World Statesmen.org HOME >

 








Costa Rica
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                  to 12 Nov 1821 
 
[Costa
                                    Rica flag 1821-1823]
           12 Nov 1821 - 10 May 1823
 
[Costa
                                    Rica Flag of 1823-1824]
            10 May 1823 - 6 Mar 1824

[Costa Rica Flag of 1824]
             6 Mar 1824 - 22 Nov 1824 
 
[Costa
                                    Rica Flag of 1824-1838]
            22 Nov 1824 - 22 Nov 1838
 
[Costa
                                    Rica 1838-40 Flag]
              Nov 1838 - 15 Nov 1840 
 
[Flag
                                    of Costa Rica 1840-1842]
             21 Apr 1840 - Sep 1842
 
[Costa
                                    Rica 1842-48 Flag]
              Sep 1842 - 29 Sep 1848 
 
[State
                                    Flag of Costa Rica 1848-1906]
    29 Sep 1848 - 27 Nov 1906 State Flag
 
[Civil Flag
                                    of Costa Rica]
                  Adopted 29 Sep 1848 
 
[Costa Rica State Flag
                                    1906-1964]
       27 Nov 1906 - 21 Oct 1964 State Flag
 
[Costa Rica State Flag]
            Adopted 21 Oct 1964 State Flag

Map of Costa Rica
Hear National Anthem
"Noble patria, tu hermosa
bandera" (Noble homeland,
your beautiful flag)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1949
(music 1852, lyrics 1903)
Constitution
 (9 Nov 1949)
Capital: San José
Currency: Costa Rican Colon
(CRC); 1848-1896 Costa Rican
 Peso (CRP)
National Holiday: 15 Sep (1821)
Independence Day
Population4,695,942 (2013)
GDP: $61.4 billion (2013)
Exports: $11.6 billion (2013)
Imports: $17.5 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: white or mestizo 83.6%, mulatto 6.7%, indigenous
 2.4%, black of African descent 1.1%, other 1.1%, none 2.9%,
 unspecified 2.2% (2011)
Total Active Paramilitary Force: 14,500 (2012)
(Army officially abolished 1948)
Merchant marine: 1 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%,
Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%, other Protestant 0.7%,
other 4.8%, nonreligious 3.2% (2004) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS, APM, BCIE, BTWC, CACM, CAFTA (signatory), CCM, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES,  LAIA (observer), LAP, LU, MIGA, NAM (observer), NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SEGIB, SICA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Costa Rica
Index
Chronology
18 Sep 1502                Discovered and claimed for Spain by Columbus.
1540 - 1541                Province of Costa Rica (within Panama).
1543                       Province of Nuevo Cartago (from 1565, Costa Rica) 
                             separated from Nicaragua; part of the colonial
                             kingdom of Guatemala (which is subordinate to 
                             the New Spain [Mexico]).
23 Dec 1786                Gobierno of Costa Rica within Intendencia of León
                             (see Nicaragua). 
11 Oct 1821                Independence of Provincia de Nicaragua y Costa Rica
                             from Spain.
12 Nov 1821                Costa Rica is organized as a polity (provincia)
                             upon the installation of an autonomous government
                             at Cartago (Province of Costa Rica).
10 Jan 1822                Part the Mexican Empire,
 8 Mar 1823                Independence of Costa Rica is proclaimed. 
 4 Mar 1824 - 15 Nov 1838  Constituent state of Central American Federation 
                             (see Guatemala).
 4 Mar 1824                State of Costa Rica
21 Jan 1825                Free State of Costa Rica
15 Nov 1838                State of Costa Rica
10 Apr 1844                Free State of Costa Rica
10 Feb 1847                State of Costa Rica
31 Aug 1848                Republic of Costa Rica
Talamanca
(1862-1910)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Governors of Veragua
1508 - 1511                Diego de Nicuesa                   (b. c.1464 - d. 1511)

1511 - 1514                Vasco Núñez de Balboa (de facto)   (b. 1475 - d. 1519)
1523 -  3 Mar 1531         Pedrarias Dávila
                   (b. 1460? - d. 1531)
                             (Pedro Arias de Ávila)                
1534 - 1536                Felipe Guti
érrez
1539 - 1541                H
ernán Sánchez de Badajoz          (b. 1490 - d. 1546)
Governors of Nicaragua and Costa Rica
1521 - 1541                the governors of Nicaragua
Governors of Costa Rica

