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Nicaragua
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                   to 15 Sep 1821 
 
[Kingdom of Guatemala flag
                                    1821-1822]
            15 Sep 1821 - 1 Feb 1822
 
[Central American Federation
                                    1823-1824]
          21 Aug 1823 - 22 Nov 1824
 
[Central American Federation
                                    1824-1838]
           22 Nov 1824 - 2 May 1838
 
[Nicaragua
                                    national flag]
                     1838 - 21 Apr 1854
 
[Nicaragua flag
                                    1854-c.1857]
                       21 Apr 1854 - c.1857
 
[Nicaragua
                                    national flag]
    Re-adopted c.1857 (confirmed 5 Sep 1908)
 
[Nicaragua civil flag]
            Adopted 27 Aug 1971 Civil Flag
 
[Nicaragua national
                                    flag, 1978-1990 (FSLN - Frente
                                    Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional
                                    flag)]
   17 Jul 1979 - 25 Apr 1990 National Flag
 
Map of Nicaragua
Hear National Anthem
"Salve a ti, Nicaragua"
 (Hail to You, Nicaragua)
Adopted 20 Oct 1939
(1835-1837, music
 from 23 Apr 1918)
Former  National Anthem
 "La Patria Amada"
(The Beloved Homeland)
(1910-20 Oct 1939)
--------------------------------
Former National Anthem
"Hermosa Soberana"
(Beautiful Sovereign)
(1893-1910)
Constitution
(9 Jan 1987; in Spanish)
----------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(1826, 1858, 1893, 1912, 1948)
Capital: Managua
(1821-1857 alternating between
Conservative govts.: Granada
and Liberal govts.: León;
León 1524-1821)
Currency: Córdoba Oro
(NIO) 
National Holiday: 15 Sep (1821)
Independence Day
Population: 5,788,531 (2013)
GDP: $27.86 billion (2013)
Exports: $4.27 billion (2013)
Imports: $6.60 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 63.1%,
white 14%, black 8%, mixed 5%, other 9.9% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 12,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010) 
Religions: Roman Catholic 58.5%, Protestant 23.2%
(Evangelical 21.6%, Moravian 1.6%), Jehovah's
Witnesses 0.9%, other 1.7%, none 15.7% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS, APM, BCIE, BTWC, CACM, CAFTA, CAP, CCM, CELAC, CWC, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAIA (observer), LAP, LU, MIGA, NAM, NTBT, NPT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SEGIB, SICA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nicaragua
Index
Chronology
12 Sep 1502                Nicaragua discovered by Columbus and claimed
                             for Spain.
1522                       Spanish possession.
1522 - 1538                Subordinated to Santo Domingo.
1538 - 1540                Subordinated to Panama.
1544                       Part of Guatemala; subordinated to New Spain 
                             [Mexico]).
1540 - 1565                Subordinated to Nuevo Cartago (Costa Rica).
1661 - 12 Sep 1861         British Protectorate over the Mosquito Coast.
23 Dec 1786                Intendencia of León (including Costa Rica).
15 Sep 1821                Declaration of independence from Spain of the
                             Kingdom of Guatemala (encompassing all
                             present Central America and Chiapas);
                             Province of Nicaragua.
28 Sep 1821                León, while awaiting developments with regard to
                             Spain, proclaims its secession from the
                             Kingdom of Guatemala.
 4 Oct 1821                Granada reaffirms its being part of the
                             Kingdom of Guatemala.
12 Oct 1821                Incorporated into Mexico (de jure situation 
                             ambiguous).
 2 Jul 1823 -  2 May 1838  Part of Central American Federation
                             (see under Guatemala).
22 Apr 1825                State of Nicaragua (constituent state of Central
                             American Federation; see under Guatemala).
30 Apr 1838                Separation from the Federation sanctioned; 
                             promulgated 2 May 1838.
28 Feb 1854                Republic of Nicaragua.
11 Jun 1854 -  1 May 1857  Rival Nicaraguan governments (see below).
 6 Jul 1894 -  7 Aug 1894  U.S. occupation of Bluefields.
27 Apr 1895 - 15 May 1895  British occupation of Corinto.
 2 May 1896 -  4 May 1896  U.S. occupation of Corinto.
15 Sep 1896 - 30 Nov 1898  Part of later aborted attempt at recreating a
                             Central American Federation.
17 Sep 1896                State of Nicaragua
 7 Feb 1898 - 8 Feb 1898   U.S. occupation of San Juan del Sur.
 1 Dec 1898                Republic of Nicaragua
22 Feb 1899 - 5 Mar 1899   U.S. occupation of San Juan del Norte and 
                             Bluefields.
17 Nov 1909 -  3 Jan 1933  U.S. protectorate
22 Feb 1910 -  4 Sep 1910  U.S. occupation. 
 4 Aug 1912 - Jan 1913     U.S. occupation.
 5 Aug 1914 - 25 Apr 1971  A mainland tract and the Corn Islands leased to 
                             the United States to build a canal.
 7 May 1926 -  3 Jan 1933  U.S. occupation.
Nicaragua
(from 1824)
Autonomous
Regions
León
(1821-1825)
 Granada
(1821-1825)
Managua
(1824-1825)
El Viejo
(1824)
Rival Governments
(1854-1857)
Mosquito Coast
(1661-1894)
Map of Nicaraguan
Civil War
1981-1990
 

