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Panama
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                   to 6 Oct 1821
[Flag
                                    of Isthmus Province 1821
                                    (Colombia)]
          6 Oct 1821 - 1831
[Flag
                                    of Isthmus Province 1831
                                    (Colombia)]
                 1831 - 9 May 1834
[Flag
                                    of Isthmus Province 1834
                                    (Colombia)]
               9 May 1834 - 1855
[Flag
                                    of Panama State 1855 (Colombia)]
                 1855 - 26 Jul 1861
 
[State of Panama 1861
                                    (Colombia)]
            26 Jul 1861 - 26 Nov 1861

[State of Panama flag 1861-1884
                                    (Colombia)]
               26 Nov 1861 - 1886
 
[State
                                    of Panama flag 1886-1903
                                    (Colombia)]
                 1886 - 3 Nov 1903
 
[Flag of Panama
                                  of Nov-Dec 1903]
            3 Nov 1903 - 20 Dec 1903
        
 
   
[Flag of Panama]
                Adopted 20 Dec 1903
         (officially adopted 28 Mar 1941)
Map of Panama
Hear National Anthem
"Himno Istemño"
(Isthmus Hymn)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1925
Constitution
 (11 Oct 1972; in Spanish)
Capital: Panama City
(Ciudad de Panama)
(Darien 1510-1521)
Currencies: Balboa (PAB); &
 US Dollar (USD); 1871-1903
Colombian Peso (COP)
National Holiday: 3 Nov (1903)
Independence Day
Population: 3,559,408 (2013)
GDP: $61.54 billion (2013)
Exports: $18.8 billion (2013)
Imports: $26.6 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 58.1%,
black and mulatto 14%, Amerindian 6.7%, white 8.6%,
Asian 5.5%, other 7.1% (2000)
Total Public Security Forces: 12,000 (2012)
(military abolished 19 Feb 1990)
Merchant marine: 6,414 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 70.6%, Protestant 14%,
Muslim 4.4%, Baha'i 1.2%, Buddhist 0.8%, traditional
 beliefs 0.7%, nonreligious 2.5%, other 5.8%
(2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS, APM, BCIE (nonregional), BTWC, CAN (observer), CAP, CCM, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAIA, LAP, LU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SEGIB, SICA, UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Panama Index
Chronology

Mar 1501                   Discovered by Rodrigo de Bastidas.
 5 Oct 1502                Discovered by Columbus and claimed for Spain.
1508                       Spanish settlement at Darien, Gobernación de
                             Veragua.
1510                       Spanish colony, Santa María de la Antigua del
                             Darien founded.
1513                       Province of Castilla de Oro (part of Spanish
                             colony of Peru).
29 Sep 1513                Isthmus crossed by Vasco Nuñez de Balboa.
15 Aug 1519                Panama city founded.
1529                       Renamed Panamá
26 Feb 1538 - 1543         Audiencia y Cancillería Real de Panamá en
                             Tierrafirme.
15 May 1565 - 1718         Audiencia of Panamá (restored).
 3 Nov 1698 - 11 Apr 1700  Scottish colony at Darien.
21 Jul 1722 - 1752         Audiencia of Panamá (restored).
20 Aug 1739                Panama subjected to Viceroyalty of New Granada 
                             (see Colombia).
20 Jul 1812 - 1816         Remains loyal to Spain during Colombian 
                             independence revolt.
28 Nov 1821                Independence from Spain, part of New Granada
                             (see Colombia).
18 Nov 1840                State of Panama (secession from Colombia).
20 Mar 1841                State of the Isthmus (Estado del Istmo).
31 Dec 1841                Re-incorporation into Colombia.
27 Feb 1855 -  5 Aug 1886  Provinces of New Granada (including Panama) 
                             organized as sovereign states, but remaining
                             part of New Granada (see Colombian states).
27 Apr 1885 - 30 Apr 1885  U.S. intervention.
20 Nov 1901 -  4 Dec 1901  U.S. intervention.

17 Sep 1902 - 18 Nov 1902  U.S. intervention.
 3 Nov 1903                Independence from Colombia (Republic of Panama).
 4 Nov 1903 - 21 Jan 1914  U.S. occupation.
 4 Nov 1903 - 25 Jul 1939  U.S. protectorate.
18 Nov 1903 - 30 Sep 1979  Panama Canal Zone under U.S. administration.
20 Dec 1989 - 31 Jan 1990  U.S. occupation.

Canal Zone
(1903-1979)
New Caledonia
(1698-1700)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

De facto rulers
11 Oct 1968 - 31 Jul 1981  Omar Efraín Torrijos Herrera       (b. 1929 - d. 1981) Mil; 1978
                            (commander National Guard)                            PRD 
 3 Mar 1982 - 12 Aug 1983  Rubén Darío Paredes del Río        (b. 1933)           Mil
                            (commander National Guard)
12 Aug 1983 - 20 Dec 1989  Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno      (b. 1936)           Mil
                            (commander National Guard [from 29 Sep 1983
                             Panama Defense Forces])