1541 - 1543                Hernán Sánchez de Badajoz          (s.a.)
1543 - 1544                Diego de Gutiérrez y Toledo        (d. 1544)
1561 - 1562                Juan de Cavallón y Arboleda        (b. 1524 - d. 1565)
                             (alcalde mayor)
Jan 1562 - Nov 1562        Juan de Estrada Rávago y Añez      (b. 1524 - d. 15..)
                             (acting)
Alcaldes Mayor
1562 - 1565                Juan Vásquez de Coronado da Anaya  (b. 1523 - d. 1565)
Jul 1563 - Apr 1564       
Juan Illanes de Castro (acting)
Apr 1564 - 1564            Antonio Andrada (acting)
1564 - 1566                Miguel S
ánchez de Guido            (b. 1528 - d. c.1590)
                             (acting to 1565)
1566 - 1568                Pedro Venegas de los Ríos          (b. 1492 - d. 1577)

Governors
1568 - May 1573            Pero Afán de Ribera y Gómez        (b. 1492 - d. 1577)
May 1573 - May 1574        Juan Solano y Díaz de Tapia        (b. 1540 - d. 1615)
                             (acting)
May 1574 - 1577            Alonso de Anguciana de Gamboa      (b. 1535 - d. ....)
                             (interim)
11 Feb 1577 - 1589         Diego de Artieda Chirinos y Uclés  (d. 1590)
1585 - 1590                Juan de Peñaranda (acting)         (b. 1535 - d. 1605)
1590 - 1591                Juan Velázquez Ramiro de  
                             Logrosán (interim)
1591                       Antonio Álvarez Pereyra (acting)   (b. c.1532 - d. 1599)
Nov 1591 - Feb 1593        Bartolomé de Lences
Feb 1593 - 30 Mar 1595     Gonzalo de Palma (acting)
30 Mar 1595 - 1599         Fernando de la Cueva y Escobedo    (b. 1569 - d. 1599)
1599                       Gaspar Rodríguez (acting)
1600                       Antonio de Carvajal (acting)       (b. 1546 - d. 1604)
1600 - 1604                Gonzalo Vázquez de Coronado y      (b. 1552 - d. 1616)
                             Arias Dávila (interim)
1604 - 1613                Juan de Ocón y Trillo              (b. 1559 - d. 1618)
1613 -  9 Jan 1619         Juan de Mendoza y Medrano          (b. 1575 - d. 1661)
 9 Jan 1619 - 31 Dec 1624  Alonso del Castillo y Guzmán
31 Dec 1624 - Sep 1630     Juan de Echáuz y Velasco           (b. 1583 - d. 16..)
Sep 1630 - 1634            Juan de Villalta                   (d. 1634)
1634 - 1635                Bartolomé de Enciso Hita (acting)  (b. 1600 - d. 1639)
1635 - Oct 1636            Juan Maldonado de Villasante
                             (acting)
Oct 1636 - 1644            Gregorio de Sandoval Anaya y       (d. 1646)
                             González de Alcalá
1644 - Dec 1650            Juan de Cháves y Mendoza
Dec 1650 -  8 Jan 1659     Juan Fernández de Salinas y        (b. 1613 - d. 1674)
                             La Cerda 
 8 Jan 1659 - 25 Nov 1661  Andrés Arias de Maldonado          (d. 1661)
25 Nov 1661 - 27 Feb 1662  Pedro Fernández de Córdoba (acting)
27 Feb 1662 - 1664         Rodrigo Arias Maldonado y Góngora  (b. 1637 - d. 1714)
                             (interim)
1664 - 29 Jun 1665         Juan de Obregón y Espinosa         (b. 1600 - d. 1672)
                             (acting)
29 Jun 1665 - 27 Apr 1674  Juan López de la Flor y Reinoso    (d. 1694)
27 Apr 1674 - Jan 1679     Juan Francisco Sáenz-Vázquez de    (b. 1620 - d. 1686)
                             Quintanilla y Sendín de
                             Sotomayor (1st time)
Jan 1679 - Jan 1680        Francisco Antonio de Rivas y       (b. 1645 - d. bf.1700)
                             Contreras (commission chairman)
Jan 1680 - 24 Jul 1681     Juan Francisco Sáenz-Vázquez de    (s.a.)
                             Quintanilla y Sendín de
                             Sotomayor (2nd time)
24 Jul 1681 - 28 Apr 1693  Miguel Gómez de Lara y Brocal      (b. 1632 - d. 16..) 
28 Apr 1693 -  8 May 1698  Manuel de Bustamente y Vivero      (b. 1653 - d. 1719) 
 8 May 1698 - Jun 1704     Francisco Serrano de Reyna y       (b. 16.. - d. 1712) 
                             Céspedes
Jun 1704 -  1 May 1707     Diego de Herrera Campuzano         (b. 1653 - d. 1714)
 1 May 1707 - 1712         Lorenzo Antonio de Granada y       (b. 1651 - d. 1712) 
                             Balbín
1712 - 27 Apr 1713         José de Casasola y Córdoba (acting)(b. 1667 - d. 1713)
27 Apr 1713 - 11 May 1713  Francisco López Conejo (acting)    (b. 1662 - d. 1717)
11 May 1713 - 1717         José Antonio Lacayo de Briones     (b. 1679 - d. 1756)
                             y Palacios
1717 - 1718                Pedro Ruíz de Bustamante (acting)
26 Nov 1718 - 1727         Diego de la Haya Fernández         (b. 1675 - d. 1734) 
1727 - 1736                Baltazar Francisco de Valderrama   (b. 1690 - d. 1738)
                             y Haro