Governors
1522 - 1524                Gil González Dávila
1524 - 1526                Francisco Hernández de Córdoba      (b. 1475? - d. 1526)
1526 - 1531                Pedro Arias Dávila                  (b. 1460? - d. 1531) 
1531 - 1535                Francisco de Castañeda
1535                       Diego Álvarez de Osorio
1536 - 1544                Rodrigo de Contreras y La Hoz       (b. 1502 - d. 1558)
1544                       Diego de Herrera
1544 - 1552                the governors of Costa Rica
Alcaldes Mayores de Nicaragua
1552 - 1553                Alonso Ortiz de Argueta             (b. c.1525 - d. 1580)
1553                       Nicolás López de Zárraga (1st time)
1553 - 1555                Juan de Cavallón y Arboleda         (b. 1524 - d. 1565)
Jan 1555 - Nov 1555        Juan Márquez
1555 - 1556                Álvaro de Paz
1556 - 1557                Nicolás López de Zárraga (2nd time)
1558                       Andrés López Moraga
1558 - 1560                Francisco de Mendoza                (b. 1524 - d. 1563)
1561 - 1564                Juan Vásquez de Coronado da Anaya   (b. 1523 - d. 1566)
1564 - 1567                Bernando Bermejo
Governors of Nicaragua
1566                       Juan Vásquez de Coronado de Anaya   (s.a.)
                             (did not take office)
1566 - 1575                Alonso de Casaos
1575 - 1576                Francisco del Valle Marroquín
                             (acting)
1576                       Diego López (governor of Taguzgalpa)
1576 - 1583                Diego de Artieda Chirino y Uclés    (d. 1590)
1583 - 1589                Hernando de Casco
1589 - 1592                Carlos de Arellano
Nov 1592 - 1593            Bartolomé de Lences
1593 - 1603                Bernardino de Obando
1603 - 1622                Alonso Lara de Córdoba
1622                       Cristóbal de Villagrán
1622 - 1623                Alonso Lazo de La Vega
1623 - 1625                Santiago Carvajal y Figueroa
1625 - 1627                Lázaro de Albizúa
1627 - 1630                Juan de Agüero
1630 - 1634                Francisco de Azagra y Vargas
1634 - 1641                Pedro Salazar de Velasco
1641 - 1660                Juan de Bracamonte Davila
1660 - 1665                Diego de Castro
1665 - 1669                Juan Fernández de Salinas y La Cerda
1669 - 1675                Antonio Termiño y Davila
1675 - 1681                Pablo de Loyola
1681 - 1682                Antonio Coello y Aguilera
1682 - 1692                Pedro Álvarez Castrillón 
1692 - 1696                Gabriel Rodríguez Bravo de Hoyos 
1696 - 1705                Pedro Gerónimo Luis de Colmenares
                             y Camargo
1705 - 1706                Miguel de Camargo
1706 - 1720                José Calvo de Lara
1720 - 21 Aug 1721         Juan Sebastián de Arancibia Izasi 
1721 - 1724                Antonio de Póveda y Rivadeneira      (d. 1727)
                             (1st time)

1724 - 1727                Tomás Marcos, duque de Estrada
                             (1st time)
26 Jan 1727 -  7 Jul 1727  Antonio de Póveda y Rivadeneira      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

26 Aug 1727 - 1728         Pedro Martínez de Uparrio 
Aug 1728 - 1730            Tomás Marcos, duque de Estrada
                             (2nd time) 
1730 - 1739                Bartolomé González-Fitoria y Valdez
1739 - 1740                Antonio Ortiz
21 Nov 1740 - 1745         José Antonio Lacayo de Briones y     (b. 1679 - d. 1756)
                             Palacios
1745                       Francisco Antonio Cáceres 
                             y Molinedo
23 Aug 1745 - Dec 1746     Juan de Vera
Dec 1746 - 1752            Alonso Fernández de Heredia
1752 - 1756                José González Rancaño                (d. 1776)
1756 - 1759                Melchor Vidal de Lorca y 
                             Villena (1st time)
1759 - 1761                Pantaleón Ibáñez Cuevas
1761 - 1766                Melchor Vidal de Lorca y 
                             Villena (2nd time)(interim)
1766 - 1776                Domingo Cabello y Robles             (b. c.1725 - d. 1801)
1777 - 1779                Manuel de Quiroga
1779 - 1783                José de Estachería
1783 - 23 Dec 1786         Juan de Ayza y Blancazo Allue 
                             y Palacín
Governors/Intendants of León
23 Dec 1786 - 1798         Juan de Ayza y Blancazo Allue 
                             y Palacín
1798 - 13 Dec 1811         José de Salvador y Antoli
13 Dec 1811 - 1814         Nicolás García Jerez                 (b. 1756 - d. 1825)
                             (Superior Political Chief)
1814 - 17 Sep 1816         Juan Bautista Gual y Curvelo         (b. 1757 - d. 1816) 
1816 - 1819                Mariano de Beltranena y Llano        (b. 1783 - d. 1866) 
1819 - 15 Sep 1821         Miguel González de Saravia y Colarte (b. 1788 - d. 1848)
                             (from 1820, Superior Political Chief)


León

1524                       León founded by Spain
21 Aug 1685 - 14 Sep 1685  León captured by pirates under Dampier.
15 Sep 1821                Declaration of independence from Spain of the Kingdom
                             of Guatemala (encompassing all present Central America
                             plus Chiapas).
28 Sep 1821                León, while awaiting developments with regard to Spain,
                             declares separation from the Kingdom of Guatemala
                             (Acta de Nublados).
12 Oct 1821                Incorporated into Mexico (de jure situation ambiguous
                             [ratified 5 Jan 1822]).
17 Apr 1823                León declares itself an "orphan" and thus sovereign.
 1 Jul 1823                The Central American Federation (see under Guatemala)
                             proclaims independence from Mexico and invites those
                             provinces that had left the Kingdom of Guatemala to join.
 2 Jul 1823                León accedes to invitation; incorporation into Central America.
 4 Jan 1825                León surrenders to the authority of Manuel Arzú,
                             commissioned by the federal government.

