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Cyprus
 
[Ottoman
                                    Syria (to 1918)]
   1571 - 5 Nov 1914 (de facto 22 Jul 1878) 
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                      22 Jul  1878 - 1881 
 
[Cyprus Blue Ensign 1881 -
                                    1922]
                          1881 - 31 Aug 1922
 
[Cyprus Blue Ensign 1922 -
                                    1960]
                  31 Aug 1922 - 16 Aug 1960
 
[Cyprus flag Apr - Aug 1960]
              6 Apr 1960 - 16 Aug 1960
 
[Cyprus
                                    flag 1960 - 2006]
             16 Aug 1960 - 20 Apr 2006
 
[Cyprus]
               Adopted 20 Apr 2006
 


Map of Cyprus Hear National Anthem
"Ýmnos eis tin Eleftherian"
(Hymn to Freedom)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 16 Nov 1966
Constitution
(16 Aug 1960)
Capital: Nicosia Currency: Euro (EUR);
 Cypriot Pound (CYP)
1914 - 1 Jan 2008
National Holiday: 1 Oct (1960)
Independence Day
Population: 1,155,403 (2013)
RoC: 853,000
(2012)
GDP: $21.62 billion (2013)
Exports: $2.42 billion (2013)
Imports: $4.74 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5% (2001)
RoC only: Greek Cypriot 91.8%, Armenian 3.3%, Arab 2.9% (of
which Lebanese 2.5%), British 1.4%, other 0.6% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 10,050 (2010)
Greek Troops: 1,150 (2006)
UNFICYP Force: 1,072 (2015)
Merchant marine: 838 ships (2010)
Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite,
Armenian Apostolic, and other 4%;
RoC only: Greek Orthodox 94.8%, Roman Catholic 2.1%
(of which Maronite 0.6%), Anglican 1%, Muslim 0.6%,
other 1.5% (2001)
International Organizations/Treaties: AG, AIIB (applicant), APM, BTWC, C, CE, CERN (associate), CTBT, DC (observer), EBRD, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA (cooperating state), EU, Euratom, Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM (guest), NSG, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIF (associate), OPCW, OSCE, OST, PAM, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Cyprus Index
Chronology
c.709 BC - c.669 BC        Part of the Assyrian Kingdom.
c.627 BC - c.609 BC        Part of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
c.560 BC - 525 BC          Part of the Egyptian Empire.
525 BC - 334 BC            Part of the Persian Empire.
334 BC - 315 BC            Part of the Macedonian Kingdom.
315 BC - 307 BC            Occupied by Ptolemy of Egypt.
307 BC - 294 BC            Part of Macedonian Kingdom.
294 BC - 58 BC             Part of Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt.
58 BC - 47 BC              Part of Roman Republic (part of Cilicia et Cyprus).
51 BC - 31 BC              Briefly administered by Egypt (nominally as a
                             vassal of Rome).
31 BC - 395 AD             Part of the Roman Empire (from 22 BC as separate
                             senatorial province; Provincia Cyprus).
17 Jan 395                 Part of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
649 - 683                  Part of Umayyad Calipahate.
688 - 963                  Cyprus a joint condominium of of Byzantines and
                             the Arab Abbasid Caliphate. 
1184 - 1191                Isaákios Doúkas "Komninós" (Isaac Dukas "Comnenus")
                             establishes himself as autonomous despot 1184
                             in Cyprus, declaring himself emperor a year later
May 1191                   King Richard I of England conquers Cyprus.
1191                       King Richard sells island to the Knights Templar,
                             who suppress local revolts, but fail to pay the
                             agreed purchase price.
1192                       King Richard retakes possession, and sells the
                             island to Guy de Lusignan ex-King of Jerusalem.
May 1192                   Lordship of Cyprus (under Lusignan dynasty).
Feb 1194 - 1247            Under suzerainty of the Holy Roman Emperor.
Sep 1197                   Kingdom of Cyprus (under Lusignan dynasty).
Jan 1198 -  1 Apr 1205     In personal union with the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1291 - May 1373            Famagusta assimilated into Kingdom of Jerusalem.
May 1373 - 1464            Genoese occupy Famagusta.
29 Nov 1393                With the death of King Levon V, the title "King of
                             Armenia" is added to style of the Kings of Cyprus
                             although the territory then controlled by the
                             Armenians limited to Corycus (Koŕikos) Fortress,
                             finally captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1448.
1426 - 1473                Under Mameluke Egypt suzerainty (confirmed 1428).
1473 - 1489                Under Venetian suzerainty.
26 Feb 1485                Deposed Queen Charlotte agrees to sell her claim
                             to crown of Cyprus to Charles, duc de Savoie in
                             return for an annual pension.
14 Mar 1489                Eventual rights to Cyprus sold to the Venetian
                             Republic by Queen Catherine.
24 Jun 1489                Queen deposed, part of the Venetian Republic.
 2 Jul 1570                Ottoman invasion begins.
 9 Sep 1570                Nicosia falls. Cyprus part of Ottoman Empire (as
                             Eyalet of Cyprus [Eyalet-i Kıbrıs], including
                             sanjaks of Alaiye, Tarsus, İçel, Sis, Zülkadriye
                             to 1610 and Trablusşam [Tripoli] to 1573). 
15 Aug 1571                Last Venetian fortress, Famagusta, falls to 
                             the Ottomans.
1670 - 1703                Kıbrıs sanjak, part of the Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i Sefid 
                             Eyalet or the "Islands of the White Sea" [see
                             Dodecanese Islands]).
1703 – 1745                Kıbrıs a fief of the Ottoman Grand Viziers.
1745 – 1748               Kıbrıs Eyalet (restored).
1748 - 1784                Kıbrıs again a fief of the Ottoman Grand Viziers.
1785 - 1839                Directly under the administration of the Imperial
                             Council (Divan-ı Hümâyűn).
1821 - 1822                Greek Cypriots support the Greek independence
                             effort, leading to severe reprisals by Ottomans.
18 Apr 1822 – 1829         Egyptian occupation (on behalf of Ottomans) during
                             Greek independence war.
1839 - 1861                Kıbrıs sanjak (restored), part of the Djeza'ir-i
                             Bahr-i Sefid Eyalet.
1861 - 1868                Kıbrıs an independent mutasarrifate.
1868 - 1870                Kıbrıs sanjak (re-restored), part of the Djeza'ir-i
                             Bahr-i Sefid Vilayet.
1870 - 1878                Kıbrıs restored as an independent mutasarrifate.
 1 Jul 1878                British protectorate (under Ottoman suzerainty
                             to 5 Nov 1914) by 4 Jun 1878 Cyprus Convention.
 5 Nov 1914                British annexation (recognized by Treaty of Sčvres
                             10 Aug 1920 [not ratified]; confirmed by Treaty
                             of Lausanne 24 Jul 1923, effective 6 Aug 1924).
 1 May 1925                Cyprus a crown colony.
15-22 Jan 1950             Referendum held by Orthodox Church of Cyprus
                             supports union (énosis) with Greece 95%-4%
                             (not recognized by the British administration).
16 Aug 1960                Independence (Republic of Cyprus); with Base Areas
                             remaining under British jurisdiction.
15 Jul 1974                Turkey intervenes in Cyprus occupying northern area
20 Jul 1974                Turkish Federative State formed in northern Cyprus.
15 Nov 1983                Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (recognized
                             only by Turkey) formed.
24 Apr 2004                Greek Cypriots reject reunification plan in
                             referendum 75.8% vs. 24.2%.
Turkish Republic
of Northern
Cyprus
British Sovereign
Base Areas
UN Buffer Zone
Orthodox Church
of Cyprus
 