1736                       Antonio Vázquez de la Quadra y     (d. 1736)
                             Sequera
1736 - 24 Jul 1736         Juan Francisco de Ibarra y Calvo   (b. 1683 - d. 1737)
                             (acting)
24 Jul 1736 - 24 Dec 1736  Dionisio Salmón-Pacheco y Abarca   (b. 1690 - d. 1767)
                             (acting)
24 Dec 1736 - 13 Jul 1739  Francisco Antonio de Carrandi      (b. 1692 - d. 17..) 
                             y Menán (interim)
13 Jul 1739 -  2 Jun 1740  Francisco de Olaechea y
                             Garaycoechea (interim)
 2 Jun 1740 -  5 Nov 1747  Joan Gemmir i Lleonart y           (b. 1692 - d. 1747)
                             Fontanills            
 5 Nov 1747 - 22 Jan 1748  Francisco Javier de Oreamuno y
                             Vázquez-Meléndez (1st time)
                             (acting)

22 Jan 1748 - 14 Mar 1750  Luis Díez Navarro y Albuquerque,   (b. 1699 - d. 1780) 
                             (interim)
1750 - 1754                Cristóbal Ignacio de Soria y
                             Montero de Espinosa
1754 -  2 Jul 1756         Francisco Fernández de la Pastora  (b. 1712 - d. 1756)
                             y Miranda (interim)
12 Aug 1756 - 24 Oct 1757  José Antonio de Oreamuno y         (b. 1710 - d. 1785)
                             Vázquez-Meléndez (1st time)
                             (interim) 
24 Oct 1757 - 18 Sep 1758  José González Rancaño (interim)    (d. 1776)
18 Sep 1758 - 1760         Manuel Soler                       (d. 1763)
1760 - 1762                Francisco Javier de Oreamuno y
                             Vázquez-Meléndez (2nd time)
                            (acting)

