               (b. 1845 - d. 1921)
11 Jul 1921 -  3 Feb 1930  William Howard Taft                (b. 1857 - d. 1930)
24 Feb 1930 - 30 Jun 1941  Charles Evans Hughes               (b. 1862 - d. 1948)
 3 Jul 1941 - 22 Apr 1946  Harlan Fiske Stone                 (b. 1872 - d. 1946)
24 Jun 1946 -  8 Sep 1953  Fred Moore Vinson                  (b. 1890 - d. 1953)
 5 Oct 1953 - 23 Jun 1969  Earl Warren                        (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
23 Jun 1969 - 26 Sep 1986  Warren Earl Burger                 (b. 1907 - d. 1995)
26 Sep 1986 -  3 Sep 2005  William Hubbs Rehnquist            (b. 1924 - d. 2005)
29 Sep 2005 -              John Glover Roberts, Jr.           (b. 1955)

 ΉThe office is often, but incorrectly, referred to as "Chief Justice of the Supreme Court." The United States Code specifies the title as "Chief Justice of the United States." The title was changed at the suggestion of Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, who wished to emphasize the Court's role as a coequal.
  During a vacancy the Court's senior Associate Justice temporarily assumes the administrative duties of the Chief Justice. Senior Associate Justices during vacancies were: 15 Dec 1795 - 8 Mar 1796 James Wilson (b. 1742 - d. 1798); 15 Dec 1800 - 4 Feb 1801 William Cushing (b. 1732 - d. 1810); 6 Jul 1835 - 28 Mar 1836 Joseph Story (b. 1779 - d. 1845); 12 Oct - 15 Dec 1864 James Moore Wayne (b. 1790 - d. 1867); 7 May 1873 - 4 Mar 1874 Nathan Cliford (b. 1803 - d. 1881); 23 Mar - 8 Oct 1888 Samuel Freeman Miller (b. 1816 - d. 1890); 4 Jul - 19 Dec 1910 John M. Harlan (b. 1833 - d. 1911); 11 May - 11 Jul 1921 Joseph McKenna (b. 1843 - d. 1926); 3-24 Feb 1930 Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (b. 1841 - d. 1935); 30 Jun - 3 Jul 1941 Harlan Fiske Stone (s.a.); 22 Apr - 24 Jun 1946 and 8 Sep - 5 Oct 1953 Hugo L. Black (b. 1886 - d. 1971); and 3-29 Sep 2005 John Paul Stevens (b. 1920).



U.S. Congress

U.S. Senate

[Flag of U.S. Senate -
                Liberty Cap]

