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Jamaica
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                                  to 1875
 
[Jamaica colonial flag,
                                    1875-1906]
                            1875 - 1906
 
[Jamaica colonial flag,
                                    1906-1957]
                           1906 - 8 Apr 1957
 
[Jamaica colonial flag 1957-
                                    1962]
                      8 Apr 1957 - 6 Aug 1962
 
[Flag of
                                    Jamaica]
                       Adopted 6 Aug 1962


 Map of Jamaica
 Hear National Anthem
"Jamaica, Land We Love"
 Text of National Anthem
Adopted 19 Jul 1962
Constitution
(6 Aug 1962)
Capital: Kingston
(Spanish Town 1692-1872;
Port Royal 1655-1692;
Santiago de la Vega 1535-1655;
Sevilla la Nueva 1510-1523)
Currency: Jamaican Dollar
(JMD); Jamaican Pound
(JMP) 1900-1969
National Holiday:
1st Monday  in Aug (1962)
Independence Day
Population: 2,909,714 (2013)
GDP: $25.13 billion (2013)
Exports: $1.77 billion (2013)
Imports: $5.55 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: local black 77%, local mulatto 14.6%,
Haitian 2%, East Indian 1.7%, black/East Indian 1.6%,
white 0.2%,other 0.1% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 2,830 (2010)
Total Police Force: 8,600 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 14 ships (2010)
Religions: Protestant 61.2% (Church of God 23.8%,
Baptist 8.8%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10.8%,
Pentecostal 9.5%, Anglican 5.5%, Methodist 2.7%,
United Church 2.7%, Brethren 1.1%, Jehovah's
Witness 1.6%, Moravian 1.1%), Roman Catholic 2.6%,
other Christian 1.7%, Rastafarian 0.9%,
non-religious 20.9%, other/unknown 12.7% (2001)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ACS, AOSIS, APM, BTWC, C, Caricom, CCM (signatory), CDB, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, LAES, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Jamaica
Chronology

 5 May 1494                Discovered by Columbus and claimed for Spain,
                             named San Iago (Santiago).
1510                       Spanish colony (Santiago); subordinated 
                             to Santo Domingo.
11 May 1655                English occupation.
18 Jul 1670                Ceded by Spain to England by the Treaty 
                             of Madrid; English colony (Jamaica).
20 Nov 1944                Limited self rule.
 5 May 1953                Self rule. 
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  Part of the Federation of the West Indies 
                             (see Trinidad and Tobago).
 6 Aug 1962                Independence from Britain (Jamaica).

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Governors
1510 - 1514                Juan de Esquivel                   (b. c.1480 - d. c.1519)
1514 - 1523                Francisco de Garay                 (d. 1523)
1523 - 1526                Pedro de Mazuelo
1526                       Juan de Mendegurren
1526 - 1532                Alvaro Canelas
1532 - 1533                Manuel de Rojas (1st time)
1533 - 1534                Gil González Dávila (acting)
                             (Gil González de Ávila)
1534 - 1539                Manuel de Rojas (2nd time)
1539 - 1544                Pedro Cano (1st time)
1544 - 1556                Francisco de Pina
1556 - 1558                Juan González de Hinojosa
1558 - 1565                Pedro Cano (2nd time)
1565 - 1567                Blas de Melo
1567 - 1575                Juan de Gaudiel
1575 - 1577                Hernán Manrique de Rojas
1577                       Iñigo Fuentes
1577 - 1578                Rodrigo Núñez de la Peña
1578 - 1582                Lucas del Valle Alvarado (1st time)
1582 - 1583                Pedro Lopez (acting)
1583 - 1586                Lucas del Valle Alvarado (2nd time)
1586                       Delgado
1586 - 1591                Diego Fernández de Mercado
1591 - 1596                Lucas del Valle Alvarado (3rd time)
1596                       García del Valle
1596 - 1606                Fernando Melgarejo de Córdoba
1607 - 1611                Alonso de Miranda
1611 - 1614                Pedro Espejo Barranco
1614 - 1620                Andrés González de Vera
1620 - 1625                Sebastián Lorenzo Romano
1625 - 1632                Francisco Terril
1628                       Hieronimo Salcedo (in opposition)
1631 - 1637                Juan Martínez Arana
                             (in opposition to 1632)
1637 - 1639                Gabriel Peñalver Angulo
1639 - 1640                Jacinto Sedeño Albornoz (1st time)
1640 - 1643                Francisco Ladrón de Zegama
1643 - 1645                Alcades
1645 - 1646                Sebastián Fernández de Gamboa
1646 - 1650                Pedro Caballero
1650                       Jacinto Sedeño Albornoz (2nd time)
1650 - 1651                Francisco de Proenza (1st time)
1651 - 1655                Juan Ramírez de Arellano
1655 - 1656                Francisco de Proenza (2nd time)
25 Oct 1656 - 1660         Cristóbal Arnaldo de Isasi
                             (in opposition to English rule)
English Commanders