1762 -  3 Apr 1764         José Antonio de Oreamuno y         (s.a.)
                             Vázquez-Meléndez (2nd time)
                             (interim) 
 3 Apr 1764 - 14 Jun 1773  José Joaquín de Nava y Cabezudo    (b. c.1725 - d. 1784)
14 Jun 1773 - 1778         Juan Fernández de Bobadilla y      (d. 1781)
                             Gradi (1st time) 
25 Jun 1778 - 23 Jul 1780  José Perié y Barros (1st time)     (d. 1789)
23 Jul 1780 - 28 Jan 1781  Juan Fernández de Bobadilla y      (s.a.)
                             Gradi (2nd time)(interim)
28 Jan 1781 - 1781         Francisco Carazo y Soto-Barahona   (b. 1741 - d. 1794)
                             (acting)
11 Apr 1781 - 1785         Juan Flores y Sánchez (interim)
31 Jan 1785 -  7 Jan 1789  José Perié y Barros (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 7 Jan 1789 - 1789         José Antonio de Oriamuno (acting)
1789 - 1790                Juan Esteban Gregorio Martínez de  (b. 1747 - d. 18..)
                             Pinillos (interim)
 7 Nov 1790 - 1796         José Vázquez y Téllez
21 Apr 1796 -  3 Apr 1797  Juan Francisco de Bonilla y        (b. 1745 - d. 1817)
                             Morales (acting)
 3 Apr 1797 -  4 Dec 1810  Tomás de Acosta y Hurtado de       (b. 1747 - d. 1821)
                             Mendoza 
 4 Dec 1810 - 1819         Juan de Dios de Ayala y Gudiño     (b. 17.. - d. 1819)
                             (military governor from 3 Jul 1810)
1819                       Ramón Jiménez Rodriguez (acting)   (b. c.1779 - d. 1848)
10 Jun 1819 - 11 Oct 1821  Juan Manuel Cañas de Trujillo y    (b. 1763 - d. 1822?) 
                             Sánchez de Madrid (interim) 
Political Chief 
11 Oct 1821 - 12 Nov 1821  Juan Manuel de Cañas Trujillo y    (s.a.) 
                             Sánchez de Madrid
President of the Provisional Governing Junta
12 Nov 1821 -  1 Dec 1821  José Nicolás Carrillo y Aguirre    (b. 1751 - d. 1845)  Imp
President of the Superior Junta
 1 Dec 1821 -  6 Jan 1822  Pedro José de Alvarado y Baeza     (b. 1767 - d. 1839)  Imp 
Presidents of the Superior Governing Junta
 6 Jan 1822 - 13 Apr 1822  Rafael de la Trinidad Barroeta y   (b. 1766 - d. 1826)  Imp
                             Castilla
                            (president of the Electoral Junta to 12 Jan 1822) 
13 Apr 1822 - 15 Jul 1822  José Santiago de Bonilla y         (b. 1756 - d. 1824)  Lib
                             Laya-Bolívar 
15 Jul 1822 - 17 Oct 1822  José María de Peralta y de la      (b. 1763 - d. 1826)  Rep
                             Vega 
17 Oct 1822 -  1 Jan 1823  Rafael Luis José de Gallegos y     (b. 1784 - d. 1850)  Lib
                             Alvarado 
 1 Jan 1823 - 15 Mar 1823  José Santos Lombardo y Alvarado    (b. 1775 - d. 1831)  Lib
President of Constituent Congress 
 3 Mar 1823 - 19 Mar 1823  José María de Peralta y de la      (s.a.)               Rep
                             Vega 
President of the Diputación (Standing Commission)
20 Mar 1823 - 29 Mar 1823  Rafael Francisco Osejo             (b. 1790 - d. 1848)  Rep
General Commandants
29 Mar 1823 -  5 Apr 1823  Joaquín de Oreamuno y Muñoz de     (b. 1755 - d. 1827)  Imp 
                             la Trinidad (in Cartago)
 2 Apr 1823 - 16 Apr 1823  Gregorio José Ramírez y Castro     (b. 1796 - d. 1823)  Rep
                             (in Alajuela and San José)
President of Constituent Congress 
16 Apr 1823 - 10 May 1823  José María de Peralta y de la      (s.a.)               Rep
                             Vega
Presidents of the Governing Junta
10 May 1823 -  8 Jan 1824  Manuel de Jesús Alvarado e Hidalgo (b. 1775 - d. 1836)  Rep
                             (1st time)
 8 Jan 1824 - 12 Feb 1824  Eusebio Rodríguez Castro           (b. 1778 - d. 1858)  Rep
12 Feb 1824 -  8 Sep 1824  Manuel de Jesús Alvarado e Hidalgo (s.a.)               Rep
                             (2nd time)
Supreme Chiefs¹ 
 8 Sep 1824 -  9 Mar 1833  Juan José Mora Fernández           (b. 1784 - d. 1854)  Lib 
 9 Mar 1833 -  4 Mar 1835  Rafael Luis José de Gallegos y     (s.a.)               Con
                             Alvarado