Governors of Veragua
 6 Jun 1508 - 1511         Diego de Nicuesa                   (b. c.1464 - d. 1511) 
1511 - 1513                Vasco Núñez de Balboa              (b. 1475 - d. 1519) 
Governors of Castilla de Oro
1513 - 1520                Pedro Arias Dávila (1st time)      (b. 1460? - d. 1631) 
1520                       Lope de Sosa 
1520 - 1526                Pedro Arias Dávila (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1526 - 1529                Pedro de los Ríos y Gutierrez      (d. 1547)
                             de Aguayo
Governors of Panama
 5 Aug 1529 - Jul 1532     Antonio de la Gama
1533 - Aug 1536            Francisco de Barrionuevo
1536                       Pascual de Andagoya                (b. 1495 - d. 1548)
Sep 1536 - Feb 1539        Pedro Vázquez de Acuña 
1539 - 1543                Francisco Pérez de Robles
                             (president of the Audiencia)
1543 - 1545                Pedro Ramírez de Quiñones 
                             (1st time)
1545                       Pedro Casaos 
1545                       Diego de Herrera 
1545 - 1546                Hernando de Bichacao 
1546                       Pedro de Rivero 
1546                       Pedro Antonio de Hinojosa 
1546                       Pedro de la Gasca                  (b. 1493 - d. 1567) 
1546 - 1548                Alonso de Álvarez 
1548                       Pedro Ramírez de Quiñones 
                             (2nd time)
1549 - 1550                Juan Barba de Vallecillo 
1550 - 1553                Sancho de Clavijo 
1553 - 1556                Álvaro de Sosa 
1557 - 1559                Juan Ruiz de Monjaráz 
1559 - 1561                Rafael de Figueroa 
1561 - 1563                Luis de Guzmán 
1563 - 1564                Lope García de Castro              (b. 1516 - d. 1576) 
1565 - 1566                Manuel Barros de San Millán        (d. 1599) 
                             (1st time)
1566                       Alonso Arias de Herrera y
                             Maldonado 
1566                       Juan de Pinedo 
Governor/Presidents
1567 - 1569                Manuel Barros de San Millán        (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
1569 - 1573                Diego Lope de Vera 
1573 - 1578                Gabriel Loarte 
1578                       Juan López de Cepeda (interim) 
1576 - 1585                Pedro Ramírez de Quiñones 
                             (3rd time)
1585 - 1587                Juan del Barrio Sepúlveda
                             (1st time)
1587 - 1596                Francisco de Cárdenas 
1596                       Juan del Barrio Sepúlveda 
                             (2nd time) (interim)
1596 - 1602                Alonso Sotomayor y Andía           (b. 1545 - d. 1610) 
1602 - 1604                Hernando de Añazco 
1605 - 1614                Francisco Valverde de Mercado 
1614 - 1616                Francisco Manso de Contreras 
1616 - 1619                Diego Fernández de Velasco
1619 - 1621                Juan de la Cruz Rivadeneira 
1621                       Roque Chávez 
1621 - 1627                Rodrigo Vivero y Velasco 
1627 - 1632                Álvaro de Quiñones Osorio y 
                             Miranda
1632 - 1634                Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera      (d. 1660) 
                             y Gaviría
1634 - 1638                Enrique Enríquez de Sotomayor      (d. 1639)   1638                       Andrés Garabito de León
                             (interim)
1638 - 1642                Iñigo de la Motta Sarmiento 
1643 - 1646                Juan de la Vega y Bazán 
1646 - 1649                Juan Fernández de Córdoba y
                             Croalla 
1649 - 1650                Juan Barba de Vallecillo 
1650 - 1651                Juan de Bitrián Navarra y 
                             Biamonte (interim)
1651                       Diego de Orozco (interim)
1651 - 1652                Francisco de Guzmán de Toledo 
                             (interim)
1652 - 1657                Pedro Carrilla de Guzmán
1658 - 1663                Fernando Ibáñez de la 
                             Riva Aguero y Setien
1663 - 1665                Pablo Figueroa 
1665 - 1667                Juan Pérez de Guzmán y Gonzaga
                             (1st time)
1667 - 1669                Agustín de Bracamonte, Jr. 
1669                       Diego de Ibarra (interim)
                             (1st time)
1669 - 1671                Juan Pérez de Guzmán y Gonzaga
                             (2nd time)
1671                       Diego de Ibarra (interim)
                             (2nd time)(declined office)
1671                       Luis Losada Quinoñes (magistrate)
1671                       Andres Martínez de Amileta
                             (magistrate)
1671                       Francisco Miguel de Marichalar 
                             (1st time)
1671 - 1673                Antonio Fernández de Córdoba y
                             Mendoza 
1673 - 1675                Antonio de León, Obispo de Panamá 
1675 - 1676                Francisco Miguel de Marichalar 
                             (2nd time)
1676 - 1681                Alonso de Mercado y Villacorta 
1681 - 1682                Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita,     (b. 1624 - d. 1688) 
                             Obispo de Panamá 
1682                       José Alzamora 
1682 - 1690                Pedro de Ponte Llorena Hoyo y      (b. 1625 - d. 1705)
                             Calderón, conde de Palmar
1690 - 1695                Pedro José de Guzmán Dávalos,      (b. c.1650 - d. 1720)
                             marqués de la Mina 
1695 - 1696                Diego Ladrón de Guvera,            (b. 1641 - d. 1718)
                             Obispo de Panamá 
1696 - 1699                Pedro Luis Henríquez de Guzmán,    (d. 1701)
                             conde de Canillas (1st time)
1699                       José Antonio de la Rocha y 
                             Carranza (1st time)
1699 - 1701                Pedro Luis Henríquez de Guzmán,    (s.a.)
                             conde de Canillas (2nd time)
1702 - 1706                Fernando D'Avila Bravo de Laguna
1706                       Juan Eustaquio Vicentel Toledo
                             y Luca, marqués de Brenes
1706 - 1708                José Antonio de la Rocha y 
                             Carranza, marques de Brenes
                             (1st time)
1708 - 1709                Fernando Haro de Monterroso
1709 - 1710                Juan Bautista de Ureta e Irusta
1710 - 1711                Juan de la Rañeta y Vera
1711                       José Antonio de la Rocha y 
                             Carranza, marques de Brenes
                             (2nd time)
1711 - 1718                José Hurtado de Amézaga
Governors
1718                       Juan José de Llamas y Rivas, 
                             Obispo de Panamá
1718 - 1723                Jerónimo Vadillo
Governors/Presidents
1723 - 1724                Gaspar Pérez Buelta
1724                       José Alzamora y Ursino (interim)
1724 - 1730                Manuel de Aldrete
1730 - 1735                Juan José de Andía Viero y Velásco,(d. 1741)
                             marqués de Villa Hermosa
1735 - 1748                Dionisio Martínez de la Vega
1749 - 1751                Manuel de Montiano                 (b. 1685 - d. 1762)
Governors
1751 - 1758                Manuel de Montiano                 (s.a.)
1758 - 1761                Antonio de Guill y Gonzaga         (d. 1768)
1762                       José Roan (interim)
1762 - 1764                José de Arana y Garnica (interim)
1764 - Jul 1767            José Blasco de Orozco              (d. 1767)
1767                       Joaquín Cabrejo (interim)
1767 - 1768                Manuel de Agreda (interim)
1768 - 1769                Nicolás de Castro (1st time)       (d. 1772)
Dec 1769 - Jun 1772        Vicente de Olaciregui              (d. 1772)
Jun 1772 - 1772            Nicolás de Castro (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (interim)
1773 - May 1774            Nicholás Quijano                   (d. 1774)
May 1774 - 1774            Francisco Navas (interim)
1774 - Nov 1779            Pedro Carbonell Pinto Vigo y
                             Correa
Nov 1779 - 1785            Ramón de Carvajal
1786 - 1793                José Dómas y Valle
1793 - 1803                Antonio Narváez y la Torre         (b. 1733? - d. 1812)
15 Mar 1803 - 22 Feb 1805  Juan de Marcos Urbina              (b. 17.. - d. 1805)
1805 - 12 Jul 1812         Juan Antonio de la Mata            (d. 1812)
12 Jul 1812 - 1813         Víctor Salcedo y Somodevilla       (b. 1751 - d. 18..)
1813 - 1815                Carlos Meyner
1815 - 1816                Francisco de Ayala Gudiño Medina   (b. 1751 - d. 1816)
                             y Calderón (interim) 
1816                       José Alvarez (interim)
1816 - 17 Jul 1817         Juan Domingo de Iturralde (interim)
17 Jul 1817 -  8 Jul 1820  Alejandro de Hore,                 (b. 1778 - d. 1820)
                             mariscal de Campo
 8 Jul 1820 - 28 Dec 1820  Francisco Aguilar (interim)
28 Dec 1820 -  2 Aug 1821  Pedro Ruíz de Porras               (b. 1762 - d. 1821)
Aug 1821 - Aug 1821        Tomás Cires (acting)
Aug 1821 - 22 Oct 1821     Juan de la Cruz Mourgeón y Achet   (b. c.1775 - d. 1822)
22 Oct 1821 - 28 Nov 1821  José de Fábrega (1st time)         (b. 1777 - d. 1841)
                             (interim)
Military governor
 9 Feb 1822 - 1826         José María Carreño                 (b. 1792 - d. 1849)
Governors
 9 Feb 1822 - 1826         Juan José Argote (1st time) 
1826                       Manuel Muñoz (1st time)(acting)
1826 - 1827                José de Fábrega (1st time)         (s.a.)
1827                       José Domingo Espinar (1st time)    (b. 1791 - d. 1862)
1827 - Jun 1828            Manuel Muñoz (2nd time)(acting)
Jun 1828 - 1829            José Sardá
1829 - 1830                José de Fábrega (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1830 - Dec 1830            José Domingo Espinar (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Dec 1830 - 1831            Juan Eligio Alzuru                 (b. 1791 - d. 1831)
 1 Jul 1831 - Jul 1831     Justo Paredes -Superior Chief   
Jul 1831 - 1832            Tomás de Herrera-Military governor (b. 1804 - d. 1854) 
                             (1st time)
1832                       Pedro Jiménez
1832 - 1833                Juan José Argote (2nd time)
1833 - 1834                Juan B. Feraud
1834 - 1836                Manuel José Hurtado
1836 - 1840                Pedro de Obarrio
18 May 1840 - 1842         Tomás de Herrera (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Superior Civil Chief