Superior Political Chief and Intendant
15 Sep 1821 - 12 Oct 1821  Miguel González de Saravia y Colarte (s.a.)
President of the Provisional Governing Junta
17 Apr 1823 -  4 Jan 1825  Provisional Governing Junta
                           - Pedro Solís Terán 
                             (Primer Vocal)
                           - José del Carmen Salazar Lacayo     (b. 1774 - d. 1844)
                           - Francisco Quiñónez
                           - Domingo Nicolás Galarza y 
                               Briceño de Coca
                           - Basilio Carrillo
                           - José Valentín Fernández Gallegos
                           - Juan Modesto Hernández
                           (some sources list the last two as alternates)


Granada

1524                       Granada founded by Spain.
 4 Oct 1821                Granada reaffirms its being part of the Kingdom of
                             Guatemala, independent from Spain.
22 Nov 1821                At the instigation of the government of Guatemala, a
                             Governing Junta is established.
 4 Feb 1822 - 16 Jan 1823  Incorporated into Mexico (de jure situation ambiguous).
20 Apr 1823                José Anacleto Ordóñez is proclaimed General en Jefe del Ejército
                             Protector y Libertador de Granada; he acts as head of state
                             (e.g. in a treaty with León), but sets up a Governing Junta.
 2 Jul 1823                Part of Central American Federation (see under Guatemala).

22 Nov 1821 -  4 Feb 1822  Governing Junta
                           - Pío José Domitilo Bolaños 
                               Thomeu Santeliz Morales
                           - Rafael Briceño
                           - Felipe Argüello Molina
                           - Dionisio del Castillo
20 Apr 1823 - 1823         Governing Junta
                           - José Antonio Velázquez
                           - Bernabé Montiel
                           - Venancio Fernández
                           - Nicolás de la Rocha Zapata       (b. 1774 - d. 1846)
Commander in Chief of the Protective and Liberating Army of Granada
20 Apr 1823 -  2 Jul 1823  José Anacleto "Cleto" Ordóñez      (b. 1778 - d. 1830)
                             Bermúdez
1823 - Jan 1825            Revolutionary Junta
                           - José Anacleto "Cleto" Ordóñez    (s.a.)
                               Bermúdez
                           - Raimundo Tiffer
                           - Juan Ignacio Marenco y López
                               del Corral
                           - Solano Castrillo
                           - Nicolás de la Rocha Zapata       (s.a.)
                           - Manuel Sandoval


Managua

President of the Governing Junta
Jul 1824 - 22 Jan 1825     Governing Junta
                           - Policarpo Irigoyen                (b. 1775 - d. 1829)
                              (initially president, and possibly
                               throughout entire duration)
                           - Juan José Zavala
                           - Félix Alfaro
                           - José Crisanto Sacasa Parodi       (b. 1779 - d. 1824)
                              (to 26 Nov 1824)
                           - Pedro José Chamorro Argüello      (b. 1782 - d. 1824)


El Viejo

President of the Governing Junta
 9 Aug 1824 - 27 Dec 1824  Juan Bautista Salazar


Nicaragua

15 Sep 1821                Province of Nicaragua
 2 Jul 1823                Incorporation into Mexico.
22 Apr 1825                State of Nicaragua (constituent state of Central American
                             Federation; see under Guatemala).
30 Apr 1838                Separation from the Federation sanctioned; promulgated
                             2 May 1838 (State of Nicaragua).
28 Feb 1854                Republic of Nicaragua
17 Sep 1896                State of Nicaragua
 1 Dec 1898                Republic of Nicaragua 