 
 
 
 

Despot (from May 1185, Emperor)
1184 - May 1191           
Isaákios Doúkas "Komninós"         (b. c.1155 - d. 1195/96)
                             (Isaac Ducas "Comnenus")
Ruler
May 1191 - May 1192        Richard I "the Lion-heart"         (b. 1157 - d. 1199)
                             (also King of England 1189-1199)

Justiciars
 5 Jun 1191 - May 1192     Richard de Camville                (d. 1191)
                           + Robert of Turnham (de Turnham)
  (d. 1211)
Lord
są
May 1192 - af.18 Aug 1194  Guy de Lusignan                    (b. c.1150 - d. 1194)
1194 - Sep
1197            Amaury (Aimery) de Lusignan        (b. c.1145 - d. 1205)
Ki
ngsą
Sep 1197 -  1 Apr 1205     A
maury                             (s.a.)
                             (and from Jan 1198, King
of Jerusalem Amaury II)
 1 Apr 1205 - 10 Jan 1218  Hughes I                           (b. 1193? - d. 1218)
 1 Apr 1205 - Sep 1210     Gauthier de Montbéliard -Regent    (d. 1212)
10 Jan 1218 - 18 Jan 1253  Henri I "le Gros"                  (b. 1217 - d. 1254)
10 Jan 1218 - 1225         Regency
                           - Alix de Jerusalem (f) (to 1223)  (b. 1195? - d. 1246)
                           - Philippe de Ibelin               (b. 1180 - d. 1227)
18 Jan 1253 -  5 Dec 1267  Hughes II                          (b. 1252 - d. 1267)
18 Jan 1253 - Sep 1261     Plaisance de Antioch (f) -Regent   (b. c.1236 - d. 1261)
22 Sep 1261 - 1266         Hugues de Lusignan -Regent         (b. 1235 - d. 1284)
 5 Dec 1267-24/27 Mar 1284 Hughes III (crowned
25 Dec 1267)   (s.a.)
24/27 Mar 1284-20 May 1285 Jean I (crowned 11 May 1284)       (b. 1266? - d. 1285)
20 May 1285 - 31 Mar 1324  Henri II (crowned
24 Jun 1285)     (b. 1270 – d. 1324)
                             (in Armenia exile Feb - Jun 1310)
26 Apr 1306 -  5 Jun 1310  Amaury de Tripoli -Governor        (b. c.1272 - d. 1310)
31 Mar 1324 – 10 Oct 1359  Hughes IV (crowned 15 Apr 1324)    (b. c.1293 – d. 1359)
10 Oct 1359 - 16 Jan 1369  Pierre I (crowned 24 Nov 1358)     (b. 1328 – d. 1369)
1362 - 1365                
Jean de Lusignan -Regent           (b. c.1329 - d. 1275)
17 Jan 1369 - 13 Oct 1382  Pierre II "le Gros"                (b. c.1354  − d. 1382)
17 Jan 1369 - 1371         Regency
                           - Jean
de Lusignan                 (s.a.)
                           -
Jacques de Lusignan              (b. c.1334 – d. 1398)
13 Oct 1382 - 20 Sep 1398  Jacques I (crowned May 1385)       (s.a.)
20 Sep 1398 - 28 Jun 1432  Janus (crowned 11 Nov 1399)        (b. 1374? – d. 1432)
                             (
Egyptian Mameluks prisoner Jul 1426 - May 1427)
Jul 1426 - May 1427        Hugues Lancelot Cardinal de        (b. c.1380 - d. 1442)
                             Lusignan
-Regent
28 Jun 1432-24/26 Jul 1458 J
ean II (crowned 24 Aug 1432)      (b. c.1414 – d. 1458)
24/26 Jul 1458 – 1461      Charlotte -Queen                   (b. 1444 – d. 1487)
Sep 1460 - 11 Jun 1473     Jacques II "le Bâtard"             (b. 1440? - d. 1473)
                             (in dissidence to 1461)
11 Jun 1473 - 26 Aug 1474  Jacques III                        (b. 1473 – d. 1474)
11 Jun 1473 - 26 Aug 1474
  Catherine (f) -Regent              (b. 1454 – d. 1510)
                            