18 Nov 1840 - 20 Mar 1841  Tomás José Ramón del Carmen de     (b. 1804 - d. 1854)
                             Herrera y Pérez Dávila 
Superior Chief of State 
20 Mar 1841 -  8 Jun 1841  Tomás José Ramón del Carmen de     (s.a.)
                             Herrera y Pérez Dávila 
President
 8 Jun 1841 - 31 Dec 1841  Tomás José Ramón del Carmen de     (s.a.)
                             Herrera y Pérez Dávila 
1842                       Miguel Chiari Jiménez              (b. 1808 - d. 1881)
1842                       J. Victoria y Echavarría
1843 - 1845                Anselmo Pineda                     (b. 1805 - d. 1878)
1845                       José de Obaldía y Orejuela         (b. 1806 - d. 1889)
                             (1st time)
1845 - 1846                Tomás de Herrera (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1846                       Manuel Quesada
1846                       José María Barriga
1849                       Manuel María Díaz (1st time)
                             (acting)
1849                       Tomás de Herrera (4th time)        (s.a.)
1850 - 1851                José de Obaldía y Orejuela         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1851                       Manuel María Díaz (2nd time)
                             (acting)
1851                       Tomás de Herrera (4th time)        (s.a.)
1851                       Juan Antonio Bermúdez
1851                       Carlos Icaza Arosemena             (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
1852                       Tomás de Herrera (5th time)        (s.a.)
1852                       Antonio Planas
1852                       Bernardo Arze De Mata (1st time)
1852 - 1853                Salvador Camacho Roldán            (b. 1827 - d. 1900)
1853                       Bernardo Arze De Mata (2nd time)
                             (acting)
 1 Jan 1854 - 1854         José María Urrutia Añio
1854 - 1855                Juan Echavarría
1855                       Isidro de Diego
1855                       Damián José Pacheco
1855                       Bernardo Arze De Mata (3rd time)
19 May 1855 - 15 Jul 1855  Manuel María Díaz (3rd time) 
                             (acting)
16 Jul 1855 -  3 Oct 1855  Justo Arosemena Quesada            (b. 1817 - d. 1896)
                             (initially provisional head of state)
 4 Oct 1855 - 30 Sep 1856  Francisco de Fábrega (acting)      (b. 1815 - d. 1879)
 1 Oct 1856 -  6 May 1858  Bartolomé Calvo y Díaz de Lamadrid (b. 1815 - d. 1889)
 7 May 1858 - 30 Sep 1858  Ramón Gamboa (acting)
 1 Oct 1858 -  1 Nov 1858  Rafael Núñez (acting)              (b. 1825 - d. 1894)
 2 Nov 1858 - 30 Sep 1860  José de Obaldía y Orejuela         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 1 Oct 1860 - 25 Jul 1862  Santiago de la Guardia y Arrue     (b. 1829 - d. 1862)
26 Jul 1862 -  5 Jul 1863  Manuel María Díaz (provisional)
                             (4th time)
 6 Jul 1863 - 12 Aug 1863  Pedro Goitia (acting)
Presidents