Superior Political Chief and Intendant
11 Feb 1824 -  4 May 1824  José Justo Milla Pineda Arriaga    (b. 1794 - d. 1838)  Fed
                             (appointed by Federal Government)
Pacificador of Nicaragua and Supreme Government Commissioner
10 Oct 1824 - 22 Apr 1825  Manuel Arzú y Nájera               (b. 1775 - d. 1835)  Fed 
                             (appointed by Federal Government)
President of the General Governing Junta 
12 Nov 1824 - 26 Dec 1824  Manuel Arzú y Nájera               (s.a.)               Fed 
                            (with representatives of the Juntas of León,
                             Granada, Managua, and El Viejo having 
                             declined participation; dissolved by 
                             order of the Federal Government)
Chiefs (often styled Supreme Chiefs, a term not mentioned in the constitution)
22 Apr 1825 - 22 Apr 1826  Manuel Antonio de la Cerda y       (b. 1780 - d. 1828)  Fed
                             Aguilar (1st time) 
22 Apr 1826 - 14 Sep 1827  Juan Argüello del Castillo y       (b. 1778 - d. 1830)  Fed
                             Guzmán (1st time)
                             (acting [for suspended Cerda from Nov 1825] to 13 Aug 1826)
17 Sep 1826 - 26 Feb 1827  Pedro Benito Pineda de León        (d. 1827)            Con
                             (acting, in dissidence, at Granada)
27 Feb 1827 -  7 Nov 1828  Manuel Antonio de la Cerda y       (s.a.)               Fed
                             Aguilar (2nd time)
                             (in dissidence except at León and Granada)
14 Sep 1827 - Dec 1827     Pedro Oviedo de Chinandega         (b. 1792 - d. 1842)  Con
                             (provisional)
                           under the authority of:
                           José Anacleto "Cleto" Ordóñez      (b. 1778 - d. 1830)  Mil/PD
                             (Commandant-General) 
Dec 1827 - Aug 1828        chaos in León and Granada; sources mention
                           governing juntas, but no detail is available
 5 Aug 1828 - Apr 1829     Juan Argüello del Castillo y       (s.a.)               Fed
                             Guzmán (2nd time)
Apr 1829 - 10 May 1830     Juan Espinosa (acting)                                  Con
10 May 1830 - Nov 1833     José Dionisio de la Trinidad de    (b. 1781 - d. 1850)  Con
                             Herrera y Díaz del Valle 
                            (resignation accepted 1 Mar 1833, rescinded 4 Mar 1833)
Dec 1833 - 10 Mar 1834     Benito Morales (acting)            (b. 1803 - d. 1889)  Fed
10 Mar 1834 - 23 Apr 1835  José Núñez (1st time)(acting)      (d. 1880)            PC
23 Apr 1835 - 25 Jan 1837  José Zepeda                        (b. 1784 - d. 1837)  PC
25 Jan 1837 -  5 Jan 1839  José Núñez (2nd time)              (s.a.)               PC
Directors (from May 1839, styled Supreme Directors, a term not mentioned in constitution)
 5 Jan 1839 - 1839         Evaristo Rocha (acting)                                 PC
1839 - 15 May 1839         Joaquín del Cósio (1st time)       (b. 1789 - d. 18..)  PC
                             (acting)
15 May 1839 - 21 May 1839  Patricio Rivas (1st time)          (b. 1810? - d. 1867) PC
                             (provisional)  
21 May 1839 - Oct 1839     Joaquín del Cósio (2nd time)       (s.a.)               PC
Oct 1839 - Nov 1839        Hilario Ulloa                                           PC
Nov 1839 - 27 Aug 1840     Tomás Valladares                                        PC
27 Aug 1840 - Mar 1841     Patricio Rivas (2nd time)          (s.a.)               PC
 4 Mar 1841 -  1 Apr 1843  Pablo Sánchez de Buitrago          (b. 1807 - d. 1882)  PC
                             Sandoval y Benavent
                            (usually Pablo Buitrago y Benavent)
 1 Apr 1843 - 31 May 1843  Juan de Dios Orozco (acting)                            PC
31 May 1843 -  4 Nov 1844  Manuel Pérez                       (b. 1800? - d. 1845) PC
 4 Nov 1844 - 24 Jan 1845  Emiliano Madriz (acting)           (b. 1800 - d. 1844)  PC
16 Dec 1844 - 20 Jan 1845  Silvestre Selva Sacasa             (b. 1777 - d. 1855)  PC
                             (acting, in dissidence in Masaya)
20 Jan 1845 -  4 Apr 1845  Manuel Antonio Blas Sáenz                               PC
                             (acting, in dissidence to 24 Jan 1845)
 4 Apr 1845 -  1 Apr 1847  José León Sandoval                 (b. 1789 - d. 1847)  PR
 1 Apr 1847 -  6 Apr 1847  Miguel Ramón Morales (acting)      (d. 1855)            PR
 6 Apr 1847 -  1 Jan 1849  José de la Cruz Guerrero de Arcos  (d. 1853)            PR
                             y Molina

 1 Jan 1849 -  8 Mar 1849  Bernardo Toribio Terán Prado       (b. 1785 - d. 18..)  PC
                             (acting)
 8 Mar 1849 -  1 Apr 1849  José Benito Rosales y Sandoval     (b. 1795 - d. 1850)  PC
                             (acting)
 1 Apr 1849 -  1 Apr 1851  Norberto Ramírez Áreas             (b. 1800 - d. 1856)  PC
 1 Apr 1851 -  5 May 1851  José Justo Abaunza y Muñoz de      (b. 1777 - d. 1873)  PC 
                             Avilés (1st time) (acting)
 5 May 1851 -  4 Aug 1851  José Laureano Pineda Ugarte        (b. 1802 - d. 1853)  PD
                             (1st time)
 5 Aug 1851 - 11 Nov 1851  José Justo Abaunza y Muñoz de      (s.a.)               PC 
                             Avilés (2nd time)(in dissidence in Léon)
 6 Aug 1851 - 12 Aug 1851  José Francisco del Montenegro      (d. 1851)            PD 
                             (acting)
12 Aug 1851 -  2 Nov 1851  José de Jesús Alfaro (acting)      (d. 1855)            PD 
 2 Nov 1851 -  1 Apr 1853  José Laureano Pineda Ugarte        (s.a.)               PD
                             (2nd time)
 1 Apr 1853 - 28 Feb 1854  José Fruto Chamorro Pérez          (b. 1804 - d. 1855)  PD
Presidents
28 Feb 1854 - 12 Mar 1855  José Fruto Chamorro Pérez          (s.a.)               PD
12 Mar 1855 - 20 Mar 1855  Ponciano Corral Acosta (de facto)  (b. 1805 - d. 1855)  Mil
12 Mar 1855 - 25 Oct 1855  José María Estrada Reyes (acting)  (b. 1802 - d. 1856)  Mil
30 Oct 1855 - 24 Jun 1857  Patricio Rivas (provisional)       (s.a.)               PC
24 Jun 1857 - 19 Oct 1857  Governing Junta
                           - Tomás Martínez Guerrero          (b. 1820 - d. 1873)  PC
                           - Máximo José de Jesús Jerez y     (b. 1818 - d. 1881)  PL