11 May 1655 - 1655         William Penn                       (b. 1621 - d. 1670)
1655                       Robert Venables                    (b. c.1613 - d. 1687)
1655 - 1656                Edward D'Oyley (1st time)          (b. 1617 - d. 1675)
14 Dec 1656 - 12 Sep 1657  William Brayne                     (d. 1657)
1657 - 1661                Edward D'Oyley (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Governors
1661 - Aug 1662            Edward D'Oyley                     (s.a.)
Aug 1662 - 20 Nov 1662     Thomas Hickman Windsor,            (b. c.1627 - d. 1687) 
                             Lord Windsor
Deputy governors
1662 - 1663                Sir Charles Lyttelton (acting)     (b. 1628 - d. 1716)
1663 - 1664                Thomas Lynch (acting)              (b. 1630 - d. 1684)
1664                       Edward Morgan                      (b. c.1610 - d. 1665) 
Governor
Jun 1664 -  1 Jul 1671     Sir Thomas Modyford                (b. c.1620 - d. 1679) 
Lieutenant-governors
 1 Jul 1671 - Nov 1674     Sir Thomas Lynch (1st time)        (s.a.)
1674 - 1675                Sir Henry Morgan (acting)          (b. 1635 - d. 1688)
                             (1st time)
1675 - 1678                John Vaughan, Lord Vaughan         (b. 1640 - d. 1713)
1678                       Sir Henry Morgan (acting)          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1678 - 1680                Charles Howard, Earl of Carlisle   (b. 1629 - d. 1685)
1680 - 1682                Sir Henry Morgan (acting)          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1682 - 1684                Sir Thomas Lynch (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1684 - Dec 1687            Hender Molesworth (acting)         (b. c.1638 - 1689)
                             (1st time)
1687 - 1688                Christopher Monck, Duke of         (b. 1653 - d. 1688)
                             Albemarle
1688 - 1689                Sir Hender Molesworth (acting)     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1689 - 1690                Francis Watson (acting)
Governors
1690 - 1691                William O'Brien, Earl of Inchiquin (b. 1640 - d. 1692)
1691 - 1692                John White (acting)
1692 - 1693                John Burden (acting)
Mar 1693 - Jan 1702        Sir William Beeston                (b. 1636 - d. 1702) 
                             (acting to 1699)
Jan 1702 -  6 Apr 1702     William Selwyn                     (b. 1655 - d. 1702)
1702                       Peter Beckford (acting)            (b. 1643 - d. 1710)
1702 - 1711                Thomas Handasyde (acting to 1704)  (b. 16.. - d. 1712)
1711 - 1716                Lord Archibald Hamilton            (b. 1673 - d. 1754)
1716 - 1718                Peter Heywood
1718 - 1722                Sir Nicholas Lawes                 (b. 1652? - d. 1731)
1722 -  4 Jul 1726         Henry Bentnick, Duke of Portland   (b. 1682 - d. 1726)
1726 - 1728                John Ayscough (1st time)(acting)
1728 - Mar 1734            Robert Hunter                      (b. c.1675 - d. 1734)
1734 - 1735                John Ayscough (2nd time)(acting)
1735                       John Gregory (1st time)(acting) 
1735 - 12 Feb 1736         Henry Cunningham                   (b. c.1678 - d. 1736)
1736 - 1738                John Gregory (2nd time)(acting)
30 Apr 1738 - 1752         Edward Trelawny                    (b. 1699 - d. 1754)
1752 - Jan 1756            Charles Knowles                    (b. 1704 - d. 1777)
Feb 1756 - Apr 1759        Sir Henry Moore (1st time)(acting) (b. 1713 - d. 1769)
Apr 1759 - Nov 1759        George Haldane                     (b. 1722 - d. 1759)
Nov 1759 - 1762            Sir Henry Moore (2nd time)(acting) (s.a.)
20 Jan 1762 - 1766         William Henry Lyttleton            (b. 1724 - d. 1808)
 