U.S. Senate website

Presidents Pro Tempore ("pro tem") of the SenateΉ
 6 Apr 1789 - 21 Apr 1789  John Langdon (1st time)            (b. 1741 - d. 1819)  Fed
 7 Aug 1789 -  9 Aug 1789  John Langdon (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Fed
18 Apr 1794 -  8 Oct 1789  Richard Henry Lee                  (b. 1732 - d. 1794)  anti-Fed
 5 Nov 1792 -  4 Dec 1792  John Langdon (3rd time)            (s.a.)               Fed
 1 Mar 1793 -  2 Dec 1793  John Langdon (4th time)            (s.a.)               anti-Fed
31 May 1794 -  9 Nov 1794  Ralph Izard                        (b. 1741 - d. 1794)  Fed
20 Feb 1795 -  7 Jun 1795  Henry Tazewell (1st time)          (b. 1753 - d. 1799)  anti-Fed
 7 Dec 1795 -  8 Dec 1795  Henry Tazewell (2nd time)          (s.a.)               anti-Fed
 6 May 1796 -  4 Dec 1796  Samuel Livermore (1st time)        (b. 1732 - d. 1803)  Fed
16 Feb 1797 -  3 Mar 1797  William Bingham                    (b. 1752 - d. 1804)  Fed
 6 Jul 1797 - Oct 1797     William Bradford                   (b. 1729 - d. 1808)  Fed
22 Nov 1797 - 12 Dec 1797  Jacob Read                         (b. 1752 - d. 1801)  Fed
27 Jun 1798 -  5 Dec 1798  Theodore Sedgwick                  (b. 1746 - d. 1814)  Fed
 6 Dec 1798 - 27 Dec 1798  John Laurance                      (b. 1750 - d. 1810)  Fed
 1 Mar 1799 -  1 Dec 1799  James Ross                         (b. 1762 - d. 1847)  Fed
 2 Dec 1799 - 29 Dec 1799  Samuel Livermore (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Fed
17 May 1800 - 16 Nov 1800  Uriah Tracy                        (b. 1755 - d. 1807)  Fed
21 Nov 1800 - 27 Nov 1800  John E. Howard                     (b. 1752 - d. 1827)  Fed
28 Feb 1801 -  3 Mar 1801  James Hillhouse                    (b. 1754 - d. 1832)  Fed
 7 Dec 1801 - 14 Jan 1802  Abraham Baldwin (1st time)         (b. 1754 - d. 1804)  D-R
17 Apr 1802 - 13 Dec 1802  Abraham Baldwin (2nd time)         (s.a.)               D-R
14 Dec 1802 - 18 Jan 1803  Stephen R. Bradley (1st time)      (b. 1754 - d. 1830)  D-R
25 Feb 1803                Stephen R. Bradley (2nd time)      (s.a.)               D-R
 2 Mar 1803 - 16 Oct 1803  Stephen R. Bradley (3rd time)      (s.a.)               D-R
17 Oct 1803 -  6 Dec 1803  John Brown (1st time)              (b. 1757 - d. 1837)  D-R
23 Jan 1804 - 26 Feb 1804  John Brown (2nd time)              (s.a.)               D-R
10 Mar 1804 -  4 Nov 1804  Jesse Franklin                     (b. 1760 - d. 1823)  D-R
15 Jan 1805 -  3 Feb 1805  Joseph Anderson (1st time)         (b. 1754 - d. 1837)  D-R
28 Feb 1805 -  1 Dec 1805  Joseph Anderson (2nd time)         (s.a.)               D-R
 2 Dec 1805 - 15 Dec 1805  Samuel Smith (1st time)            (b. 1752 - d. 1839)  D-R
18 Mar 1806 - 30 Nov 1806  Samuel Smith (2nd time)            (s.a.)               D-R
 2 Mar 1807 - 25 Oct 1807  Samuel Smith (3rd time)            (s.a.)               D-R
16 Apr 1808 -  6 Nov 1808  Samuel Smith (4th time)            (s.a.)               D-R
28 Dec 1808 -  8 Jan 1809  Stephen R. Bradley (4th time)      (s.a.)               D-R
30 Jan 1809 - 21 May 1809  John Milledge                      (b. 1757 - d. 1818)  D-R
26 Jun 1809 - 18 Dec 1809  Andrew Gregg                       (b. 1755 - d. 1835)  D-R
28 Feb 1810 -  2 Mar 1810  John Gaillard (1st time)           (b. 1765 - d. 1826)  D-R
17 Apr 1810 - 11 Dec 1810  John Gaillard (2nd time)           (s.a.)               D-R
23 Feb 1811 -  3 Nov 1811  John Pope                          (b. 1770 - d. 1845)  D-R
24 Mar 1812 - 23 Mar 1813  William H. Crawford                (b. 1772 - d. 1834)  D-R
 6 Dec 1813 -  5 Feb 1814  Joseph B. Varnum                   (b. 1750 - d. 1821)  D-R
18 Apr 1814 -  4 Mar 1817  John Gaillard (3rd time)           (s.a.)               D-R
 6 Mar 1817 - 18 Feb 1818  John Gaillard (4th time)           (s.a.)               D-R
31 Mar 1818 -  5 Jan 1819  John Gaillard (5th time)           (s.a.)               D-R
15 Feb 1819 - 26 Dec 1819  James Barbour                      (b. 1775 - d. 1842)  D-R
25 Jan 1820 - 27 Dec 1821  John Gaillard (6th time)           (s.a.)               D-R
 1 Feb 1822 -  2 Dec 1822  John Gaillard (7th time)           (s.a.)               D-R
19 Feb 1823 - 20 Jan 1824  John Gaillard (8th time)           (s.a.)               D-R
21 May 1824 -  3 Mar 1825  John Gaillard (9th time)           (s.a.)               D-R
 9 Mar 1825 -  4 Dec 1825  John Gaillard (10th time)          (s.a.)               D-R
20 May 1826 -  3 Dec 1826  Nathaniel Macon (1st time)         (b. 1758 - d. 1837)  D-R
 2 Jan 1827 - 13 Feb 1827  Nathaniel Macon (2nd time)         (s.a.)               D-R
 2 Mar 1827 -  2 Dec 1827  Nathaniel Macon (3rd time)         (s.a.)               D-R
15 May 1828 - 18 Dec 1828  Samuel Smith (5th time)            (s.a.)               D-R
13 Mar 1829 - 10 Dec 1829  Samuel Smith (6th time)            (s.a.)               D-R
29 May 1830 - 31 Dec 1830  Samuel Smith (7th time)            (s.a.)               D-R
 1 Mar 1831 - 11 Dec 1831  Samuel Smith (8th time)            (s.a.)               D-R
 9 Jul 1832 - 16 Jul 1832  Littleton Waller Tazewell          (b. 1774 - d. 1860)  Jck
 3 Dec 1832 - 15 Dec 1833  Hugh Lawson White                  (b. 1773 - d. 1840)  Jck
28 Jun 1834 - 30 Nov 1834  George Poindexter                  (b. 1779 - d. 1853)  anti-Jck
 3 Mar 1835 -  6 Dec 1835  John Tyler                         (b. 1790 - d. 1862)  Jck
 1 Jul 1836 -  4 Dec 1836  William R. King (1st time)         (b. 1786 - d. 1853)  Dem
28 Jan 1837 -  3 Mar 1837  William R. King (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Dem
 7 Mar 1837 -  3 Sep 1837  William R. King (3rd time)         (s.a.)               Dem
13 Oct 1837 -  3 Dec 1837  William R. King (4th time)         (s.a.)               Dem
 2 Jul 1838 - 18 Dec 1838  William R. King (5th time)         (s.a.)               Dem
25 Feb 1839 - 26 Dec 1839  William R. King (6th time)         (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Jul 1840 - 15 Dec 1840  William R. King (7th time)         (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Mar 1841 -  4 Mar 1841  William R. King (8th time)         (s.a.)               Dem
11 Mar 1841 - 31 May 1842  Samuel L. Southard                 (b. 1787 - d. 1842)  Whg
31 May 1842 -  4 Mar 1845  Willie Person Mangum               (b. 1792 - d. 1861)  Whg
27 Dec 1845                Ambrose H. Sevier                  (b. 1801 - d. 1848)  Dem
 8 Aug 1846 -  6 Dec 1846  David Rice Atchison (1st time)     (b. 1807 - d. 1886)  Dem
11 Jan 1847 - 13 Jan 1847  David Rice Atchison (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Mar 1847 -  5 Dec 1847  David Rice Atchison (3rd time)     (s.a.)               Dem
 2 Feb 1848 -  8 Feb 1848  David Rice Atchison (4th time)     (s.a.)               Dem
 1 Jun 1848 - 14 Jun 1848  David Rice Atchison (5th time)     (s.a.)               Dem
26 Jun 1848 - 29 Jun 1848  David Rice Atchison (6th time)     (s.a.)               Dem
29 Jul 1848 -  4 Dec 1848  David Rice Atchison (7th time)     (s.a.)               Dem
26 Dec 1848 -  1 Jan 1849  David Rice Atchison (8th time)     (s.a.)               Dem
 2 Mar 1849 -  5 Mar 1849  David Rice Atchison (9th time)     (s.a.)               Dem
16 Mar 1849 -  2 Dec 1849  David Rice Atchison (10th time)    (s.a.)               Dem
 6 May 1850 - 19 May 1850  William R. King (9th time)         (s.a.)               Dem
11 Jul 1850 - 20 Dec 1852  William R. King (10th time)        (s.a.)               Dem
20 Dec 1852 -  4 Dec 1854  David Rice Atchison (11th time)    (s.a.)               Dem
 4 Dec 1854                Lewis M. Cass                      (b. 1782 - d. 1866)  Dem
 5 Dec 1855 -  9 Jun 1856  Jesse D. Bright (1st time)         (b. 1812 - d. 1875)  Dem
 9 Jun 1856 - 10 Jun 1856  Charles E. Stuart                  (b. 1810 - d. 1887)  Dem
11 Jun 1856 -  6 Jan 1857  Jesse D. Bright (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Dem
 6 Jan 1857 -  4 Mar 1857  James M. Mason                     (b. 1798 - d. 1871)  Dem
14 Mar 1857 - 29 Jul 1857  Thomas J. Rusk                     (b. 1803 - d. 1857)  Dem
 7 Dec 1857 - 20 Dec 1857  Benjamin Fitzpatrick (1st time)    (b. 1802 - d. 1869)  Dem
29 Mar 1858 -  2 May 1858  Benjamin Fitzpatrick (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Dem
14 Jun 1858 -  5 Dec 1858  Benjamin Fitzpatrick (3rd time)    (s.a.)               Dem
19 Jan 1859                Benjamin Fitzpatrick (4th time)    (s.a.)               Dem
25 Jan 1859 -  9 Feb 1859  Benjamin Fitzpatrick (5th time)    (s.a.)               Dem
 9 Mar 1859 -  4 Dec 1859  Benjamin Fitzpatrick (6th time)    (s.a.)               Dem
19 Dec 1859 - 15 Jan 1860  Benjamin Fitzpatrick (7th time)    (s.a.)               Dem
20 Feb 1860 - 26 Feb 1860  Benjamin Fitzpatrick (8th time)    (s.a.)               Dem
12 Jun 1860 - 13 Jun 1860  Jesse D. Bright (3rd time)         (s.a.)               Dem
26 Jun 1860 -  2 Dec 1860  Benjamin Fitzpatrick (9th time)    (s.a.)               Dem
16 Feb 1861 - 17 Feb 1861  Solomon Foot (1st time)            (b. 1802 - d. 1866)  Rep
23 Mar 1861 -  3 Jul 1861  Solomon Foot (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Rep
18 Jul 1861 -  1 Dec 1861  Solomon Foot (3rd time)            (s.a.)               Rep
15 Jan 1862                Solomon Foot (4th time)            (s.a.)               Rep
31 Mar 1862 - 21 May 1862  Solomon Foot (5th time)            (s.a.)               Rep
19 Jun 1862 - 12 Dec 1862  Solomon Foot (6th time)            (s.a.)               Rep
18 Feb 1863 -  6 Dec 1863  Solomon Foot (7th time)            (s.a.)               Rep
18 Dec 1863 - 20 Dec 1863  Solomon Foot (8th time)            (s.a.)               Rep
23 Feb 1834                Solomon Foot (9th time)            (s.a.)               Rep
11 Mar 1864 - 13 Mar 1864  Solomon Foot (10th time)           (s.a.)               Rep
11 Apr 1834 - 13 Apr 1864  Solomon Foot (11th time)           (s.a.)               Rep
26 Apr 1864 -  4 Jan 1865  Daniel Clark (1st time)            (b. 1809 - d. 1891)  Rep
 9 Feb 1865 - 19 Feb 1865  Daniel Clark (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Rep
 7 May 1865 -  2 Mar 1867  Lafayette Sabine Foster            (b. 1806 - d. 1880)  Rep
 2 Mar 1867 -  3 Mar 1869  Benjamin F. Wade                   (b. 1800 - d. 1878)  Rep
23 Mar 1869 - 28 Mar 1869  Henry Bowen Anthony (1st time)     (b. 1815 - d. 1884)  Rep
 9 Apr 1869 -  2 Jun 1870  Henry Bowen Anthony (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Rep
 1 Jul 1870 -  5 Jul 1870  Henry Bowen Anthony (3rd time)     (s.a.)               Rep
17 Jul 1870 -  4 Dec 1870  Henry Bowen Anthony (4th time)     (s.a.)               Rep
10 Mar 1871 - 12 Mar 1871  Henry Bowen Anthony (5th time)     (s.a.)               Rep
17 Apr 1871 -  9 May 1871  Henry Bowen Anthony (6th time)     (s.a.)               Rep
23 May 1871 -  3 Dec 1871  Henry Bowen Anthony (7th time)     (s.a.)               Rep
21 Dec 1871 -  7 Jan 1872  Henry Bowen Anthony (8th time)     (s.a.)               Rep
23 Feb 1872 - 25 Feb 1872  Henry Bowen Anthony (9th time)     (s.a.)               Rep
 8 Jun 1872 -  1 Dec 1872  Henry Bowen Anthony (10th time)    (s.a.)               Rep
 4 Dec 1872 -  8 Dec 1872  Henry Bowen Anthony (11th time)    (s.a.)               Rep
13 Dec 1872 - 15 Dec 1872  Henry Bowen Anthony (12th time)    (s.a.)               Rep
20 Dec 1872 -  5 Jan 1873  Henry Bowen Anthony (13th time)    (s.a.)               Rep
24 Jan 1873                Henry Bowen Anthony (14th time)    (s.a.)               Rep
12 Mar 1873 - 13 Mar 1873  Matthew H. Carpenter (1st time)    (b. 1824 - d. 1881)  Rep
26 Mar 1873 - 30 Nov 1873  Matthew H. Carpenter (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Rep
11 Dec 1873 -  6 Dec 1874  Matthew H. Carpenter (3rd time)    (s.a.)               Rep
23 Dec 1874 -  4 Jan 1875  Matthew H. Carpenter (4th time)    (s.a.)               Rep
25 Jan 1875 - 31 Jan 1875  Henry Bowen Anthony (15th time)    (s.a.)               Rep
15 Feb 1875 - 17 Feb 1875  Henry Bowen Anthony (16th time)    (s.a.)               Rep
 9 Mar 1875 - 10 Mar 1875  Thomas White Ferry (1st time)      (b. 1827 - d. 1896)  Rep
19 Mar 1875 - 20 Dec 1875  Thomas White Ferry (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Rep
20 Dec 1875 -  5 Mar 1877  Thomas White Ferry (3rd time)      (s.a.)               Rep
26 Feb 1878 -  3 Mar 1878  Thomas White Ferry (4th time)      (s.a.)               Rep
17 Apr 1878 -  1 Dec 1878  Thomas White Ferry (5th time)      (s.a.)               Rep
 3 Mar 1879 - 17 Mar 1879  Thomas White Ferry (6th time)      (s.a.)               Rep
15 Apr 1879 - 30 Apr 1879  Allen Thurman (1st time)           (b. 1813 - d. 1895)  Dem
 7 Apr 1880 - 14 Apr 1880  Allen Thurman (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Dem
 6 May 1880 -  5 Dec 1880  Allen Thurman (3rd time)           (s.a.)               Dem
10 Oct 1881 - 13 Oct 1881  Thomas F. Bayard, Sr.              (b. 1828 - d. 1898)  Dem
13 Oct 1881 -  3 Mar 1883  David Davis                        (b. 1815 - d. 1886)  Ind
 3 Mar 1883 -  3 Mar 1885  George Francis Edmunds             (b. 1828 - d. 1919)  Rep
 7 Dec 1885 - 26 Feb 1887  John Sherman                       (b. 1823 - d. 1900)  Rep
26 Feb 1887 -  3 Mar 1889  John J. Ingalls (1st time)         (b. 1833 - d. 1900)  Rep
 7 Mar 1889 - 17 Mar 1889  John J. Ingalls (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Rep
 2 Apr 1889 -  1 Dec 1889  John J. Ingalls (3rd time)         (s.a.)               Rep
 5 Dec 1889 - 10 Dec 1889  John J. Ingalls (4th time)         (s.a.)               Rep
28 Feb 1890 - 18 Mar 1890  John J. Ingalls (5th time)         (s.a.)               Rep
 3 Apr 1890 -  2 Mar 1891  John J. Ingalls (6th time)         (s.a.)               Rep
 2 Mar 1891 - 22 Mar 1893  Charles F. Manderson               (b. 1837 - d. 1911)  Rep
22 Mar 1893 -  7 Jan 1895  Isham Harris (1st time)            (b. 1818 - d. 1897)  Dem
 7 Jan 1895 - 10 Jan 1895  Matt Ransom                        (b. 1826 - d. 1904)  Dem
10 Jan 1895 -  7 Feb 1896  Isham Harris (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Dem
 7 Feb 1896 - 27 Apr 1911  William P. Frye                    (b. 1830 - d. 1911)  Rep
14 Aug 1911                Augustus O. Bacon (1st time)       (b. 1839 - d. 1914)  Dem
 4 Dec 1911 - 12 Dec 1911  Charles Curtis                     (b. 1860 - d. 1936)  Rep
11 Jan 1912 - 17 Jan 1912  Augustus O. Bacon (2nd time)       (b. 1839 - d. 1914)  Dem
12 Feb 1912 - 14 Feb 1912  Jacob H. Gallinger (1st time)      (b. 1837 - d. 1918)  Rep
11 Mar 1912 - 12 Mar 1912  Augustus O. Bacon (3rd time)       (s.a.)               Dem
25 Mar 1912 - 26 Mar 1912  Henry Cabot Lodge                  (b. 1850 - d. 1924)  Rep
 8 Apr 1912                Augustus O. Bacon (4th time)       (s.a.)               Dem
26 Apr 1912 -  7 May 1912  Jacob H. Gallinger (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Rep
10 May 1912                Augustus O. Bacon (5th time)       (s.a.)               Dem
25 May 1912                Frank B. Brandegee                 (b. 1864 - d. 1924)  Rep
30 May 1912 -  5 Jul 1912  Augustus O. Bacon (6th time)       (s.a.)               Dem
 6 Jul 1912 - 31 Jul 1912  Jacob H. Gallinger (3rd time)      (s.a.)               Rep
 1 Aug 1912 - 10 Aug 1912  Augustus O. Bacon (7th time)       (s.a.)               Dem
12 Aug 1912 - 26 Aug 1912  Jacob H. Gallinger (4th time)      (s.a.)               Rep
27 Aug 1912 - 15 Dec 1912  Augustus O. Bacon (8th time)       (s.a.)               Dem
16 Dec 1912 -  4 Jan 1913  Jacob H. Gallinger (5th time)      (s.a.)               Rep
 5 Jan 1913 - 18 Jan 1913  Augustus O. Bacon (9th time)       (s.a.)               Dem
19 Jan 1913 -  1 Feb 1913  Jacob H. Gallinger (6th time)      (s.a.)               Rep
 2 Feb 1913 - 15 Feb 1913  Augustus O. Bacon (10th time)      (s.a.)               Dem
16 Feb 1913 -  3 Mar 1913  Jacob H. Gallinger (7th time)      (s.a.)               Rep
13 Mar 1913 -  1 Oct 1916  James P. Clarke                    (b. 1854 - d. 1916)  Dem
14 Dec 1916 -  3 Mar 1919  Willard Saulsbury, Jr.             (b. 1861 - d. 1927)  Dem
19 May 1919 -  6 Mar 1925  Albert B. Cummins                  (b. 1850 - d. 1926)  Rep
 6 Mar 1925 -  3 Mar 1933  George H. Moses                    (b. 1869 - d. 1944)  Rep
 9 Mar 1933 - 10 Nov 1940  Key Pittman                        (b. 1872 - d. 1940)  Dem
19 Nov 1940 -  3 Jan 1941  William H. King                    (b. 1863 - d. 1949)  Dem
 6 Jan 1941 - 22 Jun 1941  Pat Harrison                       (b. 1881 - d. 1941)  Dem
10 Jul 1941 -  3 Jan 1945  Carter Glass                       (b. 1858 - d. 1946)  Dem
 6 Jan 1945 -  3 Jan 1947  Kenneth McKellar (1st time)        (b. 1869 - d. 1957)  Dem
 4 Jan 1947 -  3 Jan 1949  Arthur H. Vandenberg               (b. 1884 - d. 1951)  Rep
 3 Jan 1949 -  3 Jan 1953  Kenneth McKellar (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Jan 1953 -  3 Jan 1955  Styles Bridges                     (b. 1898 - d. 1961)  Rep
 5 Jan 1955 -  3 Jan 1957  Walter F. George                   (b. 1878 - d. 1957)  Dem
 3 Jan 1957 -  3 Jan 1969  Carl Hayden                        (b. 1877 - d. 1972)  Dem
 3 Jan 1969 - 21 Jan 1971  Richard B. Russell                 (b. 1897 - d. 1971)  Dem
22 Jan 1971 - 27 Jul 1972  Allen J. Ellender                  (b. 1890 - d. 1972)  Dem
28 Jul 1972 - 27 Dec 1978  James O. Eastland                  (b. 1904 - d. 1986)  Dem
15 Jan 1979 -  5 Dec 1980  Warren G. Magnuson (1st time)      (b. 1905 - d. 1989)  Dem
 5 Dec 1980 -  6 Dec 1980  Milton Young                       (b. 1897 - d. 1983)  Rep
 6 Dec 1980 -  3 Jan 1981  Warren G. Magnuson (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Dem
 5 Jan 1981 -  3 Jan 1987  Strom Thurmond (1st time)          (b. 1902 - d. 2003)  Rep
 6 Jan 1987 -  3 Jan 1989  John C. Stennis                    (b. 1901 - d. 1995)  Dem
 3 Jan 1989 -  3 Jan 1995  Robert C. Byrd (1st time)          (b. 1917 - d. 2010)  Dem
 4 Jan 1995 -  3 Jan 2001  Strom Thurmond (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Rep
 3 Jan 2001 - 20 Jan 2001  Robert C. Byrd (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Dem
20 Jan 2001 -  6 Jun 2001  Strom Thurmond (3rd time)          (s.a.)               Rep
 6 Jun 2001 -  3 Jan 2003  Robert C. Byrd (3rd time)          (s.a.)               Dem
 7 Jan 2003 -  3 Jan 2007  Ted F. Stevens                     (b. 1923 - d. 2010)  Rep
 4 Jan 2007 - 28 Jun 2010  Robert C. Byrd (4th time)          (s.a.)               Dem 
28 Jun 2010 - 17 Dec 2012  Daniel K. Inouye                   (b. 1924 - d. 2012)  Dem
18 Dec 2012 -              Patrick J. Leahy                   (b. 1940)            Dem