                               Tellería 
19 Oct 1857 - 15 Nov 1857  Governing Junta
                           - Gregorio Juárez Sacasa           (b. 1800 - d. 1879)  PD
                           - Rosalío Cortés Sánchez           (b.c.1820 - d. 1884) PC
15 Nov 1857 -  1 Mar 1867  Tomás Martínez Guerrero            (s.a.)               PC
 1 Mar 1867 -  1 Mar 1871  Fernando Guzmán Solórzano          (b. 1812 - d. 1891)  PC
29 Jun 1869                Máximo José de Jesús Jerez y       (s.a.)               PL
                             Tellería (provisional; in dissidence in León)        
29 Jun 1869 - 24 Oct 1869  Francisco Antonio Abad Baca
       (b. 1822 - d. 1901)  PD
                             Aguilar (provisional; in dissidence in León)         
 1 Mar 1871 -  1 Mar 1875  José Vicente Quadra Lugo           (b. 1812 - d. 1894)  PC
 1 Mar 1875 -  1 Mar 1879  Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro      (b. 1818 - d. 1890)  PD
 1 Mar 1879 -  1 Mar 1883  Joaquín Zavala Solís (1st time)    (b. 1835 - d. 1906)  PD
 1 Mar 1883 -  1 Mar 1887  Adán Cárdenas y del Castillo       (b. 1836 - d. 1916)  PD
 1 Mar 1887 -  1 Aug 1889  Evaristo Carazo Aranda             (b. 1821 - d. 1889)  PD
 1 Aug 1889 -  6 Aug 1889  David Osorno (acting)                                   PC
 6 Aug 1889 -  1 Jan 1891  Roberto Sacasa Sarria (1st time)   (b. 1840 - d. 1896)  PC
                             (acting) 
 1 Jan 1891 -  1 Mar 1891  Ignacio Chávez López (acting)                           PC
 1 Mar 1891 -  1 Jun 1893  Roberto Sacasa Sarria (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PC
30 Apr 1893 - 20 May 1893  Eduardo Montiel Cerda              (b. 1835 - d. 1900)  Mil
                            (commandant of the Army Restoring Order; in dissidence)
20 May 1893 -  1 Jun 1893  Revolutionary Government Junta
                           (in dissidence)
                           - Joaquín Zavala Solís             (s.a.)               PC
                           - Eduardo Montiel Cerda            (s.a.)               PC
                           - José Santos Zelaya López         (b. 1853 - d. 1919)  PL
 1 Jun 1893 - 12? Jul 1893 Salvador Machado Agüero (acting)                        PC
12 Jul 1893 - 16 Jul 1893  Government Junta
                           - José Miguel Vijil Ramírez        (b. 1833 - d. 1909)
                           - Francisco del Castillo
                           - Luciano Gómez Escobar            (d. 1919)
16 Jul 1893 - 31 Jul 1893  Joaquín Zavala Solís (2nd time)    (s.a.)               PC
31 Jul 1893 - 21 Dec 1909  José Santos Zelaya López (1st time)(s.a.)               PL
                            (president of Government Junta [in dissidence from
                             11 Jul 1893] to 15 Sep 1893; governor 1 Nov - 1 Dec 1898)
24 Feb 1896 - May 1896     Juan Francisco Baca Ycaza          (b. 1855 - d. 1917)  PL
                             (acting; in dissidence)
 3 Feb 1899 - 26 Feb 1899  Juan Pablo Reyes Solís             (b. bf.1848-d. 1928) PL
                             (provisional; in dissidence)
21 Dec 1909 - 20 Aug 1910  José Madriz Rodríguez (acting)     (b. 1867 - d. 1911)  PL
20 Aug 1910 - 26 Aug 1910  José Dolores Estrada Morales       (b. 18.. - d. 1911)  PC
                             (acting)
26 Aug 1910 - 28 Aug 1910  Luis Mena Vado (1st time)                               PC
                             (acting)
28 Aug 1910 -  9 May 1911  Juan José Estrada Morales          (b. 1872 - d. 1947)  PL
                             (deputy president [in dissidence
                             from 11 Oct 1909] to 1 Jan 1911)
 9 May 1911 -  1 Jan 1917  Adolfo Díaz Recinos (1st time)     (b. 1875 - d. 1964)  PC
29 Jul 1912 - 24 Sep 1912  Luis Mena Vado (2nd time)                               PC
                             (acting; in dissidence)
 
3 Aug 1912 - Oct 1912     Marcos Mairena
                             (provisional; in dissidence)
23 Sep 1912 -  4 Oct 1912  Benjamín Francisco Zeledón         (b. 1879 - d. 1912)  Mil/PL

