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Peru
 
[Spanish War Ensign
                                    (1785-1931)]
                   to 14 May 1820 
 
[Flag
                                    of Peru of 1820 (1)]
          14 May 1820 - 21 Oct 1820
 
[Peru
                                    - Oct 1820]
             21 Oct 1820 - 15 Mar 1822 
 
[Flag
                                    of Peru of 1822]
   15 Mar 1822 - 31 May 1822 (provisional)
 
[Flag
                                    of Peru of 1823]
           31 May 1822 - 25 Feb 1825
 
[Flag
                                    of Peru of 1825]
             25 Feb 1825 - 11 Aug 1836
 
[Flag of
                                    the Peruvian-Bolivian
                                    Confederation]
            1 May 1837 - 20 Jan 1839
           Peru-Bolivia Confederation
 
[Flag
                                    of Peru of 1825]
      Re-adopted 20 Jan 1839 State Flag
 
 
[Peru flag]
          Adopted 20 Jan 1839 Civil Flag
 
 
Map of Peru Hear National Anthem
"Himno Nacional del Perú"
 (National Anthem of Peru)

Text of National Anthem
 Adopted 19 Sep 1821
(re-confirmed 12 Feb 1913)
Constitution
 (31 Dec 1993; in Spanish)
--------------------------------------
Former Constitutions
(1823,1825,1839,1920,1933,1979)
Capital: Lima
(Jauja  Apr 1534 - Jan 1535;
Peru-Bolivia: Tacna

1836-1839)
Currency: Nuevo Sol (PEN);
1985-1991 Peru Inti (PEI);
1863-1985 Peru Sol (PES);
1821-1863 Peru Peso (PEP)
National Holiday: 28 July (1821)
Independence Day
Population: 29,849,303 (2013)
GDP: $344 billion (2013)
Exports: $41.4 billion (2013)
Imports: $42.1 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Amerindian (Quechua) 47%, mestizo (mixed
Amerindian and white) 31.9%, white 12%, Aymara 5.4%,
 Japanese 0.5%, black, Chinese, and other 3.2% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 114,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 22 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%,
other 3.3%, unspecified or none 2.9% (2007)

International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), ACTO, ANT, APEC, APM, BIS, BTWC, CAN, CCM, CELAC, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA (observer), ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAES, LAIA, LAP, LU, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SEGIB, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Peru Index
Chronology

1230                       Incan Empire (Tahuantinsuyu) established.
26 Jul 1533                Spanish conquistadors kill Emperor Atahualpa.
15 Nov 1533                Spanish conquest, fall of Cuzco.
18 Jan 1535                Spanish colony (Nueva Castilla [New Castille])
                             subordinated to Panama (to 1542), Lima founded.
20 Nov 1542                Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru (Peru, Río de la 
                             Plata [Argentina], Charcas [Bolivia], Chile, 
                             Nueva Granada [Colombia], Quito [Ecuador], and
                             Panama) with an audiencia at Lima.
27 May 1717                Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada (Colombia, Ecuador, 
                             Venezuela, and [from 1739] Panama) a separate 
                             colony (briefly re-incorporated into Peru
                             11 May 1724 - 20 Aug 1739).
 8 Aug 1776                Viceroyalty of o de la Plata (Argentina) a
                             separate colony.
12 Feb 1821                Part of territory of the Viceroyalty of Peru
                             occupied by the Liberation Army of Peru is
                             organised as four departments in accordance
                             with the provisional rules issued at Huaura,
                             north of Lima.
15 Jul 1821                An open city council meeting in Lima passes an
                             act of independence of Peru.
28 Jul 1821                Public proclamation of independence (Peru).
 3 Aug 1821                State of Peru
17 Dec 1822                Peruvian Republic (in sporadic official use also
                             Republic of Peru).
28 Oct 1836 - 20 Feb 1839  Part of the Peru-Bolivia Confederation
                             (see Bolivia [Peru divided into North Peru 
                             and South Peru]).
23 Aug 1838                Peruvian Republic (in sporadic official use also
                             Republic of Peru).
14 Aug 1879                Spain recognizes the independence of Peru.
28 Sep 1881 - 23 Oct 1883  Chilean occupation.
20 Oct 1883                Tarapaca, Tacna and Arica annexed to Chile.
28 Aug 1929                
Tacna restored to Peru.                  
28 Jul 1980                Republic of Peru