Senate Majority Leaders
 5 Mar 1925 -  3 Mar 1929  Charles Curtis                     (b. 1860 - d. 1936)  Rep
 5 Mar 1929 -  3 Mar 1933  James E. Watson                    (b. 1864 - d. 1948)  Rep
 4 Mar 1933 - 14 Jul 1937  Joseph T. Robinson                 (b. 1872 - d. 1937)  Dem
22 Jul 1937 -  3 Jan 1947  Alben W. Barkley                   (b. 1877 - d. 1956)  Dem
 3 Jan 1947 -  3 Jan 1949  Wallace H. White, Jr.              (b. 1877 - d. 1952)  Rep
 3 Jan 1949 -  3 Jan 1951  Scott W. Lucas                     (b. 1892 - d. 1968)  Dem
 3 Jan 1951 -  3 Jan 1953  Ernest W. McFarland                (b. 1894 - d. 1984)  Dem
 3 Jan 1953 - 31 Jul 1953  Robert A. Taft                     (b. 1889 - d. 1953)  Rep
 4 Aug 1953 -  3 Jan 1955  William F. Knowland                (b. 1908 - d. 1974)  Rep
 3 Jan 1955 -  3 Jan 1961  Lyndon Baines Johnson              (b. 1908 - d. 1973)  Dem
 3 Jan 1961 -  3 Jan 1977  Mike Mansfield                     (b. 1903 - d. 2001)  Dem
 4 Jan 1977 -  3 Jan 1981  Robert C. Byrd (1st time)          (b. 1917 - d. 2010)  Dem
 3 Jan 1981 -  3 Jan 1985  Howard H. Baker, Jr.               (b. 1925)            Rep
 3 Jan 1985 -  3 Jan 1987  Robert "Bob" J. Dole (1st time)    (b. 1923)            Rep
 3 Jan 1987 -  3 Jan 1989  Robert C. Byrd (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Jan 1989 -  3 Jan 1995  George C. Mitchell                 (b. 1933)            Dem
 3 Jan 1995 - 11 Jun 1996  Robert "Bob" J. Dole (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Rep
12 Jun 1996 -  3 Jan 2001  Trent Lott (1st time)              (b. 1941)            Rep
 3 Jan 2001 - 20 Jan 2001  Thomas "Tom" Daschle (1st time)    (b. 1947)            Dem
20 Jan 2001 -  6 Jun 2001  Trent Lott (2nd time)              (s.a.)               Rep
 6 Jun 2001 -  3 Jan 2003  Thomas "Tom" Daschle (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Dem
 7 Jan 2003 -  3 Jan 2007  William "Bill" H. Frist            (b. 1952)            Rep
 4 Jan 2007 -              Harry M. Reid                      (b. 1939)            Dem 