                             Rodríguez 
                             (supreme chief of government; in dissidence)
 1 Jan 1917 -  1 Jan 1921  Emiliano Chamorro Vargas (1st time)(b. 1871 - d. 1966)  PC
 1 Jan 1921 - 12 Oct 1923  Diego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños      (b. 1861 - d. 1923)  PC
12 Oct 1923 - 15 Oct 1923  Rosendo Chamorro Oreamuno (acting) (b. 1882 - d. 1947)  PC
15 Oct 1923 -  1 Jan 1925  Bartolomé Martínez González        (b. 1860 - d. 1936)  PRC
 1 Jan 1925 - 13 Mar 1926  Carlos José Solórzano Gutiérrez    (b. 1860 - d. 1936)  PRC
13 Mar 1926 - 11 Nov 1926  Emiliano Chamorro Vargas (2nd time)(s.a.)               PC
11 Nov 1926 - 14 Nov 1926  Sebastián Uriza Vega (acting)      (b. 1861 - d. 1926)  PC
14 Nov 1926 -  1 Jan 1929  Adolfo Díaz Recinos (2nd time)     (s.a.)               PC
 1 Dec 1926 - 20 May 1927  Juan Bautista Sacasa Sacasa        (b. 1874 - d. 1946)  PL
                             (1st time)(in dissidence in Puerto Cabezas)
 1 Jan 1929 -  1 Jan 1933  José María Moncada Tapia           (b. 1870 - d. 1945)  PL
 1 Jan 1933 -  9 Jun 1936  Juan Bautista Sacasa Sacasa        (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
 9 Jun 1936                Julián Irías Sandre (acting)       (b. 1873 - d. 1940)  PL
 9 Jun 1936                Guillermo Sevilla Sacasa (acting)  (b. 1908 - d. 1997)  PLN
                             (not installed)
 9 Jun 1936 - 31 Dec 1936  Carlos Alberto Brenes Jarquín      (b. 1884 - d. 1942)  PL
                             (acting)
 1 Jan 1937 -  1 May 1947  Anastasio Somoza García (1st time) (b. 1896 - d. 1956)  Mil/PLN
 1 May 1947 - 26 May 1947  Leonardo Argüello Barreto          (b. 1875 - d. 1947)  PLN
26 May 1947 - 15 Aug 1947  Benjamín Lacayo Sacasa (acting)    (b. 1884 - d. 1959)  PLN
15 Aug 1947 -  6 May 1950  Víctor Manuel Román y Reyes        (b. 1873 - d. 1950)  PLN
 6 May 1950 -  7 May 1950  Manuel Fernando Zurita (acting)                         PLN
                             (not installed)
 7 May 1950 - 29 Sep 1956  Anastasio Somoza García (2nd time) (s.a.)               Mil/PLN
28 Sep 1956 -  1 May 1963  Luis Anastasio Somoza Debayle      (b. 1922 - d. 1967)  PLN
                             (acting [for Somoza García to 29 Sep 1956] to 29 Sep 1956)
 1 May 1963 -  3 Aug 1966  René Schick Gutiérrez              (b. 1909 - d. 1966)  PLN
 3 Aug 1966                Orlando Montenegro Medrano (acting)(b. 1922 - d. 1988)  PLN
 3 Aug 1966 -  1 May 1967  Lorenzo Guerrero Gutiérrez         (b. 1900 - d. 1981)  PLN
 1 May 1967 -  1 May 1972  Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1st time)(b. 1925 - d. 1980)  Mil/PLN 
 1 May 1972 -  1 Dec 1974  National Government Junta
                           - Roberto Martínez Lacayo          (b. 1899 - d. 1984)  PLN/Mil
                           - Fernando Bernabé Agüero Rocha    (b. 1920 - d. 2011)  PC + UNO
                               (to 1 Mar 1973) 
                           - Alfonso Lovo Cordero             (b. 1927)            PLN
                           - Edmundo Paguaga Irías            (b. 1923 - d. 2008)  PC

                               (from 1 Mar 1973)
 1 Dec 1974 - 16 Jul 1979  Anastasio Somoza Debayle (2nd time)(s.a.)               Mil/PLN
16 Jul 1979 - 18 Jul 1979  Francisco Urcuyo Maliaño           (b. 1915 - d. 2001)  PLN
18 Jul 1979 - 10 Jan 1985  Government Junta of National Reconstruction
                           - José Daniel Ortega Saavedra      (b. 1945)            FSLN
                              (coordinator from 4 Mar 1981)
                           - Sergio Ramírez Mercado           (b. 1942)            FSLN
                           - Violeta Barrios Torres de        (b. 1929)            UDEL 
                               Chamorro (f) (to 19 May 1980)
                           - Luis Alfonso Robelo Callejas     (b. 1939)            MDN 
                              (to 19 May 1980)
                           - Moisés Hassán Morales            (b. 1942)            MPU
                              (to 4 Mar 1981)
                           - Rafael Ángel Córdova Rivas       (b. 1923 - d. 2009)  PCD 
                              (from 19 May 1980)
                           - Arturo José Cruz Porras          (b. 1923 - d. 2013)  FSLN 
                              (19 May 1980 - 4 Mar 1981)
10 Jan 1985 - 25 Apr 1990  José Daniel Ortega Saavedra        (s.a.)               FSLN 
                             (1st time)
25 Apr 1990 - 10 Jan 1997  Violeta Barrios Torres de          (s.a.)               UNO
                             Chamorro (f) 
10 Jan 1997 - 10 Jan 2002  José Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo         (b. 1946)            PLC + AL
10 Jan 2002 - 10 Jan 2007  Enrique José Bolaños Geyer         (b. 1928)            PLC
10 Jan 2007 -              José Daniel Ortega Saavedra        (s.a.)               FSLN 
                             (2nd time)
 

Commanders of U.S. Forces
31 May 1910 -  5 Sep 1910  Smedley D. Butler                  (b. 1881 - d. 1940)
23 Aug 1912 - 16 Dec 1912  Joseph H. Pendleton                (b. 1860 - d. 1942)
Dec 1912 - Jan 1913        Charles G. Long                    (b. 1869 - d. 1943)
20 Feb 1927 -  9 Mar 1927  Clark H. Woodward                  (b. 1877 - d. 1968) 
 9 Mar 1927 - Sep 1927     Logan Feland (1st time)            (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
Sep 1927 - Jan 1928        Louis M. Gulick                    (b. 1879 - d. 1933)
Jan 1928 - 26 Mar 1929     Logan Feland (2nd time)            (s.a.)
27 Mar 1929 - 18 Apr 1929  Robert H. Dunlap                   (b. 1879 - d. 1931)
18 Apr 1929 - 18 Apr 1930  Dion Williams                      (b. 1869 - d. 1952) 
1931                       Federick L. Bradman                (b. 1879 - d. 1965)
Nov 1931 - Jan 1933        Randolph C. Berkeley               (b. 1875 - d. 1960) 

Territorial Disputes: In Dec 2007, ICJ allocates San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina islands to Colombia under 1928 Treaty but did not rule on 82 degrees West meridian as maritime boundary boundary with Nicaragua; the 1992 ICJ ruling for El Salvador and Honduras advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca, which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; legal dispute over navigational rights of San Juan River on border with Costa Rica; Costa Rica protests Nicaragua's demarcation in maps of joint Caribbean and Pacific maritime boundaries. 