Peru
(since 1838)
Regions
North-Peru
(1836-1839)
South-Peru
(1836-1839)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Governors
26 Jul 1533 - 26 Jun 1541  Francisco Pizarro                  (b. c.1470 - d. 1541)
26 Jun 1541 - Sep 1542     Diego de Almagro II "El Mozo"      (b. 1520 - d. 1542)
Viceroys 
1542 - 1544                Cristóbal Vaca de Castro           (b. c.1492 - d. 1566) 
15 May 1544 - 18 Jan 1546  Blasco Núñez Vela                  (b. 1490 - d. 1546)
1544 - 1548                Gonzalo Pizarro                    (b. 1506 - d. 1548)
                             (governor; in opposition to viceroy)
10 Apr 1547 - 27 Jan 1550  Pedro de la Gasca                  (b. 1485 - d. 1567)
27 Jan 1550 - 23 Sep 1551  Audiencia
23 Sep 1551 - 21 Jul 1552  Antonio de Mendoza                 (b. 1495 - d. 1552)
Jul 1552 - 29 Jun 1556     Melchor Bravo de Saravia Sotomayor (b. 1512 - d. 1577)
                             (interim)
29 Jun 1556 - 30 Mar 1561  Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza,         (b. c.1500 - d. 1561)  
                             marqués de Cañete
17 Apr 1561 - 20 Feb 1564  Diego López de Zúñiga y Velasco,   (b. c.1510 - d. 1564)
                             conde de Nieva 
20 Feb 1564 -  2 Sep 1564  Juan de Saavedra (interim)
 2 Sep 1564 - 26 Nov 1569  Lope García de Castro (interim)    (d. 1576)
26 Nov 1569 - 23 Sep 1581  Francisco de Toledo                (b. 1515 - d. 1584)
23 Sep 1581 - 1583         Martín Enríquez de Almansa         (d. 1583)
1583 - 1584                Cristóbal Ramírez de Cartagena     (d. 1594)
                             (President of the
Audiencia)
1584 - 20 Nov 1589         Fernando Torres de Portugal y      (d. 1592) 
                             Mesía Venegas y Ponce de León, 
                             conde de Villa Don Pardo
 8 Jan 1590 - 24 Jul 1596  García Hurtado de Mendoza y        (b. 1535 - d. 1609)
                             Manrique, marqués de Cañete
24 Jul 1596 - 18 Jan 1604  Luis de Velasco, marqués de        (b. 1539 - d. 1617)
                             Salinas
18 Jan 1604 - 16 Mar 1606  Gaspar de Zúñiga Acevedo y         (b. 1560 - d. 1606)
                             Fonseca, conde de Monterrey
16 Mar 1606 - 21 Dec 1607  Diego de Núñez de Avendaño         (d. 1607)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
21 Dec 1607 - 18 Dec 1615  Juan Manuel de Mendoza y           (b. 1571 - d. 1628)
                             Manrique Hurtado y Padilla,
                             marqués de Montesclaros 
18 Dec 1615 - 31 Dec 1621  Francisco de Borja y Aragón,       (b. 1581 - d. 1658) 
                             príncipe de Esquilache
 1 Jan 1622 - 25 Jul 1622  Juan Jiménez de Montalvo           (b. 1561 - d. 1621)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
25 Jul 1622 - 14 Jan 1629  Diego Fernández de Córdoba y       (b. 1578 - d. 1630)
                             López de las Roelas Benavides y  
                             Melgarejo, marqués de Guadalcázar 
14 Jan 1629 - 18 Dec 1639  Luis Jerónimo Fernández de Cabrera (b. 1589 - d. 1647) 
                             Bobadilla Cerda y Mendoza,
                             conde de Chinchón
18 Dec 1639 - 20 Sep 1648  Pedro de Toledo y Leyva,           (b. c.1585 - d. 1654) 
                             marqués de Mancera
1648 - 1655                García Sarmiento de Sotomayor      (b. c.1595 - d. 1659)
                             Enríquez de Luna,
                             conde de Salvatierra
24 Feb 1655 - 31 Dec 1661  Luis Enríquez de Guzmán y Coresma, (b. c.1610 - d. 1667)
                             conde de Alba de Liste
31 Dec 1661 - 16 Mar 1666  Diego de Benavides y de la Cueva,  (b. 1607 - d. 1666) 
                             conde de Santisteban
16 Mar 1666 - 21 Nov 1667  Bernardo de Iturriaza (1st time)   (b. 1608 - d. 1678)
                             (interim)
21 Nov 1667 -  6 Dec 1672  Pedro Fernández de Castro Andrade  (b. 1634 - d. 1672) 
                             y Portugal, conde de Lemos
 6 Dec 1672 - 15 Aug 1674  Bernardo de Iturriaza (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (interim)
15 Aug 1674 -  7 Jul 1678  Baltasar de la Cueva Enríquez,     (b. 1626 - d. 1686)
                             conde de Castellar
 7 Jul 1678 - 20 Nov 1681  Melchor de Liñán y Cisneros,       (b. 1629 - d. 1708) 
                             arzobispo de Lima (interim)
20 Nov 1681 - 15 Aug 1689  Melchor de Navarra y Rocaful,      (b. 1626 - d. 1691) 
                             duque de la Palata 
Aug 1689 - Sep 1705        Melchor Porto-Carrero y Lasso de   (b. 1636 - d. 1705)
                             la Vega, conde de Monclova
15 Sep 1705 - 22 May 1707  Miguel Núñez de Sanabria (1st time)(b. c.1645 - d. 1729)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
22 May 1707 - 22 Apr 1710  Manuel Oms de Santa Pau Olim de    (b. 1651 - d. 1710)
                             Sentamanat y Lanuza, marqués de
                             Castell dos Rios 
22 Apr 1710 - 14 Sep 1710  Miguel Núñez de Sanabria (2ns time)(s.a.)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
14 Sep 1710 -  2 Mar 1716  Diego Ladrón de Guevara,           (b. 1641 - d. 1718)
                             obispo de Quito
 2 Mar 1716 - 15 Aug 1716  Mateo de la Mata Ponce de León     (d. 1720)
                             (President of the Audiencia)
15 Aug 1716 -  5 Oct 1716  Diego Morcillo Rubio de Auñón      (b. 1642 - d. 1730)
                             (1st time) (interim)
 5 Oct 1716 - 26 Jan 1720  Carmino Nicolás Caracciolo,        (b. 1671 - d. 1727)
                             príncipe de Santo Buono 
26 Jan 1720 - 14 May 1724  Diego Morcillo Rubio de Auñón      (s.a.)
                             (2dd time)
14 May 1724 -  4 Jan 1736  José de Armendáriz y Perurena      (b. 1670 - d. 1740)
                             Garrués de Usechi y Urquijo, 
                             marqués de Castelfuerte 
 4 Jan 1736 - 12 Jul 1745  José Antonio de Mendoza Caamaño    (b. 1667 - d. 1746)
                             y Sotomayor, marqués de
                             Villa-García, conde de Barrantes 
12 Jul 1745 - 12 Oct 1761  José Antonio Manso de Velasco      (b. 1688 - d. 1767)
                             y Sanchez de Samaniego,
                             (from 1748) conde de Superunda
12 Oct 1761 - 17 Jul 1776  Manuel de Amat y Junient Planella  (b. 1704 - d. 1790)
                             Aimeric y Santa Pau
17 Jul 1776 - 21 Jul 1780  Manuel de Guirior y Portal de      (b. 1708 - d. 1788)
                             Huarte y Edozaín, 
                             marqués de Guirior
21 Jul 1780 -  6 Apr 1784  Agustín de Jáuregui y Aldecoa      (b. 1708 - d. 1784)
 4 Nov 1780 -  6 Apr 1781  Tupac Amaru II  (in rebellion)     (b. 1742 - d. 1781)
                             (José Gabriel Condorcanqui Túpac Amaru)
 6 Apr 1784 - 25 Mar 1790  Teodoro Francisco de Croix,        (b. 1730 - d. 1791)
                             conde de Croix
25 Mar 1790 -  6 Jun 1796  Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos   (b. 1736 - d. 1809)
                             y Villa Marín
 6 Jun 1796 - 19 Mar 1801  Ambrosio O'Higgins,                (b. 1716 - d. 1801)
                             marqués de Osorno
19 Mar 1801 -  5 Nov 1801  Manuel Antonio de Arredondo y      (b. 1738 - d. 1822)
                             Pelegrín    
                            (President of the Audiencia)
 5 Nov 1801 - 20 Aug 1806  Gabriel de Avilés y del Fierro,    (b. 1730 - d. 1810)
                             marqués de Avilés 
20 Aug 1806 -  7 Jul 1816  José Fernando Abascal y Sousa,     (b. 1743 - d. 1827)
                             marqués de la Concordia
 7 Jul 1816 - 29 Jan 1821  Joaquín de la Pezuela y Sánchez    (b. 1761 - d. 1830)
                             Muñoz de Velasco, marqués de
                             Viluma
29 Jan 1821 - Dec 1824     José de la Serna e Hinojosa        (b. 1770 - d. 1832)
                             (acting)
Dec 1824 - 23 Jan 1826     Juan Pío de Tristán y Moscoso      (b. 1773 - d. 1860)
                             (acting)
Captain-general and General-in-Chief

 8 Sep 1820 -  3 Aug 1821  José Francisco de San Martín       (b. 1778 - d. 1850)  Mil
                             y Matorras 
Protector
 3 Aug 1821 - 20 Sep 1822  José Francisco de San Martín       (s.a.)               Mil
                             y Matorras 
Presidents of the Sovereign Constituent Congress
20 Sep 1822                Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza y     (b. 1750 - d. 1825)
                             Collantes (acting)

20 Sep 1822 - 22 Sep 1822  Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro   (b. 1780 - d. 1855) 
                             y Pacheco Araus 
President of the Supreme Governing Junta
22 Sep 1822 - 27 Feb 1823  José Domingo de la Merced de La    (b. 1778 - d. 1830)  Mil
 
                            Mar y Cortázar    
Grand Marshal of the Armies of the Republic of Peru,
Acting Administrator
27 Feb 1823 - 28 Feb 1823  José Bernardo de Tagle y           (b. 1779 - d. 1825)  Mil
                             Portocarrero, marqués de Trujillo 
Presidents
28 Feb 1823 - 23 Jun 1823  José Mariano de la Cruz de la Riva (b. 1783 - d. 1858)  Mil
                             Agüero y Sánchez Boquete
                             (continues, in dissidence in Trujillo to 25 Nov 1823)
23 Jun 1823 - 17 Jul 1823  Antonio José Francisco de Sucre    (b. 1795 - d. 1830)  Mil
                             y Alcalá
                            (General-in-chief of United Liberation Army of Peru)
17 Jul 1823 - 18 Feb 1824  José Bernardo de Tagle y           (s.a.)               Mil
                             Portocarrero
                            (Supreme Political and Military Chief to 16 Aug 1823) 
18 Feb 1824 - 28 Jan 1827  Simón José de la Santísima         (b. 1783 - d. 1830)  Mil
                             Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios
                            (acting Dictator to 10 Feb 1825, 
                             Liberator to 30 Nov 1826, then President-for-Life)
 