(= Caterina Cornaro)
Q
ueen
ą
26 Aug 1474 - 24 Jun 1489 
Catherine                          (s.a.)
Venetian Lieutenants
(Luogotenente)(civil governors)

1489 - 1491                Francesco Barbarigo
1491 - 1493                Girolamo Pesaro
1493 - 1495                Giovanni Donato
1495 - 1497                Andrea Barbarigo
1497 - 1499                Cosimo Pasqualigo
1499/1500 - 1501           Andrea Venier 
1501 - 1503                Nicola Priuli
1503 - 1505                Pietro Balbi
1505 - 1507                Cristoforo Moro
1507 - 1509                Lorenzo Giustiniani
1509 - 1511                Nicola Pesaro
1511 - 1514                Paolo Gradenigo
1514 - 1516                Donato Marcello
1516 - 1518                Fantino Michiel
1518 - 1519                Alvise d'Armer
1519 - 1522                Sebastiano Moro
1522 - 1523                Jacopo Badoer
1523 - 1525                Domenico Capello
1525 - 1527                Donato di Lezze
1527 - 1529                Silvestro Minio
1529 - 1531                Francesco Bragadin
1531 - 1533                Marcantonio Trevisan 
1533 - 1535                Stefano Tiepolo
1535 - 1536                Giovanni Moro
1536 - 1539                Domenico da Mosto
1539 - 1541                Francesco Badoer
1541 - 1543                Cristoforo Capello
1543 - 1545                Luigi Riva
1545 - 1547                Carlo Capello
1547 - 1548                Vittorio Barbarigo
1548 - 1550                Salvatore Michiel
1550 - 1551                Alessandro Contarini
1551 - 1553                Francesco Capello
1553 - 1555                Marco Grimani
1555 - 1557                Gianbattista Donato
1557 - 1559                Giovanni Renier
1559 - 1561                Giovanni Barbaro
1561 - 1563                Pietro Navagero
1563 - 1565                David Trevisan
1565 - 1566                Pandolfo Guoro
1566 - 1567                Nicola Querini
1567 -  9 Sep 1569         Nicola Dandolo
Dec 1569 - 1570            Sebastiano Venier
Captains (Capitani)(military governors)
1480 - 1483                Giovanni Diedo
1483 - 1485                Francesco Cicogna
1485 - 1488                Daniele Bembo
1488 - 1489                Matteo Barbaro
1489 - 1491                Baltassare Trevisan
1491 - 1493                Nicolo Foscarini
1493 - 1495                Cosimo Pasqualigo
1495 - 1497                Nicolo Priuli
1497 - 1499                Bartolomeo Minio
1499 - 1501                Troilo Malipiero
1501                       Girolamo Bon
1501 - 1503                Lorenzo Contarini
1503 - 1505                Paolo Antonio Marin
1505 - 1507                Domenico Benetti
1507 - 1509                Benetto Sanudo
1509 - 1511                Pietro Lion
1511 - 1514                Luigi (Alvise?) Contarini
1514 - 1516                Giovanni Centani
1516 - 1518                Vincenzo Cappello
1518 - 1520                Bartolomeo da Mosto
1520 - 1522                Zaccaria Loredan
1522 - 1525                Nicolo Dolfin
1525 - 1526                Andrea Donato
1526 - 1527                Marcantonio Canale
1527 - 1530                Anzolo Trevisan
1530 - 1532                Antonio Soriano
1532 - 1534                Tommaso Contarini
1534 - 1535                Domenico Contarini
1535 - 1537                Lunardo Venier
1537 - 1538                Maffio Pisani
1538                       Giovanni Gritti
1538 - 1540                Giovanni Contarini (1st time)
1540 - 1542                Nicolo Giustiniani
1542 - 1544                Giovanni Contarini (2nd time)
1544 - 1546                Andrea Dandolo
1546 - 1548                Gian Matteo Bembo 
1548 - 1550                Francesco Grimani
1550 - 1552                Marco Loredano
1552 - 1554                Giovanni Renier
1554 - 1556                Cornelio Barbaro
1556 - 1558                Pietro Navagero
1558 - 1560                Domenico Trevisan
1560 - 1562                Pandolfo Guoro
1562 - 1564                Nicolo Gabriel
1564 - 1566                Lorenzo Bembo
1566 - 1569                Marco Michiel
1569  - 15 Aug 1571        Marcantonio Bragadin              (b. 1523 - d. 1571)
Ottoman Beylerbey
1570 - 157.                Lala Mustafa Pasha                (b. c.1500 – d. 1580)
157. - 1670                ....
Mütesellim