Senate Minority Leaders
27 Apr 1920 -  3 Dec 1923  Oscar W. Underwood                 (b. 1862 - d. 1929)  Dem
 3 Dec 1923 -  4 Mar 1933  Joseph T. Robinson                 (s.a.)               Dem
 7 Mar 1933 - 25 Feb 1944  Charles Linza McNary               (b. 1874 - d. 1944)  Rep
1940                       Warren Robinson Austin             (b. 1877 - d. 1962)  Rep
                             (acting for McNary) 
25 Feb 1944 -  3 Jan 1947  Wallace Humphrey White, Jr.        (s.a.)               Rep
                             (acting to 4 Jan 1945)
 3 Jan 1947 -  3 Jan 1949  Alben W. Barkley                   (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Jan 1949 - 29 Nov 1951  Kenneth Spicer Wherry              (b. 1892 - d. 1951)  Rep
 8 Jan 1952 -  3 Jan 1953  Henry Styles Bridges               (b. 1898 - d. 1961)  Rep
 3 Jan 1953 -  3 Jan 1955  Lyndon Baines Johnson              (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Jan 1955 -  3 Jan 1959  William F. Knowland                (s.a.)               Rep
 7 Jan 1959 -  7 Sep 1969  Everett McKinley Dirksen           (b. 1896 - d. 1969)  Rep
24 Sep 1969 -  3 Jan 1977  Hugh Doggett Scott, Jr.            (b. 1900 - d. 1994)  Rep
 4 Jan 1977 -  3 Jan 1981  Howard H. Baker, Jr.               (s.a.)               Rep
 3 Jan 1981 -  3 Jan 1987  Robert C. Byrd                     (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Jan 1987 -  3 Jan 1995  Robert "Bob" J. Dole               (s.a.)               Rep
 3 Jan 1995 -  3 Jan 2001  Thomas "Tom" Daschle (1st time)    (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Jan 2001 - 20 Jan 2001  Trent Lott (1st time)              (s.a.)               Rep
20 Jan 2001 -  6 Jun 2001  Thomas "Tom" Daschle (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Dem
 6 Jun 2001 -  3 Jan 2003  Trent Lott (2nd time)              (s.a.)               Rep
 4 Jan 2001 -  3 Jan 2005  Thomas "Tom" Daschle (3rd time)    (s.a.)               Dem
 4 Jan 2005 -  3 Jan 2007  Harry M. Reid                      (b. 1939)            Dem 
 4 Jan 2007 -              Mitch McConnell, Jr.               (b. 1942)            Rep