3 Sep 1826 -  9 Jun 1827  José Andrés de Santa Cruz y        (b. 1792 - d. 1865)  Mil
                             Villavicencio y Calaumana
                             (president of council of government
                             [acting for Bol
ívar to 528 Jan 1827])
 
9 Jun 1827 - 22 Aug 1827  Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano (acting)(b. 1777 - d. 1850)
22 Aug 1827 -  6 Jun 1829  José Domingo de la Merced de La    (s.a.)               Mil
                             Mar y Cortázar
 6 Jun 1829 -  1 Sep 1829  Antonio Gutiérrez de La Fuente     (b. 1796 - d. 1878)
                             (Provisional Supreme Chief)
 1 Sep 1829 - 20 Dec 1833  Agustín Gamarra y Messia (1st time)(b. 1785 - d. 1841)  Mil
                             (provisional to 22 Dec 1829)
20 Dec 1833 - 21 Dec 1833  Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro y (s.a.)
                             Pacheco Araus 
                             (President of the National Convention)
21 Dec 1833 - 11 Aug 1836  Luis José de las Mercedes de       (b. 1795 - d. 1847)  Mil
                             Orbegoso Moncada Galindo
                             (provisional)
 4 Jan 1834 - 24 Apr 1834  Pedro Pablo Bermúdez Ascarza       (b. 1793 - d. 1852)  Mil
                             (Provisional Supreme Chief, in rebellion) 
25 Feb 1835 -  9 Feb 1836  Felipe Santiago de Salaverry y     (b. 1806 - d. 1836)  Mil
                             del Solar 
                            (Supreme Chief, in rebellion) 

Presidents of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)
24 Feb 1825 -  3 Apr 1825  José Domingo de La Mar y Cortázar  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (1st time)
 3 Apr 1825 -  5 Jan 1826  José Hipólito Unánue Pavón (acting)(b. 1755 - d. 1833) 
                             (1st time)
 5 Jan 1826 - 25 Feb 1826  José Domingo de La Mar y Cortázar  (s.a.)               Mil 
                             (2nd time)
25 Feb 1826 - 29 Jun 1826  José Hipólito Unánue Pavón (acting)(s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
29 Jun 1826 -  7 Jun 1829  José Andrés de Santa Cruz y        (s.a.)               Mil
                             Villavicencio y Calaumana

12 Sep 1835 - 10 Oct 1835  Agustín Gamarra y Messia           (s.a.)               Mil    
10 Oct 1835 - 28 Dec 1835  Juan Bautista de Lavalle Zugasti   (b. 1779 - d. 1851)

1835 - 1836                Manuel Bartolomé Ferreyros y de
   (b. 1793 - d. 1872) 
                             la Mata


Divided Peru and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation

Note: In 1836 Andrés de Santa Cruz, president of Bolivia, launched a project to confederate Peru and Bolivia under his "Protectorship." In Peru he began by having an Assembly proclaim on 17 Mar 1836 the South-Peruvian State, following on 11 Aug 1836 by a similar proclamation of the North-Peruvian State; in each case he became the new state's "Supreme Protector" with full powers. The Peru-Bolivian Confederation was proclaimed 28 Oct 1836; Santa Cruz was its Supreme Protector, while remaining Supreme Protector of each of the Peruvian States as well as President of the Bolivian Republic. The Confederation lasted until 20 Feb 1839. In each of the Peruvian States there was from 1837, under the Supreme Protector, a Provisional President.

South-Peruvian State

[Flag of South Peru
                (Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation)]
          19/20 Mar 1836 - 20 Jan 1839
 
Map of South Peru
Capital: Cuzco

17 Mar 1836                South-Peruvian State constituted as an independent state by
                             departments of Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cuzco and Puno
(also styled
                             Republic of the South of Peru,
or South-Peruvian Republic).
28 Oct 1836                Part of the Peru-Bolivia Confederation.
22 Feb 1839                State extinguished.

Supreme Protector
17 Mar 1836 - 20 Feb 1839  José Andrés de Santa Cruz y        (s.a.)               Mil
                             Villavicencio y Calaumana 

                             (also Supreme Protector of the Peru-Bolivian 
                             Confederation 28 Oct 1836 - 20 Feb 1839)
17 Mar 1836 - 19 Mar 1836  José Nicolás Fernández de Piérola  (b. 1788 - d. 1857)
                             y Flores del Campo
                             (acting for Santa Cruz)
Provisional Presidents
17 Sep 1837 - 12 Oct 1838  Ramón Herrera y de Paula Rodado    (b. 1799 - d. 1882) 
12 Oct 1838 - 22 Feb 1839  Juan Pío de Tristán y Moscoso      (s.a.)

Presidents of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)
1836 - 1837                Juan Pío de Tristán y Moscoso      (s.a.)  
1837 - 1838                Joseph Joaquín Casimiro Olañeta    (b. 1796 - d. 1860)


North-Peruvian State

[Flag of North Peru
                (Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation)]
            11 Aug 1836 - 20 Jan 1839
 
Map of North Peru
Capital: Lima

11 Aug 1836                North-Peruvian State constituted as an independent state by
                             departments of Amazonas, Junín, Libertad and Lima
                            (also styled Republic of the North of Peru, or 
                             North-Peruvian Republic).
28 Oct 1836                Part of the Peru-Bolivia Confederation.
17 Feb 1839                State extinguished.

Supreme Protector
11 Aug 1836 - 17 Feb 1839  José Andrés de Santa Cruz y      (s.a.)                Mil
                             Villavicencio y Calaumana 

                             (also Supreme Protector of the Peru-Bolivian 
                             Confederation 28 Oct 1836 - 20 Feb 1839)
11 Aug 1836 - 16 Aug 1836  Luis José de las Mercedes        (s.a.)                Mil
                             Orbegoso Moncada (acting for Santa Cruz)
Provisional Presidents

21 Aug 1837 - 30 Jul 1838  Luis José de las Mercedes        (s.a.)                Mil
                             Orbegoso Moncada
                            (declares secession of North-Peruvian 
                             Republic from the Peru-Bolivian Confederation 
                             30 Jul 1838 and continues in dissidence as
                             Provisional President to Nov 1838)
11 Aug 1838 - 17 Feb 1839  José de la Riva Agüero           (s.a.)

Presidents of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)
1836 - 1837                Mariano de Sierra                
1837 - 21 Aug 1837         José Maria Galdeano y Mendoza    (b. 1780 - d. 1863)  


Peru

23 Aug 1838                Peruvian Republic (also in sporadic official
                             use Republic of Peru).
28 Sep 1881 - 23 Oct 1883  Chilean occupation.
28 Jul 1980                Republic of Peru

Presidents 
24 Aug 1838 - 18 Nov 1841  Agustín Gamarra y Messia (2nd time)(s.a.)               Mil
                             (provisional to 11 Jul 1840) 
 4 Jan 1841 - 20? May 1841 Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco e
        (b. 1806 - d. 1873)  Mil
                             Iturralde
                             (Supreme Chief, in rebellion)