13 Aug 1863 - 16 Oct 1864  Peregrino Santacoloma              (b. 1830 - d. 1890) 
17 Oct 1864 -  9 Mar 1865  José Leonardo Calancha (acting)    (b. 1832 - d. ....)
10 Mar 1865 - 30 Sep 1866  Gil Colunje                        (b. 1831 - d. 1899) 
                             (provisional to 1 Jul 1865, then acting)
 1 Oct 1866 -  3 Feb 1868  Vicente Olarte Galindo             (d. 1868)
 4 Feb 1868 -  4 Jul 1868  Justo José Díaz (acting)
 5 Jul 1868 - 31 Aug 1868  Fernando Ponce (provisional)
 1 Sep 1868 - 30 Sep 1872  Buenaventura Correoso (1st time)   (b. 1831 - d. 1911) 
                             (acting to 1 Oct 1868)
16 Aug 1871 - 30 Sep 1871  Jaun Mendosa (acting for Correoso)
16 Jun 1872 - 28 Aug 1872  Jaun Mendosa (acting for Correoso)
 1 Oct 1872 -  5 Apr 1873  Gabriel Neira (1st time) (acting)
 5 Apr 1873 -  8 May 1873  Dámaso A. Cervera (1st time)       (b. 1837 - d. 1898)
                             (acting)
 8 May 1873 - 14 Nov 1873  Gabriel Neira (2nd time) 
                             (acting to 1 Oct 1873, then provisional)
16 Nov 1873 - 20 Sep 1875  Gregorio Miró        
 1 Oct 1875 - 11 Oct 1875  Pablo Arosemena Alba (1st time)    (b. 1836 - d. 1920)
12 Oct 1875 - 31 Dec 1877  Rafael Aizpuru (1st time)          (b. 1843 - d. 1919) 
                             (provisional to 1 Jan 1876)
 1 Jan 1878 - 28 Dec 1878  Buenaventura Correoso (2nd time)   (s.a.)
29 Dec 1878 -  1 Jun 1879  José Ricardo Casorla (1st time)    (b. 1836 - d. 1880)
                             (acting)
 8 Jun 1879 - 15 Jun 1879  Gerardo Ortega (1st time) (acting) (b. 1843 - d. 1925)
15 Jun 1879 - 17 Jun 1879  José Ricardo Casorla (2nd time)    (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
17 Jun 1879 - 31 Dec 1879  Gerardo Ortega (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1880 - 14 Mar 1883  Dámaso A. Cervera (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting)
15 Mar 1883 - 30 Apr 1883  José María Vives León (1st time)
                             (acting)
 1 May 1883 - 26 Nov 1884  Dámaso A. Cervera (3rd time)       (s.a.) 
                             (acting)
27 Nov 1884 -  7 Jan 1885  José María Vives León (2nd time)
                             (acting)
 7 Jan 1885 - 16 Feb 1885  Ramón Santodomingo Vila (1st time) (b. 18.. - d. 1908)
16 Feb 1885 - 31 Mar 1885  Pablo Arosemena Alba (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
31 Mar 1885 - Apr 1885     Carlos A. Gónima
                             (civil and military chief)
Apr 1885 -  1 May 1885     Rafael Aizpuru (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (civil and military chief)
 1 May 1885 - 14 Feb 1886  Miguel Montoya
                             (civil and miltary chief)
15 Feb 1886 -  5 Jun 1886  Ramón Santodomingo Vila (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (civil and miltary chief)
 5 Jun 1886 - 26 Jun 1886  Manuel Amador Guerrero (acting)    (b. 1833 - d. 1909)
                             (civil and miltary chief)
Governors