1670 - 1703
c.1685                     Baba Hasan Pasha
1680s                      Boyacıoğlu Mehmed Agha
                             (in rebellion)
168. - 168.                Bosnak Ahmed Pasha?
168. - 168.                Çelak Ahmed Pasha?
1689 - 1690                Halebli Ahmed Pasha
1690 - 1691                Kinci Ali Pasha
1691 - 1691/92             Sürmli Ali Pasha
1691/92 - 1692             Sarikçi Mustafa
1692 - 1693                Distari Mehmed Pasha
1693                       Kalaylikoz Ahmed
1693 - 1694                Kandilci Huseyin Pasha
1694 - 169.                Bosnak Huseyin Pasha
1696 - 1697                Bahri Mehmed Pasha
1697 - 1698                Midillini Mustafa Pasha
1698 - 1699                Midillini Ismail Pasha
1699 - 17..                Seyyid Ahmed Pasha
1702 - 170.                Devrikli Ibrahim Pasha
Muhassıl
1703 - 1704                Rami Mehmed Pasha                 (b. 1654 - d. 1706)
1704 - 1716                ....
1716 - 1718                Köprülüzade Damad Numan Pasha     (b. 1670 - d. 1719)
1719 - 1745                ....
Wali
1745 - 1746                ....
1746 - 1748                Ebubekir Pasha                    (b. 1670 - d. 1757/58)
Muhassıl
1748 - 1740                Abdallah Pasha

1750 - 1758                ....
1758 - 1764                Çil Osman Agha                    (d. 1764)
1765 - 1766                Ahmet Bey

1766 - 1767                Süleyman Baki
1767 - 1770                Kasim (2nd time)
1770 - 1772                Haci Omer

1772 - 1773                Haci Ismail
1773 - 1775                Sadik Pasha
1775 - 1778                Es-Seyyid Omer
1778 - 1780
               Abdulbaki
1780                       Süleyman Abdülbaki Agha
1780 - 1785                Haci Ismali Huseyin
1785 - 1786                Ali
1786 - 1791                Mehmed Kaptan
1791 - 1797                Haci Osman
1797 - 1799                Mustafa
1799                       Seyit Ahmed
1799                       S
üleyman
1799                       Osman Agha
1799 - 1800                Azmizade Yusuf Pasha
1800 - 1804                Mehmet Pasha
1804 - 1805                Seyit

1805 - 1809                Ahmet Pasha
1809                       Haci H
üseyin
1809 - 1810                Mehmet Agha
1810 – 1815                Ahmed Pasha

1815 - 1819                Seid Mehmed Emin 
1819 - 1822                Ahmed Pasha
1822 - 1825                Kücük Mehmed Silahser
Egyptian Commanders
18 Apr 1822 - 1823         Salih Bey

1823 - 182.                Mehmed Bey
Muhassıl
1825 - 1827                Haci Mehmed Agha

1827 - 1830                Ali Ruhi 
1830 - 18 Dec 1831         Ali Said                         (d. 1831)
Jan 1832 - 1833?           Mehmed Es'ad Bey
Mar 1833 – 1837            Haci Said Mehmed Agha 
1837 - Dec 1837            Husrev Pasha 
1838 – Mar 1839            Osman Pasha (1st time)
Mütesarrifs
Mar 1839 – Jul 1840        Hasan Pasha (1st time)

25 Jul 1840 - 1840         Osman Pasha (2nd time)
Oct 1840 - Oct 1841        Mehmed Tal'at 
Oct 1841 - May 1842        Said Mehmed
17 May 1842 - 1843         Aziz Pasha
bf.Mar 1843 - Feb 1845     Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (1st time) 
Feb 1845 - Jun/Jul 1845    Haci Mesrur Agha
Jul? 1845 - 1846           Haci Derbaz Agha
1846 – Sep 1847            Hasan Pasha (2nd time)
Sep 1847 – 1848            Ismail Adil Pasha
1848 -  2 Aug 1850         Abdul Latif
 3 Aug 1850 - 1851         Hasan Hafuz (Haftuz Pasha?)
1851 - May 1853            Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (2nd time) 
May 1853 - 1854            Mehmed Sherif Pasha
Sep 1854 - 1855            Cemaleddin Mehmed Pasha
1855 - 1856                Osman Sherif Pasha
1856 - 1857                Kani Pasha
Nov 1857 - 1859            Ishak Pasha
1859 - 1861                Mehmed Khairullah Pasha
Kaymakam
1861 - Mar 1862            Mehmed Khairullah Pasha
Mar 1862 - Apr 1862        Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha        (b. 1832 - d. 1913)

                             (1st time) (acting) 
Apr 1862 - 1863            Ziya Pasha
1863                       Tevfik Pasha
Apr 1863 - Oct 1864        Mehmed Halet Pasha (1st time)      (d. 1879)
Oct 1864 - Nov 1864        Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting) 
Nov 1864 - 1865            Taiyib Pasha 
1865 - 1866                Ahmed Latif
Feb 1866 - Jun 1868        Taiyib Pasha (2nd time)
1867 – 1868                Mehmed Halet Pasha (4th time)      (s.a.)
Mütesarrif
1868 - Oct 1871            Kücük Mehmed Said Pasha            (b. 1838 - d. 1914)

Kaymakam
Oct 1871 – 1872            Aziz Pasha (1st time)

May 1872 – Oct 1873        Mehmed Veis Pasha (1st time)
1873 – Dec 1873            Essad Pasha                        (d. 1876)
Dec 1873 - Feb 1874        Ibrahim Pasha
Feb 1874 – Dec 1874        Mehmed Nasif Pasha
Dec 1874 - 1876            Aziz Pasha (2nd time)
1876 - 1877                Mehmed Veis Pasha (2nd time)
1877 - 1878                Ahmed Bessim Pasha
1878                       Sami Pasha
High commissioners

12 Jul 1878 - 22 Jul 1878  Lord John Hay (acting)             (b. 1827 - d. 1916)
22 Jul 1878 - 23 Jun 1879  Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley         (b. 1833 - d. 1913)