 ΉThe Vice Presidents formally serve as presidents of the Senate, but rarely presides over routine day-to-day debate. Until 1890, the Senate elected a President Pro Tempore whenever the Vice President was not in attendance. When the Vice President returned, the President "Pro Tem" lost his place, and when the Vice President was again absent, the Senate again elected a President Pro Tempore. By the standing order agreed to on 12 Mar 1890, the Senate declared that the President Pro Tempore shall hold office during "the pleasure of the Senate and until another is elected, and shall execute the duties thereof during all future absences of the Vice President until the Senate does otherwise order."

Party abbreviations: Party abbreviations: Dem = Democratic Party (liberal, center-left, former D-R, est.1829); Ind = Independent; Rep = Republican Party (conservative, center-right, est.1854);
- Former parties: anti-Fed = Anti-Federalist (opposed to policies of the Federalists, 1780's-1794); D-R = Democratic-Republican Party (pro-states rights, anti-Federalist, 1794-1829, renamed Dem); Fed = Federalist Party (conservative, federalist, 1792-1824); Jck = Jacksonian Democrat; Whg = Whig Party (economic nationalist, protectionist, anti-Jacksonian, 1833-1860)



U.S. House of Representatives

[Flag of
                      U.S. House of Representatives]        Flag of U.S. House of Representatives
[flag of
                      the Speaker of U.S. House of Representatives]             Flag of the Speaker of the House

U.S. House of Representatives website

Speakers of the House of Representatives
 1 Apr 1789 -  3 Mar 1791  Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg          (b. 1750 - d. 1801)  Fed
                             (1st time)
24 Oct 1791 -  3 Mar 1793  Jonathan Trumbull                  (b. 1740 - d. 1809)  Fed
 2 Dec 1793 -  3 Mar 1795  Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg          (s.a.)               anti-Fed
                             (2nd time)
 7 Dec 1795 -  3 Mar 1799  Jonathan Dayton                    (b. 1760 - d. 1824)  Fed
20 Apr 1798                George Dent (acting) (1st time)    (b. 1756 - d. 1813)  Fed
                             (Speaker pro tempore)
28 May 1798                George Dent (acting) (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Fed
                             (Speaker pro tempore)
 2 Dec 1799 -  3 Mar 1801  Theodore Sedgwick                  (b. 1746 - d. 1813)  Fed
 7 Dec 1801 -  3 Mar 1807  Nathaniel Macon                    (b. 1758 - d. 1837)  D-R
26 Oct 1807 -  3 Mar 1811  Joseph B. Varnum                   (b. 1750 - d. 1821)  D-R
 4 Nov 1811 - 19 Jan 1814  Henry Clay (1st time)              (b. 1777 - d. 1852)  D-R
19 Jan 1814 -  3 Mar 1815  Langdon Cheves                     (b. 1776 - d. 1857)  D-R
 4 Dec 1815 - 28 Oct 1820  Henry Clay (2nd time)              (s.a.)               D-R
15 Nov 1820 -  3 Mar 1821  John W. Taylor (1st time)          (b. 1784 - d. 1854)  D-R
 4 Dec 1821 -  3 Mar 1823  Philip P. Barbour                  (b. 1783 - d. 1841)  D-R
 3 Dec 1823 -  6 Mar 1825  Henry Clay (3rd time)              (s.a.)               D-R
 5 Dec 1825 -  3 Mar 1827  John W. Taylor (2nd time)          (s.a.)               D-R
 3 Dec 1827 -  2 Jun 1834  Andrew Stevenson                   (b. 1784 - d. 1857)12/7/1829:Jck
 2 Jun 1834 -  3 Mar 1835  John Bell                          (b. 1797 - d. 1869)  Whg
 7 Dec 1835 -  3 Mar 1839  James K. Polk                      (b. 1795 - d. 1849)  Jck
16 Dec 1839 -  3 Mar 1841  Robert M.T. Hunter                 (b. 1809 - d. 1887)  Whg
31 May 1841 -  3 Mar 1843  John White                         (b. 1802 - d. 1845)  Whg
 4 Dec 1843 -  3 Mar 1845  John W. Jones                      (b. 1791 - d. 1848)  Dem
 1 Dec 1845 -  3 Mar 1847  John W. Davis                      (b. 1799 - d. 1859)  Dem
 6 Dec 1847 -  3 Mar 1849  Robert C. Winthrop                 (b. 1809 - d. 1894)  Whg
22 Dec 1849 -  3 Mar 1851  Howell Cobb                        (b. 1815 - d. 1868)  Dem
 1 Dec 1851 -  3 Mar 1855  Linn Boyd                          (b. 1800 - d. 1859)  Dem
 2 Feb 1856 -  3 Mar 1857  Nathaniel P. Banks                 (b. 1816 - d. 1894)  AP
 7 Dec 1857 -  3 Mar 1859  James L. Orr                       (b. 1822 - d. 1873)  Dem
 1 Feb 1860 -  3 Mar 1861  William Pennington                 (b. 1796 - d. 1862)  Rep
 4 Jul 1861 -  3 Mar 1863  Galusha A. Grow                    (b. 1823 - d. 1907)  Rep
 7 Dec 1863 -  3 Mar 1869  Schuyler Colfax                    (b. 1823 - d. 1885)  Rep
 3 Mar 1869                Theodore M. Pomeroy                (b. 1824 - d. 1905)  Rep
 4 Mar 1869 -  3 Mar 1875  James G. Blaine                    (b. 1830 - d. 1893)  Rep
 6 Dec 1875 - 19 Aug 1876  Michael C. Kerr                    (b. 1827 - d. 1876)  Dem
20 Aug 1876 -  4 Dec 1876  Milton Sayler                      (b. 1831 - d. 1892)  Dem 
                             (Speaker pro tempore)
 4 Dec 1876 -  3 Mar 1881  Samuel J. Randall                  (b. 1828 - d. 1890)  Dem
 5 Dec 1881 -  3 Mar 1883  Joseph Warren Keifer               (b. 1836 - d. 1932)  Rep
 3 Dec 1883 -  3 Mar 1889  John G. Carlisle                   (b. 1835 - d. 1910)  Dem
 2 Dec 1889 -  3 Mar 1891  Thomas B. Reed (1st time)          (b. 1839 - d. 1902)  Rep
 7 Dec 1891 -  3 Mar 1895  Charles F. Crisp                   (b. 1845 - d. 1896)  Dem
 2 Dec 1895 -  3 Mar 1899  Thomas B. Reed (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Rep
 4 Dec 1899 -  3 Mar 1903  David B. Henderson                 (b. 1840 - d. 1906)  Rep
 9 Nov 1903 -  3 Mar 1911  Joseph G. Cannon                   (b. 1836 - d. 1926)  Rep
 4 Apr 1911 -  3 Mar 1919  James Beauchamp "Champ" Clark      (b. 1850 - d. 1921)  Dem
19 May 1919 -  3 Mar 1925  Frederick H. Gillett               (b. 1851 - d. 1935)  Rep
 7 Dec 1925 -  3 Mar 1931  Nicholas Longworth                 (b. 1869 - d. 1931)  Rep
 7 Dec 1931 -  3 Mar 1933  John Nance Garner                  (b. 1868 - d. 1967)  Dem
 9 Mar 1933 - 19 Aug 1934  Henry T. Rainey                    (b. 1860 - d. 1934)  Dem
 3 Jan 1935 -  4 Jun 1936  Joseph W. Byrns                    (b. 1869 - d. 1936)  Dem
 4 Jun 1936 - 15 Sep 1940  William B. Bankhead                (b. 1874 - d. 1940)  Dem
16 Sep 1940 -  3 Jan 1947  Sam Rayburn (1st time)             (b. 1882 - d. 1961)  Dem
 3 Jan 1947 -  3 Jan 1949  Joseph W. Martin, Jr.              (b. 1884 - d. 1968)  Rep
                             (1st time)
 3 Jan 1949 -  3 Jan 1953  Sam Rayburn (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Dem
 3 Jan 1953 -  3 Jan 1955  Joseph W. Martin, Jr.              (s.a.)               Rep
                             (2nd time)
 5 Jan 1955 - 16 Nov 1961  Sam Rayburn (3rd time)             (s.a.)               Dem
10 Jan 1962 -  3 Jan 1971  John W. McCormack                  (b. 1891 - d. 1980)  Dem
21 Jan 1971 -  3 Jan 1977  Carl B. Albert                     (b. 1908 - d. 2000)  Dem
 4 Jan 1977 -  3 Jan 1987  Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill, Jr.       (b. 1912 - d. 1994)  Dem
 6 Jan 1987 -  6 Jun 1989  James "Jim" C. Wright, Jr.         (b. 1922)            Dem
 6 Jun 1989 -  3 Jan 1995  Thomas "Tom" S. Foley              (b. 1929 - d. 2013)  Dem
 4 Jan 1995 -  3 Jan 1999  Newt Gingrich                      (b. 1943)            Rep
 4 Jan 1999 -  3 Jan 2007  Dennis "Denny" Hastert             (b. 1942)            Rep
 4 Jan 2007 -  3 Jan 2011  Nancy D'Alesandro Pelosi (f)       (b. 1940)            Dem
 5 Jan 2011 -              John A. Boehner                    (b. 1949)            Rep