Party abbreviations: FSLN = Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (Sandinist National Liberation Front, socialist, est.1961); MPU = Movimiento Pueblo Unido (United People's Movement, lefist, est.1978); PCN = Partido Conservador de Nicaragua (Conservative Party of Nicaraguan, conservative, est.1979); PLC = Partido Liberal Constitucionalista (Constitutionalist Liberal Party, liberal conservative, est.1968); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: AL = Alianza Liberal (Liberal Alliance, coalition PL, PLC, Partidos Neoliberal [PALI], Liberal Independiente de Unidad Nacional [PLIUN] and the Liberal Nacionalista [PLN], est.1994); Con = Conservador (Conservative, 19th cent.); Fed = Federalista (Federalist, 19th cent.); MDN = Movimiento Democrático Nicaragüense (Nicaraguan Democratic Movement, right-wing, social democratic, 1989-2004); NPF = Frente Patriótico Nacional (National Patriotic Front, anti-PLN coalition incl. FSLN, MPU, est.1979); PC = Partido Conservador (Conservative Party, conservative, c.1830-1979, then PCN); PD = Partido Democrático (Democratic Party, liberal, 1821-1893, renamed PL); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, liberal, former PD, 1893-1928, merged into PLN); PLN = Partido Liberal Nacionalista (Liberal Nationalist Party, conservative, nationalist, authoritarian, from 1937 Somoza pesonalist, 1912-1979); PR = Partido Republicano (Republican Party, conservative, 1844-1857); PRC = Partido Republicano Conservador (Conservative Republican Party, conservative, split from PC, 1923-1927); UDEL = Unión Democrática de Liberación (Democratic Union of Liberation, conservative, est.1974); UNO = Unión Nacional Opositora (National Opposition Union, conservative coalition, 1989 anti-Sandinista, incl. PCN, PLC, 1966-1974, 1989-1994)



Rival government: State of Nicaragua (in León)

[Nicaragua flag
                1854-c.1857]
                11 Jun 1854 - 30 Oct 1855

Directors
11 Jun 1854 -  2 Sep 1855  Francisco Castellón Sanabria      (b. 1815 - d. 1855)  PD
                             (provisional to 1 Apr 1855)
 2 Sep 1855 - 30 Oct 1855  Nazario Escoto (acting)                                PD



Rival government: Republic of Nicaragua (in Granada)

[Republic of Nicaragua
                under William Walker 1856-1857]
              1856 - 1 May 1857

Presidents
21 Jun 1856 - 12 Jul 1856  Fermín Ferrer (provisional)       (b. 1823 - d. 1897)  PC
12 Jul 1856 -  1 May 1857  Guillermo Walker Norvell          (b. 1824 - d. 1860)  Mil
                             (
= William Walker Norvell)



Rival government: Republic of Nicaragua (in Somotillo)

[Nicaragua flag
                1854-c.1857]
               29 Jun 1856 - 12 Sep 1856

Presidents
29 Jun 1856 - 13 Aug 1856  José María Estrada Reyes (acting)  (b. 1802 - d. 1856)  PC
13 Aug 1856 - 12 Sep 1856  Nicasio del Castillo y Guzmán      (b. 1830 - d. ....)  PC
                             (acting)



Mosquito  (Mosquito Coast)
 
[Flag of
                          Mosquito Coast (1824-c.1852)(Nicaragua)]
               8 Mar 1824 - c.1852 
[Flag of
                          Mosquito Coast (c.1852-1881)(Nicaragua)]
                c.1852 - 2 Jul 1881 
[Flag of
                          Mosquito Coast (1881-1895)(Nicaragua)]
                      2 Jul 1881 - 28 Feb 1895
Map of Mosquito Coast to 1860
-------------------------------------
Map of Mosquito Reserve 1860-94
Capital: Bluefields (Blewfields)
(Cape Gracias a Dios to 1844)
Population: 15,000 (1905)

1661                       Mosquitian Nation established as a kingdom.
25 Jun 1720                First formal agreement with the British.
16 Mar 1740                British protectorate (under superintendent of British Honduras
                             1749 - 1786). 
14 Jul 1786                British recognize Spanish sovereignty over the Mosquito Shore by
                             the Mosquito Convention (ratified 1 Sep 1786).
1787 - 1800                Attempted Spanish settlements (at Río Tino [29 Aug 1787-4 Sep 1800]

                             Cabo Gracías á Dios [18 Aug 1788-1795], and Boca de Río San
                             Juan [21 Oct 1789 - ....]). 
 