23 Jun 1879 -  9 Mar 1886  Sir Robert Biddulph                (b. 1835 - d. 1918)
 9 Mar 1886 -  5 Apr 1892  Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer   (b. 1836 - d. 1914)
 5 Apr 1892 - 23 Apr 1898  Sir Walter Joseph Sendall          (b. 1832 - d. 1904)
23 Apr 1898 - 17 Oct 1904  Sir William Frederick Haynes Smith (b. 1839 - d. 1928)
17 Oct 1904 - 12 Oct 1911  Sir Charles Anthony King-Harman    (b. 1851 - d. 1939)
12 Oct 1911 -  8 Jan 1915  Hamilton John Goold-Adams          (b. 1858 - d. 1920)
 8 Jan 1915 - 31 Dec 1918  Sir John Eugene Clauson            (b. 1866 - d. 1918)
31 Dec 1918 -  1 May 1925  Sir Malcolm Stevenson              (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
                             (acting to 31 Jul 1920)
Governors
 1 May 1925 - 30 Nov 1926  Sir Malcolm Stevenson              (s.a.)
30 Nov 1926 - 29 Oct 1932  Sir Ronald Storrs                  (b. 1881 - d. 1955)
29 Oct 1932 -  8 Nov 1933  Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs         (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
 8 Nov 1933 -  4 Jul 1939  Sir Herbert Richmond Palmer        (b. 1877 - d. 1958)
 4 Jul 1939 -  3 Oct 1941  William Denis Battershill          (b. 1896 - d. 1959)
                             (from 19 Jun 1941, Sir William Denis Battershill)
 3 Oct 1941 - 24 Oct 1946  Charles Campbell Woolley           (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
                             (from 1 Jan 1943, Sir Charles Campbell Woolley)
24 Oct 1946 -  4 Aug 1949  Reginald Thomas Herbert Fletcher,  (b. 1885 - d. 1961)
                             Baron Winster 
 4 Aug 1949 -  5 Jan 1954  Sir Andrew Barkworth Wright        (b. 1895 - d. 1971)
 5 Jan 1954 -  3 Oct 1955  Sir Robert Perceval Armitage       (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
 3 Oct 1955 -  3 Dec 1957  Sir John Alan Francis Harding      (b. 1896 - d. 1989)
 3 Dec 1957 - 16 Aug 1960  Sir Hugh Mackintosh Foot           (b. 1907 - d. 1990)
Presidents
16 Aug 1960 - 15 Jul 1974  Archiepískopos Makários (1st time) (b. 1913 - d. 1977)  Non-party
                             (Michaíl Christodoúlou Moúskos) 
15 Jul 1974 - 23 Jul 1974  Nikólaos "Níkos" Sampsón           (b. 1935 - d. 2001)  PP
                             (Nikólaos Sampsón Georgiádis)
23 Jul 1974 -  3 Aug 1977  Archiepískopos Makários (2nd time) (s.a.)               Non-party

23 Jul 1974 -  7 Dec 1974  Gláfkos Ioánnou Klirídis           (b. 1919 - d. 2013)  EK
                             (acting for Makários) 
 3 Aug 1977 - 28 Feb 1988  Spýros Achilléos Kyprianoú         (b. 1932 - d. 2002)  DIKO
                             (acting to 3 Sep 1977) 
28 Feb 1988 - 28 Feb 1993  Geórgios Vásou Vasileíou           (b. 1931)            Non-party
28 Feb 1993 - 28 Feb 2003  Gláfkos Ioánnou Klirídis           (s.a.)               DISY 
28 Feb 2003 - 28 Feb 2008  Efstáthios "Tássos" Nikoláou       (b. 1934 - d. 2008)  DIKO
                             Papadópoulos
28 Feb 2008 - 
28 Feb 2013  Dimítris Christofí Christófias     (b. 1946)            AKEL
28 Feb 2013 -              Níkos Chrysánthou Anastasiádis
    (b. 1946)            DISY

 ąstyle of the rulers:
(a) May 1192 - Sep 1197: Dominus Cypri ("Lord of Cyprus");
(b) Sep 1197 - Jan 1198, 1 Apr 1205 - 29 Oct 1268: Dei gratia Rex Cypri
(""by the grace of God, King of Cyprus");
(c) Jan 1198 - 1 Apr 1205, 29 Oct 1268 - 29 Nov 1393: Latinorum Jerusalem Rex et Rex Cypri ("King of Latins in Jerusalem and King of Cyprus");
(d) 29 Nov 1393 -
24 Jun 1489: Dei gratia, Hierosolyme, Cypri et Armenie Rex/Regina ("by the grace of God, King/Queen of Jerusalem, Cyprus and Armenia").

Territorial Disputes: Hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cyprus); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; Mar. 2003 reunification talks failed, but Turkish-Cypriots later opened their borders to temporary visits by Greek Cypriots; on 24 Apr 2004, the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities voted in simultaneous and parallel referenda on whether to approve the UN-brokered Annan Plan that would have ended the thirty-year division of the island by establishing a new "United Cyprus Republic," a majority of Greek Cypriots voted "no", while Turkish Cypriots voted "yes"; on 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the European Union still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the north; Turkey protests Cypriot Government creating hydrocarbon blocks and maritime boundary with Lebanon in Mar 2007.