18 Nov 1841 - 16 Aug 1842  Manuel Menéndez y Gorozabel        (b. 1793 - d. 1847)
                             (1st time) (acting)
16 Aug 1842 - 19 Oct 1842  Juan Crisóstomo Torrico González   (b. 1808 - d. 1875)  Mil
                             (Supreme Chief) 
19 Oct 1842 - 16 Mar 1843  Juan Francisco de Vidal La Hoz     (b. 1800 - d. 1869)  Mil
                             (acting; in rebellion from 28 Jul 1842)
16 Mar 1843 - 20 Mar 1843  Justo Figuerola y Estrada          (b. 1771 - d. 1854)
                             (1st time) (acting) 
20 Mar 1843 - 17 Jun 1844  Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco e        (s.a.)               Mil
                             Iturralde (Supreme Director, in rebellion from 
                             20 Feb 1843 and continuing to 22 Jul 1844)
 3 Sep 1843 - 17 Feb 1844  Domingo Nieto Márquez              (b. 1803 - d. 1844)  Mil
                            (president of the Provisional Supreme Governing
                             Junta of "Free Departments", in rebellion)
21 Feb 1844 - 10 Dec 1844  Ramón Castilla y Marquesado        (b. 1797 - d. 1867)
                            (president of the Provisional Supreme Governing
                             Junta of "Free Departments", in rebellion to 31 Aug 1844)
17 Jun 1844 - 10 Aug 1844  Domingo Elías y Carbajo (1st time) (b. 1805 - d. 1867) 
                             (Political and Military Chief)
10 Aug 1844 - 11 Aug 1844  Manuel Menéndez y Gorozabel        (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time) (acting)
11 Aug 1844 -  7 Oct 1844  Justo Figuerola y Estrada          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 7 Oct 1844 - 20 Apr 1845  Manuel Menéndez y Gorozabel        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (acting)
20 Apr 1845 - 20 Apr 1851  Ramón Castilla y Marquesado        (s.a.)               Mil
                             (1st time)
20 Apr 1851 -  5 Jan 1855  José Rufino Echenique y Benavente  (b. 1808 - d. 1887)  Mil
20 Dec 1853 -  7 Jan 1854  Domingo Elías y Carbajo (2nd time) (s.a.) 
                             (Political Chief, in rebellion)
 5 Jan 1855 - 24 Oct 1862  Ramón Castilla y Marquesado        (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)(provisional [in rebellion from 1 May 1854]
                             to 24 Oct 1858)
24 Oct 1862 -  3 Apr 1863  Miguel de San Román y Meza         (b. 1802 - d. 1863)  Mil
 3 Apr 1863 -  9 Apr 1863  Ramón Castilla y Marquesado        (s.a.)               Mil
                             (3rd time)(acting) 
 9 Apr 1863 -  5 Aug 1863  Pedro Diez Canseco y Corbacho      (b. 1815 - d. 1893)  Mil
                             (1st time)(acting) 
 5 Aug 1863 -  8 Nov 1865  Juan Antonio Pezet y Rodríguez     (b. 1809 - d. 1879)  Mil
                             Piedra (acting)
 1 Mar 1865 - 24 Jun 1865  Mariano Ignacio Prado Ochoa        (b. 1826 - d. 1901)  Mil
                             (Provisional Supreme Chief, in rebellion) 
 8 Nov 1865 - 28 Nov 1865  Pedro Diez Canseco y Corbacho      (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)(acting, in rebellion from 25 Jun 1865) 
28 Nov 1865 -  7 Jan 1868  Mariano Ignacio Prado Ochoa        (s.a.)               Mil
                             (1st time)(Provisional Supreme Chief
                             to 15 Feb 1867; provisional to 31 Aug 1867)
 7 Jan 1868                Luis La Puerta y Mendoza           (b. 1811 - d. 1896)  Mil
                             (President of the Council of Ministers, declines office) 
 7 Jan 1868 -  2 Aug 1868  Pedro Diez Canseco y Corbacho      (s.a.)               Mil
                             (3rd time)(acting, in rebellion from 22 Sep 1867) 
 2 Aug 1868 - 22 Jul 1872  José Toribio Balta Montero         (b. 1814 - d. 1872)  Mil
22 Jul 1872 - 26 Jul 1872  Tomás Gutiérrez Rojas              (d. 1872)            Mil
                             (Supreme Chief; de facto to 23 Jul 1872)   
26 Jul 1872 -  2 Aug 1872  Mariano Herencia Zevallos (acting) (b. 1820 - d. 1873)  Mil
 2 Aug 1872 -  2 Aug 1876  Manuel Justo Pardo y Lavalle       (b. 1834 - d. 1878)  PC
 2 Aug 1876 - 23 Dec 1879  Mariano Ignacio Prado Ochoa        (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)
23 Dec 1879 - 12 Mar 1881  José Nicolás Baltasar Fernández    (b. 1839 - d. 1913)  PN
                             de Piérola y Villena  (1st time) 
                            (Supreme Chief, continuing in rebellion to 31 Jul 1881
                             and then as President to 28 Nov 1881)
12 Mar 1881 - 28 Sep 1881  Francisco García Calderón y        (b. 1834 - d. 1905)
                             Martínez Landa (provisional)
                           (nominally continues until arrest and deportation 6 Nov 1881
)
Chilean Governor
17 May 1881 - 23 Oct 1883  Patricio Lynch Solo de Zaldívar    (b. 1824 - d. 1886)  Mil
Presidents
- in opposition to Chilean occupation, two insurrectionary governments developed:
(1)
15 Nov 1881 - 28 Oct 1883  Lizardo Montero Flores (acting)    (b. 1832 - d. 1905)  Mil
28 Oct 1883 -  3 Dec 1885  Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray  (b. 1833 - d. 1923)  Mil
                             (acting [nominally for exiled Landa] to 16 Jul 1884) 
(2)
31 Aug 1882 -  3 Dec 1885  Miguel Iglesias Pino de Arce       (b. 1830 - d. 1909)  Mil
                            (Supreme Chief to 30 Dec 1882, "Regenerator President"
                             1 Jan 1883 - 2 Mar 1884, then provisional)