House Majority Leaders
1899 - 1911                Sereno Elisha Payne                (b. 1843 - d. 1914)  Rep
1911 - 1915                Oscar Wilder Underwood             (b. 1862 - d. 1929)  Dem
1915 - 1919                Claude Kitchin                     (b. 1869 - d. 1923)  Dem
1919 - 1923                Franklin "Frank" Wheeler Mondell   (b. 1860 - d. 1939)  Rep
1923 - 1925                Nicholas Longworth                 (b. 1869 - d. 1931)  Rep
1925 - 1931                John Quillin Tilson                (b. 1866 - d. 1958)  Rep
1931 - 1933                Henry T. Rainey                    (b. 1860 - d. 1934)  Dem
1933 - 1935                Joseph W. Byrns                    (b. 1869 - d. 1936)  Dem
1935 - 1937                William B. Bankhead                (b. 1874 - d. 1940)  Dem
1937 - 1940                Sam Rayburn                        (b. 1882 - d. 1961)  Dem
1940 - 1947                John W. McCormack (1st time)       (b. 1891 - d. 1980)  Dem
1947 - 1949                Charles Abraham Halleck            (b. 1900 - d. 1986)  Rep
                             (1st time)
1949 - 1953                John W. McCormack (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Dem
1953 - 1955                Charles Abraham Halleck            (s.a.)               Rep
                             (2nd time)
1955 - 1962                John W. McCormack (3rd time)       (s.a.)               Dem
1962 - 1971                Carl B. Albert                     (b. 1908 - d. 2000)  Dem
1971 - 1973                Thomas Hale Boggs, Sr.             (b. 1914 - d. 1972)  Dem
1973 - 1977                Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill, Jr.       (b. 1912 - d. 1994)  Dem
1977 - 1986                James "Jim" C. Wright, Jr.         (b. 1922)            Dem
1987 - 1989                Thomas "Tom" S. Foley              (b. 1929 - d. 2013)  Dem
1989 - 1994                Richard "Dick" Andrew Gephardt     (s.a.)               Dem
1994 - 2002                Richard "Dick" Keith Armey         (b. 1940)            Rep
2003 - 28 Sep 2005         Thomas "Tom" Dale Delay            (b. 1947)            Rep 
28 Sep 2005 -  2 Feb 2006  Roy D. Blunt                       (b. 1950)            Rep
 2 Feb 2006 -  3 Jan 2007  John A. Boehner                    (b. 1949)            Rep
 4 Jan 2007 -  3 Jan 2011  Steny H. Hoyer                     (b. 1939)            Dem
 5 Jan 2011 -              Eric I. Cantor                     (b. 1963)            Rep

House Minority Leaders
1899 - 1903                James Daniel Richardson            (b. 1843 - d. 1914)  Dem
1903 - 1908                John Sharp Williams                (b. 1854 - d. 1932)  Dem
1908 - 1911                James "Champ" Beauchamp Clark      (b. 1850 - d. 1921)  Dem
                             (1st time)
1911 - 1919                James Robert Mann                  (b. 1856 - d. 1922)  Rep
1919 - 1921                James "Champ" Beauchamp Clark      (s.a.)               Dem
                             (2nd time)
1921 - 1923                Claude Kitchin                     (b. 1869 - d. 1923)  Dem
1923 - 1929                Finis James Garrett                (b. 1875 - d. 1956)  Dem
1929 - 1931                John Nance Garner                  (b. 1868 - d. 1967)  Dem
1931 - 1939                Bertrand Hollis Snell              (b. 1870 - d. 1958)  Rep
1939 - 1947                Joseph W. Martin, Jr. (1st time)   (b. 1884 - d. 1968)  Rep
1947 - 1949                Sam Rayburn (1st time)             (s.a.)               Dem
1949 - 1953                Joseph W. Martin, Jr. (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Rep
1953 - 1955                Sam Rayburn (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Dem
1955 - 1959                Joseph W. Martin, Jr. (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Rep
1959 - 1965                Charles Abraham Halleck            (s.a.)               Rep
1965 - 1973                Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.           (b. 1913 - d. 2006)  Rep
1974 - 1981                John Jacob Rhodes                  (b. 1916 - d. 2003)  Rep
1981 - 1994                Robert "Bob" Henry Michel          (b. 1923)            Rep 
1995 - 2002                Richard "Dick" Andrew Gephardt     (s.a.)               Dem
2003 -  3 Jan 2007         Nancy D'Alesandro Pelosi (f)       (b. 1940)            Dem
                             (1st time)
 4 Jan 2007 -  3 Jan 2011  John A. Boehner                    (b. 1949)            Rep 
 5 Jan 2011 -              Nancy D'Alesandro Pelosi (f)       (s.a.)               Dem
                             (2nd time)