Party abbreviations: AKEL = Anorthotikó Kómma Ergazómenou Laoú (Reconstructive Party of the Working People, Marxist-Leninist communist, Eurosceptic, split from Kommounistikó Kómma Kýprou [Communist Party of Cyprus], est.14 Apr 1941); DIKO = Dimokratikó Kómma (Democratic Party, social democratic, centrist, est.12 May 1976); DISY = Dimokratikós Synagermós (Democratic Rally, conservative, center-right, est.4 Jul 1976);
- Former parties:
EK = Eniaíon Kómma (Unified Party, conservative, nationalist, anti-Énosis, 5 Feb 1969-May 1976, merged into DIKO); PP = Proodeftikí Parátaxis (Progressive Front, conservative, nationalist, pro-Énosis, 1969-1974)




Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
 
[Flag of Turkey]
           20 Jul 1974 - 13 Mar 1984
[Northern Cyprus
                          1983-1984 unofficial flag]
     1983 - 13 Mar 1984 Unofficial
[Turkish North
                          Cyprus flag]
        Adopted 13 Mar 1984
Map of TRN Cyprus
Hear National Anthem
"Istiklâl Marsi"
(The March of Independence)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1984
Constitution
(7 May 1985)
Capital: Lefkosa (Nicosia)
 Currency: Turkish Lira
(TRL) (from 1975)
National Holiday: 15 Nov (1983)
Independence Day
Population: 288,000 (2012)
includes 80,000 Turkish settlers and 38,000 Turkish troops
GDP: $3.9 billion (2008)
Exports: $96.4 million (2010)
Imports: $1.6 billion (2010)
Ethnic groups: Turkish Cypriot 96.8%, other 3.2% (2006)
Total Armed Forces: 5,000 (2010)
Turkish Forces: 30,000 (2004)
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Muslim 98.71%, Orthodox Christian 0.5%,
Maronite Christian 0.2%, other 0.59% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: ECO (associate), ISESCO (observer), OIC (observer), PACE (observer)

21 Dec 1963                Inter-ethnic fighting results in a shift of the Turkish population
                             to Northern Cyprus and setting up General Committee to administer
                             Turkish enclaves.
31 Dec 1963                Constitution declared dead (by Cyprus Vice President Fazıl Küçük),
                             subsequently ceasing all participation in the Cyprus government.
28 Dec 1967                (Provisional to 21 Apr 1971) Turkish Administration of Cyprus
                             formed, in dissidence
, to administer Turkish inhabited areas.
20 Jul 1974                Turkey intervenes in Cyprus occupying its northern regions, cease-
                             fire declared by Turkish forces on 16 Aug 1974.
26 Aug 1974                Autonomous Cypriot-Turkish Administration established.
13 Feb 1975                Turkish Federative State of Cyprus (as part of a 'federal' Cyprus).
15 Nov 1983                Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, unilateral declaration of
                             independence
(only recognized by Turkey).
24 Apr 2004                Turkish Cypriots accept reunification plan in referendum 64.9%
                             vs. 35.1%, but Greek Cypriots referendum rejects the plan.

Head of State
13 Feb 1975 - 15 Nov 1983  Rauf Raif Denktaş                  (b. 1924 - d. 2012)  UBP
                             (acting to 3 Jun 1975)
Presidents

15 Nov 1983 - 15 Mar 1990  Rauf Raif Denktaş (1st time)       (s.a.)               UBP
15 Mar 1990 - 25 Apr 1990  Hakkı Atun (acting)                (b. 1935)            UBP
25 Apr 1990 - 24 Apr 2005  Rauf Raif Denktaş (2nd time)       (s.a.)               UBP
24 Apr 2005 - 23 Apr 2010  Mehmet Ali Talat                   (b. 1952)            CTP
23 Apr 2010 - 30 Apr 2015  Derviş Eroğlu                      (b. 1938)            UBP
30 Apr 2015 -              Mustafa Akıncı                     (b. 1947)            TDP

Chairman of the General Committee (Coordination Committee)
21 Dec 1963 - 28 Dec 1967  Fazıl Küçük                        (b. 1906 - d. 1984)  KTP
Chairman of the Provisional Turkish Administration of Cyprus

28 Dec 1967 -  5 Jul 1970  Fazıl Küçük                        (s.a.)               KTP
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Provisional Turkish Administration of Cyprus
 
5 Jul 1970 - 21 Apr 1971  Fazıl Küçük                        (s.a.)               KTP
Chairmen of the
Executive Committee of the Turkish Administration of Cyprus
21 Apr 1971 - 18 Feb 1973  Fazıl Küçük                        (s.a.)               KTP
18 Feb 1973 - 26 Aug 1974  Rauf Raif Denktaş (acting)         (s.a.)             
Chairman of the
Executive Committee of the Autonomous Cypriot-Turkish Administration
26 Aug 1974 -  8 Oct 1974  Rauf Raif Denktaş                  (s.a.)  
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Cypriot-Turkish Administration

 8 Oct 1974 - 13 Feb 1975  Rauf Raif Denktaş                  (s.a.)  
Chairman of the Council of Ministers
of the Turkish Federative State of Cyprus
13 Feb 1975 -  5 Jul 1976  Rauf Raif Denktaş                  (s.a.)               1975: UBP
Prime ministers of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
 