 4 Mar 1835 - 18 Mar 1835  Juan José de Lara y Arias de       (b. 1790 - d. 1856)
                             Salamanca (provisional)
18 Mar 1835 -  5 May 1835  Manuel José Fernández Chacón       (b. 1786 - d. 1840)  Lib
                             (acting)
 5 May 1835 -  1 Mar 1837  Braulio Evaristo Carrillo Colina   (b. 1800 - d. 1845)  Lib
                             (1st time)
 1 Mar 1837 - 17 Apr 1837  José Joaquín Mora Fernández        (b. 1786 - d. 1840)  Lib
                             (provisional)
17 Apr 1837 - 27 May 1838  Manuel de Jesús Aguilar Chacón     (b. 1797 - d. 1846)  Lib
27 May 1838 - 12 Apr 1842  Braulio Evaristo Carrillo Colina   (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time) 
12 Apr 1842 - 11 Sep 1842  José Francisco Morazán Quezada     (b. 1792 - d. 1842)  Mil/Lib
                             (provisional to 15 Jul 1842) 
11 Sep 1842 - 27 Sep 1842  Antonio Luis Pinto Suárez          (b. 1780 - d. 1865)  Lib
                             (Supreme Commander of the United Pueblos) 
27 Sep 1842 - 29 Nov 1844  José María Alfaro Zamora (1st time)(b. 1799 - d. 1856)  Lib
                             (provisional) 
29 Nov 1844 -  7 Jun 1846  Francisco María Oreamuno Bonilla   (b. 1801 - d. 1856)  Lib
Dec 1844 - 30 Apr 1845     José Rafael Moya Murillo           (b. 1799 - d. 1864)
                             (acting for Oreamuno)
 1 May 1845 -  7 Jun 1846  Rafael Luis José de Gallegos y     (s.a.)               Lib
                             Alvarado (acting for Oreamuno)
 7 Jun 1846 - 10 Feb 1847  José María Alfaro Zamora (2nd time)(s.a.)               Lib
                             (provisional) 
Presidents
10 Feb 1847 -  8 May 1847  José María Alfaro Zamora           (s.a.)               Lib
                             (provisional) 
 8 May 1847 - 16 Nov 1849  José María Castro y Madriz         (b. 1818 - d. 1892)  Lib
                             (provisional to 31 Aug 1848) 
                             (1st time) 
16 Nov 1849 - 26 Nov 1849  José Miguel Mora Porras (acting)   (b. 1816 - d. 1887)  Lib
26 Nov 1849 - 14 Aug 1859  Juan Rafael Mora Porras            (b. 1814 - d. 1860)  Lib 
                             (acting to 30 Dec 1849)
14 Aug 1859 -  8 May 1863  José María Montealegre Fernández   (b. 1815 - d. 1887)  Lib  
                             (acting to 29 Apr 1860)
 8 May 1863 -  8 May 1866  Jesús María Ciriaco Jiménez Zamora (b. 1823 - d. 1897)  Mil/Lib
                             (1st time) 
 8 May 1866 -  1 Nov 1868  José María Castro y Madriz         (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Nov 1868 - 27 Apr 1870  Jesús María Ciriaco Jiménez Zamora (s.a.)               Mil/Lib
                             (2nd time)(provisional to 8 May 1869)
27 Apr 1870 -  9 Aug 1870  José Bruno Carranza Ramírez        (b. 1822 - d. 1891)  Lib
                             (Provisional Chief) 
10 Aug 1870 -  8 May 1876  Tomás Miguel Guardia Gutiérrez     (b. 1831 - d. 1882)  Mil/Lib
                             (Provisional Chief to 8 May 1872)
                             (1st time)
 8 May 1876 - 30 Jul 1876  Aniceto del Carmen Esquivel Sáenz  (b. 1824 - d. 1898)  Lib
30 Jul 1876 - 23 Sep 1877  Vicente de las Mercedes Herrera    (b. 1821 - d. 1888)  Con
                             Zeledón (acting) 
23 Sep 1877 -  6 Jul 1882  Tomás Miguel Guardia Gutiérrez     (s.a.)               Mil/Lib
                             (provisional to 8 May 1880)
                             (2nd time)
 6 Jul 1882 - 20 Jul 1882  Francisco Cipriano Saturnino       (b. 1826 - d. 1905)  Lib
                             Lizano Gutiérrez (acting)
20 Jul 1882 - 12 Mar 1885  Juan Primitivo Próspero Fernández  (b. 1834 - d. 1885)  Mil/Lib
                             Oreamuno (acting to 10 Aug 1882)
12 Mar 1885 -  8 May 1890  Ramón Bernardo Soto Alfaro         (b. 1854 - d. 1931)  Lib
                             (acting to 8 May 1886)
 7 Nov 1889 -  8 May 1890  Carlos Durán Cartín                (b. 1852 - d. 1924)  PN
                             (acting for Soto)
 8 May 1890 -  8 May 1894  José Joaquín Rodríguez Zeledón     (b. 1838 - d. 1917)  PCon
 8 May 1894 -  8 May 1902  Rafael Anselmo José Iglesias       (b. 1861 - d. 1924)  Civ