 3 Dec 1885 -  3 Jun 1886  Antonio Arenas Merino              (b. 1808 - d. 1891) 
                             (President of the Council of Ministers)
 3 Jun 1886 - 10 Aug 1890  Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray  (s.a.)               Mil/Cons
                             (1st time) 
10 Aug 1890 -  1 Apr 1894  Remigio Morales Bermúdez           (b. 1836 - d. 1894)  Mil/Cons
 1 Apr 1894 - 10 Aug 1894  Justiniano Borgoño Castañeda       (b. 1836 - d. 1921)  Cons
                             (acting) 
10 Aug 1894 - 20 Mar 1895  Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray  (s.a.)               Mil/Cons
                             (2nd time)
20 Mar 1895 -  8 Sep 1895  Manuel González de Candamo Iriarte (b. 1841 - d. 1904)  PC
                             (1st time)(President of Governing Junta)
 8 Sep 1895 -  8 Sep 1899  José Nicolás Baltasar Fernández de (s.a.)               PD
                             Piérola y Villena (2nd time)
 8 Sep 1899 -  8 Sep 1903  Eduardo López de Romaña y Alvizuri (b. 1847 - d. 1912)  PC+PD
 8 Sep 1903 -  7 May 1904  Manuel González de Candamo Iriarte (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time) 
 7 May 1904 - 24 Sep 1904  Serapio Calderón Chirinos (acting) (b. 1843 - d. 1922)  PC
24 Sep 1904 - 24 Sep 1908  José Simón Pardo y Barreda         (b. 1864 - d. 1947)  PC
                             (1st time)
24 Sep 1908 - 24 Sep 1912  Augusto Bernardino Leguía y        (b. 1863 - d. 1932)  PC
                             Salcedo (1st time)
24 Sep 1912 -  4 Feb 1914  Guillermo Billinghurst Angulo      (b. 1851 - d. 1915)  PD
 4 Feb 1914 - 18 Aug 1915  Óscar Raymundo Benavides Larrea    (b. 1876 - d. 1945)  Mil 
                             (1st time)
                             (junta chairman to 15 May 1914, then provisional)
18 Aug 1915 -  4 Jul 1919  José Simón Pardo y Barreda         (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time) 
 4 Jul 1919 - 25 Aug 1930  Augusto Bernardino Leguía y        (s.a.)               PDR
                             Salcedo (2nd time) 
                             (provisional to 12 Oct 1919)
25 Aug 1930 - 27 Aug 1930  Manuel María Ponce Brousset        (b. 1874 - d. 1966)  Mil
                             (chairman military junta)
27 Aug 1930 -  1 Mar 1931  Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro          (b. 1889 - d. 1933)  Mil
                             (1st time)(in rebellion from 22 Aug 1930; 
                             chairman [to 29 Aug 1930, military] junta) 
 1 Mar 1931  (hours)       Mariano Holguín Maldonado          (b. 1860 - d. 1945)  Non-party
                             (chairman of the assembly)
 1 Mar 1931 -  5 Mar 1931  Ricardo Leoncio Elías Arias        (b. 1874 - d. 1951)  Non-party
                             (chairman provisional junta)
 5 Mar 1931 - 11 Mar 1931  Gustavo A. Jiménez                 (b. 1886 - d. 1933)  Mil
                             (chairman transitional junta) 
11 Mar 1931 -  8 Dec 1931  David Samanez Ocampo y Sobrino     (b. 1886 - d. 1947)  Ind 
                             (chairman National Junta)
 8 Dec 1931 - 30 Apr 1933  Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro          (s.a.)               UR
                             (2nd time) 
30 Apr 1933  (hours)       José Matías Manzanilla Barrientos  (b. 1867 - d. 1947)  Ind 
                             (acting)
30 Apr 1933 -  8 Dec 1939  Óscar Raymundo Benavides Larrea    (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time) 
 8 Dec 1939 - 28 Jul 1945  Manuel Prado y Ugarteche (1st time)(b. 1889 - d. 1967)  CC
28 Jul 1945 - 29 Oct 1948  José Luis Bustamante y Rivero      (b. 1894 - d. 1989)  FDN 
29 Oct 1948 -  1 Jun 1950  José Manuel Arturo Odría Amoretti  (b. 1897 - d. 1974)  Mil 
                             (1st time)(provisional to 31 Oct 
                             1948, then chairman military junta)
 1 Jun 1950 - 28 Jul 1950  Zenón Noriega Agüero               (b. 1900 - d. 1957)  Mil
                             (chairman military junta)
28 Jul 1950 - 28 Jul 1956  José Manuel Arturo Odría Amoretti  (s.a.)               PRP
                             (2nd time) 
28 Jul 1956 - 18 Jul 1962  Manuel Prado y Ugarteche (2nd time)(s.a.)               MDP
18 Jul 1962 - 20 Jul 1962  Ricardo Pío Pérez Godoy            (b. 1905 - d. 1982)  Mil
                           + Nicolás Eduardo Lindley López    (b. 1908 - d. 1995)  Mil
                           + Juan Francisco Torres Matos      (b. 1906 - d. 1995)  Mil
                           + Pedro Vargas Prada Peirano       (b. 1912 - d. 1997)  Mil
                           (commanders-in-chief)
20 Jul 1962 -  3 Mar 1963  Ricardo Pío Pérez Godoy            (s.a.)               Mil
                             (junta chairman)
 3 Mar 1963 - 28 Jul 1963  Nicolás Eduardo Lindley López      (s.a.)               Mil
                             (junta chairman)
28 Jul 1963 -  3 Oct 1968  Fernando Belaúnde Terry (1st time) (b. 1912 - d. 2002)  AP
 3 Oct 1968  (hours)       Revolutionary Junta
                           - Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado  (b. 1910 - d. 1977)  Mil
                           - Mario Castro de Mendoza                               Mil 
                           - Alberto López Causillas                               Mil
 3 Oct 1968  (hours)       Revolutionary Junta
                           - Ernesto Montagne Sánchez         (b. 1916 - d. 1993)  Mil
                             Benavides 
                          
- Raúl Ríos Pardo de Zela          (b. 1909 - d. 1974)  Mil
                           - Alberto López Causillas                               Mil
 3 Oct 1968 - 30 Aug 1975  Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado    (s.a.)               Mil
30 Aug 1975  (hours)       Revolutionary Junta
                           - Óscar Vargas Prieto              (b. 1917 - d. 1989)  Mil
                           - César Podestá Jiménez            (d. 1995)            Mil
                           - Jorge Luis Parodi Galliani       (b. 1923 - d. 2010)  Mil
30 Aug 1975 - 28 Jul 1980  Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerruti (b. 1921)            Mil
28 Jul 1980 - 28 Jul 1985  Fernando Belaúnde Terry (2nd time) (s.a.)               AP
28 Jul 1985 - 28 Jul 1990  Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez   (b. 1949)            APRA
                             (1st time)
28 Jul 1990 - 22 Nov 2000  Alberto Keinya Fujimori            (b. 1938)         NM-C'90;99 AEP
22 Nov 2000 - 28 Jul 2001  Valentín Demetrio Paniagua Corazao (b. 1936 - d. 2006)  AP
28 Jul 2001 - 28 Jul 2006  Alejandro Celestino Toledo         (b. 1946)            PP
                             Manrique
28 Jul 2006 - 28 Jul 2011  Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez   (s.a.)               APRA
                             (2nd time)
28 Jul 2011 -              Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso        (b. 1962)            PNP 


Prime ministers (presidents of the Council of Ministers)
Dec 1856 – 1857            Juan Manuel del Mar Bernedo        (b. 1805 - d. 1862)
1857 – 15 Jul 1858         José Maria Raygada y Gallo         (b. 1795 - d. 1859)  Mil
                             (1st time)
15 Jul 1858 - 24 Oct 1858  Miguel Pascual San Román y Meza    (s.a.)               Mil
1858 - 15 Feb 1859         José Maria Raygada y Gallo         (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)
1859 – 1861                Vacant?
1861 - 1862                Juan Antonio Pezet y Rodríguez     (s.a.)               Mil
                             Piedra  
24 Oct 1862 -  3 Apr 1863  José Gregorio Paz Soldán y Ureta
  (b. 1808 - d. 1875)
10 Apr 1863 - 11 Aug 1864  Juan Antonio Ribeyro Estrada       (b. 1810 - d. 1886)
11 Aug 1864 - 14 Oct 1864  José Manuel Costas Arce            (b. 1820 - d. 1883) 
14 Oct 1864 -  3 Apr 1865  José Allende (1st time)            (b. 1793 - d. 1873)  Mil
 3 Apr 1865 - 12 Jul 1865  Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco e        (s.a.)               Mil
                            
Iturralde
12 Jul 1865 -  6 Nov 1865  Pedro José Calderón                (b. 1832 - d. 1885)
26 Sep 1865 -  6 Nov 1865  Juan Antonio Ugarteche             (b. 1804 - d. 1872)  Mil 
                             (appointed by Mariano Ignacio Prado
                            
Ochoa; in rebellion)
 9 Nov 1865 - 26 Nov 1865  Francisco Javier Mariátegui y
      (b. 1793 - d. 1884)
                             Tellería  
26 Nov 1865 - 15 Feb 1867  Mariano Ignacio Prado Ochoa        (s.a.)               Mil
 2
Mar 1867 - 26 Apr 1867  Pedro José Tordoya Montoya         (b. 1813 - d. 1883)  Ind
 3 Jun 1867 -  1 Sep 1868  Pedro Paz Soldán y Ureta (1st time)(b. 1809 - d. 1876)