2 Jun 1766 - 1768         Roger Hope Elletson                (d. 1775)
30 Sep 1768 - 11 Dec 1772  Sir William Trelawny               (b. c.1722 - d. 1772)
11 Dec 1772 - 1774         John Dalling (1st time)(acting)    (b. c.1731 - d. 1798)
 
5 Jan 1774 - 1777         Sir Basil Keith                    (d. 1777)
15 Jun 1777 - 25 Nov 1781  John Dalling (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                            
(acting to Jun 1778)
25 Nov 1781 - 1784         Archibald Campbell                 (b. 1739 - d. 1791) 

                            
(acting to Jun 1782)
 7 Jul 1784 - 1790         Alured Clarke                      (b. 1745 - d. 1832)

19 Mar 1790 - 19 Nov 1791  Thomas Howard, Earl of Effingham   (b. 1746 - d. 1791)
19 Nov 1791 - 1795         Adam Williamson (acting)           (b. 1736 - d. 1798)
                             (from 18 Nov 1794, Sir Adam Williamson)
29 Apr 1795 - 1801         Alexander Lindsay,                 (b. 1752 - d. 1825)
                             Earl of Balcares
 3 Aug 1801 - 20 Feb 1806  Sir George Nugent                  (b. 1757 - d. 1849)
21 Feb 1806 - 1808         Sir Eyre Coote                     (b. 1762 - d. 1824)
 
5 Apr 1808 - 1811         William Montague, Duke of          (b. 1771 - d. 1843)
                             Manchester (1st time)
26 Jun 1811 - 13 Jun 1813  Edward Morrison
13 Jun 1813 - 1821         William Montague, Duke of          (s.a.)
                             Manchester (2nd time)
31 Jul 1821 - 22 Dec 1822  Henry Couran (acting)              (b. 1767 - d. 1829)
22 Dec 1822 - 1827         William Montague, Duke of          (s.a.)
                             Manchester (3rd time)
 
3 Jul 1827 - 1829         Sir John Keane (acting)            (b. 1781 - d. 1844)
21 Feb 1829 - 1832         Somerset Lowry-Corry,              (b. 1774 - d. 1841)
                             Earl of Belmore
13 Jun 1832 - 28 Jul 1832  George Cuthbert (1st time)(acting) (d. 1835)
28 Jul 1832 - 1834         Constantine Henry Philips,         (b. 1797 - d. 1863)
                             Earl of Mulgrave
1834                       Sir Amos G. Norcott (acting)       (b. 1777 - d. 1838)
15 Mar 1834 -  7 Apr 1834  George Cuthbert (2nd time) (acting)(s.a.)
 