                             Castro 
 8 May 1902 -  8 May 1906  Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra          (b. 1848 - d. 1927)  Civ
 8 May 1906 -  8 May 1910  Cleto de Jesús González Víquez     (b. 1858 - d. 1937)  PN
                             (1st time) 
 8 May 1910 -  8 May 1914  Romualdo Ricardo de Jesús Jiménez  (b. 1869 - d. 1945)  PRN
                             Oreamuno (1st time)
 8 May 1914 - 27 Jan 1917  Alfredo González Flores            (b. 1877 - d. 1962)  PRN
27 Jan 1917 - 20 Aug 1919  José Federico Alberto de Jesús     (b. 1868 - d. 1931)  Mil + PP
                             Tinoco Granados
                             (Provisional Chief of Government to 11 Apr 1917)
12 Aug 1919 -  2 Sep 1919  Juan Bautista Quirós Segura        (b. 1853 - d. 1934)  Mil + PP
                             (acting [for Tinoco to 20 Aug 1919])
 2 Sep 1919 -  8 May 1920  Francisco Ramón de Jesús Aguilar   (b. 1857 - d. 1924)  Cil
                             Barquero (provisional)
 8 May 1920 -  8 May 1924  Rafael Julio del Rosario Acosta    (b. 1876 - d. 1954)  PCon
                             García 
 8 May 1924 -  8 May 1928  Romualdo Ricardo de Jesús Jiménez  (s.a.)               PRN
                             Oreamuno (2nd time)
 8 May 1928 -  8 May 1932  Cleto de Jesús González Víquez     (s.a.)               Civ
                             (2nd time) 
 8 May 1932 -  8 May 1936  Romualdo Ricardo de Jesús Jiménez  (s.a.)               PRN
                             Oreamuno (3rd time)
 8 May 1936 -  8 May 1940  León Luis Cortés Castro            (b. 1882 - d. 1946)  PRN
 8 May 1940 -  8 May 1944  Rafael Ángel del Socorro Calderón  (b. 1900 - d. 1970)  PRN
                             Guardia 
 8 May 1944 -  8 May 1948  Teodoro Picado Michalski           (b. 1900 - d. 1960)  PRN
                             (took 'terminal' leave 20 Apr 1948, did not resign)
20 Apr 1948 -  8 May 1948  Santos León Herrera                (b. 1874 - d. 1950)  PRN + BV
                             (acting for Michalski)
 8 May 1948 -  8 Nov 1949  José María Hipólito Figueres       (b. 1906 - d. 1990)  Mil/PSD
                             Ferrer (1st time) 
                             (President of Founding Junta of the Second Republic) 
 8 Nov 1949 -  8 Nov 1953  Luis Emilio Rafael de la Trinidad  (b. 1891 - d. 1973)  PUN
                             Otilio González Ulate y Blanco 
 8 Nov 1953 -  8 May 1958  José María Hipólito Figueres       (s.a.)               PLN
                             Ferrer (2nd time) 
 8 May 1958 -  8 May 1962  Mario José Echandi Jiménez         (b. 1915 - d. 2011)  PUN
 8 May 1962 -  8 May 1966  Francisco José Orlich Bolmarich    (b. 1907 - d. 1969)  PLN
 8 May 1966 -  8 May 1970  José Joaquín Antonio Trejos        (b. 1916 - d. 2010)  PUN
                             Fernández
 8 May 1970 -  8 May 1974  José María Hipólito Figueres       (s.a.)               PLN
                             Ferrer (3rd time)
 8 May 1974 -  8 May 1978  Porfirio Ricardo José Luis Daniel  (b. 1921 - d. 1991)  PLN
                             Oduber Quirós 
 8 May 1978 -  8 May 1982  Rodrigo José Ramón Francisco de    (b. 1926 - d. 2009)  UN + UC
                             Jesús Carazo Odio
 8 May 1982 -  8 May 1986  Luis Alberto Monge Álvarez         (b. 1925)            PLN
 8 May 1986 -  8 May 1990  Óscar Rafael de Jesús Arias        (b. 1941)            PLN
                             Sánchez (1st time)
 8 May 1990 -  8 May 1994  Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier     (b. 1949)            PUSC
 8 May 1994 -  8 May 1998  José María Figueres Olsen          (b. 1954)            PLN
 8 May 1998 -  8 May 2002  Miguel Ángel Rodríguez Echeverría  (b. 1940)            PUSC
 8 May 2002 -  8 May 2006  Abel Pacheco de la Espriella       (b. 1933)            PUSC
 8 May 2006 -  8 May 2010  Óscar Rafael de Jesús Arias        (s.a.)               PLN
                             Sánchez (2nd time)
 8 May 2010 -  8 May 2014  Laura Chinchilla Miranda (f)       (b. 1959)            PLN
 8 May 2014 -              Luis Guillermo Solís Rivera        (b. 1958)            PAC