Sep 1867 - 12 Oct 1867  
  Luis La Puerta y Mendoza           (s.a.)               Mil
12 Oct 1867 -  8 Jan 1868  Pedro Paz Soldán y Ureta (2nd time)(s.a.)
22 Jan 1868 -  2 Aug 1868  Antonio Arenas Merino (1st time)   (s.a.)
1868 -  2 Aug 1871         José Toribio Balta Montero         (s.a.)               Mil
 2 Aug 1871 -  7 Dec 1871  José Allende (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Mil
Dec 1871 - 25 Jul 1872     José Jorge Loayza (1st time)       (b. 1827 - d. 1904)
27 Jul 1872 -  3 Sep 1873  José Miguel Medina Elera           (b. 1804 - d. 1884)  Mil
1873 - 1874                José de la Riva-Agüero y Looz      (b. 1827 - d. 1881)
                             Corswaren 
1874 -  1 Feb 1875         José Eusebio Sánchez Pedraza       (b. 1823 - d. 1903)
 1 Feb 1875 -  2 Aug 1876  Nicolás Freyre Gonzalez            (b. 1808 - d. 1887)  Mil
 2 Aug 1876 - 26 Aug 1876  Antonio Arenas Merino (2nd time)   (s.a.)
26 Aug 1876 -  4 Jun 1877  Teodoro La Rosa                    (b. 1818 - d. 1882)
 4 Jun 1877 - 18 Jun 1878  Juan Buendía Noriega               (b. 1816 - d. 1895)  Mil
18 Jun 1878 - 17 Dec 1878  José Jorge Loayza (2nd time)       (s.a.)
17 Dec 1878 - 19 May 1879  Manuel Irigoyen Larrea (1st time)  (b. 1830 - d. 1912)
19 May 1879 - 16 Oct 1879  Manuel de Mendiburu Bonet          (b. 1805 - d. 1885)  Mil
16 Oct 1879 - 23 Dec 1879  Manuel Gonzáles de la Cotera       (d. 1884)            Mil 
12 Mar 1881 - 18 Jul 1881  Aurélio Denegri Valega (1st time)  (b. 1840 - d. 1909)
18 Jul 1881 -  6 Nov 1881  Camilo Nicanor Carrillo Martínez   (b. 1830 - d. 1901)  Mil
 6 Nov 1881 -  3 Jan 1883  Vacant
 3 Jan 1883 - 27 Aug 1883  Lorenzo Iglesias Pino de Arce      (b. 1844 - d. 1885)
27 Aug 1883 -  7 Apr 1884  Manuel Antonio Barinaga (1st time) (d. 1897)
 7 Apr 1884 - 14 May 1885  Mariano Castro Zaldívar Iglesias   (b. 1828 - d. 1906)
14 May 1885 -  2 Dec 1885  José Joaquín Iglesias Pino de Arce (b. 1822 - d. 1888)
 2 Dec 1885 -  3 Jun 1886  Antonio Arenas Merino (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 3 Jun 1886 -  6 Oct 1886  Pedro Alejandrino del Solar Gabans (b. 1829 - d. 1909)
                             (1st time) 
 6 Oct 1886 - 22 Nov 1886  José Nicolas Araníbar y Llano      (b. 1835 - d. 1903)
22 Nov 1886 - 22 Aug 1887  Pedro Alejandrino del Solar Gabans (s.a.)               Cons
                             (2nd time) 
22 Aug 1887 - 12 Sep 1887  Mariano Santos Álvarez Villegas    (b. 1823 - d. 1893)
12 Sep 1887 -  5 Oct 1887  Carlos Maria Elías y de la         (b. 1841 - d. 1907)
                             Quintana (1st time) 
 5 Oct 1887 -  8 Nov 1887  Raymundo Morales Arias (interim)   (b. 1857 - d. 1920)
 8 Nov 1887 -  8 Mar 1889  Aurélio Denegri Valega (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 8 Mar 1889 -  4 Apr 1889  José Mariano Jiménez Wald          (b. 1843 - d. 1901)
                             (1st time)
 4 Apr 1889 - 10 Feb 1890  Pedro Alejandrino del Solar Gabans (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
11 Feb 1890 - 10 Aug 1890  Manuel Irigoyen Larrea (2nd time)  (s.a.)
10 Aug 1890 - 24 Jul 1891  Mariano Nicolás Valcárcel Salazar  (b. 1850 - d. 1921)
24 Jul 1891 - 14 Aug 1891  Alberto Elmore Fernández de        (b. 1844 - d. 1916)
                             Córdoba (1st time)(acting)
14 Aug 1891 - 24 Aug 1891  Federico Herrera (1st time)        (b. 1845 - d. ....)
24 Aug 1891 - 14 Oct 1891  Justiniano Borgoño Castañeda       (s.a.)               Mil
14 Oct 1891 - 14 Apr 1892  Federico Herrera (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (acting to 27 Nov 1891)
14 Apr 1892 - 30 Jun 1892  Juan Ibarra (acting to 2 May 1892)                      Mil
30 Jun 1892 -  3 Mar 1893  Carlos Maria Elías y de la         (s.a.)
                             Quintana (2nd time) 
 3 Mar 1893 - 11 May 1893  Manuel Velarde Seoane              (b. 1833 - d. 1900)  Mil
11 May 1893 -  1 Apr 1894  José Mariano Jiménez Wald          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 1 Apr 1894 - 10 Aug 1894  Baltasar García Urrutia Muro       (b. 1838 - d. 1890)
10 Aug 1894 - 16 Nov 1894  Cesáreo Chacaltana Reyes           (b. 1845 - d. 1906)
                             (1st time) 
16 Nov 1894 - 21 Mar 1895  Manuel Irigoyen Larrea (3nd time)  (s.a.)
 8 Sep 1895 - 30 Nov 1895  Antonio Bentín y La Fuente         (b. 1826 - d. 1897)  PD
30 Nov 1895 -  8 Aug 1896  Manuel Antonio Barinaga (2nd time) (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1896 - 25 Nov 1897  Manuel Pablo Olaechea Guerrero     (b. 1843 - d. 1913)  PD
25 Nov 1897 - 16 May 1898  Alejandro López de Romaña Alvizuri                      PD
16 May 1898 -  8 Sep 1899  José Jorge Loayza (3rd time)       (s.a.)
 8 Sep 1899 - 14 Dec 1899  Manuel María Gálvez Egúsquiza      (b. 1838 - d. 1917)
14 Dec 1899 - 30 Aug 1900  Enrique de la Riva Agüero y Looz   (b. 1857 - d. 1930)  PC
                             Corswaren (1st time) 
30 Aug 1900 -  2 Oct 1900  Enrique Coronel Zegarra y Cortés   (b. 1851 - d. 1919)  PD
 2 Oct 1900 - 11 Sep 1901  Manuel Domingo Melquiades de       (b. 1848 - d. 1931)
                             Almenara Butler        
11 Sep 1901 -  9 Aug 1902  Cesáreo Chacaltana Reyes           (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time) 
 9 Aug 1902 -  4 Nov 1902  Cesáreo Octavio Deustua Escarza    (b. 1849 - d. 1945)
 4 Nov 1902 -  8 Sep 1903  Eugenio Larrabure y Unanue         (b. 1844 - d. 1916)
 8 Sep 1903 - 14 May 1904  José Pardo y Barreda               (s.a.)               PC
14 May 1904 - 24 Sep 1904  Alberto Elmore Fernández de        (s.a.)
                             Córdoba (2nd time)
24 Sep 1904 -  1 Aug 1907  Augusto Bernardino Leguía y        (s.a.)               PC
                             Salcedo 
 1 Aug 1907 -  9 Oct 1907  Agustín Tovar Aguilar              (b. 1852 - d. 1915)
 9 Oct 1907 - 24 Sep 1908  Carlos Alberto Washburn Salas      (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
                            