7 Apr 1834 - 1836         Howe Peter Browne,                 (b. 1788 - d. 1845)
                             Marquess of Sligo 
 
2 Sep 1836 - 1839         Sir Lionel Smith                   (b. 1778 - d. 1842)
26 Sep 1839 - 1842         Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe    (b. 1785 - d. 1846)
19 May 1842 - 1846         James Bruce, Earl of Elgin and     (b. 1811 - d. 1863)
                             Kincardine
25 May 1846 - 21 Dec 1846  George Henry Frederick Berkeley    (b. 1785 - d. 1857)
                             (acting)
21 Dec 1847 - 1853         Sir Charles Edward Grey            (b. 1785 - d. 1865)
1853 - 1856                Sir Henry Barkly                   (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
1856 - 1857                Edward Wells Bell (acting)         (b. 1789 - d. 1807)
1857 - 1862                Charles Henry Darling              (b. 1809 - d. 1870)
1862 - 1865                Edward John Eyre (acting to 1864)  (b. 1815 - d. 1901)
12 Dec 1865 - 16 Jul 1866  Sir Henry Knight Storks            (b. 1811 - d. 1874)
1866 - 1874                Sir John Peter Grant               (b. 1807 - d. 1893)
1874                       W.A.G. Young (acting)              (b. 1818 - d. 1878)
1874 - Jan 1877            Sir William Grey                   (b. 1818 - d. 1878)
Jan 1877 - 10 Aug 1877     Edward Everard Rushworth (acting)  (b. 1818 - d. 1877)
Aug 1877                   James Robert Mann (acting)         (b. 1823 - d. 1915)
24 Aug 1877 - 1883         Sir Anthony Musgrave (1st time)    (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
1883                       Somerset M. Wiseman Clarke (acting)(b. 1803 - d. 1905)
1883                       D.J. Gamble (acting)
1883 - 1889                Sir Henry Wylie Norman             (b. 1826 - d. 1904)
1889                       William Clive Justice (acting)     (b. 1835 - d. 1908)
1889 - 1898                Sir Henry Arthur Blake             (b. 1840 - d. 1918)
1898                       Henry Jardine Hallowes (acting)    (b. 1838 - d. 1926)
1898 - 1904                Sir Augustus William Lawson        (b. 1842 - d. 1907)
                             Hemming 
1904                       Sydney Haldane Olivier (1st time)  (b. 1859 - d. 1943) 
                             (acting)
1904                       Hugh Clarence Bourne (1st time)    (b. 1858 - d. 1909)
                             (acting)
30 Sep 1904 - 1907         Sir James Alexander Swettenham     (b. 1846 - d. 1933)
1907                       Hugh Clarence Bourne (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
16 May 1907 - Jan 1913     Sydney Haldane Olivier (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Jan 1913 -  7 Mar 1913     Philip Clark Cork (acting)         (b. 1854 - d. 1936)
 7 Mar 1913 - 11 May 1918  Sir William Henry Manning          (b. 1863 - d. 1932)
11 May 1918 - 11 Jun 1918  Robert Johnstone (acting)          (b. 1861 - d. 1944)
11 Jun 1918 - 1924         Sir Leslie Probyn                  (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
1924                       Herbert Bryan (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1865 - d. 1950)
29 Sep 1924 - Jun 1925     Sir Samuel Herbert Wilson          (b. 1873 - d. 1950)
1925                       Sir Herbert Bryan (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting)
Oct 1925 - 26 Apr 1926     A.S. Jeef (1st time) (acting)
26 Apr 1926 -  9 Nov 1932  Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs         (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
 9 Nov 1932 - 21 Nov 1932  A.S. Jeef (2nd time) (acting)
21 Nov 1932 - Apr 1934     Sir Alexander Ransford Slater      (b. 1874 - d. 1940)
Apr 1934 - 24 Oct 1934     A.S. Jeef (3rd time) (acting)
24 Oct 1934 -  2 Jun 1938  Sir Edward Brandis Denham          (b. 1876 - d. 1938)
 2 Jun 1938 - 19 Aug 1938  Charles Campbell Woolley (acting)  (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
19 Aug 1938 - Jul 1943     Sir Arthur Frederick Richards      (b. 1885 - d. 1978)
Jul 1943 - 29 Sep 1943     William Henry Flinn (acting)       (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
29 Sep 1943 -  7 Apr 1951  Sir John Huggins                   (b. 1891 - d. 1971)
 7 Apr 1951 - 18 Nov 1957  Sir Hugh Mackintosh Foot           (b. 1907 - d. 1990)
18 Dec 1957 -  6 Aug 1962  Sir Kenneth William Blackburne     (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
Queen¹
 6 Aug 1962 -              the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 6 Aug 1962 - 30 Nov 1962  Sir Kenneth William Blackburne     (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1962 - 28 Feb 1973  Sir Clifford Clarence Campbell     (b. 1892 - d. 1991)
28 Feb 1973 - 27 Jun 1973  Sir Herbert George Holwell Duffus  (b. 1908 - d. 2002)
                             (acting)     
27 Jun 1973 - 31 Mar 1991  Florizel Augustus Glasspole        (b. 1909 - d. 2000)
                             (from 17 Apr 1981, Sir Florizel Glasspole) 
31 Mar 1991 -  1 Aug 1991  Edward Zacca (acting)              (b. 1931)
 1 Aug 1991 - 15 Feb 2006  Sir Howard Felix Hanlan Cooke      (b. 1915)
15 Feb 2006 - 26 Feb 2009  Kenneth Octavius Hall              (b. 1941)
                             (from 9 Oct 2007, Sir Kenneth Octavius Hall)
26 Feb 2009 -              Patrick Linton Allen               (b. 1951)
                             (from 26 Mar 2009, Sir Patrick Linton Allen)