 ¹In some constitutional use the Supreme Chief (Jefe Supremo) was alternatively styled First Chief (Primer Jefe). This style became the only constitutional one from 27 May 1841 to 6 Jun 1842. 

Territorial Dispute: The ICJ had given Costa Rica until Jan 2008 to reply and Nicaragua until Jul 2008 to rejoin before rendering its decision on the navigation, security, and commercial rights of Costa Rican vessels on the Río San Juan over which Nicaragua retains sovereignty; Costa Rica protests Nicaragua's demarcation in maps of joint Caribbean and Pacific maritime boundaries. 

Party abbreviations: PAC = Partido Acción Ciudadana (Citizens' Action Party, social- democratic, center-left, est.2000);  PLN = Partido Liberación Nacional (National Liberation Party, social-democratic, est.1951); PUSC = Partido de Unidad Social Cristiana (Christian Social Unity Party, christian-democratic, former UC, est.1983); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties: BV = Bloque de la Victoria (Victory Bloc, coalition of PRN and Partidos Vanguardia Popular, christian socialist, Calderonismo, 1944-1948); Con = Conservative; PCon = Partido Constitucional (Constitutional Party, conservative, 1889-1915); Imp = Imperialista (Imperialist, favoring union with Mexico, 1821-1823); Lib = Liberal; PRN = Partido Republicano Nacional (National Republican Party, liberal, christian socialist, Calderonismo, 1901-1952); Civ = Partido Civil (Civil Party, liberal, Rafael Iglesias Castro personalist, 1893-1915); PD = Partido Demócrata (Democratic Party, Cortesismo, 1952-1956, 1965-1984, 1997-2003); PN = Partido Nacional (National Party, 1905-1917, 1928-1940); PP = Partido Peliquista (Peliquista Party, Tinoco personalist, 1917-1919); PRD = Partido Renovación Democrática (Democratic Renewal Party, democratic socialist, center-left, 1972-1984, merged into PUSC); PSD = Partido Social Demócrata (Social Democratic Party, social-democratic, 1945-1951); PUN = Partido Unificación Nacional (Naional Unification Party, conservative, Calderonismo, 1966-1978); UC = Coalición Unidad (Unity Coalition; anti-PLN coalition of Unión Popular [Popular Union], UN, PRD, Partido Republicano [Republican Party], Partido Democrático Cristiana [Christian Democratic Party] and Partido Republicano Calderonista [Caldernonist Republican Party], 1976-1983); UN = Partido Unión Nacional (National Union Party, center-right, 1947-52, 1952-74, 1977-80, 1982-94, 2005-2010)



Talamanca
c.1862 - Jan 1910          Paramount chiefs of the Bribri Indian nation style themselves
                             "kings of Talamanca'; even if they recognized the government of
                             Costa Rica as their supreme ruler.
Paramount chiefs (styled "kings" of Talamanca) 
c.1862 - 1871              Chirimo
1871 - 1872                Santiago Mayas                     (d. 1872)
1872 - c.1874              Birche
1874 - 1880                Willie
1880 -  3 Jan 1910         Antonio Saldaña                    (d. 1910) 
 3 Jan 1910 - Jan 1910     José Saldaña





© Ben Cahoon