5 Jul 1976 - 21 Apr 1978  Nejat Konuk (1st time)             (b. 1928 - d. 2014)  UBP

21 Apr 1978 - 12 Dec 1978  Osman Nuri Örek                    (b. 1925 - d. 1999)  UBP
12 Dec 1978 - 13 Dec 1983  Mustafa Çağatay                    (b. 1937 - d. 1989)  UBP
13 Dec 1983 - 19 Jul 1985  Nejat Konuk (2nd time)             (s.a.)               UBP
19 Jul 1985 -  1 Jan 1994  Derviş Eroğlu (1st time)           (s.a.)               UBP
 1 Jan 1994 - 16 Aug 1996  Hakkı Atun                         (s.a.)               DP
16 Aug 1996 - 13 Jan 2004  Derviş Eroğlu (2nd time)           (s.a.)               UBP
13 Jan 2004 - 26 Apr 2005  Mehmet Ali Talat                   (s.a.)               CTP
26 Apr 2005 -  4 May 2009  Ferdi Sabit Soyer                  (b. 1952)            CTP
 4 May 2009 - 23 Apr 2010  Derviş Eroğlu (3rd time)           (s.a.)               UBP
23 Apr 2010 - 17 May 2010  Hüseyin Özrgün (1st time)(acting)(b. 1965)            UBP
17 May 2010 -  6 Jun 2013  İrsen Küçük                        (b. 1940)            UBP
 6 Jun 2013 -  2 Sep 2013  Sibel Siber (f)                    (b. 1960)            CTP
 2 Sep 2013 - 16 Jul 2015  Özkan Yorgancıoğlu                 (b. 1954)            CTP
16 Jul 2015 - 16 Apr 2016  Ömer Soyer Kalyoncu                (b. 1950)            CTP
16 Apr 2016 -              Hüseyin Özrgün (2nd time)        (s.a.)               UBP

Party abbreviations: CTP = Cumhuriyetçi Türk Partisi (Republican Turkish Party, social-democratic, center-left, est.27 Dec 1970); DP = Demokrat Parti-Ulusal Güçler (Democratic Party - National Forces, center-right, split from UBP, est.30 Jul 1992); TDP = Toplumcu Demokrasi Partisi (Communal Democracy Party, center-left, social democratic, est.3 Jun 2007); UBP = Ulusal Birlik Partisi (National Unity Party, center-right, Turkish nationalist, est.11 Oct 1975); 
- Former parties: KTP = Kıbrıs Türktür Partisi (Cyprus is Turkish Party, Turkish Cypriot autonomist, 14 Aug 1955-1973)






World Statesmen.org HOME > to United Kingdom >>







British Sovereign Base Areas
[Flag of the United Kingdom]
                   Adopted 16 Aug 1960
Map of Akrotiri
--------------------
Map of Dhekelia
Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the Queen"
SBA Website
Constitution Order
(16 Aug 1960)
Capital: Episkopi Cantonment
 (base administrative center for
 Akrotiri and Dhekelia;
located in Akrotiri)

Currency: Euro (EUR);
Cypriot Pound
(CYP)
1960 - 1 Jan 2008
National Holiday:
2nd Sat. in Jun (1926)
Birthday of Queen Elizabeth II
Population: 15,700 (2010)
includes 7,700 Cypriots, 3,600 Service and UK Based Contract personnel, and 4,400 dependents
GDP: $N/A
Economic activity is limited to
 providing services to the military and their families
 located in Dhekelia.

Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
All food and manufactured
 goods must be imported.

Ethnic groups: British, Greek, others

Total U.K. Military Forces: 2,200 (2015)
at Dhekelia - 2,200 (2005)
at Akrotiri - 1,300 (2005)
Total Police Force: 256 (2006)
Defense is the Responsibility of the U.K.
Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christian,
others

International Organizations/Treaties: UPU

16 Aug 1960                British Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri (western) and Dhekelia
                             (eastern) remain British territories by the Treaty of 
                             Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus.

Administrators of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(and also commanders British Forces, Cyprus)
16 Aug 1960 - 17 Jul 1962  Sir William Lawrence MacDonald     (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
17 Jul 1962 - 29 Sep 1964  Sir Denis Hensley Fulton Barnett   (b. 1906 - d. 1992)
29 Sep 1964 - 22 Nov 1966  Thomas Öther Prickett              (b. 1913 - d. 2010)
                             (from 12 Jun 1965, Sir Thomas Öther Prickett)
22 Nov 1966 -  6 May 1969  Edward Gordon "Tap" Jones          (b. 1914 - d. 2007)
                             (from 10 Jun 1967, Sir Edward Gordon Jones)
 6 May 1969 -  2 Jul 1970  Sir Denis Graham Smallwood         (b. 1918 - d. 1997)
 2 Jul 1970 - 25 Jun 1973  William Derek Hodgkinson           (b. 1917 - d. 2010)
                             (from 1 Jan 1971, Sir William Derek Hodgkinson) 
25 Jun 1973 -  2 Apr 1976  Sir John Alexander Carlisle Aiken  (b. 1921 - d. 2005)
 
2 Apr 1976 - 28 Apr 1978  Roy David Austen-Smith             (b. 1924)
28 Apr 1978 -  4 Oct 1980  Walter Reynell Taylor              (b. 1928 - d. 1996)
 
4 Oct 1980 - 31 Mar 1983  Robert Leslie Davis                (b. 1930)
31 Mar 1983 - 29 Oct 1985  Sir Desmond Allen Langley          (b. 1930 - d. 2008)
29 Oct 1985 - 21 Apr 1988  Sir Kenneth William Hayr           (b. 1935 - d. 2001)
21 Apr 1988 - 25 Oct 1990  John Peter William Friedberger     (b. 1937)
25 Oct 1990 - 25 Mar 1993  Alexander Freeland Cairns Hunter   (b. 1939)
25 Mar 1993 - 15 Feb 1995  Alexander George Hamilton Harley   (b. 1941)
15 Feb 1995 - 19 Jan 1998  Peter Millar                       (b. 1942)
19 Jan 1998 -  5 Sep 2000  Angus Iain Ramsay                  (b. 1946)
 5 Sep 2000 -  5 Sep 2003  Thomas William "Bill" Rimmer       (b. 1948)
 5 Sep 2003 - 26 Apr 2006  Peter Thomas Clayton Pearson       (b. 1954)
26 Apr 2006 - 16 Oct 2008  Richard Howard Lacey               (b. 1953)
16 Oct 2008 -  4 Nov 2010  Jamie Henry Gordon                 (b. 1957)
 4 Nov 2010 -
  8 Jan 2013  Graham Edward Stacey               (b. 1959)
 8 Jan 2013 - 20 Jan 2015  Richard John Cripwell              (b. 1962)
20 Jan 2015 - 15 Feb 2017  Michael "Mike" Wigston             (b. 1968)
15 Feb 2017 -              James Timothy Edward Illingworth   (b. 1966)