Chief ministers
 5 May 1953 -  2 Feb 1955  William Alexander Bustamante       (b. 1884 - d. 1977)  JLP
 2 Feb 1955 -  4 Jul 1959  Norman Washington Manley           (b. 1893 - d. 1969)  PNP
Premiers
 4 Jul 1959 - 29 Apr 1962  Norman Washington Manley           (s.a.)               PNP
29 Apr 1962 -  6 Aug 1962  Sir William Alexander Bustamante   (s.a.)               JLP
Prime ministers

 6 Aug 1962 - 23 Feb 1967  Sir William Alexander Bustamante   (s.a.)               JLP
Feb 1964 - 23 Feb 1967     Donald Burns Sangster              (b. 1911 - d. 1967)  JLP
                             (acting for Bustamante)
23 Feb 1967 - 11 Apr 1967  Donald Burns Sangster              (s.a.)               JLP
                             (from 6 Apr 1967, Sir Donald Burns Sangster) 
11 Apr 1967 -  2 Mar 1972  Hugh Lawson Shearer                (b. 1923 - d. 2004)  JLP
 2 Mar 1972 -  1 Nov 1980  Michael Norman Manley (1st time)   (b. 1924 - d. 1997)  PNP
 1 Nov 1980 - 10 Feb 1989  Edward Philip George Seaga         (b. 1930)            JLP
10 Feb 1989 - 30 Mar 1992  Michael Norman Manley (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PNP
30 Mar 1992 - 30 Mar 2006  Percival Noel James Patterson      (b. 1935)            PNP
30 Mar 2006 - 11 Sep 2007  Portia Simpson Miller (f)(1st time)(b. 1945)            PNP
11 Sep 2007 - 23 Oct 2011  Bruce Golding                      (b. 1947)            JLP
23 Oct 2011 -  5 Jan 2012  Andrew Holness                     (b. 1972)            JLP
 5 Jan 2012 -              Portia Simpson Miller (f)(2nd time)(s.a.)               PNP

  ¹Full style:
(a) 6 Aug 1962 - 31 Aug 1962: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith";
(b) from 31 Aug 1962: "By the Grace of God of Jamaica and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Disputes: U.S. Bajo Nuevo Bank (Petrel Islands) are claimed by Jamaica, Colombia and possibly Honduras; also possibly claims U.S. Serranilla Bank.

Party abbreviations: JLP = Jamaica Labour Party (conservative, center-right, est.1943); PNP = People's National Party (center-left, social-democratic, est.1938)







© Ben Cahoon