26 Jun 1886 - 22 Jul 1887  Alejandro Posada (1st time)
23 Jul 1887 - 20 Jan 1888  Juan V. Aycardi (1st time)(interim)
21 Jan 1888 -  9 Mar 1888  Alejandro Posada (2nd time)
 9 Mar 1888 - 31 Aug 1893  Juan V. Aycardi (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1893 -  8 Oct 1898  Ricardo Arango                     (b. 1839 - d. 1898)
 9 Oct 1898 - 31 Dec 1899  Facundo Mutis-Durán (1st time)     (b. 1852 - d. 1913)
 2 Jan 1900 - 1900         José María Campo Serrano           (b. 1832 - d. 1915)
1900                       Alejandro Orillac (acting)
1900 - 20 Jan 1902         Carlos Albán                       (b. 1844 - d. 1902)
Jan 1902 -  3 Mar 1902     Aristides Arjona Quintero          (b. 1860 - d. 19..)
 3 Mar 1902 -  3 Jan 1903  Víctor Manuel Salazar 
                             ("accidental")
 3 Jan 1903 - 1903         Facundo Mutis-Durán (2nd time)     (s.a.)  
Aug 1903 -  3 Nov 1903     José Domingo de Obaldía            (b. 1845 - d. 1910)
President of the Municipal Council of the District of Panama