9 Apr 1844                British protectorate re-established (under the governor of Jamaica)
 8 Feb
1848                San Juan del Norte (renamed Greytown) seized by U.K. and given
                             to the Mosquito.
28 Nov 1859                Mosquito territory in Honduras is annexed to Honduras by the
                             Anglo-Honduran Treaty of Comayagua.
28 Jan 1860                U.K agrees to end protectorate by the Treaty of Managua
                             (ratified by the U.K. on 2 Aug 1860).
12 Sep 1861                Kingdom transformed into Mosquito Reservation under 
                             Nicaraguan sovereignty (Municipal Constitution of the Mosquito
                             Reserve is proclaimed).
12 Feb 1894 -  6 Jul 1894  Nicaragua occupies Bluefields.
 6 Jul 1894 -  7 Aug 1894  U.S. occupies Bluefields.
 7 Aug 1894                Reservation abolished (ratified 28 Feb 1895), with full
                             incorporation into Nicaragua.

Kings¹
1661 - 1677                Oldman I
1677 - 1686                Oldman II                          (d. 1686)
1686 - 1720                Jeremy I                           (b. c.1639 - d. 1720)
1720 - Oct 1729            Jeremy II                          (d. 1729)
Oct 1729 - May 1739        Peter -King-regent                 (d. 1739) 
May 1739 - Jan 1755        Edward I                           (b. 1721 - d. 1755)
Jan 1755 - Jan 1776        George I Samuel Roderick Kandler   (b. c.1722 - d. 1776)
Jan 1776 - Oct 1800        George II Augustus                 (b. 1757 - d. 1800)
                             (suspended by British Oct 1778 - Nov 1779)
Oct 1800 - 14 Nov 1815     Stephen -King-regent (1st time)    (b. c.1758 - d. af.1825)
14 Nov 1815 -  9 Mar 1824  George III Frederick Augustus      (b. 1797 - d. 1824)
 9 Mar 1824 -  8 Oct 1841  Robert Charles Frederick           (b. 1800 - d. 1841)
 
9 Mar 1824 - 23 Apr 1825  Stephen -Regent (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 
8 Oct 1841 -  4 May 1843  Archibald Alexander Macdonald      (d. c.1850)

                             (chairman Regency Commission)
 4 May 1843 - 17 Apr 1845  Regency
                           - Prince Wellington
                           - Lowry Robinson
                           - Johnson (to 1843)
17 Apr 1845 - 12 Sep 1861  George IV Augustus Frederick       (b. 1832 - d. 1865)
Hereditary Chiefs and Presidents of the Executive Council¹
12 Sep 1861 - 27 Nov 1865  George IV Augustus Frederick       (s.a.)
27 Nov 1865 - 23 May 1866  Henry Patterson                    (d. 1874)
                             (vice-president of the Council)
23 May 1866 -  5 May 1879  William Henry Clarence             (b. 1856 - d. 1879)
 5 May 1879 - 17 Jun 1879  Charles Patterson (1st time)
                             (vice-president of the Council)
17 Jun 1879 -  8 Nov 1888  George V William Albert Hendy      (b. 18.. - d. 1888)
 8 Nov 1888 -  8 Mar 1889  Andrew Hendy (1st time)            (b. 18.. - d. 1914) 
                             (in opposition; proclaimed by Nicaragua)                
 8 Nov 1888 -  8 Mar 1889  Charles Patterson (2nd time)

                             (vice-president of the Council)
 8 Mar 1889 - 11 Nov 1890  Jonathan Charles Frederick         (b. 1865 - d. 1890)

11 Nov 1890 - 30 Jan 1891  Charles Patterson (3rd time)
                             (vice-president of the Council)
30 Jan 1891 -  7 Aug 1894  Robert Henry Clarence              (b. 1872 - d. 1908)
                             (deposed by Nicaragua 12 Feb - 6 Jul 1894)
30 Jan 1891 -  6 Sep 1893 
Charles Patterson -Guardian
                             (vice-president of the Council)
 
7 Aug 1894 - 28 Feb 1895
  Andrew Hendy (2nd time)            (s.a.) 
                             (proclaimed by Nicaragua)    


Chairmen of the State Council

10 Sep 1846 - Feb 1848     Patrick Walker                     (d. 1848)
1848 - Jun 1849            William Dougal Christie            (b. 1816 - d. 1874)
Vice Presidents of the Executive Council
13 Sep 1861 - 1874         Henry Patterson                    (s.a.)
1874 -  7 Aug 1894         Charles Patterson

British Superintendents
1749 - 1787                the Superintendents of British Honduras
Spanish Representative

1787 - 1790                Robert Hodgson, Jr.                (b. 1725/30 - d. 1791)
Commandants 
- Ft. Inmaculada -
1782 - 31 Aug 1782        
Tomás de Juliá
-
Río Tino -
1787 - 17..                Gabriel de Hervías

c.1791                     Tadeo Muniesa
c.1793                     Antonio de Echeverría
- Cabo Gracías á Dios -
1788 - 17..                Miguel Sánchez Pareja
c.1792                     Manuel Salas
c.1794                     Luís Abella
- Boca de Río San Juan -
1789 - ....                Manuel Fernando Dambrine
British Agents and Consul-generals to Mosquito Shore
 
9 Apr 1844 - Feb 1848     Patrick Walker                      (s.a.)
25 May 1848 - Jun 1849     William Dougal Christie             (s.a.)
1849 - Sep 1851            James Green
British Consul
Sep 1851 - 1860            James Green

 ¹Style of the rulers:
(a) c.1661 - 16 May 1740: "King of the Mosquito Nation";
(b) 16 May 1740 - 28 Jan 1860: "By the Grace of God, King of the Mosquito Nation"
;
(c) 28 Jan 1860 - 28 Feb 1895: "Hereditary Chief of Mosquito, President of the Executive Council."







© Ben Cahoon