 
Buffer Zone

[Flag of UNO]

Map of UN Buffer Zone
Headquarters: Nicosia UNFICYP Force: 1,109
(2017)

 4 Mar 1964                United Nations Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) created (operational
                             from 27 Mar 1964).
16 Aug 1974                Ceasefire takes effect establishing a U.N. monitored Buffer Zone
                             between
Greek Cypriot and Turkish forces.

Special Representatives of the Secretary-General in Cyprus and Heads of Mission
1964                       Galo Lincoln Plaza Lasso de la     (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
                            
Vega (Ecuador) (mediator)
1964 - 1967                Carlos Alfredo Bernardes (Brazil)  (b. 1916 - d. 1977)
1967                       Piero P. Spinelli (Italy)(acting)
1967 - 1974                Bibiano Fernández Osorio y Tafall  (b. 1902 - d. 1990)
                             (Mexico)    

1974 - 1975                Luis Jesús Weckmann Muńoz (Mexico) (b. 1923 - d. 1995)
1975 - 1977                Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (Peru)     (b. 1920)
1977 - 1978                Rémy Gorgé (Switzerland) (acting)  (b. 1923 - d. 2015)
1978 - 1980                Reynaldo Galindo Pohl (El Salvador)(b. 1918 - d. 2012)
1980 - 1984                Hugo Javier Gobbi (Argentina)      (b. 1955)
1984 - 1988                James Holger Blair (Chile)         (b. 1935 - d. 2014)
                            
(1st time) (acting)
1988 - 1993                Oscar Héctor Camilión (Argentina)  (b. 1930 - d. 2016)
1993 - 1996                Charles Joseph "Joe" Clark (Canada)(b. 1939)
1996 - 1997                Han Sung Joo (South Korea)         (b. 1940)
1997 - 1999                Diego Cordovez (Ecuador)           (b. 1935 - d. 2014)
1999                       Dame Ann Hercus (f)(New Zealand)   (b. 1942)
1999 - 2000                James Holger Blair (Chile)         (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)(acting)
2000 - 2004                Álvaro de Soto y Polar (Peru)      (b. 1943)
                             (special adviser) 

2005 - 2006                Zbigniew Włosowicz (Poland)        (b. 1955)

Jan 2006 - Mar 2008        Michael Mřller (Denmark)           (b. 1952)
30 Mar 2008 -  7 May 2008  Elizabeth Spehar (f) (Canada)
                             (1st time)
May 2008 - Apr 2010        Tayé-Brook Zerihoun (Ethiopia)     (b. 1942)
Jun 2010 - 10 Jun 2016     Lisa M. Buttenheim (f) (U.S.)      (b. 1954)
10 Jun 2016 -              Elizabeth Spehar (f) (Canada)
                             (2nd time)
   
  


Commanders of United Nations Force in Cyprus
(UNFICYP)
 6 Mar 1964 - Jun 1964     Prem Singh Gyani (India)           (b. 1910 - d. 1988)
 8 Jul 1964 - Dec 1965     Kodandera Subayya Thimayya (India) (b. 1906 - d. 1965)
Dec 1965 - May 1966        Alexander James Wilson (acting)    (b. 1921 - d. 2004)
                             (United Kingdom)
May 1966 - Dec 1969        Ilmari Armas-Eino Martola (Finland)(b. 1896 - d. 1986)
Dec 1969 - Dec 1976        Dewan Prem Chand (India)           (b. 1916 - d. 2003)
Dec 1976 - Mar 1981        James J. Quinn (Ireland)           (b. 1915 - d. 1982)
Mar 1981 - Apr 1989        Günther G. Greindl (Austria)       (b. 1939)
10 Apr 1989 -  9 Apr 1992  Clive Milner (Canada)
Apr 1992 - 31 Jul 1994     Michael F. Minehane (Ireland)      (b. 1933 - d. 2013)
 1 Aug 1994 - 28 Feb 1997  Ahti Toimi Paavali Vartiainen      (b. 1943)
                             (Finland)
28 Feb 1997 - 15 Dec 1999  Evergisto Arturo de Vergara        (b. 1946)
                             (Argentina)
16 Dec 1999 - 15 Dec 2001  Victory Rana (Nepal)               (b. 1945)
 7 Jan 2002 - Dec 2003     Jin Ha Hwang (South Korea)         (b. 1946)
 7 Jan 2004 - 12 Jan 2006  Herbert Joaquin Figoli Almandos    (b. 1948)
                             (Uruguay) 
15 Feb 2006 - 31 Mar 2008  Rafael José Barni (Argentina)      (b. 1950)
 3 Apr 2008 - Dec 2010     Mario César Sánchez Debernardi     (b. 1958)
                             (Peru)
13 Jan 2011 - Aug 2014     Chao Liu (China)                   (b. 1959)
11 Aug 2014 - 29 Jul 2016  Kristin Lund (f) (Norway)          (b. 1958)
29 Jul 2016 - 10 Oct 2016  Tim Wildish (U.K.) (acting)
10 Oct 2016 -              Mohammad Humayun Kabir (Bangladesh)(b. 1965)







© Ben Cahoon