 3 Nov 1903 -  4 Nov 1903  Demetrio Honorato Brid Lasso       (b. 1859 - d. 1917)  PC
Chairman of the Provisional Government Junta
 4 Nov 1903 - 20 Feb 1904  José Agustín Arango Remón          (b. 1841 - d. 1909)  PC
Presidents
20 Feb 1904 -  1 Oct 1908  Manuel Amador Guerrero             (b. 1833 - d. 1909)  PC
 1 Oct 1908 -  1 Mar 1910  José Domingo de Obaldía            (s.a.)               PC
 1 Mar 1910 -  1 Oct 1910  Carlos Antonio Mendoza Soto        (b. 1858 - d. 1916)  PL
                             (acting)
 1 Oct 1910 -  5 Oct 1910  Federico Augusto Boyd López        (b. 1851 - d. 1924)  PL
                             (acting)
 5 Oct 1910 -  1 Oct 1912  Pablo Arosemena Alba (acting)      (b. 1836 - d. 1920)  PL
 1 Oct 1912 -  1 Oct 1916  Belisario Porras Barahona          (b. 1856 - d. 1942)  PL
                             (1st time)
 1 Oct 1916 -  3 Jun 1918  Ramón Maximiliano de la Concepción (b. 1867 - d. 1918)  PL
                             Valdés Arce     
 3 Jun 1918 -  1 Oct 1918  Ciro Luis Urriola Garrés (acting)  (b. 1863 - d. 1922)  PL
 1 Oct 1918 - 12 Oct 1918  Pedro Antonio Díaz de Obaldía      (b. 1847 - d. 1919)  PC
                             (acting)
12 Oct 1918 - 30 Jan 1920  Belisario Porras Barahona          (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time) 
30 Jan 1920 -  1 Oct 1920  Ernesto Tisdel Lefevre de la Ossa  (b. 1876 - d. 1922)  PL
                             (acting) 
 1 Oct 1920 -  1 Oct 1924  Belisario Porras Barahona          (s.a.)               PL
                             (3rd time)
 1 Oct 1924 -  1 Oct 1928  Rodolfo Enrique Chiari Robles      (b. 1869 - d. 1937)  PL
 1 Oct 1928 -  2 Jan 1931  Florencio Harmodio Arosemena       (b. 1872 - d. 1945)  PL
                             Guillén
 2 Jan 1931 - 16 Jan 1931  Harmodio Arias Madrid (1st time)   (b. 1886 - d. 1962)  PLD
                             (acting for Ricardo Jované)
16 Jan 1931 -  1 Oct 1932  Ricardo Joaquín Alfaro Jované      (b. 1882 - d. 1971)  PL
                             (acting) 
 1 Oct 1932 -  1 Oct 1936  Harmodio Arias Madrid (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PLD
 1 Oct 1936 - 16 Dec 1939  Juan Demóstenes Arosemena Barreati (b. 1879 - d. 1939)  PLN
16 Dec 1939 - 18 Dec 1939  Ezequiel Fernández Jaén (acting)   (b. 1886 - d. 1946)  PNR
18 Dec 1939 -  1 Oct 1940  Augusto Samuel Boyd Briceño        (b. 1879 - d. 1957)  PNR
                             (acting)
 1 Oct 1940 -  9 Oct 1941  Arnulfo Arias Madrid (1st time)    (b. 1901 - d. 1988)  PNR
 9 Oct 1941  (hours)       Ernesto Jaén Guardia (acting)      (b. 1895 - d. 1961)  Non-party
 9 Oct 1941 - 15 Jun 1945  Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia       (b. 1899 - d. 1969)  Non-party
                             Arango (acting to 21 Oct 1941)
15 Feb 1945 - 15 Jun 1945  Jeptha Brawner Duncan Guillén-     (b. 1885 - d. 1977)  PL
                             Arosemena (acting, in dissidence)
15 Jun 1945 -  1 Oct 1948  Enrique Adolfo Jiménez Brin        (b. 1888 - d. 1970)  PL
                             (provisional)
12 Jul 1948 - 13 Jul 1948  Henrique de Obarrio Vallarino      (b. 1898 - d. 1978)  Non-party
                             (provisional, in dissidence)
 1 Oct 1948 - 23 Aug 1949  Domingo Díaz Arosemena             (b. 1875 - d. 1949)  PL
28 Jul 1949 - 24 Nov 1949¹ Daniel Chanis Pinzón               (b. 1891 - d. 1961)  PL
                             (acting for Díaz Arosemena to 23 Aug 1949)
20 Nov 1949 - 25 Nov 1949¹ Roberto Francisco Chiari Remón     (b. 1905 - d. 1981)  PLN
                             (acting for Pinzón)  
25 Nov 1949 - 25 May 1951  Arnulfo Arias Madrid (2nd time)    (s.a.)               PRA
                             (suspended from 9 May 1955)
 9 May 1951 -  1 Oct 1952  Alcibíades Arosemena Quinzada      (b. 1883 - d. 1958)  PRA
                             (acting for Arnulfo Arias to 25 May 1951)
 1 Oct 1952 -  2 Jan 1955  José Antonio Remón Cantera         (b. 1908 - d. 1955)  CPN
 2 Jan 1955 - 29 Mar 1955  José Ramón Guizado Valdés          (b. 1899 - d. 1964)  CPN
                             (suspended from 15 Jan 1955)
15 Jan 1955 -  1 Oct 1956  Ricardo Manuel Arias Espinosa      (b. 1912 - d. 1993)  CPN
                             (acting for impeached Guizado to 29 Mar 1955)
 1 Oct 1956 -  1 Oct 1960  Ernesto de la Guardia Navarro      (b. 1904 - d. 1983)  CPN
 1 Oct 1960 -  1 Oct 1964  Roberto Francisco Chiari Remón     (s.a.)               PLN
 1 Oct 1964 -  1 Oct 1968  Marco Aurelio Robles Méndez        (b. 1905 - d. 1990)  PLN
24 Mar 1968 -  5 Apr 1968  Max Delvalle Levy-Maduro           (b. 1911 - d. 1979)  PR
                             (in dissidence)
 1 Oct 1968 - 11 Oct 1968  Arnulfo Arias Madrid (3rd time)    (s.a.)               PP
12 Oct 1968 - 19 Dec 1969  José M. Pinilla Fábrega            (b. 1919 - d. 1979)  Mil
                             (chairman Provisional Junta)
19 Dec 1969 - 11 Oct 1978  Demetrio Basilio Lakas Bahas       (b. 1925 - d. 1999)  Non-party
                             (chairman Provisional Junta to 11 Oct 1972) 
11 Oct 1978 - 31 Jul 1982  Aristides Royo Sánchez             (b. 1940)            Non-party
31 Jul 1982 - 13 Feb 1984  Ricardo de la Espriella Toral      (b. 1934)            Non-party
13 Feb 1984 - 11 Oct 1984  Jorge Enrique Illueca Sibauste     (b. 1918 - d. 2012)  Non-party
11 Oct 1984 - 28 Sep 1985  Nicolás Ardito Barletta Vallarino  (b. 1938)            PRD
28 Sep 1985 - 26 Feb 1988  Eric Arturo Delvalle Cohen-        (b. 1937)            PR
                             Henríquez   
                             (continues in dissidence to 1 Sep 1989)
26 Feb 1988 -  1 Sep 1989  Manuel Solís Palma (acting)        (b. 1917 - d. 2009)  PRD
 1 Sep 1989 - 20 Dec 1989  Francisco Antonio Rodríguez Poveda (b. 1938)            PRD
                             (provisional) 
20 Dec 1989 -  1 Sep 1994  Guillermo David Endara Galimany    (b. 1936 - d. 2009) PPA;1990 PA 
 1 Sep 1994 -  1 Sep 1999  Ernesto Pérez Balladares González  (b. 1946)            PRD
                             Revilla 
 1 Sep 1999 -  1 Sep 2004  Mireya Elisa Moscoso Rodríguez (f) (b. 1946)            PA
 1 Sep 2004 -  1 Jul 2009  Martín Erasto Torrijos Espino      (b. 1963)            PRD
 1 Jul 2009 -  1 Jul 2014  Ricardo Martinelli Berrocal        (b. 1952)            PCD
 1 Jul 2014 -              Juan Carlos Varela Rodríguez       (b. 1963)            PP