Fuenzalida
24 Sep 1908 -  8 Jun 1909  Eulogio I. Romero Salcedo          (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
 8 Jun 1909 - 14 Mar 1910  Rafael Fernández de Villanueva     (b. 1839 - d. 1931)
                             Cortez 
14 Mar 1910 -  3 Aug 1910  Javier Prado y Ugarteche           (b. 1871 - d. 1921)
 3 Aug 1910 -  3 Nov 1910  Germán Schreiber Waddington        (b. 1862 - d. 1930)  PC
                             (1st time) 
 3 Nov 1910 - 27 Dec 1910  José Salvador Cavero Ovalle        (b. 1850 - d. 1940)  Cons
27 Dec 1910 - 31 Aug 1911  Enrique C. Basadre Stevenson       (b. 1848 - d. 1925)
31 Aug 1911 - 24 Sep 1912  Agustín Guillermo Ganoza Cavero    (b. 1854 - d. 1926)  PC
24 Sep 1912 - 23 Dec 1912  Elías Malpartida Franco            (b. 1842 - d. 1924)  PD
24 Dec 1912 - 24 Feb 1913  Enrique Varela Vidaurre (1st time) (b. 18.. - d. 1914)  Mil
24 Feb 1913 - 17 Jun 1913  Federico Luna y Peralta            (b. 1853 - d. 1927)
17 Jun 1913 - 27 Jul 1913  Aurelio Sousa Matute (1st time)    (b. 1860 - d. 1925)
27 Jul 1913 -  4 Feb 1914  Enrique Varela Vidaurre (2nd time) (s.a.)               Mil
16 May 1914 -  1 Aug 1914  Pedro E. Muñiz Sevilla             (b. 1862 - d. 1915)  Mil
 1 Aug 1914 - 22 Aug 1914  Manuel Melitón Carvajal            (b. 1847 - d. 1935)  Mil
22 Aug 1914 - 11 Nov 1914  Aurelio Sousa Matute (2nd time)    (s.a.)
11 Nov 1914 - 19 Feb 1915  Germán Schreiber Waddington        (s.a.)               PC
                             (2nd time) 
19 Feb 1915 - 24 Sep 1915  Carlos Isaac Abril Galindo         (b. 1863 - d. 1925)
24 Sep 1915 - 27 Jul 1917  Enrique de la Riva Agüero y Looz   (s.a.)               PC
                             Corswaren (2nd time) 
27 Jul 1917 - 18 Dec 1918  Francisco Tudela y Varela          (b. 1876 - d. 1962)  PC
18 Dec 1918 - 26 Apr 1919  Germán Arenas Zuñiga (1st time)    (b. 1871 - d. 1948)  PC
26 Apr 1919 -  4 Jul 1919  Juan Manuel Zuloaga                (b. 1862 - d. 1944)  Mil
 4 Jul 1919 -  7 Oct 1922  Germán Leguía y Martínez Jakeway   (b. 1861 - d. 1928)  PDR
 7 Oct 1922 - 12 Oct 1924  Julio Enrique Ego-Aguirre Dongo    (b. 1865 - d. 19..)  PDR
12 Oct 1924 -  7 Dec 1926  Alejandrino Maguiña                (b. 1864 - d. 1935)
 7 Dec 1926 - 12 Oct 1929  Pedro José Rada y Gamio            (b. 1873 - d. 1938)  PDR
12 Oct 1929 - 23 Aug 1930  Benjamín Huamán de los Heros       (b. 1878 - d. 1936)  PDR
23 Aug 1930 - 25 Aug 1930  Fernando Sarmiento Ramírez         (b. 1874 - d. 1939)  Mil
25 Aug 1930 – 24 Nov 1930  Luis Miguel Sanchez del Cerro      (s.a.)               Mil
24 Nov 1930 –  1 Mar 1931  Antonio Beingolea Balarezo         (b. 1881 - d. 1950)  Mil