Party abbreviations: Dem = Democratic Party (liberal, center-left, former D-R, est.1829); Rep = Republican Party (conservative, center-right, est.1854);
- Former parties: anti-Fed = Anti-Federalist (Fed opposition, 1780's-1794); AP = American Party (anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic, Unionist, informally called Know-Nothing Party, 1853-1860); D-R = Democratic-Republican Party (pro-states rights, anti-Federalist, 1791-1829, renamed Dem); Fed = Federalist Party (conservative, federalist, 1792-1824); Jck = Jacksonian Democrat (Jacksonson faction of D-R/Dem, 1824-1839); Whg = Whig Party (economic nationalist, protectionist, anti-Jacksonian, 1833-1860)


Library of Congress

[Library of Congress flag]

Library of Congress

24 Apr 1800                Library of Congress (LOC) created.

Librarians of Congress
29 Jan 1802 -  8 Apr 1807  John J. Beckley                    (b. 1757 - d. 1807)
 7 Nov 1807 - 28 Jan 1815  Patrick Magruder                   (b. 1768 - d. 1819)
21 Mar 1815 - 28 May 1829  George Watterston                  (b. 1783 - d. 1854)
28 May 1829 - 24 May 1861  John Silva Meehan                  (b. 1790 - d. 1863)
24 May 1861 - 31 Dec 1864  John G. Stephenson                 (b. 1828 - d. 1882)
31 Dec 1864 - 30 Jun 1897  Ainsworth Rand Spofford            (b. 1825 - d. 1908)
30 Jun 1897 - 17 Jan 1899  John Russell Young                 (b. 1840 - d. 1899)
 5 Apr 1899 -  1 Oct 1939  Herbert Putnam                     (b. 1861 - d. 1955)
 2 Oct 1939 - 19 Dec 1944  Archibald MacLeish                 (b. 1892 - d. 1982)
19 Dec 1944 -  5 Jul 1953  Luther Harris Evans                (b. 1902 - d. 1981)
                             (acting to 30 Jun 1945)
 5 Jul 1953 -  1 Sep 1954  Verner W. Clapp (acting)           (b. 1901 - d. 1972)
 1 Sep 1954 - 31 Dec 1974  L. Quincy Mumford                  (b. 1903 - d. 1982)
31 Dec 1974 - 12 Nov 1975  John G. Lorenz (acting)            (b. 1915)
12 Nov 1975 -  4 Aug 1987  Daniel J. Boorstin                 (b. 1914 - d. 2004)
 4 Aug 1987 - 17 Sep 1987  William J. Welsh (acting)          (b. 1919 - d. 2012)
14 Sep 1987 -              James H. Billington                (b. 1929)


Government Accountability Office (GAO)

[former
                      General Accounting Office (GAO) flag]                            to 2004
[flag of
                      Government Accountability Office (GAO)]                        Adopted 2004

General Accountability Office

10 Jun 1921                General Accounting Office (GAO) established.
 7 Jul 2004                Renamed Government Accountability Office.

Comptrollers General of the United States
 1 Jul 1921 - 30 Jun 1936  John R. McCarl                     (b. 1879 - d. 1940)
 1 Jul 1936 - 11 Apr 1939  Richard N. Elliott (1st time)      (b. 1873 - d. 1948)
                             (acting)
11 Apr 1939 - 19 Jun 1940  Fred H. Brown                      (b. 1879 - d. 1955)
19 Jun 1940 -  1 Nov 1940  Richard N. Elliott (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 1 Nov 1940 - 30 Apr 1954  Lindsay C. Warren                  (b. 1889 - d. 1976)
 1 May 1954 - 14 Dec 1954  Frank H. Weitzel (1st time)(acting)(b. 1907? - d. 1987)
14 Dec 1954 - 31 Jul 1965  Joseph Campbell                    (b. 1900 - d. 1984)
 
1 Aug 1965 -  8 Mar 1966  Frank H. Weitzel (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)
 8 Mar 1966 -  4 Mar 1981  Elmer B. Staats                    (b. 1914 - d. 2011)
 4 Mar 1981 -  8 Oct 1981  Milton J. Socolar (acting)
 8 Oct 1981 - 30 Sep 1996  Charles A. Bowsher                 (b. 1931)
 1 Oct 1996 -  9 Nov 1998  James F. Hinchman (acting)
 9 Nov 1998 - 13 Mar 2008  David M. Walker                    (b. 1951)
13 Mar 2008 -              Eugene "Gene" L. Dodaro            (b. 1951)
                             (acting to 22 Dec 2010)



Political Parties

Democratic National Committee (DNC)

[Flag of the Democratic Party
                (Democrats)]

Democratic National Committee

Chairmen of the Democratic National Committee
1848 - 1852                Benjamin Franklin Hallett          (b. 1797 - d. 1862)
1852 - 1856                Robert Milligan McLane             (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
1856 - 1860                David Allen Smalley                (b. 1809 - d. 1877)
1860 - 1872                August Belmont                     (b. 1816 - d. 1890)
1872 - 1876                Augustus Schell                    (b. 1812 - d. 1884)
1876 - 1877                Abram Stevens Hewitt               (b. 1822 - d. 1903)
1877 - 30 Apr 1889         William Henry Barnum               (b. 1818 - d. 1889)
1889 - 1892                Calvin Stewart Brice               (b. 1845 - d. 1898)
1892 - 1896                William Francis Harrity            (b. 1850 - d. 1912)
1896 - 1904                James Kimbrough Jones              (b. 1839 - d. 1908)
1904 - 1908                Thomas Taggart                     (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
1908 - 1912                Norman Edward Mack                 (b. 1858 - d. 1932)
1912 - 1914                William F. McCombs                 (b. 1875 - d. 1921)
1914 - 1916                Homer Stillι Cummings              (b. 1870 - d. 1956)
1916 - 1919                Vance Criswell McCormick           (b. 1872 - d. 1946)
1920 - 1921                George White                       (b. 1872 - d. 1953)
1921 - 1924                Cordell Hull                       (b. 1871 - d. 1955)
1924 - 1928                Clem Lawrence Shaver               (b. 1867 - d. 1954)
1928 - 1932                John Jakob Raskob                  (b. 1879 - d. 1950)
1932 - 1940                James Aloysius Farley              (b. 1888 - d. 1976)
1940 - 1943                Edward Joseph Flynn                (b. 1892 - d. 1953)
1943 - Jan 1944            Frank Comerford Walker             (b. 1886 - d. 1959)
Jan 1944 - Oct 1947        Robert Emmet Hannegan              (b. 1903 - d. 1949)
Oct 1947 - Aug 1949        James Howard McGrath               (b. 1903 - d. 1966)
1949 - 1951                William M. Boyle, Jr.              (b. 1903 - d. 1961)
1951 - 1952                Frank Edward McKinney              (b. 1904 - d. 1974)
1952 - 1955                Stephen A. Mitchell                (b. 1903 - d. 1974)
1955 - Jul 1960            Paul Mulholland Butler             (b. 1905 - d. 1961)
Jul 1960 - 21 Jan 1961     Henry Martin Jackson               (b. 1912 - d. 1983)
21 Jan 1961 - 1968         John Moran Bailey                  (b. 1904 - d. 1975)
1968 - 1969                Lawrence Francis O'Brien (1st time)(b. 1917 - d. 1990)
1969 - 1970                Fred Roy Harris                    (b. 1930)
1970 - 1972                Lawrence Francis O'Brien (2nd time)(s.a.)
1972                       Jean Miles Westwood (f)            (b. 1923 - d. 1997)
1972 - 21 Jan 1977         Robert Schwarz Strauss             (b. 1918 - d. 2014)
21 Jan 1977 - 27 Jan 1978 
Kenneth Merwin Curtis              (b. 1931)
27 Jan 1978 - 27 Feb 1981
 John C. White                      (b. 1924 - d. 1995)
27 Feb 1981 -  1 Feb 1985
 Charles T. Manatt                  (b. 1936 - d. 2011)
 1 Feb 1985 - 10 Feb 1989 
Paul G. Kirk, Jr.                  (b. 1938)
10 Feb 1989 - 21 Jan 1993  Ronald "Ron" Harmon Brown          (b. 1941 - d. 1996)
21 Jan 1993 - 11 Nov 1994
 David Wilhelm                      (b. 1956)
11 Nov 1994 - 21 Jan 1995
 Debra DeLee (f)                    (b. 1948)
- National chairmen -
21 Jan 1995 - 21 Jan 1997  Donald L. Fowler                   (b. 1935)
21 Jan 1997 - 20 Mar 1999  Steve Grossman                     (b. 1946)
20 Mar 1999 -  3 Feb 2001  Joseph "Joe" J. Andrew             (b. 1960)
- General chairmen -
21 Jan 1995 - 21 Jan 1997  Christopher "Chris" Dodd           (b. 1944)
21 Jan 1997 - 25 Sep 1999  Roy R. Romer                       (b. 1928)
25 Sep 1999 -  3 Feb 2001  Ed G. Rendell                      (b. 1944)
- Chairmen -
 3 Feb 2001 - 12 Feb 2005  Terry McAuliffe                    (b. 1957)
12 Feb 2005 - 21 Jan 2009  Howard B. Dean                     (b. 1948)
21 Jan 2009 -  5 Apr 2011  Timothy "Tim" M. Kaine             (b. 1958)
 5 Apr 2011 -  4 May 2011  Donna Brazile (f) (acting)         (b. 1959)
 4 May 2011 -              Debbie Wasserman Schultz (f)       (b. 1966)
 2 Jan 2014 -              Amy K. Dacey (f)                   (b. c.1971)
                             (chief executive officer)