Chiefs of Government

11 Oct 1972 - 11 Oct 1978  Omar Efraín Torrijos Herrera       (s.a.)               Mil; 
                            (formally Supreme Leader of the Panamanian Revolution) 1978 PRD
15 Dec 1989 - 20 Dec 1989  Manuel Antonio Noriega Morena      (s.a.)               Mil

U.S. Military Commanders
20 Nov 1901 -  4 Dec 1901  Thomas Perry
17 Sep 1902 - 18 Nov 1902  George Barnett                     (b. 1859 - d. 1923)
20 Dec 1989 - 31 Jan 1990  Carl Stiner                        (b. 1936)

 ¹By a dubious interpretation of Art. 148 of the 1946 constitution dealing with presidential resignations, the Supreme Court of Justice "conditionally" accepted on 20 Nov 1949 President Daniel Chanis (s.a.) resignation and swore in Roberto Francisco Chiari Remón (s.a.), his constitutional successor; when the National Assembly reconvened on 21 Nov 1949, Chanis "withdrew" his resignation, declaring that it was coerced, and the Assembly, the body entitled to deal with resignations of the head of state, on 22 Nov 1949 rejected it. The Supreme Court of Justice on 24 Nov 1949 agreed that Chanis indeed continued to hold office.

Territorial Dispute: Organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia operate within the remote border region with Panama.

Party abbreviations: PCD = Partido Cambio Democrático (Democratic Change Party, liberal conservative, center-right, est.1998); PP = Partido Panameñista (Panamenista Party, populist conservative, Panameñismo, nationalist, formerly Arnulfo Arias personalist, 1941-1969 then renamed PPA; re-est. as split from PA in 2005); PRD = Partido Revolucionario Democrático (Revolutionary Democratic Party, populist, center-left, est.1978); Mil = Military;
- Former Parties: CPN = Coalición Patriótica Nacional (National Patriotic Coalition, populist, conservative, nationalist, government party, 1952-1981); PA = Partido Arnulfista (Arnulfist Party, conservative, nationalist, former PPA, 1990-2005, renamed PP); PC = Partido Conservador (Conservative Party, center-right, 1903-1952); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, liberal, 1903-2009); PLD = Partido Liberal Doctrinario (Liberal Doctrinaire Party, 1932-1947); PLN = Partido Liberal Nacional (National Liberal Party, liberal, centrist, 1903-2005); PNR = Partido Nacional Revolucionario (National Revolutionary Party, Panameñismo, nationalist, anti-American, 1932-1941, renamed PR); PPA = Partido Panameñista Auténtico (Authentic Panamenista Party, nationalist, former PP, 1969-1990, renamed PA); PR = Partido Republicano (Republican Party, right wing, 1960-1991); PRA = Partido Revolucionario Auténtico (Authentic Revolutionary Party, 1948-1952)


New Caledonia (Darien)
[Flag of Scotland]
         3 Nov 1698 - 24 Apr 1700
 3 Nov 1698                Colony of New Caledonia, founded by Scotland at
                             Darien (renamed New Edinburgh) on the isthmus of Panama.
20 Jun 1699 - 30 Nov 1699  Abandoned.
11 Apr 1700                Colony finally abandoned.
 

Governors
 3 Nov 1698 - 20 Jun 1699  Sir William Paterson               (b. 1658 - d. 1719)
20 Jun 1699 - 30 Nov 1699  Abandoned
30 Nov 1699 - 11 Apr 1700  Alexander Campbell of Fonab        (b. 1660? - d. 1724)



Panama Canal Zone
 
[US flag]
                 18 Nov 1903 -  30 Sep 1979
 
 
[Flag of the
                          Governor of Panama Canal Zone, 1915-1979]
      8 Jun 1915 - 30 Sep 1979
 Panama Canal Zone Governor's Flag
Map of the Panama
Canal Zone
Hear National Anthem
"The Star Spangled Banner"
Unofficial Local Song
"The Panama Canal Waltz"
Panama Canal
Zone Code

(19 Jun 1934/18 Oct 1962)
Capital: Balboa Heights
(Culebra 1903-1915)
Currency: 1903-31 Dec 1999
US Dollar (USD);
from 2000 Panama Balboa
(PAB)
National Holidays: 4 Jul (1776)
U.S. Independence Day;
3 Nov (1903)
Panama Independence Day
--------------------------------------
Company Holiday
: 14 Aug (1914)
Panama Canal Day
Population: 39,000 (1978)
42,122 (1960)
Panama Canal
Commission website
Expend.: $314 million (1978)
Income: $331 million (1978)
Ethnic groups: white 66.9%, non-white, black, mestizo
Amerindian and other 33.1% (1960)
Total U.S. Forces: 9,100 (1978)
Canal Zone Police Force: 400 (1979)
Defense was the Responsibility of the U.S.
Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, others
International Organizations/Treaties: UPU

10 Jan 1880 -  4 Feb 1889  Ferdinand de Lesseps attemps excavation of a Panama canal.
18 Nov 1903                Panama Canal Zone leased to the U.S. (not including the cities of
                             Colón or Panama)(ratified 25 Feb 1904).
14 May 1904                Administered by the Panama Canal Company (U.S. War [from 1947
                             Defense] Department was the majority shareholder).
14 Aug 1914                Panama Canal opens.
30 Sep 1979                U.S. returns Canal Zone to Panama, but continues operation of 
                             the Canal administered by the Panama Canal Commission.
31 Dec 1999                U.S. turns over operation of the Panama Canal to Panama,
                             administered by the Canal Authority.