 
8 Dec 1931 - 28 Jan 1932  Germán Arenas Zuñiga (2nd time)    (s.a.)
29 Jan 1932 - 13 Apr 1932  Francisco R. Lanatta Ramírez       (b. 1879 - d. 1945)  UR
13 Apr 1932 - 20 May 1932  Luis Angel Flores                  (b. 1899 - d. 1969)  UR
21 May 1932 - 24 Dec 1932  Ricardo Rivadeneira Barnuevo       (b. 1872 - d. 1954) 
24 Dec 1932 - 29 Jun 1933  José Matías Manzanilla Barrientos  (s.a.)               Ind
29 Jun 1933 - 24 Nov 1933  Jorge Prado y Ugarteche            (b. 1889 - d. 1967)
24 Nov 1933 - 18 May 1934  José de la Riva-Agüero y Osma      (b. 1885 - d. 1944)
24 Dec 1934 - May 1935     Carlos Arenas y Loayza             (b. 1885 - d. 1955)  Ind
May 1935 - 13 Apr 1936     Manuel Esteban Rodríguez Davila    (b. 1883 - d. 1952)  Mil
 8 Dec 1936 - 12 Apr 1939  Ernesto Montagne Markholz          (b. 1885 - d. 1954)  Mil
12 Apr 1939 -  8 Dec 1939  Alberto Rey de Castro y Romaña     (b. 1869 - d. 1961)
 8 Dec 1939 -  3 Dec 1944  Alfredo Solf y Muro                (b. 1872 - d. 1969)
 3 Dec 1944 - 28 Jul 1945  Manuel Cisneros Sánchez (1st time) (b. 1904 - d. 1971)
28 Jul 1945 - 31 Jan 1946  Rafael Belaúnde Diez Canseco       (b. 1886 - d. 1970)  FDN
31 Jan 1946 - 12 Jan 1947  Julio Ernesto Portugal Escobedo    (b. 1894 - d. 1972)  FDN
12 Jan 1947 - 30 Oct 1947  José R. Alzamora Freundt           (b. 1891 - d. 1953)  Mil
27 Feb 1948 - 17 Jun 1948  Roque Augusto Saldías Maninat      (b. 1892 - d. 1974)  Mil
                             (1st time) 
17 Jun 1948 - 27 Oct 1948  Armando Revoredo Iglesias          (b. 1896 - d. 1978)  Mil
28 Jul 1950 -  9 Aug 1954  Zenón Noriega Agüero               (s.a.)               Mil
 9 Aug 1954 - 28 Jul 1956  Roque Augusto Saldías Maninat      (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time) 
28 Jul 1956 -  9 Jun 1958  Manuel Cisneros Sánchez (2nd time) (s.a.)               MDP
 9 Jun 1958 - 17 Jul 1959  Luis Gallo Porras                  (b. 1893 - d. 1972)  MDP
17 Jul 1959 - 24 Nov 1961  Pedro Gerardo Beltrán Espantoso    (b. 1897 - d. 1979)  Ind
24 Nov 1961 - 18 Jul 1962  Carlos Moreyra y Paz Soldán        (b. 1898 - d. 1981)  MDP
18 Jul 1962 - 28 Jul 1963  Nicolás Eduardo Lindley López      (s.a.)               Mil
28 Jul 1963 - 31 Dec 1963  Julio Óscar Trelles Montes         (b. 1904 - d. 1990)  AP
31 Dec 1963 - 15 Sep 1965  Fernando Schwalb López-Aldana      (b. 1916 - d. 2002)  AP
                             (1st time) 
15 Sep 1965 -  6 Sep 1967  Daniel Becerra de la Flor          (b. 1906 - d. 1987)  AP
 6 Sep 1967 - 17 Nov 1967  Edgardo Seoane Corrales            (b. 1903 - d. 1978)  AP
17 Nov 1967 - 30 May 1968  Raúl Ferrero Rebagliati            (b. 1911 - d. 1977)  DC
30 May 1968 -  2 Oct 1968  Oswaldo Hercelles García           (b. 1908 - d. 1969)  Ind
 2 Oct 1968 -  3 Oct 1968  Miguel Mujica Gallo                (b. 1910 - d. 2001)  Ind
 3 Oct 1968 - 31 Jan 1973  Ernesto Montagne Sánchez           (s.a.)               Mil
31 Jan 1973 -  1 Feb 1975  Luis Edgardo Mercado Jarrín        (b. 1919 - d. 2012)  Mil
 1 Feb 1975 - 30 Aug 1975  Francisco Morales Bermúdez         (s.a.)               Mil
30 Aug 1975 - 31 Jan 1976  Óscar Vargas Prieto                (s.a.)               Mil
31 Jan 1976 - 16 Jul 1976  Jorge Fernández Maldonado Solari   (b. 1922 - d. 2000)  Mil
17 Jul 1976 - 30 Jan 1978  Guillermo Arbulú Galliani          (b. 1922 - d. 1998)  Mil
30 Jan 1978 - 31 Jan 1979  Óscar Molina Pallochia             (b. 1921 - d. 1990)  Mil
31 Jan 1979 - 28 Jul 1980  Pedro Richter Prada                (b. 1921)            Mil
28 Jul 1980 -  3 Jan 1983  Manuel Ulloa Elías                 (b. 1922 - d. 1992)  AP
 3 Jan 1983 - 10 Apr 1984  Fernando Schwalb López-Aldana      (s.a.)               AP
                             (2nd time) 
10 Apr 1984 - 12 Oct 1984  Sandro Mariátegui Chiappe          (b. 1922 - d. 2013)  AP
12 Oct 1984 - 28 Jul 1985  Luis Ciro Pércovich Roca           (b. 1931)            AP
28 Jul 1985 - 26 Jun 1987  Luis Juan Alva Castro              (b. 1942)            APRA
26 Jun 1987 - 17 May 1988  Guillermo Larco Cox (1st time)     (b. 1932 - d. 2002)  APRA
17 May 1988 - 15 May 1989  Armando Villanueva del Campo       (b. 1915 - d. 2013)  APRA
15 May 1989 - 30 Sep 1989  Luis Alberto Felix Sánchez         (b. 1900 - d. 1994)  APRA
30 Sep 1989 - 28 Jul 1990  Guillermo Larco Cox (2nd time)     (s.a.)               APRA
28 Jul 1990 - 15 Feb 1991  Juan Carlos Hurtado Miller         (b. 1940)            C'90
15 Feb 1991 -  6 Nov 1991  Carlos Torres y Torres Lara        (b. 1942 - d. 2000)  C'90
 6 Nov 1991 -  6 Apr 1992  Alfonso de los Heros Perez Alba    (b. 1940)            C'90
 6 Apr 1992 - 28 Aug 1993  Óscar de la Puente Raygada         (b. 1938)            C'90
28 Aug 1993 - 17 Feb 1994  Alfonso Bustamante y Bustamante    (b. 1941)            C'90
17 Feb 1994 - 28 Jul 1995  Efraín Goldenberg Schreiber        (b. 1929)            C'90
28 Jul 1995 -  3 Apr 1996  Dante Córdova Blanco               (b. 1943)            NM-C'90
 3 Apr 1996 -  4 Jun 1998  Alberto Pandolfi Arbulú (1st time) (b. 1940)            NM-C'90
 4 Jun 1998 - 21 Aug 1998  Javier Valle Riestra González      (b. 1932)            APRA
                             Olachea 
21 Aug 1998 -  3 Jan 1999  Alberto Pandolfi Arbulú (2nd time) (s.a.)               NM-C'90
 3 Jan 1999 - 10 Oct 1999  Víctor Dionicio Joy Way Rojas      (b. 1947)            C'90
10 Oct 1999 - 29 Jul 2000  José Alberto Bustamante Belaúnde   (b. 1950 - d. 2008)  Ind
29 Jul 2000 - 25 Nov 2000  Federico Salas Guevara Schultz     (b. 1950)            Ind
25 Nov 2000 - 28 Jul 2001  Javier Pérez de Cuélla de la       (b. 1920)            Ind
                             Guerra
28 Jul 2001 - 12 Jul 2002  Roberto Enrique Dañino Zapata      (b. 1951)            Ind
12 Jul 2002 - 28 Jun 2003  Luis Solari de la Puente           (b. 1948)            PP
28 Jun 2003 - 15 Dec 2003  Martha Beatriz Merino Lucero (f)   (b. 1947)            Ind
15 Dec 2003 - 16 Aug 2005  Carlos Ferrero Costa               (b. 1941)            PP
16 Aug 2005 - 28 Jul 2006  Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Goddard      (b. 1938)            Ind
28 Jul 2006 - 14 Oct 2008  Jorge del Castillo Gálvez          (b. 1950)            APRA
14 Oct 2008 -
11 Jul 2009  Yehude Simon Munaro                (b. 1947)            PHP
11 Jul 2009 - 14 Sep 2010  Angel Javier Velásquez Quesquén
   (b. 1960)            APRA
14 Sep 2010 - 
19 Mar 2011  José Antonio Chang Escobedo        (b. 1958)            APRA
19 Mar 2011 - 28 Jul 2011  Rosario del Pilar Fernández
       (b. 1955)            Ind
                             Figueroa (f)
28 Jul 2011 -
11 Dec 2011  Salomón Lerner Ghitis              (b. 1946)            Ind 
11 Dec 2011 - 
23 Jul 2012  Óscar Eduardo Valdés Dancuart      (b. 1949)            Ind
23 Jul 2012 - 31 Oct 2013  Juan Federico Jiménez Mayor        (b. 1964
)            Ind
31 Oct 2013 - 24 Feb 2014  César Villanueva Arévalo           (b. 1946)            MRNA
24 Feb 2014 - 22 Jul 2014  René Cornejo D
íaz                  (b. 1962)            Ind
22 Jul 2014 -              Ana Jara Velásquez (f)             (b. 1968)            PNP


[ Flag of modern Inca people ]
        Flag of modern Inca people

Territorial Disputes: Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border

Party abbreviations: AP = Acción Popular (People's Action, center-right, nationalist, est.1956); APRA = Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana "Partido Aprista" (American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, "Aprista Party", social democratic, center-left, banned 1931-45 & 1948-56, est.1924); Ind = Independiente (Independent); MRNA = Movimiento Regional Nueva Amazonía (New Amazonia, San Martin regionalist, est.1983); PHP = Partido Movimiento Humanista Peruano (Peruvian Humanist Movement Party, regional, socialist); PL = Partido Liberal (Liberal Party, est.1901); PNP = Partido Nacionalista Peruano (Peruvian Nationalist Party, socialist, nationalist, est.2005); PP = Perú Posible (Possible Peru, A. Toldedo personalist, centrist, est.1994); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: AEP = Alianza Electoral Perú 2000 (Electoral Alliance Peru 2000, pro-Fujimori coalition incl. C'90-NM, 1999-2001); CC = Coalición Conservadora (Conservative Coalition, conservative electoral coalition, incl. Acción Republicana, Partido Nacionalista, UR, 1939-1945); C'90 = Cambio '90 (Change 1990, center-right, Fujimori personalist, 1995-2000 in coalition with NM, 1990-2010); Cons = Partido Constitucional (Constitutional Party, constitutional conservative, 1884-1896); DC = Partido Demócrata Cristiano (Christian Democratic Party, social christian, est.1956); FD = Frente Democrático "FREDEMO" (Democratic Front, conservative coalition, 1989-1990); FDN = Frente Democrático Nacional (National Democratic Front, Partido Pueblo [APRA]-based democratic, coalition, 1944-1948); MDP = Movimiento Democrático de Pradista (Pradista [later Peruvian] Democratic Movement, liberal, 1956-1981); PC = Partido Civilista (Civil Party, moderate conservative, anti-militarist, founded as Sociedad Electoral de Independientes, 1871-1920); NM = Nueva Mayoriá (New Majority, conservative, Fujimori personalist, 1995-2000 in coalition with C'90, 1992-2011); PD = Partido Democráta (Democratic Party, liberal, 1884-1914); PDR = Partido Democrático Reformista (Democratic Reformist Party, 1920-1930); PN = Partido Nacional (National Party, est.1882); PRP = Partido Restaurador del Perú (Peruvian Restoring Party, Manuel Odría personalist, 1950-1962); UR = Unión Revolucionaria (Revolutionary Union, corporatist fascist, anti- communist, 1931-1960)








© Ben Cahoon