Republican National Committee (RNC)

[Flag of the Republican Party
                (GOP)]

Republican National Committee

Chairmen of the Republican National Committee
1856 - 1864                Edwin Denison Morgan (1st time)    (b. 1811 - d. 1883)
1864 - 1866                Henry Jarvis Raymond               (b. 1820 - d. 1869)
1866 - 1868                Marcus Lawrence Ward               (b. 1812 - d. 1884)
1868 - 1872                William Claflin                    (b. 1818 - d. 1905)
1872 - 1876                Edwin Denison Morgan (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1876 - 1879                Zachariah Chandler                 (b. 1813 - d. 1879)
1879 - 1880                James Donald Cameron               (b. 1833 - d. 1918)
1880 - 1883                Marshall Jewell                    (b. 1825 - d. 1883)
1883 - 1884                Dwight May Sabin                   (b. 1843 - d. 1902)
1884 - 1888                Benjamin Franklin Jones            (b. 1824 - d. 1903)
1888 - 1891                Matthew Stanley Quay               (b. 1833 - d. 1904)
1891 - 1892                James S. Clarkson                  (b. 1842 - d. 1918)
1892 - 1896                Thomas Henry Carter                (b. 1854 - d. 1911)
1896 - 15 Feb 1904         Marcus Alonzo Hanna                (b. 1837 - d. 1904)
15 Feb 1904 - 23 Jun 1904  Henry Clay Payne                   (b. 1843 - d. 1904)
                             (acting to 20 Jun 1904)
23 Jun 1904 - 1907         George Bruce Cortelyou             (b. 1862 - d. 1940)
1907 - 1908                Harry Steward New                  (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
1908 - 1909                Frank Harris Hitchcock             (b. 1867 - d. 1935)
1910 - 16 Mar 1912         John Fremont Hill                  (b. 1855 - d. 1912)
Mar 1912 - 1912            Victor Rosewater (acting)          (b. 1871 - d. 1940)
1912 - 1916                Charles Dewey Hilles               (b. 1867 - d. 1949) 
1916 - 1918                William R. Willcox                 (b. 1863 - d. 1940)
1918 - 1921                William Harrison Hays              (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
1921 - 1924                John Taylor Adams                  (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
1924 - 1928                William Butler                     (b. 1861 - d. 1937)
1928 - 1929                Hubert Work                        (b. 1860 - d. 1942)
1930 - 1932                Simeon Davidson Fess               (b. 1861 - d. 1936)
1932 - 1934                James Everett Sanders              (b. 1882 - d. 1950)
1934 - 1936                Henry P. Fletcher                  (b. 1873 - d. 1959)
1936 - 1940                John D.M. Hamilton                 (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
1940 - 1942                Joseph William Martin, Jr.         (b. 1884 - d. 1968)
1942 - 1944                Harrison Earl Spangler             (b. 1879 - d. 1965)
1944 - 1946                Herbert Brownell, Jr.              (b. 1904 - d. 1996)
1946 - 1948                Brazilla Carroll Reece             (b. 1889 - d. 1961)
1948 - 1949                Hugh Doggett Scott, Jr.            (b. 1900 - d. 1994)
1949 - Jul 1952            Guy George Gabrielson              (b. 1891 - d. 1976)
Jul 1952 - Jan 1953        Arthur Ellsworth Summerfield       (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
Jan 1953 - Mar 1953        Wesley Roberts                     (b. 1902 - d. 1975)
Apr 1953 -  1 Feb 1957     Leonard Wood Hall                  (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
 1 Feb 1957 - 1959         Hugh Meade Alcorn, Jr.             (b. 1907 - d. 1992)
1959 - Jun 1961            Thruston C. Ballard Morton         (b. 1907 - d. 1982)
Jun 1961 - 1964            William Edward Miller              (b. 1914 - d. 1983)
1964 -  1 Apr 1965         Dean Burch                         (b. 1927 - d. 1991)
 1 Apr 1965 - 1969         Ray Charles Bliss                  (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
1969 - 1971                Rogers Clark Ballard Morton        (b. 1914 - d. 1979)
1971 - 1973                Robert "Bob" Dole                  (b. 1923)
1973 - 1974                George Herbert Walker Bush         (b. 1924)
1974 - 14 Jan 1977         Mary Louise Smith (f)              (b. 1914 - d. 1997)
14 Jan 1977 - 17 Jan 1981
 William "Bill" Emerson Brock III   (b. 1930)
17 Jan 1981 - 27 Jan 1983
 Richard Richards                   (b. 1932)
27 Jan 1983 - 18 Jan 1989
  Frank J. Fahrenkopf, Jr.           (b. 1939)
27 Jan 1983 - 23 Jan 1987  Paul D. Laxalt (general chairman)  (b. 1922)
18 Jan 1989 - 25 Jan 1991  Lee Atwater                        (b. 1951 - d. 1991)
25 Jan 1991 -  1 Feb 1992  Clayton Keith Yeutter              (b. 1930)
 1 Feb 1992 - 30 Jan 1993  Richard N. Bond                    (b. 1950)
30 Jan 1993 - 17 Jan 1997  Haley R. Barbour                   (b. 1947)
17 Jan 1997 - 18 Jan 2001  James "Jim" Nicholson              (b. 1938)
18 Jan 2001 - 18 Jan 2002  James "Jim" S. Gilmore III         (b. 1949)
18 Jan 2002 - 25 Jul 2003  Marc F. Racicot                    (b. 1948)
25 Jul 2003 - 19 Jan 2005  Edward "Ed" Gillespie              (b. 1962)
19 Jan 2005 - 19 Jan 2007  Kenneth "Ken" B. Mehlman           (b. 1967)
19 Jan 2007 - 30 Jan 2009  Robert "Mike" Duncan               (b. 1951)
19 Jan 2007 - 19 Oct 2007  Mel Martinez (general chairman)    (b. 1946)
30 Jan 2009 - 
14 Jan 2011  Michael S. Steele                  (b. 1958)
14 Jan 2011 -              Reince Priebus                     (b. 1972)






© Ben Cahoon