Military Governors
14 May 1904 - 24 May 1905  George Whitefield Davis            (b. 1839 - d. 1918)  Non-party
25 May 1905 - 12 Oct 1906  Charles Edward Magoon              (b. 1861 - d. 1920)  Non-party
19 Nov 1906 - 31 Mar 1907  Richard Reid Rogers                (b. 1868 - d. 1949)  Non-party
                             (General Counsel of the Isthmian Canal Commission)
 1 Apr 1907 -  4 Dec 1909  Joseph Clay Styles Blackburn       (b. 1838 - d. 1918)  Non-party
13 May 1910 -  8 Aug 1913  Maurice Hudson Thatcher            (b. 1870 - d. 1973)  Non-party
 9 Aug 1913 - 31 Mar 1914  Richard Lee Metcalfe               (b. 1861 - d. 1954)  Non-party
Civil Governors
 1 Apr 1914 - 10 Jan 1917  George Washington Goethals         (b. 1858 - d. 1928)  Non-party
11 Jan 1917 - 27 Mar 1921  Chester Harding                    (b. 1866 - d. 1936)  Non-party
28 Mar 1921 - 15 Oct 1924  Jay Johnson Morrow                 (b. 1870 - d. 1937)  Non-party
16 Oct 1924 - 15 Oct 1928  Meriwether Lewis Walker            (b. 1869 - d. 1947)  Non-party
16 Oct 1928 - 20 Oct 1932  Harry Burgess                      (b. 1872 - d. 1933)  Non-party 
21 Oct 1932 - 26 Aug 1936  Julian Larcombe Schley             (b. 1880 - d. 1965)  Non-party
27 Aug 1936 - 10 Jul 1940  Clarence Eugene Ridley             (b. 1883 - d. 1969)  Non-party
11 Jul 1940 - 15 May 1944  Glen Edgar Egerton                 (b. 1887 - d. 1956)  Non-party
16 May 1944 - 19 May 1948  Joseph Cowles Mehaffey             (b. 1889 - d. 1963)  Non-party
20 May 1948 - 26 May 1952  Francis Cosler Newcomer            (b. 1889 - d. 1967)  Non-party
27 May 1952 - 27 May 1956  John States Seybold                (b. 1897 - d. 1984)  Non-party
28 May 1956 - 30 Jun 1960  William Everett Potter             (b. 1905 - d. 1988)  Non-party
 1 Jul 1960 - 31 Jan 1962  William Arnold Carter              (b. 1907 - d. 1996)  Non-party
 1 Feb 1962 - 31 Jan 1967  Robert John Fleming                (b. 1907 - d. 1984)  Non-party
21 Feb 1967 -  2 Mar 1971  Walter Philip Leber                (b. 1918 - d. 2009)  Non-party
 3 Mar 1971 - 25 Mar 1975  David Stuart Parker                (b. 1919 - d. 1990)  Non-party
26 Mar 1975 - 30 Sep 1979  Harold R. Parfitt                  (b. 1921 - d. 2006)  Non-party
Administrators of the Panama Canal Commission¹
 1 Oct 1979 - 31 Dec 1989  Dennis P. McAuliffe (U.S.)         (b. 1922 - d. 2012)
 1 Jan 1990 - 19 Sep 1990  Fernando Manfredo, Jr. (Panama)²   (b. 1934)
                             (acting)
20 Sep 1990 - 17 Aug 1996  Gilberto Guardia Fabrega           (b. 1930)
                             (Panama)
18 Aug 1996 - 31 Dec 1999  Alberto Alemán Zubieta             (b. 1951)
                             (Panama)
- Deputy Administrators -
 1 Oct 1979 -  1 Jan 1990  Fernando Manfredo, Jr.             (s.a.)
                             (Panama)
 1 Jan 1990 - 17 Aug 1996  Raymond Philip Laverty (U.S.)      (b. 1932 - d. 1996)
                             (acting to 20 Sep 1990)
18 Aug 1996 - 31 Dec 1999  Joseph W. Cornelison (U.S.)        (b. 1947)

 ¹The Panama Canal Treaty mandated that "the U.S. shall employ a national of the U.S. as Administrator of the Panama Canal Commission, and a Panamanian nation as deputy administrator, through 31 Dec 1989. Beginning 1 Jan 1990, a Panamanian national shall be employed as the administrator and a national of the U.S. shall occupy the position of deputy administrator."

  2Manfredo accepted the request of President George H.W. Bush to serve as acting administrator of the commission until such time as a Panamanian administrator proposed by a legitimate Panamanian government might be appointed by the U.S. 







© Ben Cahoon